Article

Field evaluation of commercial formulations of the codling moth granulovirus: Persistence of activity and success of seasonal applications against natural infestations of codling moth in Pacific Northwest apple orchards

Authors:
  • BioBee USA
  • IP Consulting International
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Inundative applications of the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., granulovirus (CpGV), which target neonate larvae before or during initial entry into fruit, offer potential for selective control of this key pest. In field tests on apple we compared the persistence and efficacy of single applications of three CpGV products approved for organic orchards in North America. In addition, the success of repeated (2–14) applications of one product (Cyd-X) as a principal control measure for CM in apple orchards was monitored following operational use by cooperating growers at four separate locations. In the first study, an early season application of all products at label rates remained highly effective for the first 24 h (averaging 94% larval mortality relative to controls) and moderately effective after 72 h (averaging 71% mortality) during dry sunny conditions. Significant activity remained up to 14 days, suggesting prolonged survival of the virus in UV-protected locations, such as the calyx of fruit. A second application later in the season was slightly less effective. Data obtained from commercial sites provide circumstantial evidence for the effectiveness of well-timed CpGV applications against CM outbreaks. In all cases where first generation larvae were targeted beginning at egg hatch (≈250 degree days) and treated areas monitored (0.3–1.6 ha plots), fruit damage during the second larval generation was reduced or eliminated. Based on the number of live larvae recovered throughout the season, mortality rates remained high (80.3–100% across sites). The cumulative number of moths caught in pheromone-baited traps was reduced (66–94%) in the second flight. Data from tree bands placed to catch diapause-destined larvae indicated overwintering generations remained low in treated sites (⩽0.18 larvae/band).

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... CpGV agents have been developed into the most broadly applied biological control products for managing codling moth in organic and integrated pest management (IPM) orchards around the world, due to its host specific, highly effective, and environmentally sound characteristics [9,18,19]. Since CpGV was first isolated from an orchard in Mexico, termed CpGV-M [20], more than forty CpGV isolates have been collected and grouped into seven phylogenetic lineages, namely genome group A to G [20,21]. Isolates from genome groups A, E, and B, such as CpGV-M, CpGV-S, and CpGV-E2, have been developed into different commercial formulations (Table 1). ...
... in the USA and elsewhere needs to be carefully and properly carried out in accordance to the appropriate degree-day timing and life stage target and weather conditions [9,19,37], aiming to use CpGV products in the most sustainable way possible. With the identification of CpGV preparations causing sufficient mortality of WA3, novel CpGV products could be made available to growers to overcome high infestations rates caused by codling moth. ...
... Learning from the lessons on CpGV resistance in Europe, it is important to carefully monitor the performance of currently used CpGV products in the USA and to conduct more resistance testing of codling moth populations where high infestations and control failures of CpGV products are noted [22,25,27]. On the other hand, CpGV application in the USA and elsewhere needs to be carefully and properly carried out in accordance to the appropriate degree-day timing and life stage target and weather conditions [9,19,37], aiming to use CpGV products in the most sustainable way possible. With the identification of CpGV preparations causing sufficient mortality of WA3, novel CpGV products could be made available to growers to overcome high infestations rates caused by codling moth. ...
Article
Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) is a very important pest in apple, pear, and walnut orchards worldwide, including the USA. Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is used to control codling moth in organic and conventional production. Due to increasing codling moth infestations from organic apple orchards in Washington State, USA, five codling moth colonies (WA1-WA5) were screened for their susceptibility relative to the isolate GV-0001, the main active ingredient of Cyd-X®, using a discriminating concentration of 6 × 104 OB/mL. Compared to a susceptible laboratory colony, the observed results indicated that GV-0001 lacked efficacy against codling moth colony WA3. It was confirmed that WA3 was the first case of codling moth resistance to CpGV in the USA. Further testing of WA3 was performed on a range of CpGV isolates and a lack of efficacy was observed against additional isolates. However, three newly developed CpGV preparations can efficiently infect larvae from the resistant colony WA3. Our results suggest that there is an urgent need to monitor the situation in the USA, aiming to prevent the emergence or spread of additional codling moth populations with CpGV resistance. Strategies to sustain the efficacy of codling moth control using novel CpGV formulations need to be developed.
... However, although this reduction in application rate from the registered Cryptogran rate may not reduce immediate efficacy, it may reduce residual efficacy, as breakdown (mainly due to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation) to below the critical minimum level of viable OB density on the tree for optimal efficacy, would then be reached sooner. It is not surprising that a dose-response was not observed in the trial on Bernol Farm, as dose-responses to baculoviruses are not easily observed in the field [52]. Nevertheless, the large difference in concentration between the four highest rates and the lowest rate was large enough for there to be a discernible difference in efficacy. ...
... Glen and Payne [66] showed that although CpGV infectivity was reduced by half in three days, some activity persisted for as long as four to eight weeks after spraying. Arthurs and Lacey [52] reported that early season applications of label rates of three CpGV products remained highly effective for the first 24 h (producing 94% larval mortality) and moderately effective after 72 h (71% mortality), declining to 50% of its original value after eight days (early summer) during dry sunny conditions. However, some activity remained for up to 14 days, suggesting prolonged survival of the virus in UV-protected locations, such as the calyx of fruit. ...
... The decline to 50% activity was more rapid (four days) in mid-summer. Consequently, the recommended application intervals for CpGV against C. pomonella range from 7 to 14 days [52,54,57,58,62,67,68]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the last 15 years, extensive work on the Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV) has been conducted in South Africa, initially in the laboratory, but subsequently also in the field. This culminated in the registration of the first CrleGV-based biopesticide in 2004 (hence, the 10 years of commercial use in the field) and the second one three years later. Since 2000, more than 50 field trials have been conducted with CrleGV against the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta, on citrus in South Africa. In a representative sample of 13 field trials reported over this period, efficacy (measured by reduction in larval infestation of fruit) ranged between 30% and 92%. Efficacy was shown to persist at a level of 70% for up to 17 weeks after application of CrleGV. This only occurred where the virus was applied in blocks rather than to single trees. The addition of molasses substantially and sometimes significantly enhanced efficacy. It was also established that CrleGV should not be applied at less than ~2 × 1013 OBs per ha in order to avoid compromised efficacy. As CrleGV-based products were shown to be at least as effective as chemical alternatives, persistent and compatible with natural enemies, their use is recommended within an integrated program for control of T. leucotreta on citrus and other crops.
... Over the years, CpGV has been registered in a number of countries under the trade names Carpovirusine®, Madex®, Granusal® (now Granupom®) and Virin-CyAP (Moscardi, 1999). Recently, it has also been registered as Cyd-X® and Virosoft CP4® (Arthurs and Lacey, 2004). ...
... Virosoft CP4 ® preparations remain active on apple foliage for up to 14 days (Arthurs and Lacey, 2004). The virus survives longer on UV-protected substrates, such as the calyx of fruit. ...
... Thanks to the continuous improvement efforts and investments over the years, Virosoft CP4 ® has regained the confidence of the scientific community, as well as major agricultural players in North America, as evidenced by scientific publications (e.g. Arthurs and Lacey, 2004) and agreements with major North American wholesalers and sales achieved in early 2005. Work is in progress to develop more efficient rearing methods and new formulations. ...
Article
This chapter relates the research and development of two granulovirusbased insecticides to manage the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, which is a worldwide pest of a number of fruit crops. Madex® and VirosoftCP4® were registered in Switzerland and Canada, respectively.
... The codling moth is one of the most prevalent pests in apple orchards all over the world (Arthurs and Lacey, 2004). Every year, it causes huge losses of the crop . ...
... After hatching, the larvae penetrate the fruit and feed on the fruit flesh (parenchyma). Affected fruits usually drop prematurely and those that survive on trees infested by caterpillars are not suitable for trade, consumption, or storage (Arthurs and Lacey, 2004;Gorzka et al., 2010;Badowska-Czubik et al., 2011;Bryk et al., 2013Bryk et al., , 2014. ...
... Studies on the usefulness of formulas containing CpGV have been conducted for many years (Niemczyk et al., 1998;Arthurs and Lacey, 2004). In these experiments, formulas with different technical parameters were applied (Arthurs et al., 2005Badowska-Czubik et al., 2011) with the use of additional elements enhancing the effectiveness, e.g., dispensers (Kutinkova et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted in an experimental ecological orchard in central Poland in 2011–2013. The experiment assessed the variation in damage to the fruit of ten apple cultivars by the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) under an organic system of apple cultivation. The cultivars were divided into two groups according to their susceptibility to apple scab Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Wint. The first group of apple trees (A) consisted of cultivars resistant to scab (Enterprise, Gold Milenium, Rajka, Rewena, and Topaz), while the second group (B) consisted of cultivars with reduced susceptibility to scab (Delbard Jubile, Ligolina, Pinova, Piros, and Szampion). All of the trees of the evaluated cultivars were protected against the codling moth by applying treatments containing the codling moth granulosis virus (CpGV). Codling moth adults were monitored using pheromone traps during the study period. Each year, an assessment of fruit damage was made for all apple cultivars. The 3-year average percentage of damaged fruit for group A ranged from 1.0% (Gold Milenium) to 4.1% (Topaz), and in group B from 1.3% (Piros) to 3.3% (Pinova). Overall, the highest percentage of damaged fruit was recorded in 2013.
... In this research damage on the apples from the codling moth was different between treatments and in the years of study. The higher percentage (more than 1%) of fruit damage in treatment 1 (CpGV), occurred due to short period of residual control which requires more frequent applications because of its sensitivity to solar radiation and its incapability to be exposure to UV radiation and extreme high temperatures (Arthurs and Lacey, 2004;Lacey and Arthurs, 2005). Baculovirus can persist for long periods in water and in the soil when is protected from sunlight and extreme high temperatures (Hajek et al., 2017). ...
... In Germany, the efficiency of CpGV was 70% (Kienzle et al., 2002). The reason for reduced efficiency could be because of use CpGV preparations for many years (Arthurs et al., 2004). Treatment 2 (pyrethroids) efficiency varied from 96 to 97% while results of cypermethrin efficiency from Serbia varied from 92.2 to 97.6% (Miletić et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Tomaš et al.: The efficiency of biological control treatments of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) on three different apple varieties-1293-APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 16(2):1293-1303. Abstract. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) is one of the most important apple pests which population is steadily growing. The aim of this study, conducted in Eastern Croatia, was to determine the efficiency of two biological preparations CpGV and kaolin clay compared with pyrethroids and control treatment. The preparations used in treatments were: 1) Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV), 2) deltamethrin, beta cyfluthrin and alpha-cipemetrina, 3) kaolin, 4) control treatment, applying in two different methods of time control, on the three apple varieties 'Melrose', 'Jonagored' and 'Golden Delicious' clone B. The efficiency of the treatment 1 (CpGV) ranged from 78% to 95%, of treatment 2 (pyrethroids) from 96% to 97%, and treatment 3 (kaolin)-between 21.5 and 57%. There was significant negative correlation between yield and damage (r = −07.56). Two methods of determining time control did not differ significantly. Variety 'Melrose' had the highest number of fruits damage in all three years and 'Golden Delicious' clon B the lowest number which can be related to the codling moth caterpillar affinity to a certain variety. It is very important to make the best choice of preparations in control and at the same time be sure of their positive effect on the environment and human health.
... In this research damage on the apples from the codling moth was different between treatments and in the years of study. The higher percentage (more than 1%) of fruit damage in treatment 1 (CpGV), occurred due to short period of residual control which requires more frequent applications because of its sensitivity to solar radiation and its incapability to be exposure to UV radiation and extreme high temperatures (Arthurs and Lacey, 2004;Lacey and Arthurs, 2005). Baculovirus can persist for long periods in water and in the soil when is protected from sunlight and extreme high temperatures (Hajek et al., 2017). ...
... In Germany, the efficiency of CpGV was 70% (Kienzle et al., 2002). The reason for reduced efficiency could be because of use CpGV preparations for many years (Arthurs et al., 2004). Treatment 2 (pyrethroids) efficiency varied from 96 to 97% while results of cypermethrin efficiency from Serbia varied from 92.2 to 97.6% (Miletić et al., 2011). ...
... Baculoviruses are effective tools in the management of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hü bner) in lieu of its resistance development against many insecticides (Kranthi, Jadhav, Wanjari, Ali, & Russell, 2002;Jeyarani, Sathiah, & Karuppuchamy, 2010). Inactivation of baculoviruses due to ultraviolet (UV)-radiation especially of wavelengths greater than 290 nm is one of the major disadvantages, since 3.5% to 4% of the energy in natural sunlight is in the UV spectrum of 300Á400 nm (Arthurs & Lacey, 2004;Kranthi, Kranthi, & Mohan, 2001;Morris, 1971;Smirnoff, 1972), which necessitates reapplication of the virus at 7Á10 days interval. Sunlight UV inactivation of baculoviruses may be either due to direct effect on DNA in which pyrimidine dimers, single-double strands breaks or both are produced (Tyrrell, Ley, & Webb, 1974) or due to an indirect effect in which sunlight UV irradiation of amino acids residues generates highly reactive radicals that in turn inactivates the virus (Ignoffo & Garcia, 1978). ...
Article
A method for increasing tolerance to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in a strain of nucleopolyhedrovirus of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (HearNPV) using a solar simulator is described. The Coimbatore isolate (CBE I) of HearNPV was subjected to a five-step sequence of selection to increase its UV tolerance. Each step consisted of irradiation of wet deposits of the virus to near UV (at energy level of 300W/m2), bioassay against second instar H. armigera larvae and propagation in early fifth instar larvae. Selection steps carried out at 15, 30, 60 and 90 minutes of exposure revealed that the continuous exposure of HearNPV-CBE I at low doses of UV irradiation (270–540 KJ/m2) did not significantly affect the virus activity as measured by its biological activity against second instar larvae. Selection at higher doses (1620 KJ/m2) led to loss of viral activity in the first two exposure cycles; however, there was retention of virulence coupled with increased tolerance to UV doses from third cycle onwards. Further, studies on the persistence of UV tolerant strain of HearNPV-CBE I in comparison with original strain showed that the tolerant strain had more persistence even after 7 days of weathering both under exposed (18% original activity remaining) and shaded (26% original activity remaining) condition on potted cotton plant.
... Alternative methods to the inappropriate use of insecticides such as mating disruption (MD) and/or CpGV are playing an increasingly important role in managing this pest. Until recently, all commercially available CpGV biocontol products were traditionally based on CpGV-M as the active ingredient and include: Cyd-X® (USA), VirosoftCP4® (Canada), Carpovirusine® (France), Granupom® (former name Granusal®, Germany), Madex® and Granupom® (Switzerland) and Virin-CyAP (Russia) (Arthurs & Lacey, 2004;Moscardi, 1999;Vincent, Andermatt, & Valero, 2007). Although CpGV-M has proved to be highly specific to CM and comparable in efficiency to chemical pesticides, several cases of host resistance have occurred. ...
Article
There is growing concern among governments, scientists, agricultural practitioners and the general public regarding the negative implications of widespread synthetic chemical pesticide application for the control of crop pests. As a result, baculovirus biopesticides are gaining popularity as components of integrated pest management (IPM) programmes in many countries despite several disadvantages related to slow speed of kill, limited host range and complex large scale production. In South Africa, baculoviruses are incorporated into IPM programmes for the control of crop pests in the field, and recent bioprospecting has led to the characterisation of several novel isolates with the potential to be formulated as commercial products. This contribution will provide an overview of the use of baculoviruses against insect pests in South Africa, as well as research and development efforts aimed at broadening their application as biocontrol agents. Challenges faced by researchers in developmental projects as well as potential users of baculoviruses as biopesticides in the field are also discussed.
... Field surveys to measure the proportion of CpGVinfected individuals in wild C. pomonella populations are time-consuming and complex to perform. Commercial virus-based insecticides act mainly on early larval stages, when insects feed on the surface of contaminated fruits and leaves before or during initial entry into the fruit (Ballard et al., 2000;Arthurs & Lacey, 2004). When used appropriately, these bioinsecticides cause a drastic reduction in pest infestations. ...
Article
Full-text available
The occurrence and genetic diversity of Cydia pomonella granulovirus infecting C. pomonella across Argentina were investigated. Larvae were collected from fruit orchards in regions where CpGV-based biopesticides have been extensively used and then discontinued (Catamarca) or are still being used (Alto Valle). The survey was also extended to regions where few occasional (i.e. Mendoza) or no virus treatments (various locations) have been made. PCR analysis showed an unexpectedly high proportion of infected larvae (31.3–50%) at most sampling sites in Catamarca. Phylogenetic analysis of these samples, based on gran and lef-8 genes partial sequences, revealed a previously unreported CpGV variant which could not be assigned to any of the known CpGV genome types and formed a well-defined new cluster. Instead, samples from Alto Valle were genetically similar to isolate CpGV-M (the active ingredient in commercial formulations). There, the percentage of infected individuals was considerably lower (1.8–21.9%). The virus was not detected in Mendoza or the other sampling regions. Implications of these results on the epidemiology and current classification of CpGV isolates are discussed.
... This makes it a good biological control agent, as long as it is directed to the first larvae (L1) to ingest the granules before or during the initial entry to the fruit, without causing severe damage (Arthurs and Lacey, 2004) because once inside the fruit (second stage larvae) its control is even more difficult. Once ingested, the pellet is dissolved in the insect midgut alkaline (pH 9.5 to 11.5) and the virions are released and fixed to the microvilli of the columnar cells of the nucleocapsids and entering in the cytoplasm by direct fusion of the viral envelope with the cellular membrane. ...
Article
Full-text available
From April 1st to May 30ª, 2007, lower concentrations than commercially recommended of Cydia pomonella granulosis virus(CpGV) were applied to the larvae of C. pomonella in Jamé, Arteaga, Coahuila, México, which were 35, 75 and 150 mL ha (7.7X1011, 1.65X1012, and granules 3.3X1012 ha), in an experimental orchard of apple with Golden and Red Delicious varieties. Efficiency was established in relation to the cumulative percentage of damaged fruit in the evaluation period, quantifying the total damaged fruits at each sampling date. There was a significant difference (p <0.05) in the percentage of damaged fruit treated with CpGV (0.09% to 0.58%) compared to the internal and external controls, 1.43% to 4.77% respectively. According to the results, low CpGV doses are effective for controlling the codling moth, as long as they apply on the day of emergence of the larvae.
... The efficacy of the granulovirus may decrease during the season. Arthurs & Lacey (2004) found that an early season application of three C. pomonella granulovirus products remained highly effective for the first 24 h (averaging 94 % larval mortality compared to the control) and moderately effective after 72 h (averaging 71 % mortality) under dry and sunny conditions. Significant activity remained for up to 14 days, suggesting prolonged survival of the virus in UV-protected locations such as the calyx of the fruit. ...
Article
Full-text available
Applications of Madex® (granulovirus) against the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, which targets neonate larvae before or during their initial entry into fruit, provide selective control of this key apple pest. Differences in the efficacy of Madex® treatment against C. pomonella larvae were observed in an experimental orchard in northern Italy on two apple tree cultivars, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Red Chief’. The intensity of egg-laying by the moth may vary from one cultivar to another. The composition of a metabolite blend on the leaf surface consisting of glucose, fructose, sucrose, sorbitol, quebrachitol and myo-inositol is one of the factors that could explain these variations. Our hypothesis was therefore that variations in the efficacy of Madex® could be related to variations in egg numbers, itself related to the composition of metabolites on the leaf surface of each cultivar. Differences in egg-laying (number and localization) were recorded on the two cultivars, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Red Chief’, untreated or treated with the larvicide. Madex® had the same efficacy on both cultivars in terms of the reduction of fruit damage due to larval feeding. Surprisingly, the effect ofMadex®on reducing damage seemed less tied to a lethal effect of the larvicide on the larvae than to egg-laying reduction, the latter being linked to changes in chemical signals of the leaf surface induced by applications of Madex®. This observation was verified by experiments on egg-laying on an artificial substrate. When the active metabolite blends mimicking the corymb leaf surface compositions of each cultivar (untreated and treated with Madex®) were applied to nylon cloth egg-laying substrates, significant reductions in acceptance (% of egg-laying females) and egg-laying stimulation (number of eggs per egg-laying female) were observed. The reduction of eggs on ‘Red Chief’ could be primarily explained by a drastic effect on egg-laying stimulation, whereas the reduction on ‘Golden Delicious’ was partly due to a lower acceptance. The number of eggs laid naturally differs from one apple tree cultivar to another. The effects of reduced egg-laying caused by applications ofMadex® were due to biochemical changes in surface blends, depending on the cultivar.
... For instance, Certis has recently registered Madex™, an increased-potency codling moth granulosis virus (GV) that also affects oriental fruit moth (OFM). Certis also deals Cyd-X™, which also contains the codling moth GV and which can be an effi cient tool for codling moth management (Arthurs and Lacey 2004 ;Arthurs et al. 2005). Aside from Madex and Cyd-X, Certis markets Gemstar™, which contains Heliothis zea NPV, and Spod-X™, which contains beet armyworm NPV. ...
Book
Full-text available
Biopesticides, including entomopathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes , and plant secondary metabolites, are gaining increasing importance as they are alternatives to chemical pesticides and are a major component of many pest control programs. The virulence of various biopesticides such as nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), bacteria, and plant product were tested under laboratory conditions very successfully and the selected ones were also evaluated under fi eld conditions with major success. Biopesticide products (including benefi cial insects) are now available commercially for the control of pest and diseases. The overall aim of biopesticide research is to make these biopesticide products available at farm level at an affordable price, and this would become a possible tool in the integrated pest management strategy. Moreover, biopesticide research is still going on and further research is needed in many aspects including bioformulation and areas such as commercialization. There has been a substantial renewal of commercial interest in biopesticides as demonstrated by the considerable number of agreements between pesticide companies and bioproduct companies which allow the development of effective biopesticides in the market. This paper has reviewed the important and basic defection of major biopesticides in the past. The future prospects for the development of new biopesticides are also discussed.
... Several locations where CpGV has been used worldwide are cited by Lacey et al. (2008a). Although CpGV can be used as a standalone means of control it must be applied at seven-to 14-day intervals to provide effective suppression, especially if there are multiple generations of the moth each year (Arthurs and Lacey, 2004;Arthurs et al., 2005). The principal limiting factor of CpGV is UV radiation (Lacey et al., 2008a). ...
Chapter
An epizootic is defined as an outbreak of disease with an unusually large number of cases. A central question in insect pathology is: what are the factors that cause an epizootic? The question is addressed through epizootiology, the study of animal disease dynamics on a population level. The major factors influencing an epizootic can be divided into four basic components: the pathogen population, the host population, transmission, and the environment. The question pertaining to the causes of an epizootic is of great interest to all aspects of insect pathology, and particularly to microbial control efforts. Microbial control can be defined as the use of entomopathogens (viruses, fungi, bacteria, protists, or nematodes) for pest suppression. This chapter presents a summary and analysis of epizootiological principles and concepts of microbial control. The goal is to promote expanded studies in epizootiology, and foster research and implementation toward improved microbial control programs.
... However, both the development and the adoption of the CpGV have been limited, as growers have expressed concerns over the need for multiple applications, due to the short period of residual activity, the expense involved, as well as the slow rate of kill. In addition, the use of CpGV tends to be less effective in orchards with high codling moth populations (Arthurs & Lacey 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the Western Cape province of South Africa, codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is the most important lepidopteran pest of apples and pears. Currently an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy is followed. However, chemical control still plays an important role in the control of this pest. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae have been successfully utilized as biological control agents in classical, conservation, and augmentative insect pest management programmes. In this review different biological control options for control of codling moth are considered, with special emphasis on research being done on the biological control of codling moth using EPNs. To integrate nematodes into an IPM system, it is important to conduct research under local environmental conditions for a specific crop. Application of EPNs against codling moth will target the diapausing larval overwintering population above-ground. Especially for commercial application, the unique environmental conditions in the various production areas need to be assessed to allow for the effective use of various EPN species. Orchard application, onto trees poses its own unique challenges with regard to the inundative application of EPNs. Research on the use of EPNs to control codling moth and obstacles encountered in the success of codling moth control are discussed.
... Following its initial discovery in infected codling moth Cydia pomonella L. larvae in Mexico in 1964, numerous laboratory and field studies have confirmed the virulence of the codling moth granulovirus (CpGV), against its homologous host (Falcon et al. 1968, Laing and Jaques 1980, Arthurs and Lacey 2004, Cossentine and Jensen 2004. In early host specificity studies, CpGV was also noted to have larvicidal activity against the pea moth, Cydia nigricana (Fabricius) (Payne, 1981) and oriental fruit moth (Falcon et al. 1968), but quantitative assays of the virus have not been reported for the latter species. ...
Article
Full-text available
The granulovirus of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., CpGV, is now com- mercialized for codling moth control in pome fruit in the USA and Canada. It is highly spe- cific for codling moth and related species. Comparative assays of CpGV against neonate larvae of another introduced tortricid pest, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, revealed a 557 and 589 fold lower susceptibility of neonate larvae compared with the LC50 and LC95 values derived for C. pomonella. Since its introduction into North America, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, has become a widely established pest of peach, nectarine, apricot, and apple (Rothschild and Vickers 1991). There is little information regarding naturally occurring disease of the oriental fruit moth, with the exception of mi- crosporidia in adults (Simchuk and Komarova 1983) and Bacillus thuringiensis in larvae (Grassi and Deseö 1984). Although field trials with various formulations of B. thuringiensis have been reported for oriental fruit moth, re- sults indicate that it is relatively ineffective (Rothschild and Vickers 1991).
... Further, these chemical pesticides are toxic to humans, cause environmental pollution, and are nonbiodegradable [21,22]. Hence, to overcome these disadvantages, we need an eco-friendly approach, which is biopesticides [23]. ...
Chapter
An enormous amount of solid waste is produced all over the world (billions of tonnes/year). Among these the biodegradable and nonhazardous solid wastes could be recycled and utilized in an eco-friendly manner to produce many bio-products (including biopesticides) using microbial strains by a solid-state fermentation process. In general, microbial biopesticides are produced using commercial media, which incurs a high production cost. To suitably address this issue, nonhazardous solid (biodegradable) waste can be used as the raw material, which reduces 35–59% of the cost involved in the use of synthetic media for biopesticide production. The biopesticides market represents $2.5 billion of global pesticide use. In this chapter, the production of microbial biopesticides from bacteria, fungi, and viruses is briefly presented and discussed. Also, the impact of using biopesticides to augment crop production and its vital role in improving human health are concisely highlighted.
... La disminución de granulovirus durante el tiempo es debida posiblemente a un proceso natural de degradación o posiblemente al movimiento en el suelo debido a procesos de lixiviación por la lluvia. Estudios de persistencia de baculovirus mediante ensayos de eficacia, se han realizado en cultivos de tomate, algodón y soja para el control de Helicoperva armigera y en cultivos de manzana para el control de Cydia pomonella, evidenciando la presencia viral hasta 14 días post-aplicación (Tamez et al., 2000;Arthurs & Lacey, 2004). Sin embargo, técnicas más sensibles basadas en ADN podrían determinar la presencia viral en concentraciones más bajas y tiempos más prolongados. ...
Article
El uso de baculovirus como agentes de control biológico de insectos plaga, se ha convertido en una estrategia efectiva que se ha implementado gradualmente en diferentes sistemas productivos a nivel mundial. Para el desarrollo de un bioplaguicida a base de baculovirus, es necesario contar con una metodología para determinar el título viral en el producto en proceso y terminado. Para tal fin, en este trabajo se diseñó y optimizó una técnica de cuantificación viral (Betabaculovirus) mediante PCR cuantitativo (q-PCR). Se utilizó una sonda TaqMan diseñada sobre el gen de granulina, altamente conservado. Para la técnica de q-PCR se determinó la especificidad, sensibilidad y reproducibilidad, encontrando que puede detectar y cuantificar aislamientos del género Betabaculovirus provenientes de cinco especies diferentes de insectos (granulovirus de Tecia solanivora, Phthorimaea operculella, Erinnyis ello, Tuta absoluta y Spodoptera frugiperda) incluso de diferente origen geográfico, pero no detecta aislamientos del género Alphabaculovirus (nucleopoliedrovirus de Spodoptera ornithogalli, Diatraea saccharalis o S. frugiperda). El límite mínimo de detección de la técnica fue de 6,4 x 10-4 ng de ADN, lo que equivale a 1,25 x 105 copias del gen. Así mismo, la variación intra e inter ensayos fue mínima, demostrando la reproducibilidad de la misma. La aplicabilidad de la técnica fue evaluada para la detección de granulovirus en muestras de larva, suelo, y para determinar la concentración viral en un bioplaguicida formulado como concentrado emulsionable. En conclusión, la técnica de q-PCR desarrollada fue reproducible, sensible y específica, con aplicabilidad en estudios de persistencia viral en campo, control de infecciones en crías de insectos y control de calidad de bioplaguicidas a base de betabaculovirus. Palabras clave: Granulovirus, PCR cuantitativa, persistencia viral, control de calidad.
... In some ways the success of these CpGV baculovirus products is surprising as codling moth larvae feed inside the apple for much of their larval cycle only wandering and feeding on the surface for a short period after hatching, so that natural infection rates are low. This short window for infection, often only hours, combined with the short persistence of the GV with a half-life of 24-72 h (Glen and Payne, 1984;Arthurs and Lacey, 2004) and the presence of multiple generations of codling moth over a prolonged growing season would appear a serious challenge to effective control with the CpGV (Lacey and Shapiro-Ilan, 2008). Nonetheless, if application can be timed to coincide with peak fruit entry by the first instar then the baculovirus can rapidly be acquired by a high proportion of the larvae before any significant damage occurs (Ballard et al., 2000;Lacey and Shapiro-Ilan, 2008). ...
Chapter
Baculoviruses are pathogens of many insect species that are major agricultural and forest pests. They have been studied for at least 100 years for their potential as biological control agents and a significant body of knowledge about them has been developed. The taxonomy, morphology, pathology, and ecology of baculoviruses are briefly presented here and their significance for the use of baculoviruses as microbial control agents discussed. The use of baculoviruses for crop protection in specific cropping systems and case studies of the product development are used to illustrate the constraints and opportunities for using baculoviruses in crop protection. Existing barriers to wider use of baculoviruses, such as the relatively slow speed of kill compared with most chemical pesticides, the more limited host range, the shorter environmental persistence, the poorer performance on some crops, and reliability issues are explored, and future research priorities to overcome these concerns as well as the commercial and regulatory landscape around scaling up the use of baculovirus products are presented.
... Different formulations are available for pest control at larval/caterpillar stages of insects. Granulosis Virus (GV) is an effective control agent against oriental fruit moth and also a proficient tool for management of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) a serious pest of apple [45]. For insect pest management more than 24 different baculovirus species are registered [46]. ...
Article
Full-text available
To provide the safe and healthy food to the increasing world population in China and all over the world, the development of modern research based scientific system of organic farming is a dire need of time. Fertilizers, high yielding crop varieties and use of chemicals are key tools to ensure plentiful supply of high yielding agriculture products in China. To cope with these issues, quick and easy use of synthetic chemicals is creating several problems such as, severely health hazardous chemicals on food, environmental pollution and residual effects in land and water resources. In addition, to overcome pesticides resistance in insects, pest resurgence, secondary pest outbreak, the biologically safe and environment friendly pesticides are utmost needed. So, in current system biopesticides are good alternatives of chemical agro-inputs which are less toxic to health, ecofriendly, target specific, biodegradable, suitable for integrated pest management tool, non-phytotoxic and are easily implemented in organic farming. Biopesticides production in China is increasing rapidly by the interest of government and China's plan of zero growth of pesticides consumption to 2025. This is the key plan of biopesticides production and development to replace health hazardous chemical pesticides in China and world together. Hence, this article reviews the present status of health friendly biopesticides development and formulation for future prospects in China as healthy alternative of hazardous synthetic chemicals.
... However, use of these technologies shows little promise for CM control owing to resistance development. At this juncture, exploitation of baculovirus can serve as a savior as it gives outstanding results even when the population pressures are high [105,9,164,178]. The baculoviruses-based biopesticides are prepared by infecting baculoviruses into CM larvae grown on specific diets. ...
Article
The fruit processing industries are experiencing surge due to the increasing demand of food products as a result of burgeoning human population. Apple and apple products are one of the major fruit and fruit products consumed all over the world. Apple processing industries generate huge quantities of solid and liquid sludge wastes. The solid residues consist of a mixture of skin, pulp and seeds derived from the production of concentrated apple juice, jam, and sweets and are collectively known as 'apple pomace'. Being highly biodegradable, the disposal of these wastes represents a serious environmental problem and presents many challenges. Often only 20% is retrieved as animal feed and the rest 80% goes to landfill, is incinerated or is sent to composting sites which results in release of greenhouse gases. However, advancement in technology has led to the alternative options of utilization of apple pomace. It can be used as a promising raw material for direct extraction of bioactive compounds and bioproduction of high value-added products, such as enzymes, organic acids, biofuels, among other products. This article reviews the work done for value-addition of this precious biomass which can help in setting up integrated process in the existing apple industries itself or separate small scale industries.
... However it has been found to remain effective on apple fruit surfaces for 72 h, with an activity remaining up to 14 days. This result has been attributed to survival of the virus within the fruit, which is thereby protected from UV-damage [102]. Baculoviruses are persistent in soil, as they are protected from UV-light in deeper soil layers. ...
Article
Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and fungi) or their bioactive agents can be used as active substances and therefore are referred as Microbial Pest Control Agents (MPCA). They are used as alternative strategies to chemical insecticides to counteract the development of resistances and to reduce adverse effects on both environment and human health. These natural entomopathogenic agents, which have specific modes of action, are generally considered safer as compared to conventional chemical insecticides. Baculoviruses are the only viruses being used as the safest biological control agents. They infect insects and have narrow host ranges. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely and successfully bioinsecticide used in the world in the integrated pest management programs. Bt mainly produces crystal delta-endotoxins and secreted toxins. However, the Bt toxins are not stable for a very long time and are highly sensitive to solar UV. So genetically modified plants that express toxins have been developed and represent a large part of the phytosanitary biological products. Finally, entomopathogenic fungi and particularly, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, are also used for their insecticidal properties. Most studies on various aspects of the safety of MPCA to human, non-target organisms and environment have only reported acute but not chronic toxicity. This paper reviews the modes of action of MPCA, their toxicological risks to human health and ecotoxicological profiles together with their environmental persistence. This review is part of the special issue "Insecticide Mode of Action: From Insect to Mammalian Toxicity.
... Although cosmetic damage to fruit lowers quality and price, apples may still be suitable for processing. A concern of researchers and orchardists regarding CpGV is its sensitivity to solar degradation (8,51,62,82,89), necessitating relatively frequent application of the virus (7-to 14-day intervals), especially when CM population density is high (10). Formulation to protect CpGV from UV degradation has been investigated by several researchers using adjuvants that include skim milk, molasses, iron filings, lignin, and particle films (9,12,14,89). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Temperate orchards systems have several environmental features that make them conducive to microbial control strategies including adequate soil moisture, shading (protection from harmful UV) and stability. This chapter reviews and analyzes microbial control efforts in temperate orchards, including pome fruit, stone fruit, and nut crops. Emphasis is placed on pest complexes that have received most attention as targets for microbial control in North America. Examples where microbial control has been successful include the use of granulovirus and entomopathogenic nematodes against codling moth, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes against plum curculio, peachtree borer or lesser peachtree borer, and the combined or single applications of entomopathogenic nematodes, fungi ( Beauveria bassiana or Metarhizium spp.) and bacteria ( Chromobacterium subtsugae ) against pecan weevil. Improvements in efficacy have been made through careful selection of pathogen strains or species as well as recent advances in formulation or application techniques. Currently, commercially produced microbial control agents and their derivatives are applied to an increasing number of insect pests in temperate orchard systems; based on current and future research directions outlined in this chapter, there is great potential for expansion.
... armigera;S. exigua Mamestrin Sun, 2015 OrpsNPV Orygia pseudotsugata IAPs TM Biocontrol Monteiro et al., 2012;Moscardi et al., 2011 SpliNPV Spodoptera littoralis P35 Littovir, Spodo-Cide ® , Spodopterin ® Gonzalez et al., 2016;Monteiro et al., 2012;Ramanujam et al., 2014 GV AdorGV Adoxophyes orana Capex Lacey et al., 2015;Nakai, 2009 CpGV Cydia pomonella IAPs Cyd-X, Virosoft, Carpovirusine, Carpovirus Plus, Capex, Granupon, Virin Cyap, Madex, Madex Twin Arthurs and Lacey, 2004;Haase et al., 2015;Monteiro et al., 2012CrleGV Cryptophlebia leucotreta Cryptogran, Cryptex Haase et al., 2015Moore et al., 2015 PhopGV Phthorimaea operculella Baculovirus Corpoica, PTM baculovirus, Matapol Pl us, Bacu-Turin Arthurs et al., 2008;Haase et al., 2015;Lacey et al., 2015PiraGV Pieris rapae Yang et al., 2012PlxyGV P. xylostella Yang et al., 2012 ...
Article
Full-text available
World-wide crop loss caused by insect pest and nematode reaches critical level. In Korea, similar crop loss has been gradually augmented in the field and greenhouse due to continuous crop rotation. The current methods on controlling herbivorous insects and plant parasitic nematodes are mostly depended on agro-chemicals that have resulted additional side-effect including occurrence of resistant insects and nematodes, environmental contamination, and accumulation in human body. To overcome the pitfalls, microbe-based control method have been introduced and applied for several decades. Here, we revised biological control using by the bacteria, fungi, and virus in order to kill insect and nematode and to attenuate its virulence mechanism. The introduced microbes mainly secreted out the hydrolysing enzymes and toxic compounds to target host membrane or cell wall directly. Indirectly, the microbe-triggered plant innate immunity against insects and nematodes was also reported. In conclusion, we provide a new frontier of microbe-based environmentally friendly procedure and effective methods to manage insects and nematodes.
... Granulosis viruses and nuclear polyhedrosis viruses were also used to manage the population of some caterpillars (Gupta and Dikshit, 2010). Nuclear polyhedrosis virus is also used to manage the population of lepidopteran insects (Arthurs and Lacey, 2004;Arthurs et al., 2005). In the natural management of some caterpillars, use of target-specific viruses is highly successful. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Global increase in the population and degradation of environment possess a challenge to crop production worldwide and it is a need of hour to find solutions for abiotic stress, pests and pathogens. Eco-friendly approach of management by using biopesticides is an alternative against synthetic chemicals. Biopesticides means biological method of control by entanglement and manoeuvring of living organisms. Biopesticides comprises microbial pesticides, biochemical pesticides and plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs). Microbial biopesticides are the products obtained from microorganisms which are beneficial and can be applied against plant diseases and insect pests responsible to cause damage to agricultural crops year after year. Microbial pesticides can play an important role for crop protection in the agricultural based economy of the world. It is crucial now to popularise the use of these microbial biopesticides among the farmers worldwide. Entomopathogenic bacteria consist of Bacillaceae, Burkholderia, Chromobacterium, Pseudomonas, Saccharopolyspora, Serratia, Streptomyces and Yersinia species, whereas fungi include various strains of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana, Hirsutella, Isaria, Lecanicillium, Paecilomyces and Verticillium species. Baculoviruses (insect pathogenic viruses) are species-specific and active against chewing and bitting insects, primarily against Lepidopteran caterpillars. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) include 2 genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis showing mutualistic symbiotic association with bacteria Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus. Biopesticides sources easily exist in nature, are naturally biodegradable, show different modes of action, less expensive and possess less toxicity to living organisms
... However, baculoviruses are reported to act slowly in killing the targeted pests [60], which has led to the development of faster killing products through genetic modifications [94,102]. Baculoviruses are also reported to be less effective due to their high susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation, and this requires the reapplication of the virus over time [139,140]. This effectively increases input costs that farmers may incur. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most produced natural fibre worldwide, and it contributes significantly to the economy of almost 80 cotton-producing countries. Given the high pest infestation, huge amounts of insecticides have been used in cotton production. However, this has resulted in the development of resistance from primary cotton pests and contamination of the environment. Furthermore, the reduction of beneficial insects and outbreaks of secondary pests have been observed. Many arthropod pests are associated with cotton, most of which belong to the orders Lepidoptera, Thysanoptera, and Hemiptera. Biocontrol agents play a critical role in preventing pests in most cotton-growing areas globally. Biological control of cotton pests forms part of integrated pest management as most of these pests have developed resistance against synthetic pesticides. This chapter focuses on the effects of some of the biopesticides, on cotton insect pests. It examines the control of cotton pests using microbial-based products Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana, Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus and Metarhizium rileyi. Furthermore, the chapter summarizes the application of microbial biopesticides as well as the advantages and disadvantages of using these biocontrol agents in agriculture.
... The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is an important pest of apples in many parts of Europe and Asia (Noonari et al. 2015). The internally-feeding larvae cause damage to fruit that significantly reduces the value of the crop (Arthurs & Lacey 2004). The climate in northern Iraq is highly suitable for codling moth, resulting in 2-3 generations per year. ...
... The codling moth and summer fruit tortrix are resistant to many plant protection products [55,[148][149][150][151], a major driving factor in the development of commercial viruses. The application of the viruses is targeted to coincide with egg hatching and larval feeding on the surface of fruit to ensure infection [152]. The timing of application is critical. ...
Article
Full-text available
Growers of organic tree fruit face challenges in controlling some pests more easily suppressed by broad-spectrum insecticides in conventionally managed orchards. In recent decades, there has been a move towards organically growing varieties normally reliant on synthetic chemical pesticides (e.g., Gala), often to meet retailer/consumer demands. This inevitably makes crop protection in organic orchards more challenging, as modern varieties can be less tolerant to pests. In addition, there have been substantial reductions in plant protection product (PPP) approvals, resulting in fewer chemical options available for integrated pest management (IPM)-maintained orchards. Conversely, the organic management of fruit tree pests involves many practices that could be successfully implemented in conventionally grown crops, but which are currently not. These practices could also be more widely used in IPM-maintained orchards, alleviating the reliance on broad-spectrum PPP. In this review, we evaluate organic practices, with a focus on those that could be incorporated into conventional apple and pear production. The topics cover cultural control, biological control, physical and pest modifications. While the pests discussed mainly affect European species, many of the methods could be used to target other global pests for more environmentally sustainable practices.
... Nuclear polyhedrosis viruses and granulosis viruses are available to control some caterpillar pests (Suman and Dikshit 2010). Viral products for codling moth, Heliothis zea and beet armyworm nuclear polyhedrosis virus have been registered for control of pest Lepidoptera, such as the cotton bollworm and cotton budworm (Arthurs and Lacey 2004;Arthurs et al. 2005). Baculoviruses are effective against lepidopterous pests of cotton, rice and vegetables. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
India has a vast potential for microbial pesticides, as our economy is agriculture based; however, its adoption needs education for their maximum gains. The scientists should also explore all the possibilities for popularization and constraints in this emerging field. Extensive and inappropriate pesticide use has caused pest resistance to major groups of pesticides, resurgence of secondary pests, high pesticide residue in the produce and decimation of natural enemies. Their excessive use has caused adverse effects on human beings and environment. An eco-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides is biopesticides, which falls into three classes. These include microbial pesticides, plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs) and biochemical pesticides. The microbial pesticides comprise of bacteria, fungi, protozoans and viruses. This chapter also includes the genetic improvement of microbial pesticides, use of microbial pesticides in India, role of microbial pesticides in bio-intensive integrated pest management (IPM) and their advantages and disadvantages.
... For instance, Certis has recently registered Madex™, an increased-potency codling moth granulosis virus (GV) that also affects oriental fruit moth (OFM). Certis also deals Cyd-X™, which also contains the codling moth GV and which can be an efficient tool for codling moth management (Arthurs and Lacey 2004) [2] . Aside from Madex and Cyd-X, Certis markets Gemstar™, which contains Heliothis zea NPV, and Spod-X™, which contains beet armyworm NPV. ...
... At this juncture, exploitation of baculovirus can serve as a savior as it gives outstanding results even when the population pressures are high [105,9,164,178]. The baculoviruses-based biopesticides are prepared by infecting baculoviruses into CM larvae grown on specific diets. ...
... There is considerable evidence that the UV portion of sunlight inactivates viruses, specifically, UV-B (280-320 nm) and UVC (185-280 nm) because wavelengths in the range from 200 to 280 nm are highly absorbed by nucleic acids ( Arthurs and Lacey, 2004;Bullock et al., 1970;Sime and Bedson, 1973;Sobsey and Meschke, 2003). Since wavelengths shorter than 290 nm do not penetrate to the earth's surface, virus inactivation in the field are due to wavelengths >290 nm ( Griego et al., 1985). ...
... According to Laing and Jaques (1980) and Huber (1986), the LD 50 for neonate larvae has been estimated at 1.2 to 17 granules/larva. The biggest disadvantage of CpGV is its sensitivity to solar radiation [66][67][68], and the need for frequent reapplication. ...
Article
Full-text available
The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., is a serious insect pest in pome fruit production worldwide with a preference for apple. The pest is known for having developed resistance to several chemical groups of insecticides, making its control difficult. The control and management of the codling moth is often hindered by a lack of understanding about its biology and ecology, including aspects of its population genetics. This review summarizes the information about the origin and biology of the codling moth, describes the mechanisms of resistance in this pest, and provides an overview of current research of resistant pest populations and genetic research both in Europe and globally. The main focus of this review is on non-pesticide control measures and anti-resistance strategies which help to reduce the number of chemical pesticides used and their residues on food and the local environment. Regular monitoring for insecticide resistance is essential for proactive management to mitigate potential insecticide resistance. Here we describe techniques for the detection of resistant variants and possibilities for monitoring resistance populations. Also, we present our present work on developing new methods to maintain effective control using appropriate integrated resistance management (IRM) strategies for this economically important perennial pest.
... La Carpocapsa Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), conocida también como la "polilla de la pera y la manzana", es la principal plaga de manzanas, peras y ocasionalmente del nogal en las regiones templadas del mundo . Este insecto barrena los frutos al punto de dejarlos inservibles para el mercado y puede alcanzar varias generaciones durante la estación (Arthurs & Lacey, 2004) . Debido a que los cultivadores deben tener baja tolerancia al daño en sus cultivos (1 % de incidencia), recurren al uso rutinario de insecticidas de amplio espectro con el fin de mantener esta plaga en niveles económicos aceptables . ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents a summary of the possible uses of viruses to control insect pests of crops . Since the first relatively empirical works through to current developments, the potential of different families of viruses to regulate insect populations has been recognized . However, only viruses of one family, the baculovirus, have been able to be registered as biological control agents . The process necessary to go from discovering a viral isolate to producing a biopesticide is shown with real examples . Previous application strategies for viruses against insects have given rise to host resistance . We suggest an alternative strategy which adopts an ecological point of view in order to ensure sustainable use of these valuable control agents
... La Carpocapsa Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), conocida también como la "polilla de la pera y la manzana", es la principal plaga de manzanas, peras y ocasionalmente del nogal en las regiones templadas del mundo . Este insecto barrena los frutos al punto de dejarlos inservibles para el mercado y puede alcanzar varias generaciones durante la estación (Arthurs & Lacey, 2004) . Debido a que los cultivadores deben tener baja tolerancia al daño en sus cultivos (1 % de incidencia), recurren al uso rutinario de insecticidas de amplio espectro con el fin de mantener esta plaga en niveles económicos aceptables . ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents a summary of the possible uses of viruses to control insect pests of crops. Since the first relatively empirical works through to current developments, the potential of different families of viruses to regulate insect populations has been recognized. However, only viruses of one family, the baculovirus, have been able to be registered as biological control agents. The process necessary to go from discovering a viral isolate to producing a biopesticide is shown with real examples. Previous application strategies for viruses against insects have given rise to host resistance. We suggest an alternative strategy which adopts an ecological point of view in order to ensure sustainable use of these valuable control agents.
Chapter
All crop production can be susceptible to a variety of diseases, insects, and weeds. Some of them can damage plants, reduce their yield, while others can attack vegetables, fruit, ornamental plants leaving them unattractive and unmarketable. In the present chapter we focused on the novel trends in crop bioprotection which include biochemical pesticides, microbial pesticides, and plant-incorporated protectants. The examples of biopreparations (e.g., nematicide, fungicide, insecticide and acaricide, herbicide, bactericide) in the biocontrol of pests in the cultivation of vegetables, in orchards and ornamental plants are provided. The challenge is to find, adopt, and develop and finally to use a new generation of so-called green pesticides. They need to fulfill the most important conditions in order to be called the “green,” so must be safe for the environment and human, biodegradable and effective in their primary use, the plant protection.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Sixth International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, held virtually from British Columbia, Canada, continues the series of International Symposia on Biological Control of Arthropods, organized every four years. The history of the meetings is: • First ISBCA, Hawaii, USA – January 2002 • Second ISBCA, Davos, Switzerland – September 2005 • Third ISBCA, Christchurch, New Zealand – February 2009 • Fourth ISBCA: Pucón, Chile – March 2013 • Fifth ISBCA: Langkawi, Malaysia – September 2017 The goal of these symposia is to create a forum where biological control researchers and practitioners can meet and exchange information, to promote discussions of up to date issues affecting biological control, particularly pertaining the use of parasitoids and predators as biological control agents. This includes all approaches to biological control: conservation, augmentation, and importation of natural enemy species for the control of arthropod targets, as well as other transversal issues related to its implementation. To this end, 12 sessions have been organized in order to address the most relevant and current topics in the field of biological control of arthropods, delivered by invited speakers, contributed talks and poster presentations. To kick off ISBCA 2022, Dr. Martin Hill, Global President of the International Organization for Biological Control, presents an opening keynote talk on the current state of biological control. Some of the topics covered in ISBCA 2022 have remained as important issues since the first meeting, like the importance of biological control for managing invasive species, sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes, the continuing challenges for biological control of forest pests, and the role of native vegetation in conservation biological control. But also, as new challenges and environmental concerns arise, some fresh topics have emerged. Among them are climate change and the disruption of biological control, stakeholder knowledge and perceptions of biological control, the use of native and exotic natural enemies for augmentative biological control, and functional diversity supporting biological control. For the first time, a workshop on biological control of ticks will be held. To show that biological control is a continuum linked to other disciplines, there will be a session on the science underpinning the successful use of pathogens in biological control. An important goal of the International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods is to promote early career researchers, and the first session Proceedings of ISBCA 6 – D.C. Weber, T.D. Gariepy, and W.R. Morrison III, eds. (2022) iii is organized to showcase the work of select individuals. The International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) has sponsored these presentations. Another important goal of these meetings has been to be truly international, and this is why every conference so far has been organized in a different continent. This year we are excited in having achieved this goal despite the many world crises, by having participants from over 30 countries and all continents except Antarctica. We are particularly happy for the many works and participants from South America, a region that in the past has been poorly represented in these symposia. As a result, this meeting represents an opportunity for creating and expanding networks between researchers worldwide. Thus we expect that, despite the virtual format, the 6th International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods would be an important milestone in keep moving forward the research and practice on biological control of arthropods, thereby helping to improve the sustainability of managed systems as well as aiding in the protection of biodiversity on the planet.
Article
Microbial pesticides based on bacteria, fungi and viruses or their bioactive compounds have long been developed as alternatives for synthetic pesticides to control invertebrate pests. However, concern for environmental and human health from excessive reliance on chemical pesticides, changes in residue standards, and increased demand for organically grown produce has contributed to a considerable growth in their use in recent years. There are currently 356 registered biopesticide active ingredients in the U.S., including 57 species and/or strains of microbes or their derivatives, labelled for use against pestiferous insects, mites and nematodes. Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis for Lepidoptera remain the most popular products, but newer bacterial strains and their metabolites have been developed against a wider range of arthropods for use on fruit, vegetable and ornamental crops. Currently, ten fungal species/strains are registered against thrips, whiteflies, aphids, or other sucking pests and plant parasitic nematodes in greenhouse, nursery and field crops, while five nucleopolyhedroviruses and three granuloviruses are registered for Lepidoptera in field and greenhouse grown vegetables and ornamentals, tree fruit and nuts, forestry, and stored products. Many of these products are organic listed and most have 4 h or less reentry and no pre-harvest restrictions. Investment by multinational companies, advances in screening, industrial fermentation and storage of new microorganisms, are increasing the market share for microbials. Here, we summarize the market for microbial-based pesticides labelled for invertebrates in the U.S. We cover current uses and recent advances that further advance their use in additional markets in the coming decades.
Article
Four apple management strategies were compared in an Iowa orchard for codling moth, sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS), apple scab, and weeds. An orchard block with three apple scab-resistant cultivars (Redfree, Liberty, and Goldrush) was used to compare two new integrated pest management (IPM) systems that incorporated weather-based disease-warning systems and alternative pesticides (Treatments 3 and 4) with an existing IPM regime (Treatment 2) and a conventional system with calendar-based timing of fungicide and insecticide sprays (Treatment 1). Mean incidence (%) of fruit with disease or insect injury was recorded at harvest and marketable and cull fruit were counted and weighed. The new IPM strategies were as effective as calendar-based and existing-IPM treatments for most apple pests, and yields were equivalent. An economic analysis indicated that Treatment 4 was the least expensive for larger orchards and Treatment 3 was the most expensive for all orchard sizes in 2008. Treatment 4 also had the least pesticide applications during the 2008 growing season. Active ingredients, spray rates, and applications of pesticides were used to develop an environmental risk rating for each treatment. New IPM treatments lowered ecological risks compared to calendar-based spraying and existing IPM. Composted hardwood mulch was also compared with bare soil for weed control efficacy; mulch suppressed weed coverage and biomass compared to bare soil and required fewer herbicide applications. Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) is a complex of >60 fungal species that blemish the surface of apple fruit in humid regions worldwide. Blemishes become visible in mid-to late summer, reducing the value of fresh fruit. To test the hypothesis that SBFS species appear on apples at characteristic times during the growing season, 30 apples were monitored weekly for appearance of SBFS colonies at each of three Iowa orchards in 2006 and seven orchards in 2007. Colonies were marked with colored pens to denote the date of appearance. After harvest and storage of apples, SBFS colonies on each fruit were counted and classified by morphology, and a representative subset of colonies were removed. Fungal DNA, extracted from colonies scraped from the surface of the peel, was amplified with primer pair ITS1-F/ Myc1-R. Polymerase chain reaction products were digested with HaeIII, and fragment patterns were observed with gel electrophoresis and compared to a library of previously identified SBFS species. Sterile mycelia spp. RS1 and RS2 were the first to appear in all but one of the Iowa orchards surveyed where SBFS signs were observed. Dissoconium aciculare consistently appeared on fruit during the week prior to harvest, and additional colonies of this species appeared during storage. The species that were most prevalent in Iowa orchards were also the most abundant. Knowledge of species prevalence and chronology of appearance on apple fruit could lead to improved SBFS management strategies.
Chapter
Although industrial revolution is an important factor governing the development of a country’s economy, but at the same time, the industrial activities have been also accompanied by problem of waste biomass. This commensurate with the increase in industrialization, urbanization, and population growth is leading to production of enormous quantities of industrial waste biomass that may cause environmental and health hazards. However, the increased awareness and desire for a healthy environment among people leads to the need for better ways of waste minimization and pollution prevention and better use of resources in achieving the required industrial and environmental standards. The present book deals specifically with the valorization of waste biomass to small-volume high-value biochemicals only. The products which are produced in bulk quantities, such as biofuels, some organic acids, hydrolytic enzymes, biogas, and other traditional products from waste biomass, are not discussed. In this context, the current chapter discusses the different sources, types, and nature of waste biomass. The chapter also provides overview of the different management strategies applied for the value addition of different types of waste biomass. The chapter will provide insights into the role of waste biomass resources for developing bio-based economy/processes for industrial biotechnology and renewable energy in supporting sustainable development and economic competitiveness.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Insect pests are always become a problem to man since they started cultivation of the crops. They cause economic losses to our commodities in different ways. But their control becomes a major problem, though it developed resistance against many insecticides. However, a variety of problem sare associated with the traditional use of non selective insecticides which include environmental issues, negative impact on nature enemies, food safety and hazards to human health. Therefore, use of other alternatives like microbesis being more conventional in the present scenario. Moreover, microbial control of insects can concern with the use of insect-specific pathogens viz., virus, bacteria, protozoa, fungi and nematodes, which are capable for killing the insect pests. Generally they are attacking to the targets and reduce the pest population below economics without disturbing the ecosystem and biodiversity. Use of microbial pesticides has number of advantages over chemical pesticides and also helps to maintain equilibrium of our natural ecosystem. The demand of microbial pesticides increased drastically since last two decades in the global market, which can become possible only due to awareness among the farmers.
Article
Full-text available
Control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L), in conventional orchards has relied heavily on broad spectrum insecticides such as azinphos-methyl (Guthion®, Bayer CropScience, Research Triangle Park, NC). Alternative control options are needed for a variety of reasons, including environmental impact and worker and food safety concerns. Microbial control agents such as the codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) offer alternatives to conventional insecticides for the control of codling moth. Six weekly applications of the label rate (1 L/ha) of the Carpovirusine® formulation of CpGV in an experimental orchard naturally infested with codling moth provided control of first generation codling moth that was comparable to that of larvicidal oil and azinphos-methyl. Although the number of codling moth entries in fruit that were treated with virus alone was similar to that of control trees, the number of deep entries and the number of living codling moth larvae were significantly reduced on CpGV treated fruit. Despite blemishing, virus-treated fruit with minute entries were suitable for consumption or for processing. Studies on the residual activity of Carpovirusine revealed a steady decline in virus activity 1 to 3 d following application. The use of two adjuvants, Nu-Film-17® and Raynox®, did not protect virus from solar inactivation. Among the biological control options available for codling moth, CpGV provides effective and selective control of neonate larvae. Its use in lieu of broad spectrum insecticides will contribute significantly to the conservation of other natural enemies in the orchard agroecosystem.
Article
Full-text available
Spodopteralitura Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (SlNPV) has already been proved as an effective biopesticide and also has emerged as an alternative to chemical insecticides. Although a major obstacle has been recorded is its rapid inactivation under field condition primarily due to UV irradiation and the time lag to cause early mortality even after ingesting sufficient polyhedral inclusion bodies by the larvae, which brings limitations on its efficacy and use. The data on effect of UV and sunlight on the viability of SlNPV showed 18.09 % reduction in the POB count after 5 hrs sunlight exposure as against 45.92 % reduction after 2 hrs UV exposure with corresponding larval mortality values of 90% and 86.66 %, respectively. Similarly, when the SlNPV samples were placed at various distances from UV light, 21.27, 16.66 and 12.03 % reduction in POB count was recorded when placed at 10, 25 and 35 cm distance from UV source, respectively. The result also revealed the persistence of more number of POBs/ml in NPV suspension due to addition of UV protectant agents than the sole NPV suspension.The study indicates that, formulation in addition to UV protectant agents will enhance the efficacy of NPVs. Moreover, this information would make existing use of NPVs more effective and sustainable.
Article
Full-text available
The insecticidal efficacy of various baculovirus formulations against the cutworm Agrotis ipsilon was determined. The treatments consisted of molasses from sugarcane mixing with each of wheat germ, biochar, talc, chitosan, silica gel, pyrolysis bio-oil aqueous phase, pyrolysis bio-oil organic phase, calcium carbonate, cornflour, calcium cassinate, aluminium potassium sulphate, Diatomaceous earth, dextrin, lignin PC 1307, soy screen, blankphor, skim milk powder, potassium cassinate, magnesium chloride, date molasses and pregelatinized starch. All applied in spray-dried at 2.2 x 10 9 occlusion body(OB) mL-1. The bioassay of each spray-dried formulation using the droplet feeding method by the blue solution containing 2% sugar and 0.1% blue dye. The resulting suspensions should all contain 0.377 x 10 6 OB mL-1, represents the LD 70 for the unformulated virus. Exposure newly hatched larvae of cutworms and transfer to individual diet cups for each treatment and incubated at 28 o C in the dark incubator for 7 days. The obtained results revealed that satisfactory control of the pest of 100% larval mortality compared to untreated control was achieved with the formulations containing molasses mixing with talc, silica gel, calcium carbonate, cornflour, calcium cassinate, diatomaceous earth, soy screen, and dextrin. However, the formulations containing chitosan, pyrolysis bio-oil aqueous phase and pyrolysis bio-oil organic phase gave the lowest mortalities as 12.2, 11.1 and 6.7%, respectively. These findings are an attempt to provides an interesting alternative developed biopesticide formulations made with natural ingredients that could improve the efficacy and persistence of virus-based biopesticides.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the ban of Gusathion® (azinphosmethyl) as insecticide in Swedish apple orchards on tortricid moth population density and tortricid-induced crop damage. In addition, the effects on growers’ management strategies, such as choice of spraying dates and alternative insecticide combinations, were studied. Populations of Adoxophyes orana, Archips podana, Archips rosana, Cydia pomonella, Pandemis heparana, Hedya nubiferana, and Spilonota ocellana were monitored using sex-pheromone traps during the four consecutive seasons of 2008-2011, with annual crop damage estimates made prior to harvest. Azinphosmethyl was banned after 2008. Significantly increasing population densities were observed in A. orana, A. podana, C. pomonella, and H. nubiferana, whereas correspondingly increasing crop damage was observed only in the case of C. pomonella. The growers’ management strategies, with respect to number and timing of spray applications, did not change during the study period although the insecticides available after the ban were less persistent and more specific, i.e., either with primarily ovicidal or larvicidal effect. Analysis of a broad range of factors showed that temperatures during winter and spring, number and timing of insecticide applications, and usage of azinphosmethyl in 2008 were important factors affecting population size and the damage caused by the tortricid species studied.
Article
ABSTRACT. The codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and the egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma spp. are known as biocontrol agents of codling moth but interactions between them are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the compatibility and the complementarity of Trichogramma minutum and CpGV. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory the first year, as well as in an orchard over two years with the two biocontrol agents used alone or in combination. Parasitism of codling moth decreased in glass tube bioassays when CpGV was applied on eggs prior to parasitism, suggesting that female parasitoids discriminated between eggs covered or not with the virus. In contrast, egg discrimination was not observed in the orchard, since the presence of CpGV on codling moth eggs did not affect T. minutum parasitism. Both biocontrol agents together caused 77 and 79% mortality to codling moth in the orchard in the first and the second year of the study, respectively. Our results in the orchard showed that the combined use of CpGV and T. minutum to control the codling moth is compatible. Therefore, the utilization of both biocontrol agents is a promising alternative to control this pest in apple orchards. Keywords: Cydia pomonella, Trichogramma minutum, CpGV, apple orchards, egg parasitoid, biological control, insect pest management. RÉSUMÉ [Compatibilité et complémentarité du parasitoïde oophage Trichogramma minutum (Hymenoptera : Trichogrammatidae) avec le granulovirus (CpGV) contre le carpocapse de la pomme Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae)] Le granulovirus du carpocapse de la pomme (CpGV) et les parasitoïdes du genre Trichogramma sont des agents de lutte biologique du carpocapse de la pomme, mais leurs interactions sont inconnues. L’objectif de l’étude a été d’évaluer la compatibilité et la complémentarité de Trichogramma minutum et du CpGV. Des essais en laboratoire ont été menés la première année et des essais dans le verger ont été réalisés pendant deux ans avec les deux agents de lutte utilisés seuls ou en combinaison. Dans le laboratoire, le parasitisme a été réduit après que le CpGV a été appliqué sur les oeufs du carpocapse de la pomme, suggérant que les femelles parasitoïdes ont discriminé entre des oeufs recouverts de CpGV ou non. Au contraire, le CpGV n’a pas affecté le parasitisme causé par T. minutum dans le verger. Les deux agents de lutte ensemble ont causé 77 et 79 % de mortalité au carpocapse de la pomme dans le verger la première et la deuxième année respectivement. Nos résultats en verger montrent que l’effet combiné du CpGV et de T. minutum sur le carpocapse de la pomme est compatible. En conséquence, l’utilisation des deux agents de lutte biologique est une alternative prometteuse pour la lutte contre le carpocapse de la pomme dans les vergers de pommiers. Mots-clés : Cydia pomonella, Trichogramma minutum, CpGV, vergers de pommiers, parasitoïde oophage, lutte biologique, lutte intégrée.
Article
Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is a specific pathogen of codling moth, the most serious pest of apple worldwide and has recently been isolated in China. However, its use for codling moth control is limited by ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation, which is a major factor affecting the field persistence of this virus. The virion is occluded in the granulin matrix of occlusion bodies. Many substances have been tested as sunscreen agents, but little has been published on the use of reflectors with the occluded bodies (OBs) of CpGV. This work investigates the susceptibility of a native GV, CpGV-ZY, to UVB radiation over different time periods and evaluates the protective effect of two sunscreen agents, zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). Laboratory tests showed 104 OB/ml of CpGV-ZY exposed to UVB light (3.5 W/m2) for 3.75 h caused 50% inactivity. At 15 mg/ml ZnO and 10 mg/ml TiO2, the mortality was highest after 4-h exposure to UVB light. Semi-field tests indicated both compounds are effective as UV protectants at low concentrations. These are the first results confirming that ZnO and TiO2 hold promise as UV protectants for this CpGV-ZY isolate. Moreover, it is apparently safe and effective to use within the range of concentrations needed for codling moth control.
Article
Full-text available
New Zealand apple growers need to produce crops that satisfy conlicting export market requirements. Some markets want pest-free fruit, while others demand residue-free fruit. Pheromone mating disruption combined with the judicious use of insecticides enables crops to meet both demands. This study in 14 Hawke's Bay apple orchards showed that seasonal pheromone trap catch was reduced by 70%, from 40.1 codling moths/trap in the season before mating disruption was introduced to 11.7 moths/trap over the subsequent ive seasons. In the same period, insecticide use reduced from 5.9 applications/season in 2006-07 to 2.3 in 2007-08 and 3.7 since 2008-09. The incidence of larvae in fruit where mating disruption operated averaged 0.01%, which was lower than in orchards using insecticides only. Damage increased from 2008-09 with greater reliance on codling moth granulosis virus over residual insecticides. Nevertheless, mating disruption with 3-4 insecticide sprays controlled codling moth to the high standard needed.
Article
Full-text available
Trichoderma isolates were obtained from diseased leaves and fruit collected from plantations in the main banana production area in Northern Queensland. Phylogenetic analyses identified the Trichoderma isolates as T. harzianum and T. virens. The Trichoderma spp. were found to be antagonistic against the banana leaf pathogens Mycosphaerella musicola, Cordana musae, and Deightoniella torulosa in vitro. Several products used by the banana industry to increase production, including molasses, Fishoil and Seasol, were tested as food source for the Trichoderma isolates. The optimal food substrate was found to be molasses at a concentration of 5 %, which when used in combination with a di-1-p-menthene spreader-sticker enhanced the survivability of Trichoderma populations under natural conditions. This formulation suppressed D. torulosa development under glasshouse conditions. Furthermore, high sensitivity was observed towards the protectant fungicide Mancozeb but Biopest oil®, a paraffinic oil, only marginally suppressed the growth of Trichoderma isolates in vitro. Thus, this protocol represents a potential to manage banana leaf pathogens as a part of an integrated disease approach.
Chapter
In today’s scenario of agricultural production, usage of biocontrol agents is a must. These biocontrol agents should be naturally occurring from living organisms which act on pathogens of plants or animals. They have various advantages over chemical pesticides as they are environmentally friendly and have less side effects. The most common form of biocontrol agents which are in wider use is bacteria belonging to Bacillus and Pseudomonas sp. They might be either plant growth promoting organisms which colonize in the root and enhance metabolic activity, or inhibit phytopathogens by their antagonistic effects. The fungus also exhibits its pathogenicity on other organisms either through direct antagonism or through synthesizing antibiotic substance and creating competition among the host and invader. This requirement becomes a necessity to produce more biocontrol agents to control a wide variety of plant pathogens as also insect pests in a biological way. Once investigated, certain measures are to be taken for the efficient use of biocontrol agents in terms of regularization and commercialization of them. In addition, it is mandatory to assess the toxicology of the agents and steps should be taken toward proper preservation methods and large-scale production strategies. In future, chances are that bioagents would completely and definitely replace the use of chemicals.
Article
Full-text available
The pear-derived volatile, ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate is a potent, stable, and selective bisexual kairomone for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Its discovery creates an unique opportunity to develop monitoring and control tactics targeted for both male and female moths. Here we present a population model that compares the relative effectiveness of a male-only versus a bisexual attracticide. The model tracks daily changes in the population densities of pupae, males, and mated and virgin females using daily survival rates, and natural and insecticide-related mortality for eggs and larvae. The use of sex pheromones for mating disruption is included as a scalar variable affecting mating success. Mating is also influenced by the level of competition between virgin females and the insecticide-laced pheromone point sources (determined by their density and potency). The attractiveness of the kairomone lure is determined by the density and relative attractiveness of individual fruits within the cropping system. The potency (attractiveness and lethality) of the attracticide point sources decline at a constant rate over time. Our modelling results demonstrate that the use of a female attractant greatly improves the effectiveness of the "attract and kill" technique. Our model output is compared with field data collected from apple plots treated with mating disruption and a grid of pheromone/kairomone-baited insecticide-treated stations during 2001. The influence of the seasonal attractiveness of ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate for codling moth within walnut, pear, and apple orchard the success of the "attract and kill" approach is discussed.
Article
Full-text available
The viral, bacterial, fungal and nematode pathogens of arthropod pests of apple and pear in northern and central Europe and their use as biocontrol agents are reviewed. Baculoviruses are important viral pathogens of several lepidopterous pests of apple and pear but other viral pathogens have not been investigated in depth and are little known. The granuloviruses of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (CpGV), and to a lesser extent, of the summer fruit tortrix moth, Adoxophyes orana (AoGV), have been researched extensively and are exploited as biological control agents. Commercial development and use has been limited because of their high costs, slow action, short persistence and specificity relative to broad-spectrum pesticides. The widespread development of strains of codling moth multi-resistant to insecticides and the desire to reduce dependence on pesticides have improved the commercial prospects of CpGV and use is likely to increase. The development of a genetically improved egt-strain of CpGV (lacking the ecdysteroid-UDP glucosyl transferase gene) in the UK is a significant breakthrough, though commercialization in the UK may be difficult due to adverse public attitudes to the release of genetically-modified microorganisms. Future research and development approaches include further genetic manipulation of CpGV and AoGV to improve potency, speed of kill and/or persistence, improvement of formulation (to reduce UV light sensitivity) and development of cheaper mass production techniques and possibly in vitro production. A systematic search for baculoviruses and other viruses of apple and pear pests is likely to reveal important new opportunities. The most important bacterial pathogen used as a biological control agent is Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). However, Bt products currently available have limited effectiveness against many orchard pests due to the pests' cryptic life habits. The HD-1 Bt strain has been investigated and used extensively for control of leaf-rolling tortricid larvae and is widely used, but efficacy is moderate. Advances in biotechnology and genetic engineering provide opportunity for development of Bt strains designed specifically to control orchard pests, but this has not yet been done for commercial reasons. Other research approaches include the evaluation of new Bt products developed for other markets worldwide and the bioassay of strains from Bt collections against specific apple or pear pests. Entomopathogenic fungi provide good opportunity for development as biological control agents of apple and pear pests. The main factor limiting their effectiveness is the requirement for high humidities and moderate temperatures for spore germination and development. For foliar pests, a useful starting point for research might be the control of sucking pests which excrete honeydew (e.g. Cacopsylla sp. or aphids) or those that inhabit protected microenvironments (e.g. Dasineura sp.). Key areas for research are improved formulation, the selection of low temperature-active strains, field evaluation and avoiding possible adverse effects of fungicides. An alternative approach is to examine the exploitation of entomopathogenic fungi in soil, to which many species of entomopathogenic fungi are adapted ecologically. Apple and pear orchards provide long-term stable habitats where populations of entomopathogenic fungi in soil are likely to be large. There are few important soil pests of apple or pear. However, many species spend part of their life in soil, mainly to pupate or overwinter, where they may be targeted by fungal entomopathogenic biocontrol agents. Entomopathogenic nematodes have many attributes which favour them as biological control agents. However, their requirement for surface moisture for survival and movement means there are only limited prospects for using them as biological control agents for foliar pests. As with entomopathogenic fungi, there are better prospects for control of pests that occur in soil. Microbial pathogens and entomopathogenic nematodes are important components of the natural enemy complex of apple and pear orchards and more effort needs to be devoted to fostering them and exploiting them as biocontrol agents in sustainable, biologically-based Integrated Pest Management programmes. They can in many cases be mass produced at low cost by bulk fermentation processes and applied as sprays (as 'biopesticides') and are, at least potentially, ideal biological control agents for many apple or pear pests. Important general characteristics are their comparative environmental and human safety, compatibility with other control strategies in Integrated Pest Management programmes and reproductive capacity. They tend to be effective in a narrower range of environmental conditions than pesticides, but there is considerable potential to improve their effectiveness by improved formulation, strain selection and genetic manipulation. They are often host-specific and thus, offer restricted marketing opportunities, which is a significant barrier to development and commercialisation. Registration procedures and associated fees for microbial agents are a further significant barrier. Such requirements do not apply currently to nematodes.
Article
Full-text available
During the summer of 1975, the distribution of colding moth (Laspeyresia pomonella (L.)) eggs, infested apples, and branch structures were recorded for sample branches from an abandoned orchard near Pullman, Washington. Distribution of eggs within trees was analyzed at 3 levels: (1) among spurs, (2) within particular spur classes, and (3) on leaves. Among spurs, the distribution of eggs deviated from randomness in relation to all spurs, fruit-bearing spurs alone, and individual apples. Within particular spur classes, distribution of eggs fit negative binomial but not Poisson distributions, indicating nonrandomness. Occurrence of eggs on individual leaves also deviated from a Poisson distribution. Avg numbers of eggs per spur were positively related, and avg numbers of eggs per apple were negatively related to the numbers of apples per spur. Fifty-seven % of all eggs were found on upper leaf surfaces, 35% on lower leaf surfaces, and 8% on apples, but these percentages were not constant over the summer. Eggs were aggregated around apples; 51% were within 7.5 cm, and 91% were within 20 cm. The scattered distribution of codling moth eggs is advantageous since it reduces predator pressures and limits multiple attacks on individual fruits. These advantages probably outweigh the observed disadvantage of high mortality during larval searching.
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable agriculture will rely increasingly on alternatives to conventional chemical insecticides for pest management that are environmentally friendly and reduce the amount of human contact with pesticides. Microbial control agents, i.e. insect pathogens, can provide effective control, conserve biodiversity, and serve as alternatives to chemical insecticides under several conditions. Due to their specificity for insects, insect pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes are ideal candidates for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies in orchards where their effects on other natural enemies will be minimal. There is also excellent potential for combining microbial control with other soft technologies such as mating disruption. Increased use of microbial control will depend on a variety of factors including improvements in the pathogens (virulence, formulation, delivery, etc.) and an increased awareness of their attributes by growers and the general public. In this review we provide an overview of microbial control of the key insect pests of citrus, pome fruits, stone fruits and nuts.
Article
Full-text available
Resistance to several classes of insecticides was correlated with azinphosmethyl resistance in codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in California. In tests of laboratory and field populations, cross-resistance was positively correlated with azinphosmethyl and two organophosphates (diazinon, phosmet), a carbamate (carbaryl), a chlorinated hydrocarbon (DDT), and two pyrethroids (esfenvalerate and fenpropathrin). Additionally, negatively correlated cross-resistance was identified between azinphosmethyl and two other organophosphates, chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion. Patterns of resistance observed in laboratory colonies were confirmed with field bioassays. In bioassays of field populations, azinphosmethyl resistance was observed to increase from 1991 to 1993, although levels of resistance remained < 13-fold. Because orchards with azinphosmethyl resistance have had difficulties with suppression of codling moth, and cross-resistance was found for all tested classes of insecticides, strategies for managing resistance will need to be developed so as to protect current and future control tactics. The two insecticides with negatively correlated cross-resistance are discussed as potential tools for resistance management.
Article
A regional, multi-institutional program was implemented in 1994 to assess and test an integrated strategy for suppression of populations of codling moth [Cydia pomonella (L.)] in fruit orchards in the western United States. The program was designed to alleviate the impact of neurotoxic pesticides on natural enemies while continuing to control insect pest populations. Reduced use of organophosphate insecticides created the opportunity for exploring more environmentally friendly control tactics for secondary pest control. Five pilot test sites were selected, one each in California and Oregon and three in Washington State, to demonstrate the value of using mating disruption, biological control, and in one site, release of sterile moths to control codling moth and secondary pests with a minimum use of neurotoxic chemicals. Results from the first 3 yr indicated that this latter strategy is an effective control measure. Research at the pilot sites will continue through 1999. Funding for the codling moth program is shared currently by the Agricultural Research Service and the fruit industry. Additional support is provided by state universities in California. Oregon, and Washington. A series of research projects impacting the pilot test sites was funded as well. This program may eventually be adopted and supported entirely by the growers.
Article
Attempts to realize the potential of Cydia pomonella pheromone are presented. The characteristics of the pheromone, especially the identification and role of its components are introduced, before describing its uses in monitoring populations, risk forecasting and establishing biological reference points for forecasting, mass trappings and mating disruption. For the last of these, reports of field trials using the major pheromone component EEOH are detailed, including the dispensing systems involved, field experiments with other compounds, laboratory trials and future prospects. -J.W.Cooper
Chapter
Humans have been aware of diseases caused by baculoviruses for over 2000 years. The earliest historical accounts originated with descriptions of silkworm “jaundice,” a disease of Bombyx mori that we now know is caused by a nuclear polyhedrosis virus. In addition, people in various cultures throughout history have witnessed, without knowing their cause, spectacular epizootics and subsequent population declines brought about by nuclear polyhedrosis and granulosis viruses in caterpillars and sawfly larvae that feed in the forests and on field and vegetable crops (Benz, 1986). However, it was not until this century, and especially since the end of World War II, that the etiologic agents that cause these diseases were identified as a unique family of viruses, now known as the baculoviruses, which are largely restricted to insects. Moreover, although the literature from the first half of this century contains good descriptions of the diseases caused by nuclear polyhedrosis and granulosis viruses, it is only recently that we have begun to understand the progression of these diseases in their hosts and to identify the genes and gene products that underlie their various pathologies.
Article
Discusses the identification and potential use of the predators of Cydia pomonella, and the parasite, parasitoid and pathological organisms that have codling moth as a host. After examining biological control tactics, a survey is given of agents of control, viz. birds (especially tits Parus sp.), spiders, insect predators and parasitoids, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. The last of these is expanded to give an account of the discovery, production, field research and trials of the granulosis virus CpGV. -J.W.Cooper
Article
Application of granulosis virus (CPGV) to plots of apple trees reduced deep-entry damage to apples by the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), compared with nontreated apples. However, shallow-entry damage to apples by codling moth was as great, or greater, in virus-treated plots than in nontreated plots. Protection was improved by applying CPGV at least three times during each of the two annual generations of the codling moth compared with less frequent application. Bioassays showed that activity of deposits of CPGV on apples in the field was reduced to approximately 50% of original activity within 2 days after application and to 17% by the 10th day.
Article
Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) has received considerable attention as a potential microbial insecticide for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) , a worldwide pest of apples. Laboratory experiments were established to investigate virus uptake by first instar larvae, using a novel leaf disc bioassay technique. Virus uptake was found to be independent of active feeding and larvae became infected simply by walking or browsing on sprayed leaf disc surfaces in as little time as 3.5 min. Infection increased as a function of time spent on the leaf disc surface and a linear log time/probit mortality relationship could be fitted. The bioassay technique used has potential for the realistic laboratory testing of virus spray formulations. A field experiment showed that virus infection could be contracted by newly hatched codling moth larvae both from the surface of sprayed leaves and sprayed fruit. The potential for exploiting this knowledge for improving spray formulations is discussed.
Article
Commercially produced, experimental lots of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), granulosis virus (CMGV) formulations were field-tested for control of codling moth larvae on commercial walnuts. Because it has little or no effect on beneficial species and probably would not disturb the control of the walnut aphid, Chromaphis juglandicola (Kaltenbach), by the parasite Trioxys pallidus (Haliday), CMGV was evaluated in 1980- 1983 in Kings, Tulare, and Yolo counties in California. In 1980, control of codling moth by CMGV was similar to that of conventional insecticides (e.g., 80%). However, a maximum of 60% control was obtained in 1982. The level of control obtained in 1982 was lower than that suggested by the residue studies. In 1983, control was equivalent to that of a chemical insecticide standard, but control depended upon application timing. Field persistence of the virus was sufficient to cause 90% larval mortality immediately after application and 80% mortality 5 d later. The addition of several concentrations of skim milk did not increase persistence. It was concluded that timing of CMGV applications to coincide with egg hatch and field persistence of formulations are critical to control of codling moth on walnuts.
Article
Variation in response to insecticide in codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was surveyed in California, Oregon, Utah, and Washington. Two techniques (topical application and direct incorporation of insecticide into the trap adhesive) were used to assay male moths caught in pheromone traps. Using the LC75 from a susceptible population as a standard dose, we monitored 20 apple and pear orchards for resistance to azinphosmethyl by the topical application technique. Orchards in California had the greatest interpopulation variability in resistance levels. In a single pear orchard in the Sacramento Delta, the level of resistance at the LC50 was ≍6.2 and 7.2 times greater than in a susceptible population when bioassays were done by topical application and adhesives were mixed with insecticide, respectively. Residual bioassays with neonate larvae collected from this site indicated 4.6-fold resistance. Orchards in Oregon showed little variability, and all populations appeared to be susceptible. Populations from Utah orchards showed little variability in the bioassay and were the most susceptible in the four states tested. Populations collected from Washington orchards had the highest tolerance levels. In laboratory tests, female moths were as susceptible as male moths in bioassays with treated adhesive. In similar tests, 5-7-d-old moths were more susceptible than moths 2.5-4.5 and 0-2-d-old, whereas no significant difference was detected between the latter two groups. With the topical adult assay, baseline data were collected for the pyrethroid esfenvalerate from 13 orchards in California, Utah, and Washington. Little variability in susceptibility to esfenvalerate was found among populations within each state.
Article
French populations of codling moth have developed resistance to several insecticide classes. The susceptibility of susceptible and resistant laboratory strains to diflubenzuron and deltamethrin was evaluated using different exposure methods against various life stages. The tarsal contact method for adults was found to be an appropriate method for testing neurotoxic compounds such as deltamethrin. Insect growth inhibitors, like diflubenzuron, need to be analysed on juvenile instars. Monitoring methodologies were developed and evaluated (a) on neonates obtained by crossing field-collected males with virgin females from the susceptible laboratory strain so as to overcome the problem of reduced fertility of wild females and (b) on diapausing larvae. All 36 populations analysed exhibited significant levels of resistance to both diflubenzuron and deltamethrin. Resistance to the two compounds was linked, regardless of the cultivation methods used in the monitored area. The monitoring methodologies will be implemented to evaluate the evolution of resistance according to the resistance management strategies that have been adopted.© 2000 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Cydia pomonella (L.), a major pest of apples in Canadian orchards, is susceptible to a granulosis virus (CpGV). Orchard trials with different formulations of CpGV in Ontario, whereC. pomonella has two generations per year, indicated that as many as seven applications of virus would be needed to maintain the percentage of fruit with deep larval entries below 4%. In Nova Scotia, where there is only one generation ofC. pomonella per year, two applications of CpGV usually were needed although, in some cases, one sufficed. The protection of fruit conferred by CpGV equalled that by the organophosphate insecticides, azinphosmethyl or phosmet, in some tests. The advantages of a selective treatment, such as CpGV, over use of broad-spectrum insecticides are discussed. Cydia pomonella (L.), un ravageur important du pommier dans les vergers canadiens, est sensible au virus de la granulose. Des essais en vergers utilisant deux préparations de ce virus en Ontario, oùC. pomonella présente deux generations par année, indiquent qu'il faudrait jusqu'à sept pulvérisations pour maintenir à moins de 40% la proportion de fruits portant des infestations larvaires. En Nouvelle Ecosse, oùC. pomonella ne compte qu'une seule génération par an, deux pulvérisations furent nécessaires, quoique dans certains cas une seule a suffi. Dans certains essais, le niveau de protection des fruits égalait celui fourni par les esters phosphoriques, l'azinphos-méthyle ou le phosmet. On discute des avantages des traitements sélectifs tels que le virus de la granulose en comparaison avec l'emploi des insecticides de grande polyvalence.
Article
The granulovirus of Cydia pomonella (L.) (CpGV) offers potential for selective control of codling moth. Two major limitations of CpGV are its narrow host range and lack of persistence in the orchard agroecosystem. The nucleopolyhedroviruses of the alfalfa looper Autographa californica (Speyer) (AcMNPV) and those of the celery looper Anagrapha falcifera (Kirby) (AfMNPV) have broad host ranges. Comparative assays of CpGV, AcMNPV, and AfMNPV against codling moth neonate larvae revealed a 54-93-fold greater susceptibility of codling moth to the granulovirus than to the two nucleopolyhedroviruses based on the LC(50) values for each virus. The LC(50)s for CpGV, AfMNPV, and AcMNPV were 32.7 capsules/mm(2), 1.77 x 10(3) occlusion bodies (OBs)/mm(2), and 3.05 x 10(3)OBs/mm(2), respectively. The LT(50) determined for AfMNPV using an approximate LC(95) of the virus against neonate larvae was 3.6 days. Histological examination of tissues in moribund codling moth larvae that had been treated with AfMNPV revealed the presence of nonoccluded and unenveloped virus rods in midgut tissue. Neither OBs nor signs of infection were detected in other tissues. The activity of AfMNPV was also evaluated in three other tortricid apple pests (obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris); Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott; and the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta (Busck)). Codling and Oriental fruit moths were significantly more susceptible to AfMNPV than were the two leafroller species.
Microbial control of lepi-dopteran pests of apple orchards Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and Other Invertebrate Pests
  • L A Lacey
  • A L Knight
  • J Huber
Lacey, L.A., Knight, A.L., Huber, J., 2000. Microbial control of lepi-dopteran pests of apple orchards. In: Lacey, L.A., Kaya, H.K. (Eds.), Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and Other Invertebrate Pests. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordr-echt, pp. 557–576.
Field persistence of the codling moth granulosis virus Laspeyresia pomonella
  • Huber
Huber, J., 1980. Field persistence of the codling moth granulosis virus Laspeyresia pomonella. IOBC/WPRS Bull. 3, 58-59.
Effectiveness of the granulosis virus of the codling moth in orchard trials in Canada
  • R P Jaques
Jaques, R.P., 1990. EVectiveness of the granulosis virus of the codling moth in orchard trials in Canada. In: Proceedings of the V International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control, Adelaide, Australia, 20-24 August 1990, pp. 428-430.
Orchard Pest Management: A Resource Book for the PaciWc Northwest
  • E H Beers
  • J F Brunner
  • M J Willett
  • G M Warner
Beers, E.H., Brunner, J.F., Willett, M.J., Warner, G.M., 1993. Orchard Pest Management: A Resource Book for the PaciWc Northwest. Good Fruit Grower, Yakima, WA.
Light Measurement Handbook. International Light Monitoring resistance to diXubenzuron and delta-methrin in French codling moth populations
  • A Ma Ryer
  • B Sauphanor
  • V Brosse
  • J C Bouvier
  • P Speich
  • A Micoud
  • C Marti-Net
Ryer, A., 1997. Light Measurement Handbook. International Light, Newbury Port, MA. Sauphanor, B., Brosse, V., Bouvier, J.C., Speich, P., Micoud, A., Marti-net, C., 2000. Monitoring resistance to diXubenzuron and delta-methrin in French codling moth populations (Cydia pomonella).
Microbiological control of the codling moth (Laspeyresia pomonella (L.)) (=Carpocapsa pomonella) with specific granulosis virus
  • Keller
Keller, S., 1973. Microbiological control of the codling moth (Laspeyresia pomonella (L.)) ( D Carpocapsa pomonella) with speciWc granulosis virus. Z. Ang. Entomol. 73, 137-181.
Light Measurement Handbook. International Light
  • A Ryer
Ryer, A., 1997. Light Measurement Handbook. International Light, Newbury Port, MA.
Tortricids in pome and stone fruits, codling moth occurrence, host race formation and damage
  • Barnes
Barnes, M.M., 1991. Tortricids in pome and stone fruits, codling moth occurrence, host race formation and damage. In: van der Geest, L.P.S., Evenhuis, H.H. (Eds.), Tortricid Pests, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 313-327.