Article

Dietary goat milk improves iron bioavailability in rats with induced ferropenic anaemia in comparison with cow milk

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Abstract

Using rats with induced iron (Fe)-deficiency anaemia, this study investigated the effects of diets based on goat milk (GM) or cow milk (CM) lyophilates on the nutritive utilization of Fe, its deposit in target organs and haematic parameters involved in Fe metabolism. GM improved Fe metabolism, especially in Fe-deficient rats, leading to a higher Fe content in the spleen, liver, sternum and femur in comparison with CM. After feeding the rats for 2 weeks with the different diets, the anaemia had decreased, especially with GM, as assessed by higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), serum Fe, red blood cells (RBC) and packed cellular volume (PCV) levels and lower platelet count. We conclude that dietary GM improves Fe bioavailability in both control and anaemic rats, increasing Fe deposits in target organs and favouring the recovery of haematological parameters after ferropenic nutritional anaemia.

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... [7][8][9] It had been reported that cow's milk, being rich in calcium, tended to interfere with the absorption of iron from the diet. 5 Although the work was conducted using anaemia-induced rats, it demonstrated that iron absorption is better achieved using goat's milk than cow's milk. This was confirmed by later studies in which goat's milk increases iron absorption in anaemiainduced rats, and improves digestion and metabolism of calcium which leads to minimising the possible interaction of iron and other minerals such as calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. ...
... Albino Wistar rats with initial weight of approximately 177 gram was used by two studies, 10 12 five studies used albino Wistar rats with age of approximately 3 weeks 5 11 13 14 16 while one study used Sprague-Dawley rats. 15 Total iron intake, haemoglobin level, haemoglobin regeneration efficiency and concentration of liver iron are among the parameter included in the study conducted by Park et al. 15 López-Aliaga et al., 12 Barrionuevo et al., 10 Alférez et al., 5 Nestares et al., 14 López-Aliaga et al., 11 and Diaz-Castro et al., 16 included total iron intake with other additional parameters such as digestive utilization of iron, apparent digestibility coefficient, faecal iron, absorbed iron, iron balance, retention/intake and urinary iron while observing the iron concentration in specific organ such as liver, spleen, heart, femur and sternum. Haemoglobin regeneration efficiency and haematological parameters such as serum iron, red blood cell count, packed cell volume, platelet, 5 14 serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, and serum hepcidin 13 were also included. ...
... Park et al., 15 and Alférez et al., 5 reported that iron deficient rats treated with goat's milk showed higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiencies than those treated with cow's milk or normal diet. This was evident by the increased serum haemoglobin level, red blood cell count, packed cell volume, haematocrit and mean cell volume. ...
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Background: Iron deficiency anaemia is one of the most prevalent nutritional deficiencies in the world which indicates poor nutrition and health. It is characterized by the reduction or absence of serum iron as well as iron stores in the body. Supplementation of calcium rich diet such as animals’ milk is known to have inhibitory effect on iron bioavailability. However, recent studies have found that goat’s milk does not only increase iron bioavailability in iron deficiency anaemia but also minimized the interference of iron absorption. This systematic review aims to evaluate the potential of goat’s milk as a treatment for iron deficiency anaemia. Methods: The search was conducted for relevant articles published in four electronic indexed databases namely Medline, Ovid, Scopus, and PubMed. Relevant reviews, manuscripts and bibliographies of screened studies were searched using Google search engine. Data reporting involved systematic reviews and report of the study according to PRISMA guidelines. Results: A total of eight articles were found to meet the inclusion criteria. It was reported that iron deficient rats treated with goat’s milk showed increased hemoglobin regeneration efficiencies. This was evidenced by increased serum haemoglobin, red blood cell count, packed cell volume, haematocrit and mean cell volume. The DMT-1 receptor in the small intestine was also up-regulated indicating induction of erythropoiesis. These findings were more significant with whole goat’s milk than skim powdered goat’s milk. In iron deficient subjects treated with iron therapy, iron bioavailability was not affected with goat’s milk supplementation whereas it was significantly low with cow’s milk. The serum iron, ferritin, hepcidin levels as well as iron stores in liver, spleen and bone marrow were improved when treated with goat’s milk. In normal rats, iron stores were reduced in the group treated with cow’s milk and high calcium diet but not in the group supplemented with goat’s milk and high calcium diet. Conclusion: This review identified several reports on the beneficial effect of goat milk in iron deficiency anaemia. The findings support the hypothesis that goat’s milk is beneficial in iron deficiency anaemia. The diet of iron deficient subjects is recommended to include goat’s milk as the hemoglobin regeneration efficiencies as well as the iron store are increased. It was also noted that goat’s milk did not interfere with iron absorption and it improves the metabolism and digestion of calcium.
... Hence, goat milk is recommended for infants, old and convalescent people. In addition to this, fatty acids like caproic, caprylic and capric are reported to have great medicinal values for patients suffering from a variety of malabsorption, childhood epilepsy, cystic fibrosis, gallstones [26] and anemia [27]. ...
... The greater nutritive utilization of Fe found with goat milk, could be due to various nutritional factors; goats' milk fat is richer in MCT than the fat obtained from cows' milk, 36 vs. 21%, [22]. The MCT in the diet are oxidized, providing fast energy discharge that can be used in several metabolic pathways [21] and thus contribute to increasing the synthesis of carrier proteins and hence Fe absorption Numerous dietary components, present in greater quantities in goat milk than in cow milk [27], are capable of reducing Fe (III) to Fe (II), including ascorbic acid [29], and amino acids such as lysine [30] and cysteine [31]. In addition, goat milk has almost twice the vitamin A content than cow milk [27], vitamin that may mobilize available Fe stores and use them to form hemoglobin [32]. ...
... The MCT in the diet are oxidized, providing fast energy discharge that can be used in several metabolic pathways [21] and thus contribute to increasing the synthesis of carrier proteins and hence Fe absorption Numerous dietary components, present in greater quantities in goat milk than in cow milk [27], are capable of reducing Fe (III) to Fe (II), including ascorbic acid [29], and amino acids such as lysine [30] and cysteine [31]. In addition, goat milk has almost twice the vitamin A content than cow milk [27], vitamin that may mobilize available Fe stores and use them to form hemoglobin [32]. On the other hand, the b-carotene improves Fe uptake and overcomes the inhibition by potent inhibitors of Fe absorption [33]. ...
... Urine was collected in 0.5% (v/v) HCl solution followed by filtering through Whatman No. 42 filter paper. Biological indices, namely apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) and % retention/intake (%R/I) of iron, were estimated by the method described by Alferez et al., 20 according to Eqn (1) and Eqn (2): ...
... 28,29 Another possible reason could be due to increased levels of transferrin proteins in the presence of vitamin A, which enhances iron transportation in serum. 20 Bloem 30 hypothesised that vitamin A is not directly involved with the intestinal absorption of iron, but mobilises the available iron stores and utilise them to form Hb. It should be noted that all the anaemic sub-groups (except AGS) showed significantly higher (P < 0.01) ADC than their corresponding normal sub-groups, suggesting more iron absorption in iron-deficient rats than normal sub-groups. It can be explained by the fact that on inducing diet-based anaemia, the number of non-haem iron absorption membrane receptors increases, and thus, enhances the iron absorption. ...
... It can be explained by the fact that on inducing diet-based anaemia, the number of non-haem iron absorption membrane receptors increases, and thus, enhances the iron absorption. 31 Similar results have been reported by Pallares et al. 32 and Alferes et al. 20 Sachdeva et al. 33 investigated the iron bioavailability from fortified milk and observed significantly higher ADC in rats fed iron + vitamin A fortified diet than that of rats fed iron fortified diet and/or synthetic diet only in both normal as well as anaemic groups. Table 3 indicates the %R/I of iron among the normal and anaemic groups. ...
Article
Background: Iron is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and development of the body. Infants are more vulnerable to develop iron-deficiency anemia due to inadequate iron supply in early stages. The objective of the study was in vivo assessment of iron bioavailability from pearl millet based weaning food fortified with iron & vitamin A, and to investigate the role of vitamin A in iron absorption in animal models. Results: Results revealed that anemic group showed significantly (P<0.05) higher bioavailability than that of normal rat models. Animals fed vitamin A supplemented pearl-millet diet exhibited comparable results with sub-group provided commercially available weaning diet in both normal and anemic groups, but significantly (P<0.05) higher values for studied biological indices than that of subgroup provided iron fortified pearl-millet or synthetic diet. When the anemic rats were provided iron+vitamin A fortified diet, iron bioavailability increased and liver iron stores returned to the normal levels after 30 days, indicating promoter role of vitamin A in intestinal iron absorption. Conclusions: Overall, bioavailability of electrolytic iron could be improved by supplementation of vitamin A, and this mixture can be considered as a useful fortificant for pearl millet based complementary foods fortification designed to prevent iron deficiency.
... Como era de esperar, la ERH es mayor en animales anémicos que en sus controles independientemente del tipo de dieta suministrada (p < 0,001) (Tabla IV). En nuestras condiciones experimentales, el porcentaje de ERH es superior en ratas controles y anémicas alimentadas con la dieta basada en leche de cabra respecto a las alimentadas con dieta de leche de vaca (p < 0,001) (Tabla IV), lo cual puede ser debido, en parte, a los mayores niveles séricos de hierro y mayor concentración de hemoglobina, y a la mejor utilización digestiva y metabólica de hierro en los animales que consumen la dieta basada en leche de cabra 5,17,18 . ...
... Gargari y col. 26 han demostrado que un incremento en la ingesta de vitamina A puede ser considerado como un método eficaz para incrementar la biodisponibilidad de hierro, y así combatir de manera simultánea el déficit de hierro y vitamina A. Además, la leche de cabra tiene mayor contenido en vitamina D que la de vaca 18 . El papel positivo de la vitamina D como promotora del componente activo en el proceso de absorción del hierro ha sido demostrado previamente por nuestro grupo de investigación 27 . ...
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OBJECTIVE in spite of the high incidence/prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and the beneficial effects derived from the consumption of goat milk, scarce is known about the recovery of the anemia following a balanced diet accompanied by the intake of goat milk of goat. The aim of the current study is to assess, in rats with experimentally induced nutritional iron deficiency anemia, the effects of goat or cow milk-based diets, supplied during 30 days, on the recovery of the anemia and the efficiency of regeneration of the hemoglobin. MATERIAL AND METHODS 40 male Wistar albino rats newly weaned were divided at random in two experimental groups and they were fed ad libitum for 40 days with AIN-93G diet, either with normal iron content (control group, 45 mg/kg diet), or low iron content (anaemic group, 5 mg/kg diet). Samples of blood form the caudal vein were collected for the hematologic control of the anemia. Later, both experimental groups (control and iron deficient) were fed for 30 days with goat or cow milk- based diets. After finishing the experimental period and previous anesthesia the animals were withdrawn by canulation of the abdominal aorta, and the obtained blood was gathered in tubes with EDTA as anticoagulant for the later determination of hematologic parameters and the efficiency of regeneration of the hemoglobin. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION after the consumption of a diet with low iron content during 40 days, the rats were anaemic, with a concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum ferritin and low transferrin (p < 0.001), whereas the levels of platelets and the total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were raised (p < 0.001), findings consistent with the anemia induced experimentally in the animals. The efficiency of regeneration of the hemoglobin was higher in control and anaemic rats fed goat milk-based diet in comparison with those fed cow milk-based diet (p < 0.001) due to, partly, to the major levels of serum iron and hemoglobin, and to the best nutritive utilization of iron in the animals that consumed the goat milk-based diet thanks to the excellent nutritional characteristics of this type of milk. CONCLUSION the consumption during 30 days of goat or cow milk-based diets favors the recovery of the iron deficiency anemia, especially with the goat milk, due to the major efficiency of regeneration of the hemoglobin, index that shows the quantity of iron of the diet used for the synthesis of hemoglobin. Therefore, it would be recommendable the consumption of goat milk in the context of a balanced diet in healthy populations and, especially in those at risk of suffering iron deficiency. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
... The Fe content of Fe-HPH chelates was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy [17]. All assays were carried out in triplicate. ...
... The value of Group F was relatively low but very close to that of Group E, which indicated that active peptides played a greater role in body growth. The haemoglobin contents of rats in Groups D, E and G were significantly higher (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) than that in Group A. HRE value was affected by the diet and by anemia [17]. Rats in this study were all Fe-normal, food intake of every group was almost equal; consequently, HRE score was only affected by the materials of intragastric administration. ...
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Article
The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl₂ treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone.
... This has previously been shown to be true in relation to dairy product consumption by animals under conditions of mineral deficiency. Studies by Alférez et al. (2006) andCampos et al. (2007) have established that minerals in goat milk are taken up in the body and distributed differently when consumed by rats that have mineral deficiencies, specifically anaemia, than control normal animals. For example, Campos et al. (2007) showed that the consumption of goat milk, by anaemic weanling male Wistar (albino) rats for 14 days significantly increased (p < 0.05) total serum Ca compared to cow milk (CM). ...
... For the basal diet in this study, compositional modifications were made to remove dairy protein from the formulation and to replace this with beef protein, in order to prevent confounding effects within this study. The variation of protein source for rodent diets is common with sources including egg albumin, goat milk, CM, and beef protein all being used previously ( Alférez et al., 2006;McKinnon et al., 2010;Liu et al., 2016) For the milk composition, the results obtained (Table 6.2) are consistent with the expected macro-composition for both SM and CM as identified in Chapter 2 (Table 2.1). As expected from the established data (Chapter 2, Section 2.1) SM shows higher concentrations of protein and lipids than CM. ...
... Iron bioavailability has been reported to be higher in human milk compared to cow milk (Etcheverry, Miller, & Glahn, 2004). Interestingly goat milk supplementation has been reported to significantly improve iron repletion compared to cow milk (Alférez & Lopez-Aliaga, 2006;López-Aliaga, Díaz-Castro, Nestares, Alférez, & Campos, 2009;Park, Mahoney, & Hendricks, 1986). Goat casein micelles contain a higher proportion of β casein, the digestion products of which have been associated with augmented mucosal iron transport (Ait-Oukhatar et al., 2002;Alférez & Lopez-Aliaga, 2006) and reduced iron-mediated oxidation of foods (Smialowska et al., 2017b). ...
... Interestingly goat milk supplementation has been reported to significantly improve iron repletion compared to cow milk (Alférez & Lopez-Aliaga, 2006;López-Aliaga, Díaz-Castro, Nestares, Alférez, & Campos, 2009;Park, Mahoney, & Hendricks, 1986). Goat casein micelles contain a higher proportion of β casein, the digestion products of which have been associated with augmented mucosal iron transport (Ait-Oukhatar et al., 2002;Alférez & Lopez-Aliaga, 2006) and reduced iron-mediated oxidation of foods (Smialowska et al., 2017b). For this reason goat milk or dairy products may be strong candidates for ironenrichment. ...
Article
Iron supplementation can promote iron repletion in iron deficient populations. Fortifying common foods with iron may be an effective strategy to facilitate iron supplementation. Goat milk has been identified as a suitable vehicle for iron fortification. The objectives of this study were to investigate the bioavailability of iron within fortified cow and goat milk using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Iron dialysability and bioavailability were both significantly enhanced in iron-fortified cow and goat milk samples compared to a milk-free iron supplement. The addition of ascorbic acid to iron-fortified milk samples of either species further enhanced the dialysability and bioavailability of iron. The bioavailability of iron was highest in the goat milk co-fortified with iron and ascorbic acid. The results suggest that both cow milk and goat milk may be suitable vehicles for iron fortification. Co-fortifying cow or goat milk with ascorbic acid and iron may be most effective for enhancing iron absorption.
... Therefore, the increased liver DMT1 protein levels faithfully reflect the increased liver iron storage after dietary iron repletion [18] and, this way, the increase in DMT1 protein expression in anemic animals fed fermented goat milk reveals that iron repletion is more efficient, a finding that is supported and corroborated by the higher iron storage in the rats fed fermented goat milk compared with fermented cow milk. As previously reported, goat milk fat is richer in medium-chain triglycerides, which are oxidized in the mitochondria, providing fast energy discharge used in several metabolic pathways [19] and thus contributing to increasing the synthesis of carrier proteins such as DMT1 [20]. On the other hand, goat milk has more than twice the vitamin A content of cow milk [19], and this vitamin increases liver DMT1 protein expression by posttranscriptional regulation via increased protein translation or decreased degradation [18]. ...
... As previously reported, goat milk fat is richer in medium-chain triglycerides, which are oxidized in the mitochondria, providing fast energy discharge used in several metabolic pathways [19] and thus contributing to increasing the synthesis of carrier proteins such as DMT1 [20]. On the other hand, goat milk has more than twice the vitamin A content of cow milk [19], and this vitamin increases liver DMT1 protein expression by posttranscriptional regulation via increased protein translation or decreased degradation [18]. ...
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Article
Despite the crucial role of the liver as the central regulator of iron homeostasis, no studies have directly tested the modulation of liver gene and protein expression patterns during iron deficiency instauration and recovery with fermented milks. Fermented goat milk consumption improves the key proteins of intestinal iron metabolism during iron deficiency recovery, enhancing the digestive and metabolic utilization of iron. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of fermented goat or cow milk consumption on liver iron homeostasis during iron-deficiency anemia recovery with normal or iron-overload diets. Analysis included iron status biomarkers, gene and protein expression in hepatocytes. In general, fermented goat milk consumption either with normal or high iron content up-regulated liver DMT1, FPN1 and FTL1 gene expression and DMT1 and FPN1 protein expression. However, HAMP mRNA expression was lower in all groups of animals fed fermented goat milk. Additionally, hepcidin protein expression decreased in control and anemic animals fed fermented goat milk with normal iron content. In conclusion, fermented goat milk potentiates the up-regulation of key genes coding for proteins involved in iron metabolism, such as DMT1, and FPN1, FTL1 and down-regulation of HAMP, playing a key role in enhanced iron repletion during anemia recovery, inducing a physiological adaptation of the liver key genes and proteins coordinated with the fluctuation of the cellular iron levels, favoring whole-body iron homeostasis.
... The main reason is that NCM is principally produced in developing countries (relevant to camel, yak, buffalo, and llama milks) or studied by scientific communities formerly isolated from the international community (relevant to horse and reindeer milks). Yet, the deepening of knowledge on the nutritive value, physicochemical characteristics (Al Haj & Al Kanhal, 2010), traditional and innovative processing, health factors (Abd El-Gawad, El-Sayed, Hafez, El-Zeini, & Saleh, 2005;Alferez et al., 2006) or marketing of NCM is essential to support their contribution for human consumption. However, science itself is not sufficient to support increased consumption: the need for investment by development agencies and/or private enterprises to support the creation of market linkages for NCM has to be emphasized. ...
... A frequent problem with this type of method is the difficulty in obtaining an optically clear protein-free filtrate or supernatant; this is essential to the success of the method as even slight amounts of turbidity lead to erroneous results; the use of bathophenanthroline or its sulphate would reduce these errors somewhat by increasing the ratio of colour to turbidity but they would remain appreciable. Several blanks are requireed and the procedure is somewhat protracted (Alferez et al, 2006). ...
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Article
Iron deficiency anaemia, the second most common cause of anaemia in the elderly, usually results from chronic gastrointestinal (GI) blood loss. One of the most attractive areas of research in drug delivery today is the design of microparticulate systems (microspheres) that are able to deliver drugs to the right place, at appropriate times and at the right dosage. The ability of natural biodegradable polymers as (sodium alginate and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) to swell and regulate the release of encapsulated certain anti-anaemic drugs such as (ferrous sulphate and ferrous fumarate) by controlling crosslinking makes them attractive as materials in the controlled release of drugs. The rat iron repletion test was subsequently adapted as the standard method of analysis for the availability of iron.
... The mineral content of GM differs due to diet, stage of lactation, genetics, and analytical procedures [13]. Several studies have reported that GM possesses higher magnesium, calcium, copper, iron, and phosphorus bioavailability than cow milk [128]. GM's nutritionally essential P 2 O 5 /CaO ratio is more comparable to HM than that of CM [129]. ...
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Article
Goat milk contains an abundance of different macro and micro-nutrients. Compared with other milk, goat milk is a viable option due to its low allergy levels and is preferred for infants with cow milk allergies. A wide variety of goat milk-based products, including yoghurt, ice cream, fermented milk, and cheese, are available on the market. They are produced using effective processing technology and are known to exhibit numerous health benefits after consumption. However, goat milk consumption is limited in many nations (compared with cow, buffalo, camel, and sheep milk) due to a lack of awareness of its nutritional composition and the significance of its different byproducts. This review provides a detailed explanation of the various macronutrients that may be present, with special attention paid to each component, its purpose, and the health benefits it offers. It also compares goat milk with milk from other species in terms of its superiority and nutritional content, as well as the types, production methods, health advantages, and other beneficial properties of the various goat milk products that are currently available on the market.
... In another study, the iron bioavailability was found to be higher in rats fed with goat milk than the rats fed with cow milk for both control and induced iron-deficiency anemia groups. The iron deposits were increased in target organs and the anemia was decreased with goat milk-based diet in rats (Alférez et al., 2006). Alférez et al. (2003) and Barrionuevo et al. (2003) studied the bioavailability of selenium and zinc in goat and cow milks on rats. ...
Chapter
Goat milk has various effects on human health considering the total solid, fat, protein, lactose, mineral, and vitamin contents. In addition to positive effects on physical and sensory characteristics of dairy products, lipids of goat milk provide better digestibility with small fat globule size and high short- and medium-chain fatty acids content. Goat milk has higher amounts of conjugated linoleic acids playing important roles in immune stimulation, growth promotion, and disease prevention. The most important effect of goat milk proteins is their healing effect on cow milk allergy, the most common food allergy, which causes many deaths in infants. In addition, the β-casein/αs1-casein ratio (70%/30%) of goat milk proteins is similar to human milk, which results in more digestibility compared to the cow milk in relation to higher sensitivity of β-casein to the protease enzymes. Lactose is the main carbohydrate of all species of milk, and its content in goat milk is lower than the others. In contrast, goat milk rich in oligosaccharides is important in its protective function of intestinal flora against pathogens and in brain and nervous system development. In addition to higher amounts of some minerals, more importantly the bioavailability of minerals in goat milk is higher than of minerals in cow milk. The higher Vitamin A content may be the most important difference among the other vitamins in goat milk compared to cow milk. Considering the millions of child deaths every year caused by Vitamin A deficiency, goat milk is a very important source. Besides many beneficial effects of goat milk, the advantages of breeding goats, such as the lower cost of animals, the need for less feed and water, and often not requiring the specialized housing that larger livestock need, are reasons to promote the improvement of goat milk production worldwide. Goat milk is a valuable food source of animal protein, phosphorus, and calcium, especially in countries with low consumption of meat.
... Goat milk was recognized as the closest to human milk (Rafter, 2003). Compared with cow milk and human milk, the concentration of αs2-casein, β-casein and κ-casein were found in goat milk were higher than in cow milk (Alferez et al., 2006;Kondylie et al., 2007), and αs1-casein content is much lower than cow milk, which is as the main allergen, so goat milk does not cause allergic reactions (Jin, 1993). In this study, effect of five proteases including Alcalase, flavourzyme, papain, proteinase K and trypsin on antioxidative activities of casein hydrolysates from goat milk was investigated to provide reference for further optimization. ...
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Oxidation was related to the pathogenesis of human diseases. Adequate intake of antioxidant activity of food can reduce the levels of free radicals, prevent lipid peroxidation, and help the body against diseases. In the paper, casein from goat milk was hydrolyzed by five commercial proteases, namely, Alcalase, flavourzyme, papain, proteinase K and trypsin. The antioxidant activities of casein hydrolysates were assessed by evaluating hydrolysis degree, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, metal-chelating activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The results showed as follows: the DH of proteinase K, Alcalase, and trypsin were higher significantly than those of papain and flavourzyme. The Fe2+-chelation activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity of casein hydrolysates from goat milk by Alcalase was higher than the others, the DPPH scavenging activities of casein hydrolysates by Alcalase and papain was higher than the others and the DPPH scavenging activities by Alcalase and papain had no significant diffierence (p
... It has rich nutritional value and more than milk, which performance of protein, fat, vitamins and minerals (Haenlein 2004). In goat milk, casein expect for αs1-casein, the content of αs2 -casein, β-casein and κ-casein was higher than that of bovine milk (Alferez et al., 2006). αs1 -casein as the main allergens, which content in goat's milk is far lower than milk, so drinking goat milk is not lead to allergic reactions (Hodgkinson et al., 2012). ...
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The effect of hydrolysis temperature (45, 50, 55, 60 and 65°C), pH (7.0, 7.5, 8.0, 8.5 and 9.0), enzyme to substrate (E/S) ratio (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0%), substrate concentration (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6%) and hydrolysis time (30-240min) on antioxidant peptides hydrolysated from goat’s milk casein by Alcalase was investigated using single factor experiment. In order to obtain high DPPH radical-scavenging activity, metal-chelating activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity, the optimal conditions were hydrolysis time of 150 min, temperature of 50°C, pH 8.0, E/S ratio of 2.0% and substrate concentration of 4.0%. The hydrolysis time, hydrolysis temperature, pH, E/S ratio and substrate concentration had a significant influence on degree of hydrolysis, metal-chelating activity, DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging activity on casein hydrolysate of goat milk by Alcalase, the results were beneficial for further provide theoretical basis for production of antioxidant peptides.
... In relation to other types of milk, goat milk presents advantages such as smaller size fat globules, low allergenic properties (Martín-Diana et al., 2003), a balance of essential amino acids, high levels of calcium, selenium, phosphate and rich in vitamins A and B. However, goat milk is deficient in folic acid and vitamin D. Furthermore, a certain therapeutic value in human nutrition has been attributed to goat milk (Alférez et al., 2006).The use of goat milk as an excellent food source is undeniable. It has beneficial effects on health maintenance, physiological functions, in the nutrition of children and elderly people, and according to some authors, can be consumed without negative effects of suffering from cow milk allergy. ...
Article
This work was carried out with the objective of evaluating the microbiological aspects, during 29 days of storage, through the quantification of viable cells and probiotic bacteria enumeration, of strawberry flavored yoghurts produced with goat milk with water-soluble soy extract and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis probiotic culture during processing. Determination of the viable cell count during yoghurt storage showed that the number of lactic bacteria found was below the expected only in the treatment in which there was water-soluble soy extract addition, not presenting microbiological viability. The other yoghurt treatments were viable during storage. The enumeration of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis showed that the yoghurt treatments presented microbiological viability during storage. We concluded that the addition of water-soluble soy extract interfered negatively with the production of goat milk based yoghurts.
... Similar positive effects were reported for the bioavailability of Zn, Se, and Cu . Administration of goat or Ca-enriched goat milk to rats with dietary-induced ferropenic anemia generally ameliorates the bioavailability of Ca, P (Campos et al., 2007), Mg, Fe (Alferez et al., 2006;Nestares et al., 2008), Zn (Diaz-Castro et al., 2009), andCu (Diaz-Castro et al., 2011a), and their deposits in the corresponding target organs than rats on cow milk. Although less common than iron deficiency, iron overload is not rare as a consequence of treatment for anemia. ...
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Chapter
Milk is known as the most complete single food available and is a fundamental ingredient of the human diet for both children and adults. Millions of people suffer for protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, such as essential minerals and vitamins, also known as “hidden hunger.” In this chapter the content of energy and macronutrients in milk from minor dairy species is compared to those in human and cow milk. The main lipids and nitrogen compounds are discussed in terms of possible beneficial or adverse effects on human health. The content of minerals and vitamins are also compared to the recommended nutrient intake for healthy children under 5 years of age and pregnant and lactating woman. In addition, the documented effects of consumption of milk or milk products from minor dairy species on human health are described, considering human and animal studies.
... Goat milk plays a significant role in feeding the under nourished communities around the world (Amigo and Fontecha, 2011;. The three main reasons for this are: (i) goat has better ability to survive in harsh climatic conditions than other ruminants (Silanikove, 2000;Morand-Fehr, 2005), (ii) goat milk has the ability to cover afflicted people with cow milk allergenicity and gastrointestinal problems (Park, 1994;Ceballos et al., 2009a); and (iii) goat milk has many desired nutritional properties (Amigo and Fontecha, 2011;Ceballos et al., 2009b;Silanikove et al., 2010;Alferez et al., 2006). The present study aimed at providing additional information on the nutritional quality of goat dairy products vis-a-vis common dairy products from cow milk by using a meta-analysis approach. ...
Conference Paper
In the present work we test bromochoromethane (BCM) that has been shown to reduce methane production by up to 60% in steers fed grain-based diets over a 90-d feedlot finishing period (Tomkins et al., 2009) with no signs of toxicity or residues in edible meat and offal. Although uncomplexed BCM has an ozone-depleting effect and therefore is banned for commercial use, the strong and persistent effect on methane reduction makes it as an interesting tool to investigate side effects of methane reduction in dairy goats. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of addition of BCM in the diet of dairy goats on animal performance, rumen methane production and fermentation pattern, and on milk yield and composition. Body weight, milk yield and propionate proportion were significantly improved whereas methane emissions were reduced by 38.9%
... Goat milk plays a significant role in feeding the under nourished communities around the world (Amigo and Fontecha, 2011;. The three main reasons for this are: (i) goat has better ability to survive in harsh climatic conditions than other ruminants (Silanikove, 2000;Morand-Fehr, 2005), (ii) goat milk has the ability to cover afflicted people with cow milk allergenicity and gastrointestinal problems (Park, 1994;Ceballos et al., 2009a); and (iii) goat milk has many desired nutritional properties (Amigo and Fontecha, 2011;Ceballos et al., 2009b;Silanikove et al., 2010;Alferez et al., 2006). The present study aimed at providing additional information on the nutritional quality of goat dairy products vis-a-vis common dairy products from cow milk by using a meta-analysis approach. ...
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Conference Paper
... Similar results were reported by [22,23]. However these results were differed from those reported by [2,24] they found that feeding rats high calcium diet for two weeks do not inhibit iron absorption. ...
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Article
The objectives of this study were to use the dry thyme leaves as source of nonhaeme iron and evaluate the effects of cal-cium, phosphorus and calcium + phosphorus on nonhaeme iron absorption and haematogenic characteristics in rats. Thirty adult male albino rats, weighing 150 ± 5 g were divided into five groups. The first group fed basal diet, the sec-ond group fed thyme diet, the third group fed thyme diet + calcium, the fourth group fed thyme diet + phosphorus and the fifth group fed thyme diet + calcium + phosphorus. All groups fed experimental diets for six weeks. Hemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Ht), red blood cell (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum iron (SI), serum ferritin (SF), total iron–binding capacity and transferrin saturation were determined at the beginning and the at end of the experi-ment. Iron in diet, Fe intake, Fe feces and Fe absorption were also evaluated. The results indicated that the lowest Fe absorption was observed in rats fed the thyme diet + calcium and thyme diet + calcium + phosphorus. Supplementation the thyme diet with calcium or calcium + phosphorus decreased the values of Hb, Ht, RBC, SI and SF. However, sup-plementation the thyme diet with phosphorus did not affect in Ht, RBC and MCV but Hb, SI and SF increased. The re-sults suggest that supplementation the diet with calcium or calcium + phosphorus interfere with iron absorption.
... in cow milk, due to their great energy giving facility, play a key dietary role in improving lipid metabolism, especially in patients sufering from various forms of malabsorption syndromes, typically developed after intestine resection, in rehabilitating premature and undernourished infants [4]. Dietary GM improves iron bioavailability favouring the recovery of haematological parameters [5]. GM contributes to restore bone demineralisation associated to anaemia by increasing the digestive and metabolic utilisation of calcium and phosphorus. ...
... Goat milk has been described as having higher digestibility, which leads to a smaller number of allergic reactions than is the case with cow milk (Alferez et al., 2001). It has also been reported to have a balance of essential amino acids, high levels of calcium, selenium, phosphate, and to be rich in vitamins A and B, but deficient in folic acid and vitamin D (Alferez et al., 2006;Riberio et al., 2010). Furthermore, goat milk contains bioactive components such as angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE), inhibitory peptides, and peptide hypertensive agents which are responsible for providing immunity to non-immune diseases and controlling microorganism infections (Hayes et al., 2006). ...
Article
The present study was carried out to characterize and compare the production potential and antibiotic susceptibility of probiotics isolated from goat, cow and buffalo milk. The probiotics isolated from milk fermented curd were compared with regard to their number, morphology, gram staining, motility, bile salt tolerance, pH-resistance, catalase activity, oxidase production and antibiotic resistance. We demonstrated that the probiotics isolated from milk fermented curd of all three species were gram positive, motile, catalase negative, and oxidase negative and were able to produce lactic acid. Further, we observed that buffalo milk is more potent in forming curd with the highest count of probiotics per ml (3.53 × 10⁻⁵) as compared to cow (5.8 × 10⁻⁶) and goat milk (7×10⁻⁷); moreover, goat milk bacterial isolates were more tolerant to acidic pH but were less bile-salt tolerant than cow milk. Also, probiotics isolated from goat milk curd were more resistant to antibiotics (resistant to 12 out of 15 screened antibiotics) than those from cow and buffalo milk (resistant to 8-9 antibiotics). This report shows that goat milk fermented products possess the highest antibacterial potential and are highly acid-tolerant. © 2017, Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry. All rights reserved.
... Goat Milk Cheeses Short-and medium-chain fatty acids of goat milk may be beneficial in the treatment of many physiological disorders in humans, such as coronary, pulmonary, and intestinal disorders, cystic fibrosis, malabsorption, and cholesterol level regulation (Haenlein 2004;Jandal 1996). Caprine milk consumption may prevent atherosclerosis (Kullisaar et al. 2003), improves iron bioavailability in rats (Alférez et al. 2006), and affects beneficially the nutritive utilization of protein, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and selenium of rats (Slacanac et al. 2010). ...
... Urine was collected in 0.50% (v/v) HCl solution followed by filtering through Whatman filter paper No. 42. Biological indices, namely apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) and percent retention/intake (%R/I) of vitamin A were estimated by the method described by Alferez et al. [9]. After an overnight period of food deprivation (12 h), caudal vein was punctured via capillary tube to collect blood at 0 th day of pre-experimental period as well as on 0 th and 30 th day of experimental period. ...
Article
The study was aimed to assess vitamin A bioavailability and allergenicity of pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum) based weaning food (PMWF) fortified with iron and retinyl acetate in male Wistar albino rats. Animals (n = 64) were divided into Normal (NG) and Anemic (AG) groups; further sub-divided into 4 sub-groups having 8 animals each receiving synthetic diet, commercial diet, iron fortified PMWF diet and iron (150.00 ± 0.73 ppm) plus retinyl acetate (393.00 ± 3.07 μg/100 g) fortified PMWF diet (Final diet). Results revealed that anemic sub-groups showed apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) in the range of 69.5 ± 0.40–93.2 ± 0.79%, which was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than normal sub-groups (65.5 ± 0.62–84.6 ± 0.33%). In both groups, rats fed final diet presented significantly (P < 0.01) higher ADC (84.6 ± 0.33–93.2 ± 0.79%) than that of animals received iron fortified diet (69.0 ± 0.59–76.1 ± 1.02%), indicating higher bioavailability of vitamin A in final diet. Moreover, hepatic vitamin A replenished rapidly in anemic groups (1.79–27.8) when compared to normal rats (1.11–19.4 μg/g liver). Immunoglobulins IgG, IgE in blood serum and IgA in intestinal fluid ranged from 574 ± 6.48 to 603 ± 9.76 μg/ml, 287 ± 4.46 to 309 ± 5.70 ng/ml and 204 ± 10.33 to 255 ± 13.22 μg/ml, respectively. However, no significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed between the groups and/or subgroups, suggesting no allergic response of final diet. Stimulation index triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ranged from 1.22 ± 0.06 to 1.45 ± 0.09 μg ml ⁻¹ in normal sub-groups and 1.16 ± 0.02 to 1.33 ± 0.03 μg ml ⁻¹ in anemic sub-groups with no significant (P > 0.05) difference among them. Overall, it can be concluded that retinyl acetate could be an effective fortificant to improve the status of vitamin A in anemic models.
... Goat milk has been described as having higher digestibility, which leads to a smaller number of allergic reactions than is the case with cow milk (Alferez et al., 2001). It has also been reported to have a balance of essential amino acids, high levels of calcium, selenium, phosphate, and to be rich in vitamins A and B, but deficient in folic acid and vitamin D (Alferez et al., 2006;Riberio et al., 2010). Furthermore, goat milk contains bioactive components such as angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE), inhibitory peptides, and peptide hypertensive agents which are responsible for providing immunity to non-immune diseases and controlling microorganism infections (Hayes et al., 2006). ...
Article
Aim: Sepsis, a systemic inflammation, mainly originated due to infectious viral, fungal, or parasitic infections. No long-term data are available which compare the procalcitonin (PCT) levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in different emergency conditions as well as differentiating the PCT levels in males and females in sepsis or other related condition. The main objective of this study was to evaluate PCT, a reliable biomarker, and to compare the different parameters for the diagnosis of sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock conditions. Materials and Methods: For this study, the samples of 74 patients were taken which were admitted in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in the Max Hospital, Mohali. All the candidates fall in the age group of 05–70 years. The parameters which were used for the diagnosis and differentiating the sepsis conditions were PCT levels, CRP levels, and total leukocyte count levels. The total number of 74 patients was grouped into different groups on the basis of their gender, age and P-value. After a period of 16 weeks, subjects from different groups had great difference in their PCT values in the sepsis condition. Results and Discussion: The Gram-negative bacteria are one of the most common causative agents associated with sepsis condition which was 54.3%, whereas remaining 45.7% was other Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and yeast. From the study, it was appeared that the prevalence of sepsis condition is found to be more prominent in males as compared to females. It will be concluded that severity of sepsis increases as serum PCT increases and similarly mortality also increased. Conclusion: Sepsis is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in ICU. Due to its low specificity of CRP in the sepsis condition and unable to differentiate between the severities of the infection, we need to look for another biomarker. Thus, PCT is more promising reliable biomarker for the diagnosis of sepsis and start to effective antibiotic and reducing the mortality.
... The basal diet used in this study was modified to remove dairy protein from the formulation and replace this with beef protein, in order to prevent any confounding effects. The protein used in rodent diets was from several sources including egg albumin, goat milk, CM, and beef protein [22][23][24]. With respect to milk composition, the data presented ( Table 2) are consistent with the expected nutritional composition for both SM and CM as reported in the literature [25]. ...
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Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of either sheep or cow milk supplementation to a low calcium and phosphorus diet on growth and organ mineral distribution in weanling rats. Rats were fed diets consisting of either a control chow, a 50% reduced calcium and phosphorous chow (low Ca/P), low Ca/P and sheep milk, or low Ca/P and cow milk diet for 28 days. Food intake of the rats, the growth rate of the rats, and the concentrations of minerals in the soft organs and serum were determined. Rats fed the low Ca/P diet alone had lower weight gain than rats consuming either of the milk-supplemented diets (p < 0.05). Both sheep milk and cow milk supplementation overcame the effects of consuming a diet restricted in calcium and phosphorus but the sheep milk was effective at a significantly lower level of milk intake (p < 0.05). Significant differences (p < 0.05) in essential and trace mineral concentrations due to milk type were observed in the kidney, spleen, and liver. For non-essential minerals, significant differences (p < 0.05), related to diet, were observed in all organs for arsenic, cesium, rubidium, and strontium concentrations.
... vi. Improvement of mineral bioavailability [9], [10] and, vii. ...
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Article
In this study, approximate compositions, fatty acid (FA) composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of commercial cheeses (n=13) produced predominantly with goat milk in Turkey were determined. FA compositions of cheeses were similar. Major short and medium chain FAs in cheese samples included butyric, caproic and caprylic acids, respectively, according to their relative presence rates. Palmitic, oleic, myristic, stearic, lauric, linoleic and palmitoleic acids were found as the major long chain FAs in all cheese samples while palmitic, myristic and stearic acids were the major saturated FAs in a decreasing order. Palmitic acid was the major FA in cheeses while oleic acid was the dominant unsaturated FA. The ratio of lauric to capric acid was lower than 0.78 in all cheese samples. The range for the total CLA contents of cheese samples was from 1.79 to 4.83 mg/g fat. The highest CLA content was determined in a white cheese sample produced by a mixture of goat (70%) and cow (30%) milk while the lowest value was detected in an Ezine cheese sample produced by a mixture of goat (50%), sheep (45%) and cow (5%) milk. Especially, two white cheeses with a high CLA content could significantly contribute to the daily CLA intake of consumers. Results indicated that commercial cheese samples produced in Turkey had a high variability in their CLA contents.
... In rats, a goat milk-based diet boosted iron deposition in target organs while decreasing anemia (113) (Continued) ...
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Article
Goat milk is considered to be a potential source of various macro- and micro-nutrients. It contains a good proportion of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and other nutritional components which help in promoting nutritional and desirable health benefits. Goat milk is considered to be superior in terms of numerous health benefits, and lower risk of allergy, when compared to the milk of other species. Several processing techniques such as pasteurization, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and ultrasound have been employed to enhance the quality and shelf life of goat milk and its products. The diverse range of goat milk-based products such as yogurt, cheese, fermented milk, goat milk powder, and others are available in the market and are prepared by the intervention of advanced processing technologies. Goats raised in pasture-based feeding systems are shown to have a better milk nutritional composition than its counterpart. Goat milk contains potential bioactive components, which aids in the maintenance of the proper metabolism and functioning of the human body. This review gives insight into the key nutritional ingredients and bioactive constituents present in goat milk and their potential role in the development of various functional foods using different processing technologies. Goat milk could be considered as a significant option for milk consumption in infants, as compared to other milk available.
... UCP1 protein expression increased in control and anemic animals fed fermented goat milk -UCP1 also increased in both group of anemic animals fed either fermented cow or goat milk in comparison with their control0. -Irisin increased in both group of animals fed fermented goat milk -Finally, PepT1 also showed an increased expression in control and anemic rats fed fermented goat milk and the anemia also induced an over-expression of this transporter in animals fed either fermented cow or goat milk Medium-chain triglyceride passage through the mitochondrial membrane is independent of carnitine, which causes its oxidation to take place faster; therefore, with goat milk rich in them, enterocytes can access their energy faster and use it for several metabolic pathways, which also promotes their growth (Alférez et al., 2006;Schwartz et al., 1994); one of these pathways is the pathway of Fe Table 2. ...
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Article
Goat milk, like cow milk, needs some modifications to be used as the sole source of nutrition during early infancy. For goat milk to be more like human milk and more nutritionally complete, sugar, vitamins and minerals need to be added to it and for reduction of renal solute load, it needs to be diluted. To prevent megaloblastic anemia in infants fed exclusively on goat milk, folic acid should be supplied either by adding it to goat milk or by an oral folic acid supplement. In fortification of milk products, thermal processing, fermentation, and species differences in milk folate bioavailability are three additional factors that should be considered besides absolute difference in folate concentration between goat and human milk. Whether different feeding regimes (e.g., iron and folate content of diets) influence milk folate content needs to be elucidated by more research. Our findings showed that fermented goat milk during anemia recovery can be improve antioxidant status, protection from oxidative damage to biomolecules, protective effects on testis, improve Fe and skeletal muscle homeostasis as well as improve cardiovascular health. Practical applications To be used as part of a postweaning nutritionally well-balanced diet, fermented goat milk is most likely an excellent source of nutrition for the human.
... The replacement of cow milk with goat milk in Algerian infants suffering from malabsorption syndrome improved the fat absorption rate (Haenlein, 2004). In rats with induced ferropenic anaemia, Alferez et al. (2006) reported that dietary goat milk facilitated iron bioavailability and its deposition in the organ as compared to cow milk. Narayanan et al. (2015) observed the anti-cancer property of the medium-chain fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and mammary gland cancer cells. ...
... Rats who suffered iron deficiency anemia treated better in term of hemoglobin, red blood cells, iron serum, and packed cellular volume, when they fed with goat milk compared with cow milk. The deposit of iron was also increased due to its medium chain of fatty acid which made minerals absorption more easily [9,37]. ...
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Article
Undernourished is one of the health problems faced by the world today, especially in Indonesia, with the percentage of undernourished children under 5 years old is 19.6% or 4,646,933 out of 23,708,844 children. For young children, breastmilk is the best food and complementary food after six months that is usually produced from cow milk is needed. Another problem comes, 2-7,5% children have the allergy of cow milk and choose soy milk as recommended by health workers, although it is more expensive (100,000,00 IDR or 6.9 USD/1000 grams) than cow milk (68,000,00 IDR or 4.74 USD/1000 grams). To solve this issue, goat milk is one of the good alternatives food for considering as a complementary food. Goat milk has beneficiary things such as treating malabsorption syndrome and undernourished children. Besides that, according to the Statistic Center Board/Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS), the number of the goat population in Indonesia is 18,879,596, more than the cow population which is 16,019,459. For further evaluating the advantage of goat milk, we conducted a review study. Methods: We searched all literature published in 2004-2014 on PubMed and Science Direct using the keywords "goat milk", "nutrition", and "content". Result: There were 311 journals that appeared in the selection, but we selected 10 journals which showed a clear comparison between goat and cow milk, especially in young children. After making the table with special consideration on population, place, age of the subject and nutrient content in both kinds of milk, we conclude all the studies. The studies showed that goat milk has the advantage not only for treating undernourished children but also many disorders and diseases such as malabsorption syndrome, malnutrition in infants and children, and cardiovascular (heart) disease, due to its small globule of fat which is a digestible and short and medium-chain fatty acid. Mineral content in goat milk such as Calcium, Phosphor, Magnesium, Natrium, Potassium, Chloride, Iron, and Zinc is higher than human's, that's all useful for preventing bone demineralization and iron deficiency anaemia which is still high in Indonesia. Conclusion: goat milk treated undernourished children and prevented several diseases and food disorders and it is suitable due to economic reasons compared to cow milk. Furthermore, we could state that cow milk seemingly could be a promising treatment for undernourished children in developing countries to reduce morbidity and mortality related to malnutrition-related diseases. Keywords: Goat Milk, Complimentary Food, Undernourished
... However, the better nutritional quality of goat's milk mineral composition is not just related to its composition, but also the manner which the human body makes use of it, both in digestive and metabolic processes (Ceballos et al., 2009). Several studies reported that the increased bioavailability of magnesium, iron, calcium, copper and phosphorous from goat's milk in comparison to what is present in cow's (Alférez et al., 2006). Also, goat's milk contains a higher level of vitamin A than cow's milk since goats are able to convert all carotenes into vitamin A (Amigo & Fontecha, 2011). ...
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Article
Objetivo: Evaluar la biodisponibilidad del hierro en alimentos infantiles fortificados con hierro (papillas), usando el método “in vivo” en ratas Holtzman sin anemia. Métodos: Diseño experimental controlado y aleatorizado. Se emplearon 48 ratas de la cepa Holtzman sin anemia que se asignaron durante 10 días a 4 tipos de dieta: Grupo 1 (Papilla A), Grupo 2 (Papilla B), Grupo 3 (Caseína con hierro) y grupo 4 (Caseína sin hierro). Los animales se colocaron en jaulas metabólicas individuales para determinar el consumo de la dieta y las excretas de manera diaria. La biodisponibilidad de hierro se determinó a través del balance metabólico, coeficiente de digestibilidad aparente y porcentaje de retención del hierro. Resultados: El consumo de alimentos, la ganancia de peso, la ingesta de hierro y excreción fecal de hierro fue significativamente mayor en los grupos con dieta a base de papillas (p< 0,05) comparados con los grupos de caseína, el balance metabólico de hierro, coeficiente de digestibilidad y porcentaje de retención de hierro fueron negativos en los grupos de papillas y caseína sin hierro, mientras que el grupo caseína con hierro mostró un balance positivo de hierro en los 3 indicadores, estas diferencias fueron significativas (p< 0,05). Conclusiones: Las dietas en base a papillas mostraron menor biodisponibilidad de hierro comparadas con la dieta caseína con hierro, lo cual indicaría que los insumos utilizados en la formulación de las papillas podrían estar afectando la absorción del hierro.
Article
Сегодня миллионы детей в возрасте до 5 лет не достигают своего потенциала развития. Развитие нейробиологии показало, что здоровье и благополучие во взрослом возрасте основаны на факторах развития, которые воздействуют на ребенка в раннем детстве. Дети, которые полноценно питаются, имеют больше возможностей для раннего когнитивного развития и с большей вероятностью добьются успеха. Адекватное, соответствующее возрасту, богатое микроэлементами питание в младенчестве и детстве имеет решающее значение для оптимального развития и функционирования мозга, поскольку оно обеспечивает процессы нейрогенеза, роста аксонов и дендритов, синаптогенеза, гибели клеток, синаптического прунинга, миелинизации и глиогенеза. Несмотря на неоспоримое преимущество грудного вскармливания для правильного и своевременного когнитивного развития ребенка и тот факт, что в Восточной Европе, по данным Всемирной организации здравоохранения (ВОЗ), около 80–90% женщин начинают кормить грудью в родильном отделении учреждения здравоохранения, грудное вскармливание до полугода могут сохранить только 40% матерей. В то же время детям, не находящимся на грудном вскармливании, необходимо восполнять дефицит макро- и микронутриентов, а также других необходимых веществ, которые содержатся только в грудном молоке и не обеспечиваются или часто получаются в недостаточном количестве при использовании заменителей. В данном обзоре обсуждается значение некоторых макро- и микроэлементов для развития центральной нервной системы, а также их эффективность и биодоступность в сочетании с молочными основами различного происхождения. Кроме того, авторы демонстрируют преимущества козьего молока в детском питании. Today, millions of children under the age of 5 do not reach their developmental potential. Advances in neuroscience showed that health and well-being in adulthood are based on the developmental conditions in early childhood. Young children who are well-nourished have more opportunities for early cognitive development and are more likely to succeed. Adequate, age-appropriate, micronutrient-rich nutrition during infancy and childhood is critical for optimal brain development and function as it supports the processes of neurogenesis, axonal and dendritic growth, synaptogenesis, cell death, synaptic pruning, myelination, and gliogenesis. Despite the indisputable advantage of breastfeeding for the proper and timely cognitive development of the child and the fact that in Eastern Europe, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 80–90% of women start to breastfeed in the maternity ward of a health care institution, breastfeeding can be maintained by six months only by 40% of mothers. At the same time, children who are not breastfed need to compensate for the deficiency of macro- and micronutrients, as well as other essential substances that are found only in breast milk and are not supplied or often received in insufficient quantities with its substitutes. This review examines the importance of some macro- and microelements for the development of the central nervous system, as well as their efficacy and bioavailability in combination with milk bases of various origins, demonstrating the benefits of goat milk in baby food.
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Production of goat milk and its consumption in the world is increasing, and so is the population of goats which increases more than the population of other dairy animals. This is particularly true in countries where goat milk is reflection of the traditional production. Goat’s milk, in addition to the high nutritional value (better digestibility, hypoallergenic, higher buffering capacity, higher pH value) is characterized by therapeutic characteristics important for human health. The preference of goat’s milk over cow’s milk is also a higher selenium content, which is essential for the activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, also significant in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Goat’s milk in comparison with cow’s, contains more fatty acids, which have beneficial effects on human health, especially the cardiovascular system. Goat’s milk proteins are more digestible than cow’s milk proteins, also an absorption of amino acids are more efficient. The sensitivity of people to α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin of cow’s milk is negligible after replacing cow’s milk with goat’s milk. The objective of this paper is to specify benefits of goat’s milk in regard to cow’s and highlight its therapeutic and nutritional values.
Article
The objective of this work was to evaluate sensory and economically formulations obtained from of goat powder milk, vegetable fat and strawberry aroma. At least of twenty seven formulations listed in an experimental design, were choiced three best formulations, that they also were elaborated in triplicate to the powder goat milk and pasteurized goat milk. Finally it was choiced the best formulation. The final and the best ice-cream had the following formulation: 80 g of vegetable fat, 0.80 L of goat milk (powder – reconstituted or pasteurized milk) and 0.12 g of strawberry aroma. These formulations shown Acceptability Index (AI) of 87.1 % to ice-cream elaborated with powder milk and 84.3 % to pasteurized milk. Considering just the last and the best AI formulation, it were realized the cost analysis of ice-creams. The price icecream with powder goat milk was equally to R$ 3.15 per liter, while with pasteurized milk was price per liter was equally to 2.68 per liter.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar sensorial e economicamente formulações de sorvetes obtidos a partir do uso de leite de cabra em pó ou pasteurizado, gordura vegetal hidrogenada e aroma de morango. De vinte e sete formulações inicialmente previstas em um delineamento experimental, utilizando leite de cabra em pó, foram escolhidas as três melhores formulações. Estas três formulações foram avaliadas sensorialmente em três repetições utilizando leite de cabra em pó e três repetições utilizando o leite de cabra pasteurizado. Tanto para o leite em pó quanto para o pasteurizado as formulações escolhidas pelos julgadores foram as elaboradas com as seguintes variáveis: 80 g de gordura vegetal hidrogenada, 0,80 litros de leite de cabra (pó – reconstituído ou pasteurizado) e 0,12 g de aroma de morango. Estas formulações apresentaram Índice de aceitabilidade de 87,1 % para o sorvete elaborado com leite de cabra em pó e 84,3 % para o leite de cabra pasteurizado. Foram realizadas as análises de custo, considerandose apenas os ingredientes da formulação com maior IA, que resultaram num custo de R$ 3,15 por litro e R$ 2,68 para o sorvete de leite de cabra em pó e para o sorvete de leite de cabra pasteurizado, respectivamente.
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Objective: The aim of this article is to study the effect of goat milk-based formula (GMF) on development in weaned rats. Methods: One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, 20% cow milk-based formula (CMF), and 5%-GMF, 10%-GMF, and 20%-GMF groups. Results: GMF did play an active role in accelerating body and femur length, but not body weight growth. Compared with the control, GMF had better cognitive, space, and locomotor activity. The level of IFN was increased in GMF groups, as well as the level of IL-2 and TNF was decreased in GMF groups. Conclusion: These results indicate that GMF has an effect on development and immunity improvability in weaned rats.
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Objective: To compare the growth and nutritional status of infants fed goat milk-based formula (GMF) and cow milk-based formula (CMF). Methods: The study was conducted in Beijing, China. It was a double-blind randomized controlled trial. A total of 79 infants aged 0-3 months old were recruited and randomized in GMF or CMF group. The infants were fed the allocated formula to 6 months. The weight, length, and head circumference were measured at the enrolment, 3 and 6 months. The start time and types of solid food were recorded. Blood elements, urinal, and fecal parameters were also tested. Results: The average weight of infants in the GMF group (mean±SD) was 4.67±0.99 kg and in the CMF group 4.73±1.10 kg at enrolment, and 8.75±0.98 kg (GMF) and 8.92±0.88 kg (CMF) at 6 months. There were no differences in the adjusted intention-to-treat analyses of weight, length, head circumference, and BMI z-scores between the two formula-fed groups over the 6-month study. Similarly, there were no remarkable differences in the timing and types of solid food, blood elements, urinal, and feces parameters, between the GMF and CMF group. No group differences have been shown in bowel motion consistency, duration of crying, ease of settling, or frequency of adverse events. Conclusions: GMF-provided growth and nutritional outcomes did not differ from those provided by CMF.
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In spite of the crucial role of Duodenal cytochrome b (Dcytb), Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), Ferritin light chain (Ftl1), Ferroportin 1 (FPN1), Transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and Hepcidin antimicrobial peptide (Hamp) in Fe metabolism, no studies have investigated the modulations of these genes during Fe repletion with fermented milks. Analysis included Fe status markers, gene and protein expression in enterocytes of control and anemic animals fed fermented milks. Fermented goat milk up-regulated enterocyte Dcytb, DMT1, FPN1 and Ftl1, and down-regulated TfR1 and Hamp gene expression in control and anemic animals. Anemia decreased Dcytb, DMT1 and Ftl1, in animals fed fermented cow milk and up-regulated TfR1 and Hamp expression. Fe-overload down-regulated Dcytb and TfR1 in animals fed fermented cow milk, up-regulating DMT1 and FPN1 gene expression. Fermented goat milk increased expression of duodenal Dcytb, DMT1 and FPN1 and decreased Hamp and TfR1, improving Fe metabolism during anemia recovery.
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Livestock rearing is an important component in the rural India and domestic and commercial livestock are cows, buffalo, sheep, goat, pigs, rabbits, poultry etc. Huge amount of livestock waste is mostly handled by traditional way. Waste from animal production sites can greatly affect the surrounding environment, leading to increases in greenhouse gas emissions and decreases in water and air quality. Waste management practices can also determine the health of the animals, affecting the spread of disease between animal production sites and from animals to humans. The knowledge about livestock faecal pathogens, livestock waste & environment and health concerns of livestock wastes is crucial for control and prevention of transmission of such zoonotic faecal pathogens. The rapid growth of livestock production highlights the urgent need for effective policies to regulate intensive livestock operations and support environmentally and economically sustainable approaches to handling waste.
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To develop an iron supplement that is effectively absorbed and utilized, thiolated human-like collagen was created to improve the iron binding capacity of human-like collagen. A thiolated human-like collagen-iron complex was prepared in a phosphate buffer, and one mole of thiolated human-like collagen-iron possessed approximately 28.83 moles of iron. The characteristics of thiolated human-like collagen-iron were investigated by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and differential scanning calorimetry. The results showed that the thiolated human-like collagen-iron complex retained the secondary structure of human-like collagen and had greater thermodynamic stability than human-like collagen, although interactions between iron ions and human-like collagen occurred during the formation of the complex. In addition, to evaluate the bioavailability of thiolated human-like collagen-iron, an in vitro Caco-2 cell model and an in vivo iron deficiency anemia mouse model were employed. The data demonstrated that the thiolated human-like collagen-iron complex exhibited greater bioavailability and was more easily utilized than FeSO4, ferric ammonium citrate, or ferrous glycinate. These results indicated that the thiolated human-like collagen-iron complex is a potential iron supplement in the biomedical field.
Article
The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D 3 , B 6 and B 12 . The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food.
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There is a very heavy burden of vitamins deficiency in all age groups of population particularly in urban areas because of their lifestyle as they spent more time indoors so they get less exposed to sunlight and therefore become more prone to vitamin D deficiency. The need of fortification of milk feels as an alternative of the supplementary vitamin capsules. As a component of daily diet milk is the best way to supplement with additional vitamins to overcome the effect of deficiencies. Not only vitamins milk can also be supplemented with micronutrients like Fe, Zn and folic acid. As a developing country India has a higher proportion of anaemic population and people rely on milk for their nutrients but milk is deficient in iron and cannot compensate with daily iron requirements. Therefore, government is focusing on fortification as this is cost effective and do not require complex technologies for the addition of vitamins, it just require a premix of the vitamins and added before homogenisation and pasteurisation.
Article
Goat and cow milk share similar protein and lipid content, yet goat milk forms softer curds during stomach digestion. This has been assumed to hasten gastric emptying (GE) for goat milk compared with cow milk although there is no direct evidence for this. We hypothesised that goat milk would increase GE and gastrointestinal transit compared with cow milk and alter short chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles. Ten week old rats were provided with a non-dairy diet and goat milk, cow milk, or water, ad lib for two weeks. On day 14, X-ray imaging tracked the transit of metallic beads in vivo over 15 h. SCFA analysis of caecal content was carried out post-mortem. Goat milk consumption increased GE compared with cow milk and controls, whereas colonic transit was slowed for both milk consuming groups. Goat milk altered the SCFA profile compared to controls. In particular, acetic and propionic acid in the caecum were present at a higher concentration in goat milk-fed rats. There was no difference between the SCFA profiles of cow milk and control animals. The more rapid gastric emptying conferred by goat milk supplementation provides evidence for improved digestibility. The slower colonic transit by both milks was associated with similar changes in motility associated with SCFA that suggest altered carbohydrate fermentation and lower levels of amino acid fermentation in the caecum.
Article
Iron deficiency remains a public health problem around the world due to low iron intake and/or bioavailability. FeSO4, ferrous succinate, and ferrous glycinate chelate are rich in iron but have poor bioavailability. To solve the problem of iron deficiency, following previous research studies, a thiolated human-like collagen-ironcomplex supplement with a high iron content was prepared in an anaerobic workstation. In addition, cell viability tests were evaluated after conducting an MTT assay, and a quantitative analysis of the thiolated human-like collagen-iron digesta samples was performed using the SDS-PAGE method coupled with gel filtration chromatography. The iron bioavailability was assessed using Caco-2 cell monolayers and iron-deficiency anemia mice models. The results showed that (1) one mole of thiolated human-like collagen-iron possessed approximately 35.34 moles of iron; (2) thiolated human-like collagen-iron did not exhibit cytotoxity and (3) thiolated human-like collagen- iron digesta samples had higher bioavailability than other iron supplements, including FeSO4, ferrous succinate, ferrous glycine chelate and thiolated human-like collagen-Fe iron. Finally, the iron bioavailability was significantly enhanced by vitamin C. These results indicated that thiolated human-like collagen-iron is a promising iron supplement for use in the future.
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Research
Climate Change and Childhood Malnutrition
Chapter
There is a growing body of evidence from animal research, epidemiologic, and clinical studies indicating an association between osteopenia and anemia. Iron (Fe) intake is directly correlated with mineral bone density, and iron deficiency diminishes the mineral bone content, the bone mass, and mechanical resistance. There is also an association of hemoglobin levels with the cortical bone mineralization and density. Several diseases characterized by low-hemoglobin levels or iron-deficiency anemia have been associated with an increased risk of bone loss or osteoporosis. In fact, pernicious anemia is directly correlated with increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Iron deficiency diminishes bone matrix formation, reducing the amount of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide released to the serum under these conditions. Bone resorption process increases in iron deficiency as shown by the increase of serum parathyroid hormone, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and levels of degradation products from C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen. In addition, mineralization process is also affected by iron deficiency, because calcium and phosphorus content in femur decreases markedly, due to the increase in parathyroid hormone and cortisol induced by iron deficiency. Osteoblast function and bone formation are strongly oxygen dependent. Hypoxic condition (a consequence from decreased oxygen delivery in iron-deficiency anemia) diminishes bone formation. The inhibitory effects of hypoxia are due to decreased osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. In addition, hypoxia stimulates osteoclast activity in favor of pathological resorption. In conclusion, iron-deficiency anemia has a significant impact upon bone, affecting bone mineralization, decreasing the matrix formation, and increasing bone resorption, therefore it is of great interest to assess bone status when there is iron-deficiency anemia. On the other hand, habitual goat milk consumption improves mineral metabolism and increases levels of the biomarker of bone formation N-terminal propeptides of type I procollagen and diminishes parathyroid hormone, which positively affects bone mineralization and turnover.
Article
The lower bioavailability of iron from the diet has led to iron deficiency and several ill-effects on health. The objective of this study was to assess the bioavailability of iron from spray dried whey protein concentrate-iron (WPC-Fe) complex in weaning and anaemic rats. Blood hemoglobin level, bioavailability, lipid profile, antioxidant status and concentration of iron delivery molecules were analysed under in vivo conditions. Hemoglobin level, % apparent digestibility coefficient and % retention/intake were increased in weaning and anaemic rats on 7th and 28th days. Additionally, WPC-Fe supplementation reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, maintained serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and HDL-cholesterol. Simultaneously, it decreased the superoxide level and lipid peroxidation and increased the catalase activity. The level of iron delivery/transport molecules including liver and serum ferritin and transferrin concentration was enhanced. Thus, WPC-Fe complex could be a better and innovative organic iron fortificant with enhanced bioavailability of iron.
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The review presents the results of domestic and foreign studies of infant adapted formulae based on New Zealand goat milk and their influence on the formation and maintenance of healthy digestion and normal microbiocenosis, and correction of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. [В обзоре приводятся результаты отечественных и зарубежных исследований детских адаптированных смесей на основе новозеландского козьего молока, описано их влияние на формирование пищеварения, нормального микробиоценоза и коррекцию функциональных нарушений желудочно-кишечного тракта ]
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Non-bovine milk(s) and their dairy products are showing a rise in market demand as they are gaining consumers’ attention. Non-bovine milk serves as an important source of nutrition and sustenance for populations in difficult climatic and geographical regions. Milk from different non-bovine species is known to have several nutritional and therapeutic values. Thus, it becomes important to study the composition and constituents of non-bovine milk(s) and their products with respect to microbial load and post-translational modifications of proteins in human health applications. The cheeses and fermented milk products produced from non-bovine milk are widely distributed across a large variety of climatic and geographical areas. Non-bovine milk proteomics is being analysed to know the role of milk proteins and peptides in metabolism, immune regulation and disease pathways for application in nutraceutical and drug development. Therapeutic proteins for human use are being produced in the “goat model” as a bio-reactor. The biological potential of milk is manifold as it is transformed into various products with specific nutritive and health-promoting values. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review different aspects of non-bovine milk(s) in nutrition, traditional dairy product, milk proteome, bioactive peptides, microbiota and antimicrobial resistance due to intensive production for diverse applications and better economic impact in different regions.
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Se hace una revisión sobre el metabolismo del hierro en la que se abordan su absorción y los factores que la afectan, su transporte, captación celular, almacenamiento y excreción. Se tratan los mecanismos que intervienen en la homeostasis intracelular de este mineral y se exponen los requerimientos nutricionales de los principales grupos de riesgo que desarrollan una deficiencia de este micronutrienteA review is made on iron metabolism in which iron absorption, factors affecting this process, iron transportation, cell uptake, storage and excretion are dealt with. The mechanisms acting in the intracellular homeostasis of this mineral and the nutritional requirements of the main risk groups that develop an iron deficiency are set forth
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For sixteen years, the American institute of Nutrition Rodent Diets, AIN-76 and AIN-76A, have been used extensively around the world. Because of numerous nutritional and technical problems encountered with the diet during this period, it was revised. Two new formulations were derived: AIN-93G for growth, pregnancy and lactation, and AIN-93M for adult maintenance. Some major differences in the new formulation of AIN-93G compared with AIN-76A are as follows: 7 g soybean oil/100 g diet was substituted for 5 g corn oil/ 100 g diet to increase the amount of linolenic acid; cornstarch was substituted for sucrose; the amount of phosphorus was reduced to help eliminate the problem of kidney calcification in female rats; L-cystine was substituted for DL-methionine as the amino acid supplement for casein, known to be deficient in the sulfur amino acids; manganese concentration was lowered to one-fifth the amount in the old diet; the amounts of vitamin E, vitamin K and vitamin B-12 were increased; and molybdenum, silicon, fluoride, nickel, boron, lithium and vanadium were added to the mineral mix. For the AIN-93M maintenance diet, the amount of fat was lowered to 40 g/kg diet from 70 g/kg diet, and the amount of casein to 140 g/kg from 200 g/kg in the AIN-93G diet. Because of a better balance of essential nutrients, the AIN-93 diets may prove to be a better choice than AIN-76A for long-term as well as short-term studies with laboratory rodents.
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To investigate the association between vitamin A and iron metabolism, two studies were carried out: a cross-sectional study and an intervention trial. The cross-sectional analysis was carried out in 1060 children aged 1-8 y. Multiple-regression analysis was used to adjust for effects of age, gender, indices of the protein nutritional status, and infections. Retinol was significantly associated with hematocrit, serum Fe, transferrin, ferritin, and saturation of transferrin (%ST). To obtain further evidence as to whether this observed association is a causal one, an intervention trial was carried out. After collection of the baseline data of 300 children, 166 children with a hemoglobin concentration less than 7.5 mmol/L were selected. A random sub-sample of 78 children received vitamin A capsules; the other children served as control subjects. Two months after supplementation significant differences, adjusted for age, were found for retinol, retinol-binding protein, serum Fe, and %ST between the supplemented and the control group. After 4 mo none of the indices were found to be significantly different between the supplemented and the control group. Periodic massive doses of vitamin A may play a role in improving the Fe status as well.
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Conventional techniques for the determination of fatty acid composition of lipids require solvent extraction, purification, hydrolysis, and derivatization procedures that are both lengthy and cumbersome. A 1-hr direct transesterification procedure carried out in methanol-benzene 4:1 with acetyl chloride circumvented all these steps and was applicable for analysis of both simple (triglycerides) and complex lipids (cholesteryl esters, phospholipids, and sphingomyelin). Recoveries (greater than 95%) of standards unaffected by the presence of 5% water and 200 mg of silica suggested that the technique could be used for the quantitative analysis of total fatty acids as well as of fatty acids in classes of lipids separated on silica from biological samples. When compared to the Folch procedure, the technique led to a 20.1% increase in total fatty acids for plasma, 3.9% for feces, 7.4% for bile, and 9.7% for rat liver. We therefore conclude that this one-step direct transesterification procedure is superior to currently used methods, not only because of its simplicity and speed, but also because of its added precision.
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High intakes of Fe may impair Cu status, but the underlying mechanism is not known. Male rats, aged 7 weeks, were given purified diets adequate in Cu (8 mg Cu/kg) and containing either 7, 40 or 389 mg Fe/kg. After 6 weeks the concentrations of Fe in liver and spleen were positively related with dietary Fe level and those of Cu were negatively related with dietary Fe level. Increasing Fe intakes reduced apparent absorption and biliary excretion of Cu in a dose-dependent fashion. In individual rats, biliary Cu excretion showed a significant, positive correlation with liver Cu concentration. It is concluded that increased Fe intakes depress Cu absorption which produces a decrease in plasma and organ Cu concentrations. As a result, biliary Cu excretion is lowered which contributes to achieving Cu balance at high Fe intakes. Because the concentrations of Cu in plasma and bile, and also plasma ceruloplasmin (EC 1.16.3.1) activities, showed much greater percentage reductions with increasing Fe intake than did the concentrations of Cu in organs, it is possible that increased Fe status interferes with the mobilization of Cu stores.
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The influence of high CaCO3 intake on the bioavailability of Fe from FeSO4 was assessed during Fe repletion of rats with Fe-deficiency-induced anaemia. Fe-deficient rats with a mean blood haemoglobin concentration of 4.1 mmol/l were fed on purified Fe-adequate diets containing either 6.2 or 25.0 g CaCO3/kg (ten rats per group). Haemoglobin repletion after 14 d was significantly depressed by high CaCO3 intake (9.5 v. 9.8 mmol/l for high and low CaCO3 intake respectively; P = 0.03), as was apparent Fe retention (367 v. 552 micrograms/d during days 5-7, P < 0.001; 146 v. 196 micrograms/d during days 19-21, P < 0.001). The concentration of Fe in the liquid phase of the proximal half of the small intestine was significantly lower in the high-CaCO3 group (3.71 v. 5.20 micrograms/g digesta; P = 0.02). Mucosal uptake and mucosal transfer of Fe were determined with orally administered 59Fe and Cr as a non-absorbable marker. Mucosal transfer was significantly diminished by CaCO3 loading (90 v. 100% of mucosal uptake; P = 0.04), whereas mucosal uptake was not. 59Fe retention values at 14 d after administration were not significantly different (57.6 v. 51.9%; P = 0.14). Fe contents of liver and spleen were significantly decreased by high compared with low CaCO3 intake (879 v. 590 micrograms Fe in liver, P < 0.001; 92 v. 63 micrograms Fe in spleen, P < 0.001). It is concluded that high intake of CaCO3 depresses Fe bioavailability in rats. The CaCO3-induced decrease in Fe solubility in the digesta probably was associated with an increased efficiency of mucosal Fe uptake so that the amount of mucosal uptake remained unaltered. The CaCO3-induced decrease in Fe transfer through the mucosal cytoplasm and/or basolateral membrane may have been responsible for the concurrent decrease in Fe bioavailability.
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In this review a broad overview of historical and current methods for the assessment of iron bioavailability was given. These methods can be divided into iron solubility studies, iron absorption studies, endpoint measures, and arithmetic models. The pros and cons of all methods were discussed. First, studies on in vitro and in vivo iron solubility have been described. The disadvantages of iron solubility include the impossibility of measuring absorption or incorporation of iron. Furthermore, only the solubility of nonheme iron, and not heme iron, can be studied. Second, we focused on iron absorption studies (either with the use of native iron, radioiron or stable iron isotopes), in which balance techniques, whole-body counting or postabsorption plasma iron measurements can be applied. In vitro determination of iron absorption using intestinal loops or cell lines, was also discussed in this part. As far as absorption studies using animals, duodenal loops, gut sacs or Caco-2 cells were concerned, the difficulty of extrapolating the results to the human situation seemed to be the major drawback. Chemical balance in man has been a good, but laborious and expensive, way to study iron absorption. Whole-body counting has the disadvantage of causing radiation exposure and it is based on a single meal. The measurement of plasma iron response did not seem to be of great value in determining nutritional iron bioavailability. The next part dealt with endpoint measures. According to the definition of iron bioavailability, these methods gave the best figure for it. In animals, the hemoglobin-repletion bioassay was most often used, whereas most studies in humans monitored the fate of radioisotopes or stable isotopes of iron in blood. Repletion bioassays using rats or other animals were of limited use because the accuracy of extrapolation to man is unknown. The use of the rat as a model for iron bioavailability seemed to be empirically based, and there were many reasons to consider the rat as an obsolete model in this respect. The double-isotope technique was probably the best predictor of iron bioavailability in humans. Disadvantages of this method are the single meal basis and the exposure to radiation (as far as radioisotopes were used). Finally, some arithmetic models were described. These models were based on data from iron bioavailability studies and could predict the bioavailability of iron from a meal.
Article
Iron is one of the most abundant metals in the human body. However, it is only recently that many of the molecular mechanisms involved in the absorption and metabolism of this essential trace element have been elucidated. Dietary non-haem iron is absorbed via the divalent metal transporter (DMT1) following conversion from Fe(III) to Fe(II) by both dietary reducing agents and the endogenous ferric reductase Dcytb. Efflux of iron into the plasma is achieved by the IREG1 protein working in concert with a ferrioxidase, hephaestin to allow Fe(III) to be loaded onto transferrin for onward transport in the plasma. Current consensus suggests that the regulation of intestinal iron absorption relies on signals generated in the main sites of iron storage (the liver) and utilization (the bone marrow) to indicate body iron status, which together co-ordinate intestinal uptake with body requirement. This information, conveyed by factors such as transferrin saturation and serum levels of hepcidin, is integrated by the duodenal crypt cells, which act as iron sensors and pre-programme the level of expression of the iron transport proteins relative to body iron status. Recent data suggest that mature enterocytes also possess significant plasticity and can respond rapidly (within minutes to a few hours) to local changes in dietary iron levels, fine-tuning absorption to efficiently match the body's metabolic requirements. DMT1 expression is also down-regulated by other heavy metals thought to be substrates for this transporter. This may be an adaptive mechanism to avoid toxic build up of these metals in the body.
Article
We studied the digestive and metabolic utilization of chickpea protein (Cicer arietinum L.) from raw and processed chickpeas (dry-heated, soaked in distilled water or an acid, or a base solution, and soaked + cooked). Chemical and biological methods were used for nutritional determinations in growing rats. Food intake, calculated as a function of body weight, was higher for processed than for raw chickpeas. The digestibility of chickpea protein was not affected by soaking, but was increased after soaking + cooking. This effect may be related to reduced trypsin inhibitor activity and tannin content. Nitrogen retention (nitrogen balance) was better after soaking in basic medium without cooking and after soaking + cooking regardless of the pH of the soaking medium. However, nitrogen balance was lower than expected from the chemical analyses of the protein in the different diets. Soaking in basic medium with or without cooking led to the highest food intake, nutritive utilization of protein, and weight gain. The faster rate of growth was probably due to the improved utilization of carbohydrates in chickpeas soaked in basic medium. Keywords: Chickpeas; nutritive utilization; protein; processing techniques
Article
To clarify the influence of iron deficiency on mineral status, the following two synthetic diets were fed to male Wistar rats: a control diet containing 128 μg iron/g, and an iron-deficient diet containing 5.9 μg iron/g. The rats fed the iron-deficient diet showed pale red conjunctiva and less reactiveness than the rats fed the control diet. The hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit of the rats fed the irondeficient diet were markedly less than the rats fed the control diet. The changes of mineral concentrations observed in tissues of the rats fed the iron-deficient diet, as compared with the rats fed the control diet, are summarized as follows: • Iron concentrations in blood, brain, lung, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testis, femoral muscle, and tibia decreased; • Calcium concentrations in blood and liver increased; calcium concentration in lung decreased; • Magnesium concentration in blood increased; • Copper concentrations in blood, liver, spleen and tibia increased; copper concentration in femoral muscle decreased; • Zinc concentration in blood decreased; • Manganese concentrations in brain, heart, kidney, testis, femoral muscle and tibia increased. These results suggest that iron deficiency affects mineral status (iron, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, and manganese) in rats.
Article
We investigated the effect of calcium on iron absorption in 126 human subjects. Addition of calcium chloride to wheat rolls significantly reduced iron absorption. Doses between 40 and 600 mg Ca were studied. The inhibition was clearly dose related up to 300 mg Ca. Calcium added to the dough when making the rolls reduced phytate degradation during fermentation and baking. As little as 40 mg Ca added to 80 g flour reduced phytate degradation by 50%, thus increasing the phytate content of the rolls to levels interfering with iron absorption. Calcium also had a direct dose-related inhibiting effect on iron absorption, noted by adding calcium to the rolls after they had been baked instead of to the dough. Iron absorption was reduced by 50-60% at doses of 300-600 mg Ca. Giving 165 mg Ca as milk, cheese, or calcium chloride reduced absorption by 50-60%. The same amount of calcium also significantly reduced heme-iron absorption, suggesting that the effect of calcium is related to the mucosal transfer of iron. The observed marked inhibitory effect on iron absorption of calcium in amounts frequently encountered in normal meals has important nutritional implications.
Article
1. Bioavailability of Fe from beef, spinach ( Spinacea oleracea L.) and their mixtures was studied using anaemic and non-anaemic rats by haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE) and apparent Fe absorption in two trials. 2. The initial haemoglobin levels of severely anaemic, mildly anaemic and non-anaemic rats were 63, 88 and 113 g/l, respectively. The Fe level in diets was about 30 mg/kg. All other nutrients equalled or exceeded the requirement of the growing rat. 3. The spinach Fe was well utilized by the rats with average HRE of 0.41, 0.53 and 0.36, and apparent Fe absorptions averaging 0.48, 0.59 and 0.37 for the severely anaemic, mildly anaemic and non-anaemic animals respectively. 4. Beef Fe was efficiently used by rats as reported by others. Average HRE were 0.42, 0.51 and 0.44, and average apparent Fe absorptions were 0.44, 0.47 and 0.46 for the severely anaemic, mildly anaemic and non-anaemic rats respectively. 5. When the percentage of meat Fe was increased from 0 to 25, 50, 75 or 100 of the dietary Fe, HRE and apparent Fe absorption were not increased significantly. A meat enhancement effect on total Fe absorption, reported by others for non-haem-Fe, did not occur in the present experiment. 6. Negative correlation coefficients between initial haemoglobin and HRE ( r -0.79), and initial haemoglobin and apparent Fe absorption ( r -0.73) were seen with the rats fed on dietary Fe from FeSO 4 7H 2 O. This was not seen with the rats fed on dietary Fe from beef or spinach. 7. The Fe absorption pattern for the different Fe sources is evidence for a third Fe pool, a pool made up of highly soluble inorganic Fe salt, in addition to haem-Fe and non-haem-Fe complex pools. FeSO 4 7H 2 O is not in the same gastrointestinal pool as non-haem-Fe complex such as spinach Fe. A suggested mechanism of absorption is discussed.
Article
The effectiveness of L-histidine, L-cysteine, and L-lysine in enhancing iron uptake from ligated, in vivo segments of duodenum was compared with that of several structurally similar compounds from which certain ionizing groups had been removed. Decarboxylation of histidine, removal of the e-amino of lysine, and the substi tution of either a hydrogen or hydroxyl group for the sulfhydryl of cysteine all resulted in a loss of their ability to enhance iron uptake. Thus it appears that the ability of these three amino acids to form tridentate chelates is essential to their effectiveness in enhancing iron uptake. Additionally, it was found that the L isomers were not signifi cantly better than the D forms in enhancing iron uptake, suggesting that "active trans port" of the L forms is of little quantitative significance in the enhancement of iron uptake. J. Nutr. 103: 139-142, 1973.
Article
The effect of dietary supplementation with ascorbic acid or cholecalciferol on Fe utilization was studied using the metabolic balance technique, in rats in which 50% of the distal small intestine was removed, or in which the mid small intestine was transected and reanastomosed (controls). Three different diets were used. The first (basal diet) contained (g/kg dry wt): protein (casein + 50 mg D,L-methionine/g) 120 and fat (medium-chain triacylglycerols, olive oil and sunflower oil, in equal parts) 40. The other diets were obtained by adding ascorbic acid (150 mg/kg diet) or cholecalciferol (0.4 mg/kg diet) to the basal diet. Apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) and Fe retention were significantly lower in resected animals than in their respective control groups (transected rats). However, the addition of ascorbic acid or cholecalciferol to the basal diet increased the ADC and Fe retention in both transected and resected rats. Five weeks after surgery, resection also resulted in a reduced concentration of Fe in the sternum, but did not reduce the concentration of haemoglobin or serum Fe total Fe-binding capacity or the concentration of Fe in liver, testes, femur or muscle (longissimus dorsi). Supplementation with ascorbic acid increased serum Fe concentration, while the concentration of Fe in muscle was reduced by supplementation with both ascorbic acid and cholecalciferol. Neither supplementation had any effect on the Fe concentration in other tissues, on haemoglobin concentration or plasma total Fe-binding capacity. Thus, supplementation with ascorbic acid or with cholecalciferol increased Fe absorption and reduced the concentration of Fe in muscle.
Article
The influence of the source of dietary Fe (ferric citrate alone or mixed with bovine blood at a proportion of 1:1 (v/v)) on the digestive utilization of Fe, P, Ca and Mg, and on haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE) was investigated in control and Fe-deficient rats. Diet A contained (by analysis) 43.5 mg Fe/kg diet (as ferric citrate), and diet B contained 44.3 mg Fe/kg diet (ferric citrate-bovine blood). In Fe-deficient rats fed on diet A or B the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of Fe increased by 42.3 and 45.7% respectively. The ADC of Ca and Mg decreased significantly in Fe-deficient rats regardless of the source of dietary Fe. The HRE increased by 72.9% in Fe-deficient rats fed on diet A, and by 91.1% in Fe-deficient animals fed on diet B. In Fe-deficient rats fed on Fe for 10 d the values of haematological variables approached normality. However, serum Fe remained low, indicating that Fe reserves were still depleted. A deficient dietary supply of Fe for 30 d did not significantly modify the numbers of circulating leucocytes.
Article
Human and animal studies have shown that amino acids and peptides influence iron absorption from the intestinal lumen. This study was conducted using Caco-2 cell monolayers as the experimental model to determine whether similar effects on iron absorption occur. Conditions were chosen to mimic the pH of the intestinal lumen and the most likely order whereby ferric and ferrous forms of iron would combine with various amino acids and dipeptides resulting from protein digestion. We demonstrated the enhancing effect of cysteine and reduced cysteinyl glycine on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. The addition of glutathione to the transport media had no effect on uptake from ferrous or ferric iron complexes, nor did it affect iron solubility. Cysteine and reduced cysteinyl glycine increased iron solubility when added to a solution containing insoluble iron. This effect is different from that of ascorbate, which must be combined with soluble ferric iron at pH 2 to reduce and solubilize iron. Taken together, these observations are evidence that cysteine and reduced N-terminal cysteine peptides are capable of enhancing iron uptake from soluble and insoluble ferric iron. These results qualitatively reflect those observed in human studies. Our results indicate that glutathione requires digestion to Cys or Cys-Gly in order to promote iron uptake. The similarity between this study and human studies further reinforces that the Caco-2 cell model is a useful tool in studies of iron absorption and bioavailability.
Article
To evaluate the extent to which daily oral Fe supplements may block Fe absorption from a subsequent dose, we compared effects of oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) Fe supplementation on Fe status in anaemic rats (haemoglobin (Hb) 90 g/l). A ligated duodenal loop technique was used to assess the effects of the Fe supplements administered either orally or i.p. at different frequencies on Fe absorption from a subsequent test dose. Anaemic Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to seven groups of eight rats each and received either oral or i.p. Fe supplements for 3 d as follows: (1) 4 mg oral supplement daily (three doses in 3 d); (2) 4 mg oral supplement once (one dose on day 1, low-Fe dose on days 2 and 3); (3) 12 mg oral supplement once (one dose on day 1, low-Fe dose on days 2 and 3); (4) 3.2 mg i.p. supplement daily (three doses in 3 d); (5) 3.2 mg i.p. supplement once (one dose on day 1); (6) 9.6 mg i.p. supplement once (one dose on day 1); (7) low-Fe diet (control). The effectiveness of the supplements in treating Fe deficiency on each of the two test-factors, i.e. route of administration and frequency of dose, was assessed by determining Hb-Fe gain and liver-Fe stores after the 3 d test period. Oral supplementation was as effective as i.p. in improving the Fe status of the anaemic animals. However, a 15 min absorption of a radio-Fe test dose from a ligated loop in i.p.-supplemented groups was significantly higher (11.68 (SD 1.70)%, 17.49 (SD 4.59)%, 16.71 (SD 3.39)%) than in orally supplemented groups (3.24 (SD 1.35)%, 2.45 (SD 1.05)%, 1.80 (SD 0.35)%) despite equal body Fe stores. No significant difference in intestinal Fe absorption efficiency was detected within the oral groups but those supplemented only once were more effective than or as effective as the group receiving daily supplements for 3 d in improving Fe status as indicated by Hb-regeneration efficiency. We conclude that there is a mucosal block with the administration of oral Fe supplements but the extent of this blocking effect during oral Fe supplementation is not as dramatic as currently thought in the context of the poor efficacy of daily Fe supplementation programmes.
Article
The causal relationship between iron deficiency and physical work capacity is evaluated through a systematic review of the research literature, including animal and human studies. Iron deficiency was examined along a continuum from severe iron-deficiency anemia (SIDA) to moderate iron-deficiency anemia (MIDA) to iron deficiency without anemia (IDNA). Work capacity was assessed by aerobic capacity, endurance, energetic efficiency, voluntary activity and work productivity. The 29 research reports examined demonstrated a strong causal effect of SIDA and MIDA on aerobic capacity in animals and humans. The presumed mechanism for this effect is the reduced oxygen transport associated with anemia; tissue iron deficiency may also play a role through reduced cellular oxidative capacity. Endurance capacity was also compromised in SIDA and MIDA, but the strong mediating effects of poor cellular oxidative capacity observed in animals have not been demonstrated in humans. Energetic efficiency was affected at all levels of iron deficiency in humans, in the laboratory and the field. The reduced work productivity observed in field studies is likely due to anemia and reduced oxygen transport. The social and economic consequences of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) and IDNA have yet to be elucidated. The biological mechanisms for the effect of IDA on work capacity are sufficiently strong to justify interventions to improve iron status as a means of enhancing human capital. This may also extend to the segment of the population experiencing IDNA in whom the effects on work capacity may be more subtle, but the number of individuals thus affected may be considerably more than those experiencing IDA.
Article
Studies on the effect of iron deficiency on children's cognition and behavior are selectively reviewed, looking for evidence of a causal relationship. Most correlational studies have found associations between iron-deficiency anemia and poor cognitive and motor development and behavioral problems. Longitudinal studies consistently indicate that children anemic in infancy continue to have poorer cognition, school achievement, and more behavior problems into middle childhood. However, the possible confounding effects of poor socioeconomic backgrounds prevent causal inferences from being made. In anemic children <2 y old, short-term trials of iron treatment have generally failed to benefit development. Most longer trials lacked randomized placebo groups and failed to produce benefits. Only one small randomized controlled trial (RCT) has shown clear benefits. It therefore remains uncertain whether the poor development of iron-deficient infants is due to poor social backgrounds or irreversible damage or is remediable with iron treatment. Similarly, the few preventive trials have had design problems or produced no or questionable benefits only. For children >2 y old, the evidence from RCT is reasonably convincing but not conclusive. RCT of iron treatment are warranted especially in younger children.
Article
The effects of goat and cow milk on the digestive and metabolic utilization of calcium and iron were studied in rats using a standard (non-milk) control diet. The digestive utilization of calcium is greater when the animals consume the goat-milk-based diet rather than that based on cow milk or the standard diet. The digestive utilization of iron, however, is similar for the goat-milk diet and the standard diet, and in both cases superior to that based on cow milk. The calcium content in the femur, sternum and Longissimus dorsi muscle (L.D. muscle) provides an indication of what happens during the utilization of the mineral; more is deposited when the rats consume a milk-based diet, particularly one based on goat milk. The iron content in the reserve organs, namely the liver and the spleen, is greater with the standard diet and the goat milk diet than with that containing cow milk. There is an obviously beneficial effect of goat milk on the metabolism of calcium and iron, which minimizes any interaction between the two minerals.
Article
We studied the effects of goat and cow milk fat on the digestive utilization of this nutrient and on some of the biochemical parameters that are related to the metabolisim of lipids, using rats with a resection of 50% of the distal small intestine and control animals (transected). The fat content in all the diets was 10% but the lipid quality was varied: the standard diet was based on olive oil, while the other two diets included fat obtained from lyophilized goat milk and cow milk, respectively. The digestive utilization of the fat was lower in the resected animals than in the transected ones for all three diets studied. In both resected and transected animals. the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of the fat was greater with the standard diet (olive oil) than with diets whose fat content was provided by goat or cow milk. The digestive utilization of the fat was greater in the transected and resected rats receiving a diet of goat's milk (rich in medium-chain triglycerides) than those given a cow-milk-based diet and more closely approached the values obtained for olive oil. The consumption of goat milk reduced levels of cholesterol while levels of triglycerides, HDL, GOT and GPT remained with in the normal ranges, for both transected and resected animals. The advantageous effect of goat milk on the metabolisim of lipids with respect to cow milk suggests that the former should be included in the diet in eases of malabsorption snydrome.
Article
The search for diets that improve the digestive and metabolic use of iron and copper in malabsorption syndrome led us to study goat milk for particular nutritional characteristics and compare it with cow milk, which is usually supplied. We studied the metabolism of iron and copper in transected rats (control) and in resected rats (resection of 50% of the distal small intestine). The diets used were the standard diet recommended by the American Institute of Nutrition and diets based on goat or cow milk. Intestinal resection reduced the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of iron in the three diets tested. In the transected and resected rats, the ADC of iron was highest with the goat milk diet, followed by the standard diet and lowest with the cow milk diet. The ADC of copper was not affected by intestinal resection in the animals fed the goat milk diet, and was higher than that in the two groups of animals fed the other diets. Intestinal resection reduced the ADC of copper with the standard diet and the cow milk diet. When both groups of animals were fed the goat milk diet, the deposit of iron in the organs was greater than with those fed the cow milk diet and similar to that in those animals given the standard diet. The copper content in the kidneys was lower in the resected than in the transected animals, except in the case of those fed the goat milk diet, in which it was similar to that of the control (transected) rats. This study shows the beneficial effect of goat milk, with respect to cow milk, on the metabolism of iron and copper in control rats, especially those with malabsorption syndrome.
Article
The bioavailability of iron from ferrous sulfate (FeII-S), heme iron prepared from hemoglobin (HIP), and bonito dark muscle (BDM) was assessed in anemic rats using a hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE) method. Freeze-dried BDM (FD), boiled and freeze-dried BDM (B/FD), and boiled and smoke-dried BDM (B/SD) were used as BDM source. Rats were made anemic by feeding on an iron-deficient diet for 28 days. To replete their iron levels, anemic rats were then fed on a diet containing iron at a level of 17 ppm for 14 days. Rats receiving FeII-S gained significantly more weight and had greater food intake and higher HRE compared to the other four groups. The bioavailability of iron from HIP was poor compared with that from FeII-S and BDM. When the HRE of rats fed FeII-S was 100, that of rats fed BDF was approximately 80. These results suggest that BMD is an effective dietary source of iron.
Article
The search for diets to improve the nutritive utilization of protein and magnesium in malabsorption syndrome led us to study goat milk, because of its particular nutritional characteristics, and to compare it with cow milk, which is most commonly consumed. We studied the nutritive utilization of protein and magnesium in transected rats (control) and in rats with resection of 50% of the distal small intestine. The diets used were the standard diet recommended by the American Institute of Nutrition and diets based on lyophilized goat or cow milk. The consumption of goat milk produces better protein efficiency ratio and food conversion efficiency values, particularly in rats with intestinal resection, together with a higher nutritive utilization of protein. Magnesium apparent digestibility coefficient is not modified by intestinal resection in rats fed with goat milk-based diet, on the contrary to the standard and cow milk diets. Magnesium apparent digestibility coefficient is greater for the goat milk group, which is reflected in the greater quantity of this mineral stored in bone. These results demonstrate the beneficial effect of goat milk on the nutritive utilization of protein and on magnesium bioavailability, especially in animals with resection of the distal small intestine.
Article
A novel method for the simultaneous quantification of Vitamins A, D3 and E in fortified infant formulae has been developed using isocratic normal-phase liquid chromatography with positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS). Food products were saponified and the vitamins were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on a Chromabond XTR cartridge. Quantification of Vitamins D3 and E were performed with Vitamin D2 and 5,7-dimethyltocol (DMT) as internal standards (IS), respectively while no IS was used for Vitamin A. Detection of the vitamins was made in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. MS calibration curves were linear between 0.15 and 12 mg/l for Vitamin A, 5-400 microg/l for Vitamin D3 and 0.25-20 mg/l for Vitamin E with regression coefficient r2 > 0.996 and the limits of detection were below 1.4 ng. The repeatability (CV) obtained on a reference dietetic infant formula was 2.3% for Vitamin A, 2.6% for Vitamin E and 5.9% for Vitamin D3. The between-day variations (CV) over 6 days were in the ranges of 2.4-6.9% for the three vitamins. The mean recoveries from a reference infant formula spiked with all three vitamins ranged from 96 to 105% with a relative standard error less than 9%. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing a set of infant formula and infant cereals; similar results were obtained with the LC-MS method and reference HPLC methods.
Article
Iron is an essential trace metal in the human diet due to its obligate role in a number of metabolic processes. In the diet, iron is present in a number of different forms, generally described as haem (from haemoglobin and myoglobin in animal tissue) and non-haem iron (including ferric oxides and salts, ferritin and lactoferrin). This review describes the molecular mechanisms that co-ordinate the absorption of iron from the diet and its release into the circulation. While many components of the iron transport pathway have been elucidated, a number of key issues still remain to be resolved. Future work in this area will provide a clearer picture regarding the transcellular flux of iron and its regulation by dietary and humoral factors.
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