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On the Benefits of Thinking Unconsciously: Unconscious Thought Can Increase Post-Choice Satisfaction

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Abstract

This work compares conscious thought and unconscious thought in relation to quality of choice. Earlier work [Dijksterhuis, A. (2004). Think different: The merits of unconscious thought in preference development and decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 586–598] has shown that people make better choices after engaging in unconscious thought (i.e., unconscious activity during a period of distraction) rather than in conscious thought. However, the evidence was obtained for choices between hypothetical alternatives with quality of choice operationalized normatively. As quality of decision is essentially subjective, in the current experiment participants chose between real objects with quality operationalized as post-choice satisfaction. In a paradigm based on work by Wilson and colleagues [Wilson, T. D., Lisle, D., Schooler, J. W., Hodges, S. D., Klaaren, K. J., & LaFleur, S. J. (1993). Introspecting about reasons can reduce post-choice satisfaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 331–339], participants were briefly presented with five art posters, and chose one either (a) immediately, (b) after thorough conscious thinking about each poster, or (c) after a period of distraction. Participants took their favorite poster home and were phoned 3–5 weeks later. As hypothesized, unconscious thinkers were more satisfied with their choice than participants in the other two conditions.

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... Experimental methods can reliably manipulate usage of the unconscious-intuitive and consciousrational systems, effectively putting one or the other in the "driver's seat" during the decisionmaking process. Conscious-rational processes can be accentuated by asking an individual to actively deliberate before making a choice (e.g., Wilson, 2002), or by creating a list of positive and negative attributes based on the tasks or objects they are to decide between (e.g., Dijksterhuis & van Olden, 2006;Wilson & Schooler, 1991). Conversely, it is possible to overwhelm the conscious-rational system by forcing participants to engage in an ongoing mental chore (e.g., Bargh & Chartrand, 1999), by inducing immediate judgments (e.g., Dijksterhuis & van Olden, 2006), or by measuring implicit associations (e.g., Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998). ...
... Conscious-rational processes can be accentuated by asking an individual to actively deliberate before making a choice (e.g., Wilson, 2002), or by creating a list of positive and negative attributes based on the tasks or objects they are to decide between (e.g., Dijksterhuis & van Olden, 2006;Wilson & Schooler, 1991). Conversely, it is possible to overwhelm the conscious-rational system by forcing participants to engage in an ongoing mental chore (e.g., Bargh & Chartrand, 1999), by inducing immediate judgments (e.g., Dijksterhuis & van Olden, 2006), or by measuring implicit associations (e.g., Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998). Employing different forms of these procedures, both Dijksterhuis and Nordgren (2006) and Levine, Halberstadt, and Goldstone (1996) have found that judgments and predictions made under unconscious-intuitive conditions are more consistent, per test-retest reliability, than those made under rational conditions. ...
... An experiment performed by Dijksterhuis and van Olden (2006) exemplifies the methods and results common to dual-processing studies. Based on unconscious thought theory, the researchers were investigating how three types of predecisional deliberation (immediate choice, conscious thought, and unconscious thought) affect choice satisfaction. ...
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Career counseling requires clients to make assessments and predictions of their interests, necessitating the use of both rational and intuitive processes. Dual-processing models of human decision-making have not been experimentally explored within the context of vocational assessment. One-hundred thirty-six participants chose among eight occupational/educational videos after an unconscious-intuitive, conscious-rational, or decision-as-usual information processing manipulation. Participant interest was assessed before, during, and 2 weeks following the video in order to determine differences across conditions. The results yielded three conclusions. First, the unconscious-intuitive manipulation resulted in interest forecasts that were more predictive of actual interest than did the conscious-rational manipulation or the decision-as-usual conditions. Second, interest levels were recalled more accurately by participants who made choices under unconscious-intuitive conditions than by those in the other two conditions. Finally, a history of occupational engagement was found to be related to decisional quality but only for the control group. These results are discussed in the context of vocational theory.
... Achievement involves thought, feeling, and action. It is well established the relevant role of subconscious processing in both cognitive processing (thought) and confidenceunconfidence feeling processing [36], [37], [38], [39], [40], [41], [42], [43], [44], [45], [46]. ...
... r2 = . 40. That is, the more "N", the less planning. ...
... Neuroscience is providing new data relevant to the unconscious mind [36], [37], [38], [39], [40], [58], [59], [60] and its role for cognitive and emotional diagnosis and treatment. For instance, people can recognize an image they have seen before even when unaware of having seen it [61]. ...
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Academic underachievement is a burning problem far from being solved. This study evaluated the efficacy of a humanistic psychotherapy intervention program based on planning, attention, su ccessive and simultaneous (PASS) inductive learning, and indirect metaphorical Ericksonian communication grounded in the neuroscientific knowledge of human behavior. The rational neuroscientific foundations are explained throughout the discussion, highligh ting the interaction cognition emotion. The sample was 600 subjects classified as low achievers, very low achievers, and behavioral psychosomatic dysfunctional low achievers. The mean age was 13.93 (SD = 1.56; range 12 17), 29.5% women. A normal control gr oup of 172 subjects was selected (mean age, 13.88; SD = 1.75;range 12 17; 49.4% women). ANOVA and stepwise regression analysis were performed. No PASS deficit explains the low achievers. A dysfunctional emotional reason is suggested. A lower simultaneous P ASS appears related to very low achievers. A lower planning PASS and the "N" pattern appear related to behavioral psychosomatic low achievers. The "N" pattern is a suggestive marker of emotional dysfunction. After 6 months of intervention, 55% of very low achievers, 85% of low achievers, and 80% of behavioral psychosomatic participants did not satisfy the criterion of an underachiever. More studies are required to contribute to the accumulative understanding of scientific phenomena, and so investigate repli cation.
... To our best knowledge, the study of Dehghan et al. (2011) is the only one in this regard. The authors replicated Dijksterhuis and van Olden (2006) study about choice satisfaction and asked the participants to choose one poster they liked the most and to take it home with them. Ten days later, participants in the unconscious thought condition showed significantly less satisfaction than did participants in the conscious and immediate condition. ...
... Based on previous research (Dehghan et al., 2011;Dijksterhuis & van Olden, 2006), we expected participants of unconscious thought condition to change their response significantly more often after engaging in conscious thought condition. The difference compared to the initial experimental condition was not found. ...
... The difference compared to the initial experimental condition was not found. Since this is the only similar study in the field, the difference in our results could be explained by the fact that participants of Dijksterhuis & van Olden's (2006) research made a decision based on visually presented posters, in contrast with our verbally described apartments. Moreover, their participants were asked for feedback about their choice ten days after, whereas our participants were asked only after a few minutes. ...
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A complex decision is any decision which includes choosing among options with numerous describing attributes. Certain decisions are fast, often guided with automatic processes of thought, while other decisions are made much slower with careful examination of all the factors. These processes can have a significant impact on the quality of decision making. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of automatic, conscious and unconscious thought processes in the context of decision making. Participants were psychology students aged between 19 to 28 years. First experiment investigated the role of three different thought processes on choosing a subjectively best option, as well as TTB heuristic option. The second experiment investigated metacognitive aspects of decision making, precisely, to determine the differences in feeling of rightness (FOR) as well as the tendency to change the decision, depending on the activated thought processes. Different thought processes determined the choice of the subjectively best option. In the conscious thought condition, participants chose the subjectively best option more often than in the automatic or unconscious thought condition. However, there was no difference between conditions in choosing the TTB heuristic option. The feeling of rightness was significantly higher in conscious thought condition than in automatic or unconscious thought condition, but the two latter conditions did not differ in the judgment of feeling of rightness nor did they differ in the tendency to change the decision.
... Dijksterhuis (2004) developed the Unconscious-Thought paradigm to investigate the expected superiority of unconscious thought. This paradigm has been used in several studies comparing the quality of decisions made after conscious and unconscious thought (e.g., Bos, Dijksterhuis, & van Baaren, 2008;Dijksterhuis, Bos, Nordgren, & van Baaren, 2006;Dijksterhuis & van Olden, 2006;Payne, Samper, Bettman, & Luce, 2008;Smith, Dijksterhuis, & Wigboldus, 2008). ...
... In general, this paradigm involves a complex decision task in which participants have to decide on one of four objects, each characterised by a set of attributes. Decision situations have included buying a new car (e.g., Bos et al., 2008) and choosing an apartment, a roommate (e.g., Dijksterhuis, 2004), or a painting (Dijksterhuis & van Olden, 2006). In most studies, each object was presented as having twelve attributes. ...
... A growing number of studies using variations of the Unconscious-Thought paradigm have showed that unconscious thought led to better decisions especially in complex decision situations (e.g., de Vries, Witteman, Holland, Dijksterhuis, Bos, van der Leij, & van Baaren, 2009;Dijksterhuis & van Olden, 2006;Smith et al., 2008;Strick, Dijksterhuis, & van Baaren, 2010). That means, people in the unconsciousthought condition have consistently shown higher quality decisions (e.g., choosing the most attractive object more often) than those in the other two conditions. ...
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ViraVerita Online Journal/e-dergi: In two experiments we investigated the relation between implicit justice motive and quality of decisions in complex justice-specific situations. According to Unconscious-Thought Theory (Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006), people make better complex decisions when thinking unconsciously than when thinking consciously or deciding immediately. We expected that decision quality would depend on participants’ implicit justice motive (Dalbert, 2001) which operates on an unconscious level and would thus explain especially unconscious decisions. Data were obtained from a total of N = 180 individuals. Findings of both experiments suggest that participants with a strong implicit justice motive were more likely to make just decisions in the unconscious-thought condition than in both other conditions. Findings are discussed in light of the justice motive theory (Dalbert, 2001).
... Conventional wisdom suggests that conscious deliberation based on a set of predetermined standards enhances efficiency and effectiveness (e.g. Dijksterhuis et al., 2009;Dijksterhuis and van Olden, 2006;Agor, 1989). Even in the context of purchasing a painting at an art auction for instance, Dijksterhuis and van Olden (2006) explained that people tend to think thoroughly what they like and dislike, and if possible, use a balance sheet to systematically assign each painting pluses and minuses for different attributes with the belief that a such a strategy leads to a wiser decision. ...
... Dijksterhuis et al., 2009;Dijksterhuis and van Olden, 2006;Agor, 1989). Even in the context of purchasing a painting at an art auction for instance, Dijksterhuis and van Olden (2006) explained that people tend to think thoroughly what they like and dislike, and if possible, use a balance sheet to systematically assign each painting pluses and minuses for different attributes with the belief that a such a strategy leads to a wiser decision. ...
... Indeed, conscious and deliberate adherence to rules and procedures to search and account for audit evidence impede intuitive judgment, which is most effective when made in a non-conscious and rapid manner (Dane and Pratt, 2007). In the domain of psychology, the non-conscious, rapid nature of intuitive judgment has been found to be superior in processing and integrating information in a holistic manner, particularly when the capacity of unconscious processing is virtually unlimited (Dijksterhuis et al., 2009;Dijksterhuis and Meurs, 2006;Dijksterhuis and van Olden, 2006;Dijksterhuis, 2004). ...
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Motivated by concerns about whether rules and regulations capture the rich complexity of auditing and auditors follow rules and regulations to the extent of compromising judgment, this paper provides a synthesis of the literature in the field of auditing and psychology to better understand how auditors follow rules in exercising judgment. Five testable propositions are derived. A model of rules compliance is also developed to better understand auditors’ practices and performance. The model sheds light on how auditors comply or conform to rules given the nature of audit tasks, ranging from well-structured to ill-structured. While the model is developed in the context of audit judgment, the model is also applicable in other similar judgmental settings with a range of well and ill-structured tasks. The propositions and model developed in this study serve as a platform for future empirical research in auditing as well as other similar domains of expertise.
... The reality of unconscious cognitive and sensoryemotional processing is unquestionable [15][16][17][18][19][20]. For instance, the consciously verbally reported strategy to perform a task may not be the one the child used, according to the observable eye movements of the child [21]. ...
... A significant absolute power increase in beta at frontal (Fp1, F3, and F4) and central (C4) areas has been related to increased cortical activation [50]. The low beta frequency range (13)(14)(15)(16)(17) is associated with subsequent memory success, independent of stimulus modality [51]. Beta spindles are seen in conditions such as ADHD and bipolar depression, and epilepsy, suggesting an irritable cortex. ...
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Objective: This study aims to characterize electrical signals to establish a diagnosis of cognitive-emotional dysfunction and guide a successful therapeutic intervention. Therefore, the present study aimed to observe these frequency bands in a sample of dysfunctional neurological behaviors to establish a neural marker of neural dysfunction that helps diagnose and monitor treatment. Methods: A descriptive retrospective (extracted from the database) observational study design based on real-world historical data from routine clinical practice. According to DSM-5, low academic achievement (n =70), disruptive behavior (externalizing behavior problems) (n=70), and somatic syndrome disorder (n=70) were the subjects. The mean age of the sample was 14.13 (SD = 1.46; range 12-18), 31.5% women. The measuring instrument was the NeXus-10, which is suitable for acquiring a wide range of physiological signals. Brain electrical activity was recorded by using the quantitative electroencephalograph (qEEG) in accordance with the 10-20 International Electrode Placement System. In particular, the specific form of miniQ (mini-qEEG) was used. Results: A pattern record present in all cases were identified. The record refers to (a) activity along the midline, namely, Fz-Cz-Pz, (b) activity from the center (Cz) to back, namely, Pz-O1 and O2, (c) activity from the center (Cz) forward (Fz), and (d) comparison between hemispheres. The characteristics of theta, alpha, and beta waves define the characteristic pattern of neurological dysfunction. The reversal of the dysfunctional pattern coincided with the remission of the clinical symptoms after treatment, which occurred in 87,6% of the subjects. We define remission as not meeting DSM-5 criteria. Conclusion: This study suggests that miniQ register could be considered a simple and objective tool for studying neurological dysfunction. This dysfunction is explained according to current neurological knowledge of interactive cognition-emotion processing. MiniQ may be a cheap and reliable method and a promising tool for the investigation in the field.
... In contrast, convergent thinking allows people to arrive at a decision by abiding by a set of predetermined rules or logic (Dijksterhuis, 2004;Dijksterhuis & Meurs, 2006;Yang et al., 2011). Due to the limited capacity to follow strict rules, convergent thinking leads to suboptimal weighting of the important attributes at the expense of others (Dijksterhuis, 2004;Dijksterhuis & van Olden, 2006;Levine, Halberstadt, & Goldstone, 1996;Wilson et al., 1993). As such, people with convergent thinking patterns focus on the constructs that have established connections and discourages ZHANG ET AL. ...
... First, our research contributes to the distraction literature by investigating the role of distraction in the field of branding. Past research shows that distraction causes individuals to engage in unconscious thought, which has been found to influence message persuasiveness (Kupor & Tormala, 2015) and affect consumer produce choice (Liu, 2008;Messner & Wänke, 2011) and consumption satisfaction (Dijksterhuis & van Olden, 2006 | 617 of distraction on low-fit brand extension evaluations is enhanced when the low-fit extension is scheduled to come out in a distant future but is weakened when the extension will be released in a near future. & Shiv, 2005;Shiv & Nowlis, 2004). ...
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This study examines the effect of distraction after being exposed to information on low‐fit brand extension evaluation. We show that when consumers are distracted (vs. engaging in deliberate thinking) after encoding extension information they evaluate low‐fit brand extensions more favorably. Findings suggest that distraction can help establish connections of remotely associated information between a parent brand and a low‐fit extension. We also find that the effect of distraction is contingent on the individual characteristic of consumers' agency–communion orientation. The core effect holds strongly for consumers high in communion orientation, but not for those with an agency orientation. Finally, we examine how marketing communication strategies (i.e., manipulating product message construal level) interact with distraction to influence consumer perceptions of low‐fit brand extensions. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
... CS is studied in the psychology of consumer behavior (recent works include [7][20] [37]). Satisfaction can be elicited, for instance, through user feedback on a Likert scale and studies often use longitudinal measures, since a person's initial estimate of their satisfaction with a particular product is suspect. ...
... Still, more interaction correlated with a slightly worsened UX, which in turn correlates with a slightly worsened CS. This result reinforces research results in consumer product selection, where it is known that more deliberation results in lower CS [7] [37]. Although no evidence was found here that nuanced UX attitudes are discriminant, this does not close the book on them. ...
Conference Paper
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Recommender systems are evaluated based on both their ability to create a satisfying user experience and their ability to help a user make better choices. Despite this, quantitative evidence from previous research in recommender systems indicate very high correlations between user experience attitudes and choice satisfaction. This might imply invalidity in the measurement methodologies of these constructs, whereas they may not be measuring what researchers think they are measuring. To remedy this, we present a new methodology for the measurement of choice satisfaction. Part of our approach is to measure a user's "ease of satisfaction," or that user's natural propensity to be satisfied, which is measured using three different approaches. An (N=526) observational study is conducted wherein users browse a movie catalog. A factor analysis is done to assess the discriminant validity of our proposed choice satisfaction apparatus from user experience. A statistical analysis suggests that accounting for ease-of-satisfaction allows for a model of choice satisfaction that is not only discriminant, but independent, from user experience. This enables researchers to more objectively identify recommender system factors that lead users to good choices.
... From the body of both everyday experience and experimental evidence it can easily be surmised that environmental quality exerts a significant impact on human well-being (Groat 1988), such as "identity", "naturalness" or "unity" (Nasar 1983, Gärling 1976 , Dijksterhuis, van Olden 2006. ...
... As described in the introduction, previous studies (e.g.Cohen, Areni 1991, Bechara, Damasio 2005, Ambler, Ionnides & Rose 2000, Dijksterhuis, van Olden 2006 suggest that the purchasing behaviour of customers may be more influenced by experiential aspects than had previously been believed. There is reason to believe that automatic informationprocessing, emotion and intuition in particular control complex decisionmaking processes such as the choice of an apartment. ...
Thesis
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Both everyday experience and scientific knowledge have demonstrated the great power of the environment to influence not only our emotions and behaviour but also our well-being and health. There is also reason to believe that intuitive preference exerts a significant influence on choice of apartment. Environmental preferences have been studied widely in both natural and urban contexts as well as in the context of external building styles. However, considering the amount of time that people spend inside buildings, including homes, systematic research on visual preferences for architectural interiors seems to be surprisingly negligible. Therefore, studying architectural characteristics that increase visual preference for apartment interiors has to be considered relevant from the perspective of both the well-being and health of people, and also that of enhancing the quality of apartment stock. The primary aim of this thesis was to study architectural characteristics that increase the experience of the visual appeal, or pleasantness, of apartment interiors. I have striven to achieve this aim, first by exploring the literature for attributes that may influence visual preference. Based on these findings, I defined several variables that I considered possibly predictive of visual preference for apartment interiors. Finally, the influence of these variables on visual preference for apartment interiors was studied experimentally. As previous research is scarce on architectural characteristics and their influence on preference in the context of apartment interiors, I ended up searching for characteristics through a broad, interdisciplinary theoretical framework. Two concepts - visual complexity and order - were found to emerge repeatedly from this theoretical framework. In the field of aesthetics, a great number of both theoretical and experimental studies lend support to the assumption that visual aesthetic preference would in one way or another be related to visual complexity and order. Similar results have been obtained in the field of environmental psychology, mainly in the context of outdoor environments; visual elements that promote both exploration and comprehensibility of the environment have been found to increase environmental preference. Besides, several architectural characteristics that can be seen to relate to visual complexity and order are typical of traditional architectural styles, and classical architectural theories emphasize their role in the context of building aesthetics. However, it seems that these concepts have received only minor attention in present-day architectural discourse, research and theory. Based on the literature, a broad set of architectural variables that were considered to potentially explain visual complexity, order and preference of apartment scenes, was created for use in the experimental part of this thesis. Additionally, a total of forty-three test images - where the architectural variables in question obtained different values - were created for this purpose. In the experiment, 107 medical students, who acted as test subjects, evaluated the images according to their interestingness - the term used in this thesis to describe the level of interest they aroused - (an operationalized measure for complexity), spatial organization (an operationalized measure for order) and pleasantness (an operationalized measure for appeal or preference). The relationships between these evaluations and the architectural variables were then analysed by using regression analysis, by comparing the similarities and differences in the evaluations of four subgroups (males, females, participants with prior artistic training and participants without prior art training) and by visually analysing the images and their ratings. In addition, the different affective qualities that might be related to different architectural characteristics were assessed by using the Circumplex model for affective quality attributed to environments created by Russell, Ward and Pratt (1981). The most important and the most reliable result of this thesis can be considered to be that the ratings for interestingness and spatial organization of apartment interiors were found to predict the ratings for pleasantness. The same finding was perceived within the whole group as well as within each of the four subgroups. This study thus lends support to the finding that has emerged in research from other disciplines: the environment should be both complex and ordered at the same time in order to be pleasant. In addition, certain physical architectural characteristics were found that predicted the majority of variance of the ratings for interestingness (83%) and spatial organization (87.6%). For instance, the total number of outward directions from the room, the amount of detail (the number of black pixels in the binary image) and the surface area of the windows were found to increase the ratings for interestingness in the regression model of the whole group and in that of at least three subgroups. In the same way, the bilateral symmetry of the room was found to increase and the number of aligned element lines to decrease the ratings for spatial organization. Together with the ratings for interestingness and spatial organization, the use of classical proportions and verticality were found to predict the majority (76.6%) of variance in the ratings for pleasantness. However, creating and defining the architectural variables used in this study was challenging, within certain characteristics in particular, and therefore the results concerning these can only be regarded as preliminary. Studying the phenomena perceived in this study further with both different subject groups and architectural variables provides interesting and important research topics for future studies.
... In terms of complex decision making, people encouraged to think at an unconscious level made the best decisions, leading to clearer, more polarized and more integrated representations in memory (Dijksterhuis 2004). Unconscious thought can increase post-choice satisfaction and introspecting without reason can reduce post-choice satisfaction (Dijksterhuis & van Olden 2006); unconscious thought is goal dependent (Bos et al. 2008). Likewise, intuitive judgement was studied by asking students to rate jam and these results were compared with experts. ...
Thesis
Corporate Social Responsibility is an important part of a modern organisation. The definition of CSR can be seen to play an important role in understanding and engagement by organisational stakeholders. There are a numerous definitions and frameworks in the field of CSR and different organisational stakeholders may hold different views in respect of strategic priorities. The research explores three questions: firstly, what is the respondents’ personal definition of CSR? Secondly, how does the concept of implicit / explicit CSR fit within an organisational context? And finally and to a much lesser extent, are there any variant CSR themes within the island of Jersey compared to, for example, the UK? A multiple case study methodology was adopted, which supported the exploration of CSR policy and activity from the perspective of organisational members. Semi-structured interviews were used along with critical incident technique to explore the definitions, beliefs and values of a range of organisational stakeholders. Empirically based findings support the general definition of the respondents’ personal definition of CSR and also an augmented implicit / explicit framework of CSR which is based on Matten and Moon’s paper (2008). In respect of a personal definition of CSR, 21 respondents were interviewed across 11 organisations and a general, personal definition was found. Generally, respondents defined CSR at an explicit level as being about philanthropy, role in society and engagement. Implicitly, respondents generally defined CSR in terms of ethical, legal and economic interests. People tend to define CSR at an explicit level as ‘fundraising’ and ‘philanthropy’ and at a more implicit level about ‘social good’ and ‘doing the right thing’. An electronic survey showed that respondents from one of the researched organisations prioritised organisational responsibility in the following order: legal, ethical, economic and philanthropic. The exploration of the implicit / explicit framework of CSR revealed the advantage of utilising a relational perspective which integrates perspectives rather than frames them as a paradox (although this is a perspective adopted by the researcher which is likely to invoke debate rather than be universally accepted). A series of diagnostic dimensions were defined which was used to place the 1,315 respondent meaning units into the framework, resulting a balance of implicit and explicit influences on the organisational framework. The meaning units derived from the implicit / explicit model tended to mirror the respondents’ personal definition of CSR. There are several areas of recommended research, including an opening of dialogue regarding paradoxical / complementary perspectives of CSR versus organisational responsibility. Recommended research also is how CSR knowledge is transferred from the individual stakeholder to the institution within which she sits and vice versa.
... Ainsi, plusieurs études ont montré que dans certains contextes, le traitement délibératif conduit à la présence de biais cognitifs (Macpherson & Stanovich, 2007;Wong, Kwong, & Ng, 2008) tandis que le traitement heuristique amène à des réponses correctes (Alós-Ferrer & Hügelschäfer, 2012;Dane, Rockmann, & Pratt, 2012;Gigerenzer, 2014;Kruglanski & Gigerenzer, 2011). De manière générale, le traitement heuristique serait particulièrement efficient dans les prises de décisions compliquées (Dijksterhuis & van Olden, 2006) notamment lorsque les décisions sont fondées sur les expériences précédentes de l'individu (Glöckner & Hochman, 2011). Dans ce type de tâche, la forte dépendance des traitements délibératifs aux capacités mnésiques conduiraient les individus à effectuer des erreurs (Evans & Stanovich, 2013;Stanovich, 2011). ...
Thesis
Développé en 2015, l’Emotion Imbued Choice (EIC ; Lerner et al., 2015) explique la manière dont les émotions influencent la prise de décision. Selon ce modèle, les émotions incidentes (non reliées à la décision) associées à un haut degré de certitude déclencheraient un traitement plutôt heuristique de l’information tandis que les émotions associées à un haut degré d’incertitude déclencheraient un traitement plutôt délibératif (Tiedens & Linton, 2001), expliquant des différences de performances dans les tâches de prise de décision.L’influence des émotions incidentes a été étudiée dans la prise de décision unique et dans la prise séquentielle de décisions (i.e., séries de décisions). Si l’EIC, fournit un cadre explicatif clair concernant la prise de décision unique, ses prédictions sont moins explicites quant à la prise séquentielle de décisions. Cette dernière présente la particularité que chaque décision est suivie d’un feedback (gain ou perte) ayant une valeur émotionnelle (positive vs. négative). Cette source d’influence émotionnelle intégrée (reliée à la décision) peut modifier les décisions suivantes. Des auteurs ont observé que le déclenchement d’un traitement de l’information plutôt heuristique conduit les participants à prendre des décisions plus avantageuses que le déclenchement d’un traitement de l’information plutôt délibératif (Bagneux et al. 2013 ; voir aussi Bollon & Bagneux, 2013). Toutefois, l’implication du traitement de la valeur émotionnelle des feedbacks dans l’obtention de ce pattern de résultats n’a, à ce jour, pas reçu de confirmation directe.Notre objectif était d’identifier la manière dont les émotions incidentes, en fonction de leur degré de certitude, modulent la prise séquentielle de décisions. Au travers d’une série de sept expériences, nous avons montré comment ces émotions incidentes interagissent avec l’influence émotionnelle intégrée des feedbacks. Ainsi, seul le déclenchement d’un traitement plutôt heuristique conduit les participants à moduler leurs décisions en fonction du type (positifs vs. négatifs) de feedbacks reçus. Ces résultats concernent les tâches de prise séquentielle de décisions ambigües et risquées. La modulation du pattern de prise de décision a été mise en évidence, de manière classique, lors de l’induction d’émotions incidentes négatives et, de manière plus originale, lors de l’induction d’émotions incidentes positives. En second lieu, l’analyse des résultats et de la littérature a mis en évidence la fiabilité médiocre de la mesure du degré de certitude. Une série de six autres études, s’inscrivant dans la méthodologie générale de construction d’échelles, a été réalisée afin d’en recherche les origines. Nous avons montré que cette faible fiabilité était la double conséquence d’une définition incomplète et d’une opérationnalisation imparfaite de la dimension de certitude. À un niveau théorique, nous proposons que l’ensemble de nos résultats supportent la nécessité d’étendre le modèle EIC à la prise séquentielle de décisions. Sur le plan méthodologique, nos résultats justifient l’intérêt de développer un nouvel outil de mesure du degré de certitude.
... According to Zaltman (2000), 95% of all decision-making processes are unconscious and automatic. In fact, there are studies indicating that, in certain cases, unconscious decisions lead to more satisfying results than conscious decisions (Dijksterhuis and Van Olden, 2006;Gao et al., 2010;Messner and Wänke, 2011). ...
The question of whether consumer purchasing decisions are conscious choices or unconscious has long been studied in marketing. The ability to measure mental changes with high temporal resolution makes the EEG-based event-related potentials (ERP) method very useful in studying the distinction between consciousness and unconsciousness. Although experiences with brands significantly affect the awareness or unconsciousness of decisions to purchase, ERP studies have ignored experiences of consumers in relation to brand purchases. For this purpose, EEG recordings of participants were taken in the order they saw brand names: experienced brands, review-based brands, and unknown brands. Participants chose one of the three options for the brands they saw on the screen: buying, not buying, and no idea. 35 people participated in the study. The results indicate that early ERPs, which are unconscious mental reactions, related to purchase decisions for previously unknown brands. Late ERPs associated with conscious mental reactions are related to purchasing review-based brands or experienced brands. We conclude that purchasing decisions about unknown brands occur as a result of automatic, unconscious mental processes, whereas purchasing decisions about previously experienced brands and based on consumer reviews result from conscious mental processes. Our study is the first that demonstrates the relationship between ERP's and purchasing decisions, with an experimental design focused on consumer experience and consciousness.
... An impressive number of studies indicated contextual superiority of intuitive over analytic decisions in certain judgmental situations (for reviews, see Gigerenzer, 2007;Kahneman, 2003;Wilson, 2002). Especially in situational contexts in which a person is under stress, time pressure, and when facing complex problems, intuitive processes often lead to judgments with higher diagnostic value for the to-bejudged criterion than rational-analytic processes of reasoning (Dijksterhuis & Van Olden, 2006). In these situations, relevant pieces of information cannot be sequentially attended to because of limited resources of the working memory. ...
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The assumption that mindfulness facilitates the access to intuitive processes has been theoretically formulated but not investigated yet. Therefore, the present study explored whether the intuitive performance in a judgment of semantic coherence task of N = 94 participants was related to trait mindfulness. In contrast to our hypothesis, self-reported mindful-ness and the mindfulness facet, acting without judgment in specific, were negatively associated with intuitive performance. In an exploratory part of the study, we induced mindfulness, rumination, and distraction. We expected that participants in the mindfulness condition would outperform participants in the other two conditions in the intuition task. Even though we used a well-established paradigm to induce mindfulness, there were no differences between groups in intuition. We propose that future studies investigating the impact of mindfulness on processes such as intuition, should use more intensive manipulations of mindfulness. Possible explanations for the current findings and limitations are discussed.
... The more the pattern of a nutrition label matches the final decision of health evaluation, the higher the probability that the participants would use that very type of label was. It should be noted that, when the evaluation is based on two or more types of nutrition labels, responses may reflect the least cognitive effort required for the analytical system or the heuristic decision-making based on the preference of, or trust in, either of label types [30][31][32]. Furthermore, consuming contexts, involving completion time, may also interact with the processing of nutrition labels, taking the cognitive effort for the heuristic and analytical systems into consideration. ...
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Nutrition labels on food packages are designed to assist consumers in making healthy decisions. Based on the model of a dual-process system, the current study examined how people might be affected by nutrition labels and consuming contexts when making choices about healthy foods. Using four types of nutrition labels (i.e., the NuVal label, 5-Color nutrition label, traffic light label, and daily value label), participants were instructed to choose the healthier foods with or without time constraints in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with pairs of foods accompanied by the same type of nutrition labels to measure the efficiency of their health evaluation. In Experiment 2, two types of labels with inconsistent nutritional information were presented to participants simultaneously to measure their preference regarding the nutrition labels. Findings of the current study support the notion that the traffic light label is advantageous in terms of both the efficiency of, and preferences regarding, nutrition judgment, especially with time constraints. When there was only one type of nutrition label, participants made decisions fastest and most accurately when observing the NuVal label, regardless of time constraints. Overall, the reliable interactions between the time constraints and patterns of nutrition labels have theoretical implications for the appeal-based heuristics and rational-based processing when making health-related food decisions.
... In a paired-comparison survey, interviewees are faced with two options at each step and are asked to pick the one they prefer. Indeed, literature suggests that people make 'better' choices if they do not engage in conscious thought, with post-choice satisfaction being reduced with introspection (Dijksterhuis and van Olden, 2006) and the greater the number of choices made available (Iyengar and Lepper, 2000). Dijksterhuis and Nordgren (2008) suggest that whereas conscious thought is better for simple decisions, complex decisions are better suited with unconscious thought. ...
Article
Cultural ecosystem services such as aesthetic value are highly context-specific and often present difficulties in their assessment. Here we present a case study in the northern English Protected Area of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. Utilising publicly available images, paired-comparison surveys, probability modelling, machine-learning based text annotations, natural language processing and regression analysis, we developed a spatial model to predict and map landscape aesthetics across the whole site. The predictive model found eighteen significant variables, including the positive role of rural areas, mountainous landforms and vegetation for aesthetic value. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of our approach to varying size datasets and partial paired-comparison matrices, finding a very good agreement with only 20% of paired comparisons. This study demonstrates the use of freely available data and mostly open source tools to ascertain landscape aesthetic value in a large Protected Area.
... 种重要的购物形式 (常亚平, 肖万福, 覃伍, 阎俊, 2012;井淼, 周颖, 王方华, 2007;Brengman, Geuens, Weijters, Smith, & Swinyard, 2003;Kozinets, 2016 Crockett et al., 2013;Pejsachowicz & Toussaert, 2017;Mochon, 2013;Hedgcock, Rao, & Chen, 2016), (Dodds, Monroe, & Grewal, 1991 (Dhar, 1996(Dhar, , 1997a(Dhar, , 1997b(Dhar, , 1999Greenleaf & Lehmann, 1995;Mourali et al., 2018;Pejsachowicz & Toussaert, 2017), & Gips, 2014;Dijksterhuis & Olden, 2006;Elder & Kahneman, 2011;Shen et al., 2016;Zhao, Hoeffler, & ZauberMan, 2011) ...
... For example, when thinking carefully before making a choice people may deliberate about normative aspects of the choice that could undermine the more affective influences (such as anticipated happiness) on a choice. Indeed, and in line with this general reasoning, research has shown that when people introspect on the reasons for making a particular choice, they tend to be less satisfied after making the decision, as compared to when they make a choice intuitively (Dijksterhuis & van Olden, 2006;Wilson et al., 1993). This may suggest, as we predict, that when making a choice based on careful deliberation, people use or weigh anticipated happiness of the choice less strongly. ...
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People make choices among different options for different reasons. We hypothesized that people will choose the options that they believe will make them happier and that this effect of anticipated happiness on decision-making will be moderated by style of thinking (i.e., intuitive or deliberative). In a two-phase online experiment, 15 pairs of options were randomly presented one at a time, and participants indicated the extent to which each option would contribute to their happiness (i.e. anticipated happiness of a choice option). One week later, participants were randomly assigned to make choices on similar pairs of options either by using deliberative thinking or intuitive thinking. Results of a linear mixed-effects model analysis revealed that anticipated happiness influenced choices significantly. However, this occurred independent of whether participants made the choice in a deliberative or in an intuitive mindset. The implications of these findings for understanding the association between decision-making and happiness are discussed.
... These latter were found to make the best choices. These results were replicated across many similar studies (e.g., Dijksterhuis, 2004;Dijksterhuis & van Olden, 2006). Creswell, Bursley, and Satpute (2013) imaged the brains of the participants during the experiments and found that the same brain areas that were active while acquiring key information (the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the left intermediate visual cortex) were also active while people were unconsciously solving the problem; moreover, the more active those areas were, the better the decision was. ...
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This paper aims to emphasize the fundamental role of unconscious processes in our adaptation. We will point out how we are able to unconsciously perform higher mental functions such as setting goals and planning how to pursue them, dealing with complex data, and making choices and judgments. In the first part of this paper, we will describe the main features of conscious and unconscious processes as pointed out by recent empirical research studies, and we will see how safety is essential in pursuing our fundamental goals, and how unconscious mental processes are strongly oriented towards preserving our safety and pursuing these goals. Finally, we will discuss control-mastery theory (CMT), an integrative, relational, cognitive-dynamic theory of mental functioning, psychopathology, and psychotherapy processes developed by Joseph Weiss and empirically validated by Weiss, Harold Sampson, and the San Francisco Psychotherapy Research Group over the last 50 years. This conceptualizes unconscious processes starting from this “higher unconscious mental functioning” paradigm and, in accordance with research data, stresses that our main goal is to adapt to reality and pursue adaptive developmental goals while preserving our safety. Three clinical vignettes will help show how the concepts proposed by CMT have important implications for therapeutic process.
... Because visual perception results in an information flow that is much higher than that of other perception systems, very effective mechanisms to reduce the incoming data to a degree that can be processed by the brain exist. One of the goal dependent, play an important role in decision-making and also contribute to post-choice satisfaction (Bos, Dijksterhuis, & Baaren, 2008;Dijksterhuis, 2004;Dijksterhuis & Aarts, 2010;Dijksterhuis, Smith, van Baaren, & Wigboldus, 2005;Dijksterhuis & van Olden, 2006). ...
Chapter
This chapter provides a general overview of eye-tracking techniques and their applications in consumer research with a focus on the food area. Firstly, the scientific approaches leading to the development of eye-trackers are described, followed by a review of the principles and technical solutions of measuring gazing behavior. After a description of the factors influencing gaze behavior and a discussion of the relation between gaze, choice and decision making we present applications of eye-tracking in the fields of packaging, label and menu design, in-store consumer behavior, emotional responses and eating disorders. Finally, we discuss a case study involving the use of eye-tracking for studying consumer food choice in more detail.
... On his view, when there are multiple competing considerations to juggle, the higher capacity of nonconscious processing produces better decisions than both conscious deliberation and immediate judgment. Under these conditions, people make objectively better decisions (Dijksterhuis 2004;, are more satisfied with their decisions (Dijksterhuis & van Olden 2006), and are more consistent in their judgments (Nordgren & Dijksterhuis 2009). Interestingly, he also produces evidence that conscious deliberation increases the influence of the availability heuristic (Dijksterhuis et al. 2008: 94). ...
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Nudges are, roughly, ways of tweaking the context in which agents choose in order to bring them to make choices that are in their own interests. Nudges are controversial: opponents argue that because they bypass our reasoning processes, they threaten our autonomy. Proponents respond that nudging, and therefore this bypassing, is inevitable and pervasive: if we do not nudge ourselves in our own interests, the same bypassing processes will tend to work to our detriment. In this paper, I argue that we should reject the premise common to opponents and proponents: that nudging bypasses our reasoning processes. Rather, well designed nudges present reasons to mechanisms designed to respond to reasons of just that kind. In this light, it is refusing to nudge that threatens our autonomy, by refusing to give us good reasons for action.
... In familiar, thoroughly learned tasks that have become automatic, reasoning can even be distractive: Several studies have shown that conscious reasoning may sometimes weaken the stability of preferences and therefore lead to regret and reduced satisfaction with choices (Dijksterhuis & van Olden, 2006;Lee, Amir, & Ariely, 2009;Pham, Cohen, Pracejus, & Hughes, 2001;Rusou, Zakay, & Usher, 2013;Wilson et al., 1993). The cause of this maladaptive effect of reasoning appears to be its interference with automatic information integration processes, which are based on experiences accumulated with similar stimuli (i.e., intuition; Glöckner & Witteman, 2010) or on attribute weights that have been consolidated when attention is directed elsewhere between information acquisition and the actual decision (the unconscious thought effect; Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006). ...
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Certain experiments have shown that reasoning may weaken the stability of people's preferences, especially with regard to well-learned perceptual judgment and decision-making tasks, while learning has an opposite, consistency-enhancing effect on preferences. We examined the effects of these factors in a visual multi-attribute decision-making task where reasoning, in contrast, has been found to benefit judgments by making them more stable. The initial assumption in this study was that this benefit would be typical for novel tasks, like the one employed here, and that it would decrease when the task is thoroughly learned. This assumption was examined in three experiments by contrasting it with an alternative assumption that this previously obtained beneficial effect is caused solely by learning, not by reasoning. It was found that learning indeed makes preferences more stable by consolidating the weights of the attributes. Reasoning, however, does not benefit this task when it is completely novel but facilitates learning and stability of the preferences long run, therefore increasing the consistency of the participants in the macrolevel. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Behavioral Decision Making Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... Recent research, however, has shed light on the intuitive side of the argument, such that humans, limited with their cognitive capacity, would be more satisfied when they do not deliberate. Several studies have substantiated this view (Brenner, Rottenstreich, and Sood 1999;Dijksterhuis and Van Olden 2006;Wilson et al. 1993). One of the attempts to reconcile these seemingly opposite views in the previous research was to incorporate product type with processing type (Gallo et al. 2017). ...
... So, with the UTT, it is noteworthy to stress that the framework will be useful to elicitate users experiences as a result of their use of a system. This is because the UTT suggests that unconscious thought do help users achieve better performance in complex tasks, than conscious thought (Dijksterhuis and van Olden, 2006). ...
... Known as 'deliberationwithout-attention,' researchers found that those who were distracted with an unrelated task before rendering a decision made a better choice, relative to those who made their decision immediately, and those who spent some time deeply thinking about it (Dijksterhuis, 2004;. To elaborate, consumers who were randomly assigned distracted tasks were more competent at differentiating between attractive and unattractive product alternatives and reported more satisfaction with their selections (Dijksterhuis & van Olden, 2006), relative to other groups who either evaluated the products immediately or thought consciously about them. Even though some subsequent studies on distractions did not find an impact (e.g., Acker, 2008), a meta-analysis found evidence that distraction is statistically significant (though admittedly a small effect size) and moderators such as mind-set help explain the discrepancies between studies (Strick et al., 2011). ...
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Dark patterns – design interfaces or features that subtly manipulate people in making suboptimal decisions – are ubiquitous especially in e-commerce websites. Yet, there is little research on the effectiveness of dark patterns, and even lesser studies on testing interventions that can help mitigate their influence on consumers. To that end, we conducted two experiments. The first experiment tests the effectiveness of different dark patterns within a hypothetical single product online shopping context. Results show that, indeed, dark patterns increase the purchase impulsivity across all dark patterns, relative to the control. The second experiment tests the effectiveness of three behaviorally informed interventions on four different dark patterns also in a hypothetical online shopping scenario, but this time offering multiple products instead of a single product. Between-subject analysis shows that not all interventions are equally effective, with uneven impact across dark patterns. However, within-subject results indicate that all interventions significantly reduce purchase impulsivity pre- versus post-intervention, indicating that any intervention is better than none when it comes to combating dark patterns. We then end by discussing the policy implications of our results.
... Since the former is not necessary, one may doubt whether the latter is. While this doubt gains some support from evidence about blindsight (Danckert and Rossetti 2005), there is also evidence suggesting that deliberating is often more successful when it is not conscious (Dijksterhuis 2004;Dijksterhuis and van Olden 2006;Mealor and Dienes 2012), and there are compelling reasons to think that unconscious processing plays as important a role in control and decision making as conscious experience does (see e.g. Haggard and Libet 2001;Clark 2007;Suhler and Churchland 2009;Wu 2013;Shepherd and Mylopoulos 2021) 5 . ...
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According to unconscious perception hypothesis (UP), mental states of the same fundamental kind as ordinary conscious seeing can occur unconsciously. The proponents of UP often support it with empirical evidence for a more specific hypothesis, according to which colours can be seen unconsciously (UPC). However, UPC is a general claim that admits of many interpretations. The main aim of this paper is to determine which of them is the most plausible. To this end, I investigate how adopting various conceptions of colour and perceptual phenomenal character affects UPC’s resilience to objections. This brings me to the conclusion that the most plausible reading of UPC is the one according to which the phenomenal character of colour perception (i) is constituted by colours qua primitive mind-independent qualities of the environment and (ii) is not essentially tied to consciousness. My conclusion not only identifies the most plausible interpretation of UPC, but also highlights and supports an unorthodox version of the relational theory of perception, which is a perfectly viable yet so far overlooked stance in the debate about unconscious perception.
... These scales ranged from 0 to 50. Previous studies have shown that this method successfully quantifies participants' affective changes (e.g., Dijksterhuis and van Olden, 2006;Motl et al., 2018). ...
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People tend to misestimate their future emotions. This phenomenon is thought to be associated with information accessibility. However, few studies have demonstrated the impact of context-specific information accessibility on affective forecasting. This research investigated the effects of information accessibility on affective forecasting in career context (i.e., occupational engagement was seen as information accessibility), during which surprise or not surprise context was played simultaneously. We found that affective forecasting appeared stably across emotional response types. Specifically, there was an underestimation in interest appraisals and an overestimation in satisfaction. These biases were influenced by occupational engagement, which only worked in career interest appraisals. High occupational engagement made people estimate their future emotions more accurately and overcome their forecasting bias. Surprisingness was then manipulated further to explain whether it could impact the effect of occupational engagement on affective forecasting. The emotional responses in both prediction and experience were affected by surprisingness, thus causing no affective forecasting biases. These results suggest the role of occupational engagement in affective forecasting and provide evidence supporting the information accessibility model about the mechanism in affective forecasting.
... If the unconscious is provided with much information about the service and if the unconscious approve of the relationship which is not measurable then that occurring incidents in the relationship between customer and service provider occur. Dijksterhuis and Olden (2006) argues that the conscious decision making often leads to worst decisions and unconsciously superior decision are made. The conscious thought can assess the importance of aspects of different alternatives suboptimal, while the unconscious decision is more rational. ...
Article
The emergence of Islamic finance has witnessed significant growth since its introduction as Shariah based index in both BSE & NSE in 2008 and 2010 respectively. The Islamic investment is based on the principles of Islamic laws such as prohibition of Riba (Interest), Maysir (Gambling), Gharar (Uncertainty). The present paper is an attempt to analyse the impact of accounting information on the volatility and valuation of 50 companies listed in S&P BSE 500 Shariah Index representing the 13 sectors of economy including sectors like Oil, Gas, Pharmaceuticals, Textiles and Chemicals etc. Variables for measuring accounting information are; Book value per share (BPS), Dividend per share (DPS), Earning per share (EPS), and Market Price of Share (MPS). The data of the companies have been obtained from the BSE website and the annual reports of the companies. Methodology used for this paper is panel data techniques like Fixed Effects model and Random Effects model have been employed to investigate the objectives. The empirical results reveal that the DPS, EPS, BVS have positive relationship with Market Value of Share (MPS) of Shariah compliant companies. There is huge growth in Islamic finance worldwide. India has opportunities for financial inclusion with Islamic financial products.
... Still, item familiarity and its impact on assessing recommendations should be studied in more detail. Also, the general influence of extensively using questionnaires needs to be considered more, as thinking consciously about decisions was found not always beneficial [5]. ...
Conference Paper
In user studies of recommender systems, participants typically cannot consume the recommended items. Still, they are asked to assess recommendation quality and other aspects related to user experience by means of questionnaires. Without having listened to recommended songs or watched suggested movies, however, this might be an error-prone task, possibly limiting validity of results obtained in these studies. In this paper, we investigate the effect of actually consuming the recommended items. We present two user studies conducted in different domains showing that in some cases, differences in the assessment of recommendations and in questionnaire results occur. Apparently, it is not always possible to adequately measure user experience without allowing users to consume items. On the other hand, depending on domain and provided information, participants sometimes seem to approximate the actual value of recommendations reasonably well. [ Full text available at: http://bit.ly/2vVsyRm ]
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Decision justification provides assurance and reduces negative post-decision emotions, while simultaneously expends decision costs (i.e., cognitive effort). The current paper investigated the function of justification and cognitive effort related to regret, specifically in the online shopping context in two studies. In Study 1, 112 participants reviewed vignettes in a 2 × 2 within-subjects design involving cognitive effort (high versus low) and justification of action (easy versus difficulty), and reported the regret level when their purchase decision yielded subpar consequences. As expected, high cognitive effort and easy justification reduced regret. However, the effect of justification on regret was moderated by cognitive effort. In Study 2, 178 participants were randomly assigned to conditions in a 2 × 2 between-subjects design involving cognitive effort (high versus low) and decision justification (waste versus control). Participants followed a cover story and shopped for a laptop online; then they rated the regret level had they made an unplanned purchase. Results confirmed the hypothesis; regret was greater when justification was wasted. However, wasted justification only worsened regret when more cognitive effort was exerted. The current studies shed light on understanding an intricate dynamic between information processing and justification in relation to regret when shopping online.
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The fundamental factors in the decision–making processes —intrinsic to the managerial and leadership (executive) organizational y personal levels— are herewith presented. The nature of this competence is metadisciplinary (Roso, 2000) for it applies to all sciences and applied fields. Several approaches are described based on descriptive, normative and prescriptive theories within the decision theory applicable to the pre, during and after decision taking, identifying other cuali and quantitative techniques and models so as to unravel convergent and divergent situational-problems.
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Our emotional faculties respond to successes, gains, advantages, threats, losses, obstacles, and other personally significant objects or situations, producing positive or negative evaluations of them according to their perceived import. Being an evaluative response is a feature that emotions share with paradigm attitudes (beliefs, intentions, judgments, etc.). However, recently philosophers have been reluctant to treat emotions as attitudes. The usual reasons given have to do with the automaticity of emotions and their occasional recalcitrance. In this article, I argue that these things shouldn't disqualify emotions from counting as genuine attitudes. Our emotions do bear the kind of relationship with our reasons that is characteristic of our attitudes.
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Previous studies have established the influence of mindfulness on the tourists’ experience when they are on-site at an attraction or in a destination. However, the travel experience begins during the anticipation phase when tourists embark on the vacation planning process. This study considered the influence that mindfulness during the travel anticipation phase has on the traveller’s confidence that they chose the best destination for the trip, their satisfaction with the trip, and their loyalty to the destination. The results of the analysis found that mindfulness during the travel anticipation phase had significant positive influences on confidence, satisfaction and loyalty, suggesting the potential benefits for destinations to encourage mindfulness in future visitors as they plan their trip. The major contribution of this study is to establish that mindfulness during the anticipation phase influenced the travel experience. Future research should consider the role of mindfulness in all five travel phases, as well the development of promotional strategies that encourage mindfulness in potential visitors.
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Cobbler’s children do not wear shoes. Software engineers build sophisticated software but we often cannot find the needed information and knowledge for ourselves. Issues are the amount of development information that can be captured, organizing that information to make them useable for other developers as well as human decision-making issues. Current architectural knowledge management systems cannot handle these issues properly. In this paper, we outline a research agenda for intelligent tools to support the knowledge management and decision making of architects. The research agenda consists of a vision and research challenges on the way to realize this vision. We call our vision on-demand architectural knowledge systems (ODAKS). Based on literature review, analysis, and synthesis of past research works, we derive our vision of ODAKS as decision-making companions to architects. ODAKS organize and provide relevant information and knowledge to the architect through an assistive conversation. ODAKS use probing to understand the architects’ goals and their questions, they suggest relevant knowledge and present reflective hints to mitigate human decision-making issues, such as cognitive bias, cognitive limitations, as well as design process aspects, such as problem-solution co-evolution and the balance between intuitive and rational decision-making. We present the main features of ODAKS, investigate current potential technologies for the implementation of ODAKS and discuss the main research challenges.
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We examine the use of intuition versus analytical thinking in auditor risk assessment using a task that requires auditors to assess a group of impairment indicators. We expect that auditor intuition, rooted in the subconscious, more likely reacts to impairment indicator risk than does auditor analytical thinking. Results from two different experiments support this expectation for less‐experienced audit seniors. These seniors are more likely to assess step‐zero impairment indicators as signaling potential impairment when prompted to think intuitively versus analytically. In contrast, a third experiment finds that experienced seniors are more likely to assess step‐zero impairment indicators as signaling potential impairment when prompted to think analytically versus intuitively. This is consistent with the more experienced, but still non‐expert seniors possessing developed analytical thinking, but struggling to effectively use their intuition. Our results inform theory by suggesting under what conditions auditor intuition and analytical thinking produce differential risk sensitivity. Further, our results inform practice, given regulators’ stated focus on auditor skepticism and impairment assessments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
The idea of the existence of duality in the functioning of the human mind is very old: for some psychologists, this is due to the existence of two types of cognitive process, heuristic and analytic. The former is influenced by the individual's beliefs, and the latter analyzes the validity of arguments and justifications. This chapter examines this duality from a critical perspective by exploring its ecological validity. Thus, the duality will be examined in relation to the principles of the Darwinian theory of evolution and presented the advantages of the alternative model of argumentative theory. Authors present in more detail recent models of moral reasoning to illustrate what they believe are the limitations of the dual-process models of cognition.
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Popularity signs (e.g., “best seller”, “top rated”) are frequently employed by marketers to help consumers in their purchase decisions. Whereas extant research focused mostly on the positive aspects of such a strategy, we demonstrate that it can also have adverse effects on consumer post-choice behavior. Depending on consumer regulatory orientation, such popularity signs can make the decision task more complex and increase feelings of uncertainty. The results of seven studies, including real choice decisions and field data, show that the provision of popularity signs can have negative consequences on consumers with a prevention (vs. promotion) focus by increasing the heterogeneity of their consideration set, which in turn is associated with an increase in choice uncertainty and a decrease in choice commitment. Beyond their theoretical significance, our findings shed novel light on the ways to implement popularity signs for a more efficiently targeted marketing effort.
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Many children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) are known to have executive dysfunction, which weakens their abilities to learn and behave in daily living. This protocol describes the methodology that is required for the intervention (psychotherapy) based on planning, attention, successive, and simultaneous (PASS theory) cognitive processing and fear emotional processing. It provides guiding principles and practical recommendations. A disproportionately high level of fear (dysregulation) increases the vulnerability for dysfunction in learning and behavior. We explain the interplay between emotion and cognition at the neurological level. A go/no go task (The Adventures of Fundi), which involves decision making, is administered in a PC- mode to a sample of 66 ADHD subjects. The Adventures of Fundi, a computer program, was constructed to induce successive or simultaneous processing when involving the training of planning and selective attention. It aims to improve the executive function with planning and selective attention. If executive function improves, learning improves, and behavior ameliorates. After intervention over 6 months, remission was achieved in 70% of subjects. The instructor encourages the use of appropriate strategies and points out the ways in which the strategies can be useful in finding the solution to the problem (go/no go). The emphasis is not on rehearsing and adult instructed verbal sequence. The verbalization may reveal the conscious verbalized strategy to solve a task that is not really the strategy being unconsciously used in that case. A self-verbal report is unreliable. This is an inductive learning rather than deductive rule-learning approach central to cognitive PASS training. This inductive training has proved to produce not only near transfer but also far transfer. Noncognitive factors (emotional factors) must be considered to maximize the benefit of cognitive training. Indirect and metaphorical communication considers the emotional factor.
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E-commerce consumers often face complex product choices and have to make decisions at various times of the day. Extant research has primarily focused on providing decision aids and eliminating “distracting” features to help consumers' conscious thought when making complex decisions. Our research adopts a novel perspective that consumers' unconscious thought may have some advantages and be exploited to help consumers make complex purchase decisions, especially when one's circadian preference (optimal time of day for decision-making, e.g., morning vs. evening) is not met. Drawing on the Unconscious Thought Theory (UTT), we developed two hypotheses regarding the effects of consumers' unconscious thought and its interaction with consumer circadian preference on decision quality. A controlled experiment was conducted to test our hypotheses. The findings show that unconscious thought outperforms conscious thought for making complex product choices in general and such effects are amplified when there is an asynchrony between one's circadian preference and the time of decision. The new circadian synchrony perspective enriches our understanding of the effects of unconscious thought on decision-making, helps explain the somewhat mixed findings in prior work on UTT, and thus contributes back to the UTT literature. The findings have implications about how unconscious thought can be leveraged to facilitate online shopping, and underscores the importance of considering consumer's circadian preference and time of decision.
Conference Paper
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Stratejik karar alma, tepe yönetimin yerine getirdiği en önemli ve en can alıcı işlevdir. Yanlış alınan veya zamanında alınmayan stratejik karar firmayı çok zor durumda bırakabileceği ve hatta yaşamını sona erdirebileceği gibi doğru ve zamanında alınan bir stratejik karar da firmayı rakipleri karşısında üstün konuma taşıyabilir. Yöneticiler, sahip oldukları veya ulaşabildikleri enformasyon oranında rasyonel kararlar alabilmektedirler. Ama ellerindeki enformasyon en iyi ihtimalle mevcut durumun resmedilmesi olmaktadır. Stratejik kararlar ise uzak gelecekteki amaçların gerçekleştirilmesiyle ilgili olduğundan, karar alıcıların belli bir seviyeye kadar sezgilerini kullanmaları gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmada tepe yönetim profili ve firma yapısının, sezgisel stratejik karar almaya etkileri araştırılmıştır. Toplamda 493 katılımcıdan elde edilen veriler ile yapılan araştırmamızın sonuçlarında, tepe yönetimin eğitim düzeyinin ve sektör deneyiminin sezgiye dayalı stratejik karar almayı olumlu, yaşının ve kıdemin ise olumsuz yönde etkilediği tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca, erkek üst düzey yöneticilerin, stratejik karar alma süreçlerinde, kadınlara nazaran daha fazla sezgiye dayalı stratejik karar aldıkları görülmüştür. Firma biçimselleşme derecesi ve cironun, sezgiye dayalı stratejik karar almayı olumsuz, çalışan sayısı ve firma yaşının ise olumlu yönde etkilediği tespit edilmiştir. Her ne kadar hiyerarşik merkezileşme derecesinin sezgisel stratejik karar alma üzerinde doğrudan bir etkisi belirlenmemiş olsa da biçimselleşme derecesi yoluyla dolaylı bir etki tespit edilmiştir. Tepe yönetimin yaşının sezgiye dayalı stratejik karar almaya olumsuz etkisinin, çevresel dinamizm arttıkça zayıfladığı ve hatta bu etkinin olumluya döndüğü, buna karşın tepe yönetimin yaşının sezgiye dayalı stratejik karar almaya olumsuz etkisinin çevresel olumsuzluk arttıkça daha da güçlendiği tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca, ciro bazlı firma büyüklüğünün sezgiye dayalı stratejik karar almaya olumsuz etkisinin, çevresel dinamizm arttıkça daha da arttığı tespit edilmiştir. Tepe yönetimin sektör deneyiminin sezgiye dayalı stratejik karar almaya olumlu etkisinin, çevresel olumsuzluk arttıkça daha da güçlendiği tespit edilmiştir.
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Zusammenfassung Die „Theorie des unbewussten Denkens“ (UTT) postuliert, dass Menschen in komplexen Situationen bessere Entscheidungen treffen, wenn sie unbewusst-intuitiv und nicht bewusst nachdenken. Inwieweit sich diese, fast ausschließlich im Bereich der Konsumgüterentscheidungen geprüfte Annahme, auch auf die Entscheidungsarbeit von Recruitern, Beratern oder Coaches übertragen lässt und welche Rolle hierbei ihrer Expertise zukommt, ist bisher weitgehend ungeklärt. In diesem Beitrag werden die UTT sowie die Relevanz der Expertise für intuitive Entscheidungen theoretisch hergeleitet und mit Hilfe eines Experiments in der Personalauswahl empirisch fundiert. Die experimentellen Ergebnisse sowie die Implikationen für die Beratung weisen darauf hin, dass unbewusstes Denken den Entscheidungsprozess eines Recruiters bzw. Beraters begünstigen kann, sofern dieser über eine hinreichend validierte Expertise verfügt.
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In three experiments, the relation between different modes of thought and the generation of "creative" and original ideas was investigated. Participants were asked to generate items according to a specific instruction (e.g., generate place names starting with an "A"). They either did so immediately after receiving the instruction, or after a few minutes of conscious thought, or after a few minutes of distraction during which "unconscious thought" was hypothesized to take place. Throughout the experiments, the items participants listed under "unconscious thought" conditions were more original. It was concluded that whereas conscious thought may be focused and convergent, unconscious thought may be more associative and divergent.
Unconscious thought is goal-dependent. Unpublished data set
  • A Dijksterhuis
  • O De Vries
Dijksterhuis, A., & de Vries, O. (2005). Unconscious thought is goal-dependent. Unpublished data set, University of Amsterdam.