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Holographic hessence models

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Abstract

We discuss the evolution of holographic hessence model, which satisfies the holographic principle and can naturally realize the equation of state crossing −1. By discussing the evolution of the models in the w–w′ plane, we find that, if c⩾1, whe⩾−1 and keep for all time, which are quintessence-like. However, if c<−1, which mildly favors the current observations, whe evolves from whe>−1 to whe<−1, and the potential is a nonmonotonic function. In the earlier time, the potential must be rolled down, and then be climbed up. Considered the current constraint on the parameter c, we reconstruct the potential of the holographic hessence model.

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... Although, there isn't a quantum theory of gravity, one can proceed to investigate the nature of dark energy based on some principles of quantum gravity. A tremendous try in this regard is dubbed holographic dark energy (HDE) proposal [11,12]. As a rule, in the quantum field theory, ρ Λ as zero-point energy density is defined based on L (the size of the current universe) as follow ...
... where, according to (12), we using Ω f φ + Ω m φ = 1. Now we must obtain the equation of state parameter for ρ f and corresponding pressure p f , p f = ω f ρ f . ...
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... Among various scalar field models available, there is unique one called Hessence. It is a non-canonical complex scalar field which plays the role of quintom (i.e., hybrid of quintessence and phantom) [39][40][41][42][43]. The action of the field can be given by, ...
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... HDE is usually considered to be a very different model of DE compared to scalar field models. However, it is interesting to note that with non-trivial potentials, one can use scalar field to reconstruct HDE Guberina et al. (2005b); Kim et al. (2005);Zhang (2007Zhang ( , 2006; Setare (2007d,a,b); Zhang et al. (2007b);Zhao (2007); Setare and Saridakis (2009);Cruz et al. (2009); Karami and Fehri (2010b); Rozas-Fernandez (2011). ...
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We discuss the cosmological constant problem in the light of dilatation symmetry and its possible anomaly. For dilatation symmetric quantum theories realistic asymptotic cosmology is obtained provided the effective potential has a nontrivial minimum. For theories with dilatation anomaly one needs as a nontrivial “cosmon condition” that the energy-momentum tensor in the vacuum is purely anomalous. Such a condition is related to the short distance renormalization group behaviour of the fundamental theory. Observable deviations from the standard hot big bang cosmology are possible.
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We investigate a possible connection between the suppression of the power at low multipoles in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum and the late time acceleration. We show that, assuming a cosmic IR/UV duality between the UV cutoff and a global infrared cutoff given by the size of the future event horizon, the equation of state of the dark energy can be related to the apparent cutoff in the CMB spectrum. The present limits on the equation of state of dark energy are shown to imply an IR cutoff in the CMB multipole interval of 9>l>8.5.
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We recently introduced the concept of "k-essence" as a dynamical solution for explaining naturally why the universe has entered an epoch of accelerated expansion at a late stage of its evolution. The solution avoids fine-tuning of parameters and anthropic arguments. Instead, k-essence is based on the idea of a dynamical attractor solution which causes it to act as a cosmological constant only at the onset of matter-domination. Consequently, k-essence overtakes the matter density and induces cosmic acceleration at about the present epoch. In this paper, we present the basic theory of k-essence and dynamical attractors based on evolving scalar fields with non-linear kinetic energy terms in the action. We present guidelines for constructing concrete examples and show that there are two classes of solutions, one in which cosmic acceleration continues forever and one in which the acceleration has finite duration. Comment: 14 pages, 11 figures
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We generalize the mechanism proposed in [hep-th/0005016] and show that a four-dimensional relativistic tensor theory of gravitation can be obtained on a delta-function brane in flat infinite-volume extra space. In particular, we demonstrate that the induced Ricci scalar gives rise to Einstein's gravity on a delta-function type brane if the number of space-time dimensions is bigger than five. The bulk space exhibits the phenomenon of infrared transparency. That is to say, the bulk can be probed by gravitons with vanishing four-dimensional momentum square, while it is unaccessible to higher modes. This provides an attractive framework for solving the cosmological constant problem. Comment: 26 pages, 1 ps fig.; v2: references and comments added; v3: minor corrections, matches Phys. Rev. D version
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In this paper we study the possibility of building models of dark energy with equation of state across -1 and propose explicitly a model with a single scalar field which gives rise to an equation of state larger than -1 in the past and less than -1 at the present time, consistent with the current observations. Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, the version accepted by JCAP, presentation improved and references added
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The coincidence problem is studied for the dark energy model of effective Yang-Mills condensate in a flat expanding universe during the matter-dominated stage. The YMC energy $\rho_y(t)$ is taken to represent the dark energy, which is coupled either with the matter, or with both the matter and the radiation components. The effective YM Lagrangian is completely determined by quantum field theory up to 1-loop order. It is found that under very generic initial conditions and for a variety of forms of coupling, the existence of the scaling solution during the early stages and the subsequent exit from the scaling regime are inevitable. The transition to the accelerating stage always occurs around a redshift $z\simeq (0.3\sim 0.5)$. Moreover, when the Yang-Mills condensate transfers energy into matter or into both matter and radiation, the equation of state $w_y$ of the Yang-Mills condensate can cross over -1 around $z\sim 2$, and takes on a current value $\simeq -1.1$. This is consistent with the recent preliminary observations on supernovae Ia. Therefore, the coincidence problem can be naturally solved in the effective YMC dark energy models.
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We report on a revision of our previous computation of the renormalized expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of a massless, minimally coupled scalar with a quartic self-interaction on a locally de Sitter background. This model is important because it demonstrates that quantum effects can lead to violations of the weak energy condition on cosmological scales - on average, not just in fluctuations - although the effect in this particular model is far too small to be observed. The revision consists of modifying the propagator so that dimensional regularization can be used when the dimension of the renormalized theory is not four. Although the finite part of the stress-energy tensor does not change (in D=4) from our previous result, the counterterms do. We also speculate that a certain, finite and separately conserved part of the stress tensor can be subsumed into a natural correction of the initial state from free Bunch-Davies vacuum. Comment: 9 pages, references added
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When taking the holographic principle into account, the vacuum energy will acquire dynamical property that its equation of state is evolving. The current available observational data imply that the holographic vacuum energy behaves as quintom-type dark energy. We adopt the viewpoint of that the scalar field models of dark energy are effective theories of an underlying theory of dark energy. If we regard the scalar field model as an effective description of such a holographic vacuum theory, we should be capable of using the scalar field model to mimic the evolving behavior of the dynamical vacuum energy and reconstructing this scalar field model according to the fits of the observational dataset. We find the generalized ghost condensate model is a good choice for depicting the holographic vacuum energy since it can easily realize the quintom behavior. We thus reconstruct the function $h(\phi)$ of the generalized ghost condensate model using the best-fit results of the observational data.
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We combine the Ly-alpha forest power spectrum (LYA) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and high resolution spectra with cosmic microwave background (CMB) including three-year WMAP, and supernovae (SN) and galaxy clustering constraints to derive new constraints on cosmological parameters. The existing LYA power spectrum analysis is supplemented by constraints on the mean flux decrement derived using a principle component analysis for quasar continua, which improves the LYA constraints on the linear power. We find some tension between the WMAP3 and LYA power spectrum amplitudes, at the similar to 2s level, which is partially alleviated by the inclusion of other observations: we find sigma(8) = 0.85 +/- 0.02 compared to sigma(8) = 0.80 +/- 0.03 without LYA. For the slope, we find n(s) = 0.965 +/- 0.012. We. nd no evidence for the running of the spectral index in the combined analysis, dn/d ln k = -(1.5 +/- 1.2) x 10(-2), in agreement with inflation. The limits on the sum of neutrino masses are significantly improved: Sigma m(v) < 0.17 eV at 95% (< 0.32 eV at 99.9%). This result, when combined with atmospheric and solar neutrino mixing constraints, requires that the neutrino masses cannot be degenerate, m(3)/m(1) > 1.3 (95% c. l.). Assuming a thermalized fourth neutrino, we. nd m(s) 0.26 eV at 95% c. l. and such a neutrino cannot be an explanation for the LSND results. In
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The holographic dark energy model is proposed by Li as an attempt for probing the nature of dark energy within the framework of quantum gravity. The main characteristic of holographic dark energy is governed by a numerical parameter $c$ in the model. The parameter $c$ can only be determined by observations. Thus, in order to characterize the evolving feature of dark energy and to predict the fate of the universe, it is of extraordinary importance to constrain the parameter $c$ by using the currently available observational data. In this paper, we derive constraints on the holographic dark energy model from the latest observational data including the gold sample of 182 Type Ia supernovae (SNIa), the shift parameter of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) given by the three-year {\it Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe} ({\it WMAP}) observations, and the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurement from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The joint analysis gives the fit results in 1-$\sigma$: $c=0.91^{+0.26}_{-0.18}$ and $\Omega_{\rm m0}=0.29\pm 0.03$. That is to say, though the possibility of $c<1$ is more favored, the possibility of $c>1$ can not be excluded in one-sigma error range, which is somewhat different from the result derived from previous investigations using earlier data. So, according to the new data, the evidence for the quintom feature in the holographic dark energy model is not as strong as before.
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We consider the angular power spectrum in a finite universe with different boundary conditions and perform a fit to the CMB, LSS and supernova data. A finite universe could be the consequence of a holographic constraint, giving rise to an effective IR cutoff at the future event horizon. In such a model there is a cosmic duality relating the dark energy equation of state and the power spectrum, which shows a suppression and oscillatory behaviour that is found to describe the low l features extremely well. However, much of the discussion here will also apply if we actually live inside an expanding bubble that describes our universe. The best fit to the CMB and LSS data turns out to be better than in the standard Lambda-CDM model, but when combined with the supernova data, the holographic model becomes disfavored. We speculate on the possible implications. Comment: 16 pages, 5 figures, to appear in JCAP
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Recent type Ia supernovae data seem to favor a dark energy model whose equation of state $w(z)$ crosses -1, which is a much more amazing problem than the acceleration of the universe. Either the case that $w(z)$ evolves from above -1 to below -1 or the case that $w(z)$ runs from below -1 to above -1, is consistent with present data. In this paper we show that it is possible to realize the crossing behaviours of both of the two cases by only a single scalar field in frame of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld. At the same time we prove that there does not exist scaling solution in a universe with dust.
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In this paper, we investigate the quintessence models with an oscillating equation of state (EoS) and their potentials. From the constructed potentials, which have the EoS of $\omega_{\phi}=\omega_0+\omega_1\sin z$, we find they are all the oscillating functions of the field $\phi$, and the oscillating amplitudes are decreasing (or increasing) with $\phi$. From the evolutive equation of the field $\phi$, we find this is caused by the expansion of the universe. This also makes that it is very difficult to build a model whose EoS oscillates forever. However one can build a model with EoS oscillating for a period. Then we discuss three quintessence models, which are the combinations of the invert power law functions and the oscillating functions of the field $\phi$. We find they all follow the oscillating EoS. Comment: 15 pages, 7 figures, minor typos corrected
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We construct the non-canonical kinetic term of a k-essence field directly from the effective equation of state function $w_k(z)$, which describes the properties of the dark energy. Adopting the usual parametrizations of equation of state we numerically reproduce the shape of the non-canonical kinetic term and discuss some features of the constructed form of k-essence.
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In this paper, we study the possibility of building Yang-Mills(YM) field dark energy models with equation of state (EoS) crossing -1, and find that it can not be realized by the single YM field models, no matter what kind of lagrangian or initial condition. But the states of $-1<\omega<0$ and $\omega<-1$ all can be naturally got in this kind of models. The former is like a quintessence field, and the latter is like a phantom field. This makes that one can build a model with two YM fields, in which one with the initial state of $-1<\omega<0$, and the other with $\omega<-1$. We give an example model of this kind, and find that its EoS is larger than -1 in the past and less than -1 at the present time. We also find that this change must be from $\omega>-1$ to $<-1$, and it will go to the critical state of $\omega=-1$ with the expansion of the Universe, which character is same with the single YM field models, and the Big Rip is naturally avoided. Comment: 20 pages, 4 figures. minor typos corrected
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We examine the behavior of dark energy models in the plane defined by w (the equation of state parameter for the dark energy) and w' (the derivative of w with respect to the logarithm of the scale factor). For non-phantom barotropic fluids with positive squared sound speed, we find that w' < 3w(w+1), the opposite of the bound on quintessence models previously derived by Caldwell and Linder. Thus, these barotropic models and quintessence models for the dark energy occupy disjoint regions in the w - w' plane. We also derive two new bounds for quintessence models in the w - w' plane: the first is a general bound for any scalar field with a monotonic potential, while the second improves on the Caldwell-Linder bound for tracker quintessence models. Observationally distinguishing barotropic models from quintessence models requires \sigma(w') < 1+w. Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, references and discussion added, to appear in Phys. Rev. D