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Multiple-object tracking in children: The “Catch the Spies” task

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Abstract

Multiple-object tracking involves simultaneously tracking positions of a number of target-items as they move among distractors. The standard version of the task poses special challenges for children, demanding extended concentration and the ability to distinguish targets from identical-looking distractors, and may thus underestimate children's tracking abilities. As a result, a modified version of the task called “Catch the Spies” was developed. Participants tracked one to four moving “spies” (targets) that had “disguised” themselves so that they could blend in with a crowd of 10 people (happy-faces). Tracking accuracy was measured in five age groups (6, 8, 10, 12, and 19 years old). All performed well above chance though there were age-related increases in the number that could be tracked at once. Overall, when the effects of age were statistically controlled, tracking performance was significantly better for action videogame players than non-players, and marginally better for action-sports participants than non-participants.

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... While much work has investigated multifocal attention in adults, less is known about the development of multifocal attention. Some previous work has investigated children's ability to track multiple moving objects among distractors using tasks that did not control for single-focal or gaze-shifting strategies (Nava, Föcker, & Gori, 2020;Ryokai, Farzin, Kaltman, & Niemeyer, 2013;Trick, Jaspers-Fayer, & Sethi, 2005). For example, Trick and colleagues (2005) designed a task in which 6-, 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds and adults were shown 10 items, some of which were happy faces (distractors) and others that were spies (targets). ...
... Across two experiments, we investigated multifocal attention in 6 -8-year-old children and adults using computerized MOT tasks. We tested 6 -8-year-olds because children of this age have previously been shown to be able to complete MOT-style tasks (e.g., Trick et al., 2005) and because this is a developmental period associated with robust CC maturation (Gbedd et al., 1999;Luders et al., 2010; for a review see Knyazeva, 2013). Our tasks were designed based on previous adult research investigating multifocal attention (Alvarez & Cavanagh, 2005;Strong & Alvarez, 2019). ...
... In Experiment 1, if participants reliably tracked only one of the objects (which would not require multifocal attention), they would be expected to select the target object correctly on the trials in which that object was part of the cued pair, and to choose randomly when the other pair was cued. If participants used this strategy and identified the target they strategically tracked 100% of the time (an unlikely but conservative assumption for assessing the ability to track multiple targets; see Trick et al., 2005, for similar logic), chance would be given by (100% ϫ .5) ϩ (50% ϫ .5) ...
Article
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Multifocal attention is the ability to simultaneously attend to multiple objects, and is critical for typical functioning. Although adults are able to use multifocal attention, little is known about the development of this ability. In two experiments, we investigated multifocal attention in 6-8-year-old children and adults using a child-friendly, computerized multiple object tracking task designed to encourage the use of multifocal attention. We also investigated whether multifocal attention in children is deployed independently across left and right hemifields of vision, as in adults. Our results suggest that children's capacity for multifocal attention increases significantly across middle childhood. We also found evidence that at least one signature of hemifield-independent multifocal attention, the bilateral field advantage, can be observed in children. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... The average score of AVGPs was significantly higher than that of NVGPs when tracking two, three, four, and five objects, although the effect size was small. AVGPs appear to have higher attentional capacity, which supports our second hypothesis and is consistent with previous findings (Bediou et al., 2018;Boot et al., 2008;Dale et al., 2020;Dye et al., 2009;Dye & Bavelier, 2010;Green et al., 2016;Green & Bavelier, 2003, 2006a, 2006bSala et al., 2018;Trick, Jaspers-Fayer et al., 2005). Researchers using the object tracking paradigm as a measure of attentional capacity found significantly better tracking abilities in AVGPs in all cases (Boot et al., 2008;Dye & Bavelier, 2010;Green & Bavelier, 2006b;Trick, Jaspers-Fayer et al., 2005), but the effect sizes were larger than in our study. ...
... AVGPs appear to have higher attentional capacity, which supports our second hypothesis and is consistent with previous findings (Bediou et al., 2018;Boot et al., 2008;Dale et al., 2020;Dye et al., 2009;Dye & Bavelier, 2010;Green et al., 2016;Green & Bavelier, 2003, 2006a, 2006bSala et al., 2018;Trick, Jaspers-Fayer et al., 2005). Researchers using the object tracking paradigm as a measure of attentional capacity found significantly better tracking abilities in AVGPs in all cases (Boot et al., 2008;Dye & Bavelier, 2010;Green & Bavelier, 2006b;Trick, Jaspers-Fayer et al., 2005), but the effect sizes were larger than in our study. This could be due to the smaller sample sizes (Boot et al., 2008;Green & Bavelier, 2003, 2006a, 2006bTrick, Jaspers-Fayer et al., 2005) or to a specific property of the test we used. ...
... Researchers using the object tracking paradigm as a measure of attentional capacity found significantly better tracking abilities in AVGPs in all cases (Boot et al., 2008;Dye & Bavelier, 2010;Green & Bavelier, 2006b;Trick, Jaspers-Fayer et al., 2005), but the effect sizes were larger than in our study. This could be due to the smaller sample sizes (Boot et al., 2008;Green & Bavelier, 2003, 2006a, 2006bTrick, Jaspers-Fayer et al., 2005) or to a specific property of the test we used. In our study, the interaction between playing action video games and the number of objects tracked did not reach statistical significance, even though we observed a trend of increasing advantage of AVGPs with the increase in the number of objects tracked. ...
Article
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Nowadays, video games have become the most popular form of entertainment. For this reason, it is crucial to investigate the positive and negative consequences of gaming. The action genre is the most played amongst gamers and is interesting for cognitive psychology research because gaming requires many perceptual and cognitive abilities. The present study examined the association between playing action video games and the ability to mentally rotate objects, track multiple objects, and switch between tasks. Using a sample of emerging and young adults (18–37 years old), we compared non-gamers (N = 81) and action video gamers (N = 82). Results showed that playing action video games was related to better mental rotation ability and higher attentional capacity. Although gamers switched between tasks faster than non-gamers, the groups did not differ in switching costs, which are an important indicator of cognitive flexibility. The results suggest that playing action video games is positively associated with information processing speed, attention, and visuospatial abilities, and suggest a possible use of such games to improve these abilities.
... In the first session, professional players showed better MOT performance than amateur players. This is somewhat in line with multiple studies that showed how expert video gamers were able to track objects at greater speeds compared to non-experts (Boot et al., 2008;Green & Bavelier, 2003;Trick et al., 2005). It is important to note that, in those studies, expert video gamers were categorized by the amount of time they played video games (e.g., for multiple years, several times a week for at least one hour), but not by their level of competition, which has also been criticized in the literature (Dale et al., 2020). ...
... To our knowledge, the present study is one of the first to compare actual professional players with amateur players. All esport players in the present study would have been classified as experts by the definition in former studies (Boot et al., 2008;Green & Bavelier, 2003;Trick et al., 2005), that was based solely on playtime. It is conceivable that the entirety of esport players in the present study (professional players and amateur players) would have also outperformed the non-experts of the mentioned earlier studies. ...
... • Both traditional sport and esport activity and expertise positively influencing MOT performance, which is in line with the literature (Alves et al., 2013;Bejianki et al., 2014;Ding et al., 2018;Fleddermann et al., 2019;Qiu et al., 2018;Trick et al., 2005;Voss et al., 2009), or • The participants in this study inherently had higher levels of MOT ability than does the general population. These higher MOT ability levels perhaps led these individuals to participate in either esports or traditional sports, due to psychological gratification from inherently superior performance. ...
Article
High performance in multiple object tracking paradigms is associated with well-trained visuo-spatial abilities, visual memory and divided attention. These abilities are essential for both traditional sport and esport. The present study compared the tracking performance of professional as well as amateur esport players and traditional sportsmen. Professional esport players outperformed amateurs, while no other group differences were found. Positive association of esport playtime and tracking performance as well as elevated tracking scores of the entire study cohort compared to normal population indicate a connection of esport and sport activity and tracking performance.
... С.S. Green et al. [3] отмечают, что у участников киберспортивных игр улучшается пространственное внимание, снижается импульсивность как реагирование на нецелевые стимулы. L.M. Trick et al. [4] также выявили улучшение возможности отслеживания движущихся объектов в поле отвлекающих факторов. Chiappi et al. [5] обнаружили более высокую способность к многозадачности у участников игр в жанре action. ...
... В классе «Шутеры» общий показатель воли и все оцениваемые волевые характеристики высоко выражены. Первостепенными выступают такие качества как: ответственность (4,43) внимательность (4,43) и целеустремлённость (4,29). Близкими к первостепенным -спокойствие (3,71), дисциплинированность (3,64) и деловитость (3,57). ...
... Близкими к первостепенным -спокойствие (3,71), дисциплинированность (3,64) и деловитость (3,57). У респондентов, не увлекающихся КС преобладающими волевыми качествами являются ответственность (4,21), спокойствие (4,21) целеустремлённость (4,00) и терпеливость (4,00); наименьшую выраженность имеют такие волевые качества как настойчивость (3,14) и инициативность (3,21). ...
Article
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В исследовании рассматривались психологические характеристики киберспортсменов: свойства нервной системы, мотивы киберспортивной деятельности, волевые качества личности, направленность личности в игровом процессе (коллективизм-индивидуализм) и особенности принятия решений. Выбор этих характеристик был сделан на основании пилотажного исследования, в котором изучались мнения экспертов (профессиональных киберспортсменов) о психологических факторах успешности в данном виде спортивной деятельности. Выборка исследования включала 56 респондентов в возрасте от 17 до 29 лет (средний возраст —22 года). Основную группу исследования составили 42 человека —участника киберспортивных игр, объединенные в 3 подгруппы по 14 человек в соответствии с дисциплинами компьютерного спорта, в которых соревнуются данные игроки (класс «Шутеры», класс «MOBA», класс «Файтинги»). Критерием для отбора респондентов являлось участие в киберспортивных турнирах, проходящих в off-line режиме. В число участников исследования вошли: экс-чемпионка России по дисциплине «Tekken Tag Tournament», рейтинговые участники международных соревнований, участники профессиональных киберспортивных команд, а также призёры соревнований различного уровня. В зависимости от вида компьютерной игры киберспортсмены различаются по частным свойствам нервной системы («сила тормозного процесса» и «инертность нервных процессов»), выраженности мотива «коллективистская направленность», по общему показателю воли и волевым качествам инициативность, энергичность, смелость и деловитость; на уровне тенденции представлены различия по частному свойству нервной системы «сила возбудительного процесса».Влияние игрового стажа проявляется в различиях по парным факторам темперамента S и N (снижается склонность к поведению типа S и увеличивается, к поведению типа N); влияние времени, уделяемого киберспорту, проявляется в различиях по волевым качествам ответственность, инициативность, энергичность; влияние успешности в киберспорте влияет на мотивацию и волевые качества киберспортсменов. На основе анализа эмпирических данных были составлены типологические портреты представителей трёх классов киберспортивных дисциплин («Шутеры», «MOBA» и «Файтинги»).
... For example, action video game players were shown to have a significantly better visual short-term memory (Boot, Kramer, Simons, Fabiani, & Gratton, 2008;McDermott, Bavelier, & Green, 2014) and a more flexible working memory that allows them to actively update and clear irrelevant information from it (Colzato, van den Wildenberg, Zmigrod, & Hommel, 2013). Furthermore, playing action video games seems to improve perceptual processing speed (Dye, Green, & Bavelier, 2009;Green & Bavelier, 2003;Hubert-Wallander, Green, & Bavelier, 2011), perceptual decision making (Green, Pouget, & Bavelier, 2010) and the ability to track multiple objects simultaneously (Trick, Jaspers-Fayer, & Sethi, 2005). Interestingly, research on gaming also demonstrated that action video players have a larger Useful Field of View (UFOV) and that this effect can be found on nonvideo game players after relatively short period of training (Dye & Bavelier, 2010;Feng, Spence, & Pratt, 2007;Green & Bavelier, 2006;Wu et al., 2012). ...
... Second, it is plausible that EHS does not capture the perceptual skills video gaming, and its highly varied visual and motor tasks, develop (cf. Boot et al., 2008;Dye et al., 2009;Dye & Bavelier, 2010;Feng et al., 2007;Green & Bavelier, 2003;Green & Bavelier, 2006;Hubert-Wallander et al., 2011;McDermott et al., 2014;Trick et al., 2005;Wu et al., 2012). Moreover, the relationship between EHS and performance seemed to diminish with practice. ...
Article
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Research has shown that performance in visual domains depends on domain-specific cognitive and perceptual adaptations that result from extensive practice. However, less is known about processes and factors that underpin the acquisition of such adaptations. The present study investigated how prior experience, cognitive skills, task difficulty and practice effect eye-hand span (EHS) and performance in video gaming. Thirty-three participants played a platformer video game in a pre-test/practice/post-test experiment. Eye movements and keypresses were recorded. The results show that a short practice period improved performance but did not increase EHS. Instead, EHS was related to task difficulty. Furthermore, while EHS correlated with initial performance, this effect seemed to diminish after practice. Cognitive skills (concentration endurance, working memory, mental flexibility and executive functioning) predicted performance in some parts of the experiment. The study offers insights into the early development of visual adaptations and performance.
... Combined with undeveloped attentional skills of children 1 https://goo.gl/E9xjfY aged from six to 13 [2,10,30], conventional navigation systems may be particularly difficult for children to use, especially in unfamiliar environments. ...
... Unlike a working memory task, which did not provide a direct influence on situational awareness for child cyclists [17], the auditory distraction task led to a considerable number of signal omissions. However, given the differences of temperament, motor and perceptual-motor development of children in the tested age group, we observed that overly active children tended to miss external signals more often due to the lack of attention [10,30]. This observation underlines the challenge of designing a "one-size-fits-all" assistance system for child cyclists, given the wide age range. ...
Conference Paper
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Navigation systems for cyclists are commonly screen-based devices mounted on the handlebar which show map information. Typically, adult cyclists have to explicitly look down for directions. This can be distracting and challenging for children, given their developmental differences in motor and perceptual-motor abilities compared with adults. To address this issue, we designed different unimodal cues and explored their suitability for child cyclists through two experiments. In the first experiment, we developed an indoor bicycle simulator and compared auditory, light, and vibrotactile navigation cues. In the second experiment, we investigated these navigation cues in-situ in an outdoor practice test track using a mid-size tricycle. To simulate road distractions, children were given an additional auditory task in both experiments. We found that auditory navigational cues were the most understandable and the least prone to navigation errors. However, light and vibrotactile cues might be useful for educating younger child cyclists.
... This suggests that MOT recruits one or more processes that are not required for static visualspatial memory and that these processes are compromised in WS. In a separate study, O'Hearn, Hoffman, and Landau (2011) tested individuals with WS on a subitizing task, thought to also engage visual-spatial pointers or "indexes" (Trick, Jaspers-Fayer, & Sethi, 2005). The findings revealed a similar pattern, with the WS group more likely to subitize three rather than four elements, comparable to TD 4-year-olds (O'Hearn et al., 2011). ...
... Participants could choose as many cards as there were targets. A full report method was used, rather than the partial report of Pylyshyn and Storm (1988), to maximize the amount of data extracted from each trial (see also Trick et al., 2005). ...
... Participants need to keep track of multiple targets. After several seconds of tracking, all items stop, and participants are asked to indicate each of the target items (Green & Bavelier, 2006b;Trick et al., 2005). As noted above, action video games require players to consistently monitor the entire visual scene to discover targets and to avoid distraction, and switch attention between distributed state and focused state. ...
... As noted above, action video games require players to consistently monitor the entire visual scene to discover targets and to avoid distraction, and switch attention between distributed state and focused state. Several studies have shown action video gamers perform better at MOT tasks Dobrowolski et al., 2015;Green & Bavelier, 2006b;Trick et al., 2005) and have better attentional control (Föcker et al., 2019;Green & Bavelier, 2012;Wu et al., 2012). ...
Article
Objective Do real-time strategy (RTS) video gamers have better attentional control? To examine this issue, we tested experienced versus inexperienced RTS video gamers on multi-object tracking tasks (MOT) and dual-MOT tasks with visual or auditory secondary tasks (dMOT). We employed a street-crossing task with a visual working memory task as a secondary task in a virtual reality (VR) environment to examine any generalized attentional advantage. Background Similar to action video games, RTS video games require players to switch attention between multiple visual objects and views. However, whether the attentional control advantage is limited by sensory modalities or generalizes to real-life tasks remains unclear. Method In study 1, 25 RTS video game players (SVGP) and 25 non-video game players (NVGP) completed the MOT task and two dMOT tasks. In study 2, a different sample with 25 SVGP and 25 NVGP completed a simulated street-crossing task with the visual dual task in a VR environment. Results After controlling the effects of the speed-accuracy trade-off, SVGP showed better performance than NVGP in the MOT task and the visual dMOT task, but SVGP did not perform better in either the auditory dMOT task or the street-crossing task. Conclusion RTS video gamers had better attentional control in visual computer tasks, but not in the auditory tasks and the VR tasks. Attentional control benefits associated with RTS video game experience may be limited by sensory modalities, and may not translate to performance benefits in real-life tasks.
... Following the mentioned categorization of effects by Granic & Engels (2013) and as a summary in order to not to extend the introduction much further, the usage of video games has -amongst others-the following positive effects: cognitive effects (Martín et al., 2015;Pérez et al., 2011;Camacho & Camilo, 2019;Trick et al., 2005;Boot et al., 2008;Trick et al., 2005;Pérez et al., 2011;Shliakhovchuk & Muñoz, 2020;Green & Bavelier , 2012;Adachi & Willoughby, 2013), motivational effects (Kapustina & Martynova, 2020;Pasch et al., 2009;Biddiss & Irwin, 2010;Klimmt & Hartmann, 2006), emotional effects (Pallavicini et al., 2018;Villani et al., 2018;Camacho & Camilo, 2019;Granic et al., 2014) and social effects (Fuster et al., 2014;Camacho & Camilo, 2019;Prochnow et al., 2020). Finally, as it will be presented below, a positive influence on the development of certain soft skills may also be observed. ...
... Following the mentioned categorization of effects by Granic & Engels (2013) and as a summary in order to not to extend the introduction much further, the usage of video games has -amongst others-the following positive effects: cognitive effects (Martín et al., 2015;Pérez et al., 2011;Camacho & Camilo, 2019;Trick et al., 2005;Boot et al., 2008;Trick et al., 2005;Pérez et al., 2011;Shliakhovchuk & Muñoz, 2020;Green & Bavelier , 2012;Adachi & Willoughby, 2013), motivational effects (Kapustina & Martynova, 2020;Pasch et al., 2009;Biddiss & Irwin, 2010;Klimmt & Hartmann, 2006), emotional effects (Pallavicini et al., 2018;Villani et al., 2018;Camacho & Camilo, 2019;Granic et al., 2014) and social effects (Fuster et al., 2014;Camacho & Camilo, 2019;Prochnow et al., 2020). Finally, as it will be presented below, a positive influence on the development of certain soft skills may also be observed. ...
Chapter
The preconceived notion concerning negative effects of video games and students' academic performance is a widely known subject. However, some investigations explore the positive impact of video games on academic performance. With a sample of 247 university students, this chapter studies the perception of both gamers and non-gamers about soft skills and their current relevance in academic and professional fields. The possible relationships linking the intensity of the usage of video games, academic performance, and the perception concerning soft skills are investigated. The results expose a generalized positive perception respecting the relation between video games and the development of soft skills, specifically to the video game genre and its relevance and influence on academic performance, as well as gender differences, where women prevail in emotional and social managements, although this influence is not elevated.
... According to Green & Bavelier [2], action video games improve the ability to find things quickly. Playing video games also increases the ability to track moving objects [3]. 3. Improve the execution function. ...
... Playing video games also increases the ability to track moving objects [3]. 3. Improve the execution function. ...
Article
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p class="0abstract">Color Mix Game is an educational game that introduces the theory of color mixing, which is very important for everyday needs, especially in all areas of visual art such as graphic design and videography. Unfortunately, just a few people know this knowledge. The game has become an interesting and fun learning media for its players. In addition to learning media, games can have positive impacts on the players. Among its effects, it can improve basic mental skills for players, such as alertness, speed thinking ability, and concentration ability. Therefore we are interested to analyze the player behavior in the game to see the improvement of their players' speed thinking ability. To perform this analysis, we collect the data by recording every player activity log during playing the game. Every step was taken by the player along with detailed information such as the time of the attack and the distance of the attack will be stored in the database. By using MySQL, the database of this game is built on PhpMyAdmin application. After collecting data from 10 respondents we asked to play this game 2 times, we get the result that the players experienced a speed increase of thinking as much as 32% in the game.</p
... One of the most common types of cognitive training specifically targeting perception and attention is known as multiple object tracking (MOT), and it has been used as basis for cognitive training regimens for decades. 18,19 MOT, a training regimen repeated over time, is believed to tap into crucial components of attention. 20,21 This paradigm requires individuals to split their visual attention between a number of targets and distractors that are in motion within the visual field. ...
... 20,21 This paradigm requires individuals to split their visual attention between a number of targets and distractors that are in motion within the visual field. 18 Training under a MOT paradigm is believed to improve visuo-spatial short-term memory as well as working memory. 22 A recent training paradigm using the foundations of MOT within a three-dimensional context is gaining in popularity, especially in the sports performance world. ...
Article
The main objective of this research was to determine the safety of using three‐dimensional multiple object tracking (3D‐MOT) with children who experience delayed recovery after sustaining a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). 9 youth aged 12 to 17 years old who visited the Montreal Children's Hospital's Trauma Center Concussion Clinic and were experiencing delayed recovery after sustaining a mTBI and being followed by a multimodal approach to mTBI management were recruited. Children were trained over six visits using 3D‐MOT, every 2 to 7 days. Each visit consisted of 3 reaction time calculations on the task, as well as symptom reporting. In addition, at visit 1 and 6, clinical measures specific to mTBI management were administered. Primary outcome measures included safety of a 3D‐MOT training regimen. Safety was measured through reporting of adverse events and tolerability was assessed through protocol deviations and adherence. Results demonstrate that symptomatic children after mTBI can safely perform a 3D‐MOT training regimen.
... However, the action gaming literature includes several examples wherein action video game players (who had been overtly selected) consistently show no benefitsfor instance, on tasks that measure the dynamics of certain aspects of attention (Castel, Pratt, & Drummond, 2005; Hubert-Wallander, Green, Sugarman, & Bavelier, 2011). Furthermore, many different studies on expert versus nonexpert gamers (Clark, Fleck, & Mitroff, 2011;Colzato, van den Wildenberg, Zmigrod, & Hommel, 2013;Donohue, Woldorff, & Mitroff, 2010;Dye & Bavelier, 2010;Dye, Green, & Bavelier, 2009;Trick, Jaspers-Fayer, & Sethi (2005)) have been performed with completely covert recruitment (i.e., the subjects' game playing habits were assessed unrelated to testing and thus could not have contaminated their test performance). The results have been typically consistent with results from studies with non-covert recruiting methods. ...
... The results have been typically consistent with results from studies with non-covert recruiting methods. In Trick et al. (2005) the subjects did not fill out gaming questionnaires (this was done by their parents), and yet the same action video game advantages on the multiple-object tracking task were observed that were later found in Green and Bavelier (2006), a study that used overt recruitment. Similarly, both Dye and Bavelier (2010) and Dye et al. (2009) utilized blind recruitment in their child samples and showed the same effects of action video game experience as in studies in which either the recruitment was not blind and/or the questionnaires on game playing habits were finished prior to testing. ...
Article
The past two decades have seen a tremendous surge in scientific interest in the extent to which certain types of training—be it aerobic, athletic, musical, video game, or brain trainer—can result in general enhancements in cognitive function. While there are certainly active debates regarding the results in these domains, what is perhaps more pressing is the fact that key aspects of methodology remain unsettled. Here we discuss a few of these areas including expectation effects, test–retest effects, the size of the cognitive test battery, the selection of control groups, group assignment methods, difficulties in comparing results across studies, and in interpreting null results. Specifically, our goal is to highlight points of contention as well as areas where the most commonly utilized methods could be improved upon. Furthermore, because each of the sub-areas above (aerobic training through brain training) share strong similarities in goal, theoretical framework, and experimental approach, we seek to discuss these issues from a general perspective that considers each as members of the same broad “training” domain.
... These studies showed significant improvement in the cognitive abilities of gamers compared to no-gamers as reported by detection rate of targets/accuracy, response time and false alarm. Trick et al., [11] found that AVG improved the ability of children and adults to keep track of a set of moving objects that were visually identical to other moving objects in the visual field. Anguera [12], demonstrated in an experiment conducted on 179 subjects, that cognitive abilities including sustained attention and preservation of multitasking of the subjects who received computer game training has significantly improved. ...
Preprint
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This paper presents a review on vigilance enhancement using computerized means and discusses their contradictory findings. It highlights the key differences between research findings and argues that variations in experimental protocol could be a significant contributing factor to the controversial results. In this paper, we found that, computerized means of enhancement are reliable and have significant effects on reducing vigilance decrement. The paper discusses the challenges toward the enhancement techniques and suggests several alternative strategies to reduce vigilance decrement. Furthermore, this review provides evidence to use computerized means of enhancement on vigilance studies, regardless of their practical challenges.
... Due to the increase in the use of this type of technology, several types of research have focused on the psychosocial effects produced by the abuse of this type of technology, finding that they can cause a series of benefits and damages to users, both at the cognitive, social, and behavioral level [15]. For instance, it has been found that the learning that occurs when playing a video game causes an improvement in attention, since it generates an increase in the activation of the brain at the prefrontal and frontal level, associating this to a shorter reaction time in tasks relating to search and visual attention, also improving the discrimination of shapes and colors and the tracking of multiple objects [16]. ...
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Background: At present, new technologies provide numerous benefits in their correct use, while the need arises to study the consumption of some technologies, in this case, videogames, due to the negative consequences that they can cause in those subjects who have not yet consolidated their personality due to their excessive use. The study aimed to determine and establish associations between the dimensions of self-concept and the problematic use of videogames and their gender differences. Methods: A total of 525 university students participated in this study, representing 44.7% of the male gender and 55.3% of the female gender, with an average age of M = 20.80 SD = 3.12 years old. The instruments used were the CESR and AF-5 questionnaires. Results: The results reveal the association (p ≤ 0.05) between the problematic use of videogames and the dimensions of self-concept, showing that students with severe or potential problems have lower levels of self-concept. In addition, it has been found that men have more problems associated with the use of video games than women. Men have a greater physical and emotional self-concept, while women have better social self-concept. Conclusions: This study highlights the inverse association between self-concept and problematic use of video games, a fact that shows the need to develop intervention programs aimed at improving self-concept and to reduce the problematic use of video games. Likewise, the levels of self-concept reveal that men have higher scores in the emotional and physical dimension, while women stand out in the social dimension.
... Various studies have shown significant improvements in the cognitive abilities of gamers compared to non-gamers, which are reported according to the detection rate of targets/accuracy, response time, and false alarm. Furthermore, Trick et al. [81] have highlighted AVG's role in improving the ability of children and adults alike. Their task in the study was to keep track of a set of moving objects that were visually identical to other moving objects in the visual field. ...
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This paper presents the first comprehensive review on vigilance enhancement using both conventional and unconventional means, and further discusses the resulting contradictory findings. It highlights the key differences observed between the research findings and argues that variations of the experimental protocol could be a significant contributing factor towards such contradictory results. Furthermore, the paper reveals the effectiveness of unconventional means of enhancement in significant reduction of vigilance decrement compared to conventional means. Meanwhile, a discussion on the challenges of enhancement techniques is presented, with several suggested recommendations and alternative strategies to maintain an adequate level of vigilance for the task at hand. Additionally, this review provides evidence in support of the use of unconventional means of enhancement on vigilance studies, regardless of their practical challenges.
... The same basic effects were then found in a true experiment in which NVGP individuals trained on an action video game showed significantly larger improvements in performance on the abovementioned tasks after training as compared with NVGP individuals trained on a nonaction video game (Green & Bavelier, 2003). Since then, researchers from many different groups worldwide have observed results in the same direction utilizing both cross-sectional and true experiment designs on a variety of tasks including (but not limited to) multiple-object tracking (Boot, Kramer, Simons, Fabiani, & Gratton, 2008;Green & Bavelier, 2006;Sungur & Boduroglu, 2012;Trick, Jaspers-Fayer, & Sethi, 2005), visual search (Castel, Pratt, & Drummond, 2005;Hubert-Wallander, Green, Sugarman, & Bavelier, 2011;Wu & Spence, 2013), oculomotor capture (Chisholm, Hickey, Theeuwes, & Kingstone, 2010;Chisholm & Kingstone, 2012, 2015a, 2015b, task switching Cain, Landau, & Shimamura, 2012;Chiappe, Conger, Liao, Caldwell, & Vu, 2013;Colzato, van Leeuwen, van den Wildenberg, & Hommel, 2010;Green, Sugarman, Medford, Klobusicky, & Bavelier, 2012;Karle, Watter, & Shedden, 2010;Strobach et al., 2012), attentional blink (Green & Bavelier, 2003;Oei & Patterson, 2015), multitasking/dual-tasking (Strobach et al., 2012), mental rotation (Feng et al., 2007), visual short-term memory (Blacker & Curby, 2013;Blacker, Curby, Klobusicky, & Chein, 2014;Boot et al., 2008;Colzato, van den Wildenberg, & Hommel, 2014;Li et al., 2015;McDermott, Bavelier, & Green, 2014;Wilms, Petersen, & Vangkilde, 2013), and the Attention Network Test (Dye, Green, & Bavelier, 2009;Wilms et al., 2013). ...
Article
Numerous studies have demonstrated that regularly playing action video games (AVGPs) is associated with increased cognitive performance. Individuals who play role-playing video games (RPGs) have usually been excluded from these studies. This is because RPGs traditionally contained no action components and were thus not expected to influence cognitive performance. However, modern RPGs increasingly include numerous action-like components. We therefore examined whether current RPG players (RPGPs) perform similar to action video game players (AVGPs) or nonvideo game players (NVGPs) on two cognitive tasks. Self-identified AVGPs (N = 76), NVGPs (N = 77), and RPGPs (N = 23) completed two online cognitive tasks: A useful field of view (UFOV) task and a multiple-object tracking task (MOT). The UFOV task measures the ability to deploy visuospatial attention over a large field of view while dividing one's attention between a central and a peripheral task. The MOT task measures the ability to use attentional control to dynamically refresh information in working memory. RPGPs performed similar to AVGPs and better than NVGPs on both tasks. However, patterns of covariation (e.g., gender and age) presented obstacles to interpretation in some cases. Our study is the first to demonstrate that RPGPs show similar cognitive performance to AVGPs. These findings suggest that regularly playing modern RPGs may enhance visuospatial abilities. However, because the current study was purely cross-sectional, intervention studies will be needed to assess causation. We discuss the implications of this finding, as well as considerations for how gamers are classified going forward.
... Son variadas las temáticas de estudio asociadas al uso de los videojuegos, particularmente relacionadas con las habilidades cognitivas, por ejemplo, la atención (Trick, Jaspers-Fayer & Sethi, 2005;Dye, Green & Bavelier, 2009;Dye & Bavelier, 2010). Dichos autores han utilizado los videojuegos para trabajar el seguimiento de objetos múltiples en pantalla y la velocidad de procesamiento con resultados positivos, al mismo tiempo que se logra que esta mayor rapidez no influya negativamente en el índice de acierto. ...
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RESUMENLas jóvenes generaciones, consideradas “nativos digitales”, dominan aspectos de la vida cotidiana relacionados con el uso de la tecnología, en general y particularmente, con los videojuegos. La integración de este recurso en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje ayuda al desarrollo de la competencia digital además de favorecer otros aspectos relevantes para la formación integral del individuo. El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar que el uso de un videojuego puede ayudar a mejorar los procesos cognitivos de estudiantes de Educación Primaria con dificultades de aprendizaje. Para ello, se sigue una metodología de tipo cuasiexperimental basada en un pre y post test, con la participación de seis sujetos. Se registra la evolución de los procesos cognitivos con la batería DN:CAS, se aplica un programa de intervención basado en el uso de videojuegos, y se utilizan hojas de control y notas de campo para comprobar su mejora. En el análisis de datos, se comprueba si hay diferencias significativas entre el pretest y el postest mediante la T de Student. Los resultados muestran mejoras estadísticamente significativas en atención y en la escala de procesos cognitivos completa que mide, además, la planificación, el procesamiento simultáneo y el procesamiento sucesivo. Dichas mejoras fueron corroboradas por las notas cualitativas. Se concluye que los participantes avalan la significatividad de la integración de videojuegos para el aprendizaje, así como sus posibilidades en la mejora de procesos cognitivos. No obstante, el programa requiere un entrenamiento previo en el marco de una investigación longitudinal con un tamaño muestral superior.ABSTRACTThe young generations called “digital natives” dominate aspects of daily life related to the use technology, in general and particularly, with video games. The integration of this resource in the teaching-learning processes helps the development of digital competence as well as favoring other relevant aspects for the person integral formation. The objective of this paper is to show that the use of a video game can help to improve the cognitive processes of students of Primary Education with learning difficulties. For that, a quasi-experimental methodology based on a pretest and posttest is based, with the participation of six children. The evolution of cognitive processes evolution with the battery DN:CAS is recorded, an intervention program based on the use of video games is applied, and control sheets and field notes are used to check its improvement. In the data analysis, it is verified if there are significant differences between the pretest and the posttest by means of Student's T. The results show statistically significant improvements in attention and in the complete scale of cognitive processes that measures planning, simultaneous processing and successive processing. These improvements were corroborated by the qualitative notes. It is concluded that the participants support the significance of the integration of video games for learning as well as their possibilities in improving cognitive processes. However, the program requires prior training as part of longitudinal research, with a greater sample size.
... A substantial body of literature, mostly involving studies of young adults, has demonstrated that playing certain types of cognitively demanding video games can produce broad enhancements in perceptual, motor, and cognitive skills (Bediou et al., 2018;Powers, Brooks, Aldrich, Palladino, & Alfieri, 2013; but see Sala, Tatlidil, & Gobet, 2018). Studies of adolescents are fewer in number and have relied more heavily on correlational designs (Dye & Bavelier, 2010;Dye, Green, & Bavelier, 2009;Trick, Jaspers-Fayer, & Sethi, 2005). Notably, the enhancements in perceptual (e.g., contrast sensitivity) and cognitive (e.g., ability to track several moving objects simultaneously, shortened attentional blink) skills do not appear to be limited to "in-game abilities" (e.g., reaction time and processing speed in motor responses during game play; see Dye & Bavelier, 2010;Green & Bavelier, 2003;Li, Polat, Makous, & Bavelier, 2009), but show far transfer by generalizing to nongame assessments of processing abilities and even to real-world behaviors such as reading (Franceschini et al., 2013). ...
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We document the need to examine digital game play and app use as a context for cognitive development, particularly during middle childhood. We highlight this developmental period as 6‐ through 12‐year olds comprise a large swath of the preadult population that plays and uses these media forms. Surprisingly, this age range remains understudied with regard to the impact of their interactive media use as compared to young children and adolescents. This gap in knowledge about middle childhood may reflect strong and widely held concerns about the effects of digital games and apps before and after this period. These concerns include concurrent and subsequent influences of game use on very young children's and adolescents’ cognitive and socioemotional functioning. We highlight here what is currently known about the impact of media on young children and adolescents and what is not known about this impact in middle childhood. We then offer recommendations for the types of research that developmental scientists can undertake to examine the efficacy of digital games within the rapidly changing media ecology in which children live. We conclude with a discussion of media policies that we believe can help children benefit from their media use. Our hope is that this review will foster greater investigation of the cognitive socialization, as raised over 20 years ago by developmental psychologist and early games researcher Patricia Greenfield, that digital games serve during the middle childhood period, and childhood more generally. Read the accompanying policy brief from SRCD
... Emotions such as compassion and Acceptance can be trained by using narrative scenarios in conjunction with different perspectives, for example, mirroring the player's acts of compassion from a third-person perspective [17]. A realistic game world that is cognitively demanding stimulates the player's senses and improves their perception and Awareness towards outer experiences [40][41][42][43][44][45][46], as well as sharpens their focus and concentration, which improve the mindfulness factor Acting with awareness [27,[36][37][38]. Visual illusions can be used to create ambiguous situations that are open for interpretation and demonstrate Relativity of thoughts and beliefs (Study 2). ...
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This research investigates the relationship between mindfulness and digital games, by identifying which aspects of mindfulness can be trained by digital games and which game elements influence factors of mindfulness. Games and interactive approaches with research evidence for their efficacy are presented for each individual mindfulness factor, as defined by the CHIME eight-factor model of mindfulness. Two experiments were conducted to validate whether games can improve mindfulness. First, an expert review was conducted, where domain experts rated the fit of games to their associated mindfulness factor. Second, a laboratory study tested the effect of games on mindfulness, revealing positive significant effects on state mindfulness. Elaborating on the research findings from all studies, a framework is proposed to inform the design of digital games for improving mindfulness, and implications plus limitations are discussed.
... Such research demonstrated that video gaming can lead to improved MOT performance 43 and that, compared to matched controls, radar operators demonstrate superior performance on that task 44 . Furthermore, MOT appears to be a useful tool for tracking the development of visual attention skills in children 45,46 , for revealing age-related attentional decline 47,48 , and for investigation reductions of brain functional connectivity during high cognitive demand 49 . Störmer, Winther, Li, and Andersen 50 combined MOT with electrophysiological recording of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) elicited by flickering moving objects and confirmed that the continuous selective attentional enhancement of the tracked objects is directly associated with performance. ...
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The beneficial effects of mindfulness-based therapeutic interventions have stimulated a rapidly growing body of scientific research into underlying psychological processes. Resulting evidence indicates that engaging with mindfulness meditation is associated with increased performance on a range of cognitive tasks. However, the mechanisms promoting these improvements require further investigation. We studied changes in behavioural performance of 34 participants during a multiple object tracking (MOT) task that taps core cognitive processes, namely sustained selective visual attention and spatial working memory. Concurrently, we recorded the steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP), an EEG signal elicited by the continuously flickering moving objects, and indicator of attentional engagement. Participants were tested before and after practicing eight weeks of mindful breath awareness meditation or progressive muscle relaxation as active control condition. The meditation group improved their MOT-performance and exhibited a reduction of SSVEP amplitudes, whereas no such changes were observed in the relaxation group. Neither group changed in self-reported positive affect and mindfulness, while a marginal increase in negative affect was observed in the mindfulness group. This novel way of combining MOT and SSVEP provides the important insight that mindful breath awareness meditation may lead to refinements of attention networks, enabling more efficient use of attentional resources.
... The participant must indicate yes/no, was this white circle one of the originally blue target circles. Both cross-sectional and intervention designs have revealed an action gaming advantage on this task-with AVGPs/individuals trained on action games being able to successfully track a larger number of target circles than NVGPs/individuals trained on control games (Dye & Bavelier, 2010;Green & Bavelier, 2006b;Trick, Jaspers-Fayer, & Sethi, 2005). ...
... Overall, the ability to track moving objects is enhanced by action videogame play in adults 25,26,32 and in children. 30,34 Sustained attention Sustained attention is the ability to consistently maintain attention on an elementary, even boring, task over long periods of time. The Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A. Ò , The TOVA Company, Los Alamitas, CA) is a standardized task used for this purpose. ...
Chapter
Introduction Attention underlies our ability to focus on goal-relevant information and simultaneously ignore distracting, goal-irrelevant information. It thus serves as a gateway for selective information processing (Desimone and Duncan, 1995; Kastner and Ungerleider, 2001). Working memory is closely linked to attention in that information that passes the attention filter becomes accessible for maintenance over brief periods to be retrieved or manipulated for purposes of guiding subsequent goal directed behavior (Baddeley, 2003; Gazzaley, 2011). As such, efficient attention and working memory functions allow us to control and navigate through constantly changing environments. Given the fundamental importance of these cognitive faculties, many recent neuroscientific investigations are focused on training strategies that might improve attention and executive control. In recent years, regular action video game play by young adults has emerged as an activity that is consistently shown to be associated with superior attention capacities (Greenfield et al., 1994; Green and Bavelier, 2003; West et al., 2008; Chisholm et al., 2010; Hubert-Wallander et al., 2011a). In parallel, other investigators have developed and evaluated novel computer-based games designed specifically to ameliorate neurophysiological deficits in cognitive control, such as those observed in normal aging (Mahncke et al., 2006; Smith et al., 2009; Berry et al., 2010; Anguera et al., 2013). Moreover, impacts of regular game play are also being observed outside the laboratory in everyday life, ranging from superior surgical skills of game playing surgeons (Rosser et al., 2007) to improved self-reports of cognitive health and mood in older individuals who regularly played computerized cognitive training games (Smith et al., 2009).
... Several behavioral studies have documented that AVGPs benefit from more efficient attentional control (Green & Bavelier, 2012 for a review). AVGPs showed enhanced distributed attention (Belchior et al., 2013;Dye & Bavelier, 2010;Feng, Spence, & Pratt, 2007;Green & Bavelier, 2003Wu & Spence, 2013) and are able to track multiple moving objects more swiftly than NVGPs, indicating higher abilities for maintaining attention over a sustained period of time (Dye & Bavelier, 2010;Green & Bavelier, 2006;Trick, Jaspers-Fayer, & Sethi, 2005). They also showed reduced attentional blink and increased change detection (Cain, Prinzmetal, Shimamura, & Landau, 2014;Clark et al., 2011), and they have been reported to better suppress irrelevant information (Chisholm & Kingstone, 2012;Chisholm et al., 2010;Mishra et al., 2011). ...
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Objectives The ability to resist distraction and focus on‐task‐relevant information while being responsive to changes in the environment is fundamental to goal‐directed behavior. Such attentional control abilities are regulated by a constant interplay between previously characterized bottom‐up and top‐down attentional networks. Here we ask about the neural changes within these two attentional networks that may mediate enhanced attentional control. Materials and Methods To address this question, we contrasted action video game players (AVGPs) and nonvideo game players (NVGPs) in a Posner‐cueing paradigm, building on studies documenting enhanced attentional control in AVGPs. Results Behavioral results indicated a trend for more efficient target processing in AVGPs, and better suppression in rare catch trials for which responses had to be withheld. During the cue period, AVGPs recruited the top‐down network less than NVGPs, despite showing comparable validity effects, in line with a greater efficiency of that network in AVGPs. During target processing, as previously shown, recruitment of top‐down areas correlated with greater processing difficulties, but only in NVGPs. AVGPs showed no such effect, but rather greater activation across the two networks. In particular, the right temporoparietal junction, middle frontal gyrus, and superior parietal cortex predicted better task performance in catch trials. A functional connectivity analysis revealed enhanced correlated activity in AVGPs compared to NVGPs between parietal and visual areas. Conclusions These results point to dynamic functional reconfigurations of top‐down and bottom‐up attentional networks in AVGPs as attentional demands vary. Aspects of this functional reconfiguration that may act as key signatures of high attentional control are discussed.
... Therefore, attention is taxed by both speed and number of target objects, and objects are lost from attention or swapped for distractors when task demands are greater than available cognitive resources (Drew, Horowitz, & Vogel, 2013;Tombu & Seiffert, 2008). This finding extends previous research, which was limited by categorical speed manipulations used to define MOT capability (Drew et al., 2013;Fougnie & Marois, 2006;Franconeri, Jonathan, & Scimeca, 2010;Oksama & Hyönä, 2004;Pylyshyn & Storm, 1988;Trick, Jaspers-Fayer, & Sethi, 2005). Whereas Alvarez and Franconeri (2007) allowed participants to manually adjust trial speed to their capability, our results suggest that the average speed score, which better represents the average speed at which the participant successfully tracked all target objects, is a refined representation of attentional resource capacity. ...
Article
Multiple object-tracking (MOT) paradigms have the potential to highlight attention resource capacities. However, there is a dearth in research exploring the relationship between individual differences in MOT capability and higher-level cognition, such as intelligence. Previous research has demonstrated that manipulating task demands, or the task's cognitive load, can help describe this relationship. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between performance on a 3D-MOT task at different levels of cognitive load (average speed for tracking 1, 2, 3 and 4 target objects out of 8 total objects), and fluid reasoning intelligence measured by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-2nd edition (WASI-II). Also, we compared MOT performance between intellectual styles classified as: (i) low, medium or high fluid reasoning IQ, and (ii) fluid reasoning or verbal styles. As expected, speed scores decreased as target objects increased. This trend represents a proxy for attentional resource capacity as manipulations to both speed and target objects are able to highlight individual differences in available attentional resources. Furthermore, MOT capability at high load (4-targets) was the best predictor of fluid reasoning intelligence compared to lower loads (1–3 targets), and individuals with a fluid reasoning style and/or medium-high fluid reasoning intelligence outperformed individuals with a verbal style and low fluid reasoning IQ, respectively. These results describe the underlying commonalities between fluid reasoning intelligence and attention resource capacity, extending previous findings with working memory capacity. This study demonstrates that examining MOT as a measure of attention, rather than a phenomenon, can illustrate the potential to repurpose the use of this task to characterize attentional resource capacity.
... The basic MOT task consists of mentally labeling, continuously monitoring, then identifying the colour of up to 16 moving dots. Although the stimuli are far removed from popular 'first person shooter' action video games, the results nonetheless show that not only do AVGPs outperform NPs on this task [18][19][20][21] , but that deliberate action video game training also produces similar benefits, indicating that the relationship is causal 10 . ...
Preprint
A training method to improve speech hearing in noise has proven elusive, with most methods failing to transfer to untrained tasks. In contrast, transfer of visual learning to untrained tasks has been found in action video game players (AVGPs). It has been proposed that AVGP training improves underlying probabilistic thinking. However, most evidence is based on untrained visual tasks. This study aimed to expand the investigation to untrained auditory tasks to test cross-modal generalization, a tenet of learned probabilistic thinking. Eighty participants with mixed AVGP experience were tested on a visual reaction time task that has reliably shown superior performance in AVGPs compared to non-players and multi-genre video game players. Auditory cognition and perception were tested using auditory reaction time and two speech-in-noise tasks. Performance of AVGPs on the visual task replicated previous positive findings. However, no significant benefit of training was found on the auditory tasks. We suggest that, while AVGPs interact meaningfully with a rich visual environment during play, they may not interact with the games’ auditory environment. These results suggest that far transfer learning during action video game play is modality-specific and that an acoustically relevant auditory environment may be needed to improve auditory probabilistic thinking.
... Sin embargo, algunos estudios también han llegado a encontrar bondades y benecios en el uso de videojuegos, esto es, efectos positivos, como el mejoramiento cognitivo, atención visual y el desarrollo de habilidades como la multitarea (De Lisi y Wolford, 2003;Green y Bavelier, 2004;Trick et al., 2005), medio terapéutico (Basak et al., 2008) o medio didáctico y educativo (Bogost, 2008;Buckingham, 2005Buckingham, , 2008Egenfeldt-Nielsen et al., 2008). ...
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Resumen: Una aproximación sobre los principales debates académicos y cientícos actuales en relación con los videojuegos, se constituye en un necesario insumo para advertir las tendencias en las cuales se pueden inscribir los proyectos que surgen para comprender este fenómeno social, cultural, político y, por supuesto, educativo. Este es el problema que constituye el presente estudio. Se hace un énfasis en la producción académica e investigativa de los últimos 30 años, por ser el tiempo en el que comienza la gesta por consolidar un campo académico, interdisciplinario y autónomo sobre los estudios del videojuego (games studies). Se concluyen tres tendencias centrales, de las que se derivan muchas otras líneas de investigación; a saber: el problema del videojuego, los efectos de los videojuegos y el videojuego como expresión cultural. Palabras clave: debate, investigación, tendencia, videojuegos, estado de la cuestión. Abstract: An approach to the main current academic and scientic debates in relation to video games constitutes a necessary input to notice the tendencies in which the projects that arise to understand this social, cultural, political and, of course, educational phenomenon can be inscribed. is is the problem that constitutes the present study. Emphasis is placed on the academic and research production of the last 30 years, as this is the time when the effort to consolidate an academic, interdisciplinary and autonomous eld of games studies began. ree central tendencies are concluded, from which many other lines of research are derived: the video game problem, the effects of video games and the video game as a cultural expression. Resumo: Uma aproximação sobre os principais debates acadêmicos e cientícos atuais em relação com os videojogos constitui um insumo necessário para advertir as tendências nas quais os projetos que surgem para compreender este fenômeno social, cultural, político e, por suposto, educativo podem se registar. Este o problema que constitui o presente estudo. Faz-se ênfase na produção acadêmica e de pesquisa dos últimos 30 anos, momento em que começa a gesta para a consolidação de um campo académico, interdisciplinar e autônomo dos estudos sobre videojogos (games studies). Concluem-se três tendências centrais, das que derivam muitas outras linhas de pesquisa, a saber: o problema do videojogo, os efeitos dos videojogos e o videojogo como expressão cultural. Palavras-chave: debate, pesquisa, tendência, videojogos, estado da questão. Introducción La necesidad por conocer cuál es el impacto de las tecnologías digitales en la sociedad, ha hecho que en las últimas décadas haya aumentado considerablemente el interés por la investigación en torno a una de sus más populares expresiones en el campo de la lúdica y el entretenimiento, a saber, los videojuegos (Greeneld, 1984). Esto ha promovido, muchas controversias y apuestas académicas, unas a favor y otras en contra, que Notas de autor * Artículo de revisión
... It is worth noting that, within this literature, the term "action video games" refers to those games involving complex three-dimensional (3D) settings, requiring fast responses to events that appear "out of the blue" in a changing and unpredictable environment as well as strong peripheral processing demands, where target-stimuli are frequently hidden among distractors (Green, 2014;Green & Bavelier, 2015). Researches showed that extensive playing of action video games results in enhanced basic visual skills (Green & Bavelier, 2007;Li et al., 2009), superior performance in tasks that involve visuospatial selective attention (Green & Bavelier, 2003, 2006a, improved allocation of visual attention to several moving items (Green & Bavelier, 2006b; for same results in children, see Dye & Bavelier, 2010;Trick et al., 2005), increased ability to apprehend the numerosity of briefly flashed targets (Green & Bavelier, 2003, 2006b, better processing of visual information presented close in time (i.e., Attentional Blink paradigm; Green & Bavelier, 2003;Oei & Patterson, 2013;Raymond et al., 1992), and lower visual sensory threshold as well as higher visual perceptual processing speed (Schubert et al., 2015). Apart from visual perception processes, researchers also investigated the effects of playing action video games on tasks requiring the engagement of high-level cognitive abilities, such as the top-down control of attention and other executive functions. ...
Article
Despite a large body of evidence suggests positive effects of playing action video games and practising sports on various visual attentional skills, the impact of these activities on the ability to maintain attention over prolonged periods of time (i.e., sustained attention) has been largely neglected. Here, we first explored free-time habits on a group of 310 adolescents by means of a self-reported questionnaire. We found an inverse relationship between the time spent with sports and video games, but not with other extra-scholastic activities: the time spent practising sports and playing video games clearly competed with each other, with the more-intensive-sport practitioners being less involved in video game play. Next, we directly measured sustained attention and other attentional skills in a subgroup of 76 participants, divided as a function of their time spent in sports and action video games. In particular, sustained attention was assessed by means of two tasks: a classic exogenous task, requiring participants to attend to a flashing visual stimulus; and an internal (endogenous) sustained attention task, requiring participants to synchronise their manual responses to the rhythm of auditory pulses presented in an earlier phase. As previously documented, we found that action video game players displayed worse ability to maintain attention over time, as compared with non-action players. In striking contrast, intensive sports practice was associated with an increased ability to maintain attention over time. Overall, these findings unveil distinct cascading effects on sustained attention induced by doing sport and playing action video games.
... Par exemple, une étude expérimentale a montré que les jeunes enfants apprennent mieux des mots nouveaux en utilisant un écran tactile interactif par rapport un écran sans interaction (Kirkorian, Choi, & Pempek, 2016). Concernant les jeux vidéo, des études observationnelles sur des enfants et adolescents ont rapporté de meilleures compétences en termes d'attention visuo-spatiale chez les joueurs de jeux vidéo d'action (Dye, Green, & Bavelier, 2009 ;Dye et Bavelier, 2010 ;Trick, Jaspers-Fayer, & Sethi, 2005) -bien qu'on ne puisse en tirer aucune conclusion causale. Enfin, concernant les ordinateurs, quelques études suggèrent que le temps passé sur l'ordinateur à la maison induit de meilleures compétences cognitives (Fiorini, 2010). ...
... Leisure is generally defined as activity pursued usually in free time from which one drives pleasure and happiness. Action games improve the ability of children and adults to keep track of a set of moving objects that are visually identical to other moving objects in the visual field (Trick et al., 2005). The games may help children develop logical, literacy, executive, and even social skills. ...
Chapter
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In Japan, nearly half of the married couples are unable to maintain their sex life, and no one seems to change this situation successfully. On the other hand, only men have enjoyed sex as leisure by purchasing various forms of sexual service, and women have hardly had sex as leisure in any way. This chapter first delves into the causes of current difficulties in marital sex life with the methods of historical research and second analysis on the statistics and finds the gendered dual structure of sexuality in modern Japan. Next, it points that currently increasing affairs often allow sex as leisure for both men and women and argues their leisure is unintentionally transforming the gendered dual structure of sexuality into a more egalitarian one.
... Quanto mais recursos atentivos o participante dispõe, mais objetos consegue monitorar simultaneamente. Já foi demonstrado que crianças (Dye & Bavelier, 2010;Trick, Jaspers-Fayer, & Sethi, 2005) e adultos (Green & Bavelier, 2006b;Boot, Kramer, Simons, Fabianil, & Gratton, 2008) jogadores de videogames de ação apresentam um desempenho superior nessas tarefas. Assim como também já foi demonstrada uma melhora de desempenho nessa tarefa após treinamento com videogame de ação (Green & Bavelier, 2006b). ...
Chapter
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Videogames de ação, são jogos eletrônicos de ritmo frenético com cenários tridimensionais complexos, múltiplos estímulos visuais efêmeros de movimentação rápida, alta demanda do processamento visual, da atenção e coordenação mão-olho. Diversos trabalhos nos últimos quinze anos têm demonstrado que jogar videogames de ação pode aprimorar diversos processos cognitivos. As evidências mais robustas apontam para aprimoramento da atenção visual das pessoas que jogam esses videogames. Entretanto há evidências de aprimoramento de diversas habilidades e/ou domínios cognitivos relacionados à prática de jogar esses jogos, como sensibilidade ao contraste, velocidade do processamento visual, cognição espacial, flexibilidade mental e funções executivas. Nesse capítulo, abordaremos a principais evidências que corroboram ou não a hipótese de aprimoramento cognitivo relacionados ao uso de videogames de ação apresentadas nos últimos 15 anos desse campo de estudo. Assim como também discutiremos as principais críticas, meta-análises e discussões sobre o tema que vem gerando tanto destaque na literatura internacional.
... The basic MOT task consists of mentally labeling, continuously monitoring, then identifying the colour of up to 16 moving dots. Although the stimuli are far removed from popular 'first person shooter' action video games, the results nonetheless show that not only do AVGPs outperform NPs on this task [18][19][20][21] , but that deliberate action video game training also produces similar benefits, indicating that the relationship is causal 10 . ...
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A training method to improve speech hearing in noise has proven elusive, with most methods failing to transfer to untrained tasks. One common approach to identify potentially viable training paradigms is to make use of cross-sectional designs. For instance, the consistent finding that people who chose to avidly engage with action video games as part of their normal life also show enhanced performance on non-game visual tasks has been used as a foundation to test the causal impact of such game play via true experiments (e.g., in more translational designs). However, little work has examined the association between action video game play and untrained auditory tasks, which would speak to the possible utility of using such games to improve speech hearing in noise. To examine this possibility, 80 participants with mixed action video game experience were tested on a visual reaction time task that has reliably shown superior performance in action video game players (AVGPs) compared to non-players (≤ 5 h/week across game categories) and multi-genre video game players (> 5 h/week across game categories). Auditory cognition and perception were tested using auditory reaction time and two speech-in-noise tasks. Performance of AVGPs on the visual task replicated previous positive findings. However, no significant benefit of action video game play was found on the auditory tasks. We suggest that, while AVGPs interact meaningfully with a rich visual environment during play, they may not interact with the games’ auditory environment. These results suggest that far transfer learning during action video game play is modality-specific and that an acoustically relevant auditory environment may be needed to improve auditory probabilistic thinking.
... Visual attention is assessed with Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) and Multiple Object Avoidance (MOA) tasks (Bennett et al. 2018;Drew et al. 2009;Ryokai et al. 2013;Sears and Pylyshyn 2000;Trick et al. 2005). MOT assesses the ability to perceive peripheral stimuli in unexpected positions. ...
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A growing number of children and adolescents play video games (VGs) for long amounts of time. The current outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic has significantly reduced outdoor activities and direct interpersonal relationships. Therefore, a higher use of VGs can become the response to stress and fear of illness. VGs and their practical, academic, vocational and educational implications have become an issue of increasing interest for scholars, parents, teachers, pediatricians and youth public policy makers. The current systematic review aims to identify, in recent literature, the most relevant problems of the complex issue of playing VGs in children and adolescents in order to provide suggestions for the correct management of VG practice. The method used searches through standardized search operators using keywords related to video games and the link with cognition, cognitive control and behaviors adopted during the pandemic. Ninety-nine studies were reviewed and included, whereas twelve studies were excluded because they were educationally irrelevant. Any debate on the effectiveness of VGs cannot refer to a dichotomous approach, according to which VGs are rigidly ‘good’ or ‘bad’. VGs should be approached in terms of complexity and differentiated by multiple dimensions interacting with each other.
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When tracking multiple moving targets among visually similar distractors, human observers are capable of distributing attention over several spatial locations. It is unclear, however, whether capacity limitations or perceptual–cognitive abilities are responsible for the development of expertise in multiple object tracking. Across two experiments, we examined the role of working memory and visual attention in tracking expertise. In Experiment 1, individuals who regularly engaged in object tracking sports (soccer and rugby) displayed improved tracking performance, relative to non-tracking sports (swimming, rowing, running) (p = 0.02, ηp2 = 0.163), but no differences in gaze strategy (ps > 0.31). In Experiment 2, participants trained on an adaptive object tracking task showed improved tracking performance (p = 0.005, d = 0.817), but no changes in gaze strategy (ps > 0.07). They did, however, show significant improvement in a working memory transfer task (p < 0.001, d = 0.970). These findings indicate that the development of tracking expertise is more closely linked to processing capacity limits than perceptual–cognitive strategies.
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Leadership Outlook and its importance under various circumstances, and how to develop the capacity of higher cognisance.
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A growing body of literature has investigated the effects of playing video games on brain function and behavior. One key takeaway from this literature has been that not all entertainment video games are created equal with respect to their effects on cognitive functioning. The majority of the research to date has contrasted the cognitive impact of playing first‐ or third‐person shooter games (together dubbed “action video games”) against the effects of playing other game types. Indeed, when the research began in the late 1990s, action video games placed a load upon the perceptual, attentional, and cognitive systems in a manner not seen in other video games. However, the video game industry has shifted dramatically over the intervening years. In particular, first‐ and third‐person shooter games are no longer unique in the extent to which they load upon cognitive abilities. Instead, a host of other game genres appear to place similar degrees of load upon these systems. This state of affairs calls for a paradigm shift in the way that the cognitive neuroscience field examines the impact of video game play on cognitive skills and their neural mediators—a shift that is only just now slowly occurring.
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Experts with video game experience, in contrast to non-experienced persons, are superior in multiple domains of visual attention. However, it is an open question which basic aspects of attention underlie this superiority. We approached this question using the framework of Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) with tools that allowed us to assess various parameters that are related to different visual attention aspects (e.g., perception threshold, processing speed, visual short-term memory storage capacity, top-down control, spatial distribution of attention) and that are measurable on the same experimental basis. In Experiment 1, we found advantages of video game experts in perception threshold and visual processing speed; the latter being restricted to the lower positions of the used computer display. The observed advantages were not significantly moderated by general person-related characteristics such as personality traits, sensation seeking, intelligence, social anxiety, or health status. Experiment 2 tested a potential causal link between the expert advantages and video game practice with an intervention protocol. It found no effects of action video gaming on perception threshold, visual short-term memory storage capacity, iconic memory storage, top-down control, and spatial distribution of attention after 15 days of training. However, observations of a selected improvement of processing speed at the lower positions of the computer screen after video game training and of retest effects are suggestive for limited possibilities to improve basic aspects of visual attention (TVA) with practice.
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Technology provides us many tools including digital games. In this chapter, digital games consist of computer games, video games, and Internet games. According to Prensky (2001), video games provide a platform for young people to unlock their talents in game design and game-related interfaces. Therefore, it is necessary and indispensable to understand the use of technology for recreation and leisure by the youth so that the policy makers can use the insight to improve National Youth Policy on youth recreation and leisure in India. As sociologists of leisure, we need to be aware that virtual leisure has the potential in positive sense. This empirical study will focus on understanding how the video games help in programming happiness and creativity in youth.
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In der sportpsychologischen Praxis leistet Kognitives Training einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Verbesserung der selbstregulatorischen Prozesse, die für den optimalen Leistungsgewinn zur richtigen Zeit sorgen. Die zu trainierenden Fertigkeiten beruhen auf dem situationsangemessenen Wechselspiel zwischen bewusstem (langsamen) und unterbewusstem (schnellen) Denken. Langsames Denken kann durch Training der Exekutivfunktionen verbessert werden, wohingegen schnelles Denken durch den Aufbau der Überzeugung der eigenen Kompetenz erreicht werden kann. Beides benötigen Sportler, um möglichst gute Leistung abrufen zu können. In diesem Sinne ist die Aufgabe der Sportpsychologie diese Mechanismen durch wissenschaftlich fundierte Methoden zu trainieren. Diese Methoden beinhalten schon etablierte Ansätze, wie zum Beispiel das Mentale Training und die Regulation der Selbstgespräche, aber auch neuartige Konzepte, wie zum Beispiel Gaming als Training von Exekutivfunktionen.
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Objective: This research examined whether the positive effects of a peer-communicated social norm that reduces risk-taking behaviors persist over time and if a reminder of this peer-communicated safety message has any impact on this outcome. Methods: Positive mood in 7- to 9-year olds was induced experimentally and risk taking intentions and behaviors were measured when the child was in a positive and neutral mood state and after they had been exposed to either a safety or neutral peer-communicated social norm message. A few weeks later, half of the participants who experienced the safety social norm message were exposed to a reminder of this message via a slogan and risk-taking measures were taken again when in a heightened positive mood state. Results: Exposure to a safety norm successfully counteracted the increase in risk taking associated with a positive mood state. These effects persisted for several weeks regardless of whether the children were exposed to a reminder. Conclusion: Manipulating peer social norms holds promise as an approach to produce reductions in children's risk taking and these effects persist at least over several weeks.
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Many everyday tasks require coordinated action towards specific items moving among others (e.g. touching, pointing). Pylyshyn (2001) proposed that multiple-object tracking (MOT), the ability to monitor positions of specific target items as they move among others, is an integral part of coordinated action towards targets. In support of this, Terry & Trick (2021) found that when participants were required to touch any moving item that changed colour (visually guided touch) it not only interfered with MOT – but it interfered differentially, with less interference for touching items that changed colour if they were also targets in MOT. However, direct touch may represent a special case. In this study, we attempted to replicate the finding using a different coordinated action: computer-mouse clicks. Participants tracked 2-3 targets in MOT while clicking any item that changed colour. Mouse-clicking also interfered differentially with MOT, which suggests a common mechanism may underlie these processes.
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The attentional theory of spatial enumeration (Trick & Pylyshyn, 1994) predicts that subitizing, the rapid process (40-120 msec/item) used to enumerate 1-4 items, employs the same mechanism that permits individuals to track 4-5 moving items simultaneously, whereas enumerating more items requires moving attentional focus from area to area in the display. To test this theory, enumeration of static and moving items was investigated in 8-, 10-, 12-, and 20-year-old participants using a number discrimination task. As was predicted, random independent item motion did not substantially impede enumeration of 1-4 items regardless of age. However, even movement within a 1.14 degree square area slowed enumeration of 6-9 items, although on average the interference decreased with age from 788 msec for the 8-year-olds to 136 msec for the 20-year-olds. The relevance of this finding for theories of enumeration, multiple-object tracking, visual working memory, and object-based attention is discussed.
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"Subitizing," the process of enumeration when there are fewer than 4 items, is rapid (40-100 ms/item), effortless, and accurate. "Counting," the process of enumeration when there are more than 4 items, is slow (250-350 ms/item), effortful, and error-prone. Why is there a difference in the way the small and large numbers of items are enumerated? A theory of enumeration is proposed that emerges from a general theory of vision, yet explains the numeric abilities of preverbal infants, children, and adults. We argue that subitizing exploits a limited-capacity parallel mechanism for item individuation, the FINST mechanism, associated with the multiple target tracking task (Pylyshyn, 1989; Pylyshyn & Storm, 1988). Two kinds of evidence support the claim that subitizing relies on preattentive information, whereas counting requires spatial attention. First, whenever spatial attention is needed to compute a spatial relation (cf. Ullman, 1984) or to perform feature integration (cf. Treisman & Gelade, 1980), subitizing does not occur (Trick & Pylyshyn, 1993a). Second, the position of the attentional focus, as manipulated by cue validity, has a greater effect on counting than subitizing latencies (Trick & Pylyshyn, 1993b).
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Attention can be used to keep track of moving items, particularly when there are multiple targets of interest that cannot all be followed with eye movements. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate cortical regions involved in attentive tracking. Cortical flattening techniques facilitated within-subject comparisons of activation produced by attentive tracking, visual motion, discrete attention shifts, and eye movements. In the main task, subjects viewed a display of nine green "bouncing balls" and used attention to mentally track a subset of them while fixating. At the start of each attentive-tracking condition, several target balls (e.g., 3/9) turned red for 2 s and then reverted to green. Subjects then used attention to keep track of the previously indicated targets, which were otherwise indistinguishable from the nontargets. Attentive-tracking conditions alternated with passive viewing of the same display when no targets had been indicated. Subjects were pretested with an eye-movement monitor to ensure they could perform the task accurately while fixating. For seven subjects, functional activation was superimposed on each individual's cortically unfolded surface. Comparisons between attentive tracking and passive viewing revealed bilateral activation in parietal cortex (intraparietal sulcus, postcentral sulcus, superior parietal lobule, and precuneus), frontal cortex (frontal eye fields and precentral sulcus), and the MT complex (including motion-selective areas MT and MST). Attentional enhancement was absent in early visual areas and weak in the MT complex. However, in parietal and frontal areas, the signal change produced by the moving stimuli was more than doubled when items were tracked attentively. Comparisons between attentive tracking and attention shifting revealed essentially identical activation patterns that differed only in the magnitude of activation. This suggests that parietal cortex is involved not only in discrete shifts of attention between objects at different spatial locations but also in continuous "attentional pursuit" of moving objects. Attentive-tracking activation patterns were also similar, though not identical, to those produced by eye movements. Taken together, these results suggest that attentive tracking is mediated by a network of areas that includes parietal and frontal regions responsible for attention shifts and eye movements and the MT complex, thought to be responsible for motion perception. These results are consistent with theoretical models of attentive tracking as an attentional process that assigns spatial tags to targets and registers changes in their position, generating a high-level percept of apparent motion.
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Evidence from a number of sources now suggests that the visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSSP) of working memory may be composed of two subsystems: one for maintaining visual information and the other for spatial information. In this paper we present three experiments that examine this fractionation using a developmental approach. In Experiment 1, 5-, 8-, and 10-year old children were presented with a visuo-spatial working memory task (the matrices task) with two presentation formats (static and dynamic). A developmental dissociation in performance was found for the static and dynamic conditions of both tasks, suggesting that the activation of separable subsystems of the VSSP is dependent upon a static/dynamic distinction in information content rather than a visual/spatial one. A highly similar pattern of performance was found for a mazes task with static and dynamic formats. However, one strategic activity, the use of simple verbal recoding, may also have been responsible for the observed pattern of performance in the matrices task. In Experiments 2 and 3 this was investigated using concurrent articulatory suppression. No evidence to support this notion was found, and it is therefore proposed that static and dynamic visuo-spatial information is maintained in working memory by separable subcomponents of the VSSP.
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Multiple-object tracking is the ability to attend (keep track of) the positions of multiple target items as they move among other items. The performance of young and older adults (M = 19 and 73 years old, respectively) was compared in two versions of a tracking task in which participants were required to monitor the positions of 1-4 moving targets in a field of 10 moving items. All participants were capable of tracking more than 1 item at once, but on average older participants tracked around 3 items at once whereas young adults tracked 4. Results suggest that there are age differences in the ability to either track or report positions of moving items. All participants reported positions of 1-4 targets in a field of 10 items with 100% accuracy when items were static.
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How are attentional priorities set when multiple stimuli compete for access to the limited-capacity visual attention system? According to Pylyshyn (1989) and Yantis and Johnson (1990), a small number of visual objects can be preattentively indexed or tagged and thereby accessed more rapidly by a subsequent attentional process (e.g., the traditional "spotlight of attention"). In the present study, we used the multiple object tracking methodology of Pylyshyn and Storm (1988) to investigate the relation between what we call "visual indexing" and attentional processing. Participants visually tracked a subset of a set of identical, independently randomly moving objects in a display (the targets), and made a speeded identification response when they noticed a target or a nontarget (distractor) object undergo a subtle form transformation. We found that target form changes were identified more rapidly than nontarget form changes, and that the speed of responding to target form changes was unaffected by the number of nontargets in the display when the form-changing targets were successfully tracked. We also found that this enhanced processing only applied to the targets themselves and not to nearby nontarget distractors, showing that the allocation of a broadened region of visual attention (as in the zoom-lens model of attentional allocation) could not account for these findings. These results confirm that visual indexing bestows a processing priority to a number of objects in the visual field.
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In this timely and comprehensive text, Cesare Cornoldi and Tomaso Vecchi describe their recently developed experimental approach to the investigation of visuo-spatial cognition, based upon the analysis of individual differences. A review of the most influential theoretical advances in the study of visuo-spatial cognition is presented, including both critical analysis and comparisons between the distinct approaches. In addition, the authors describe recent research into memory for spatial configurations, mental manipulation and the active integration of visuo-spatial information. This includes studies on the effects of congenital blindness on mental imagery abilities, developmental and age-related modifications, gender effects, and the role of genetic syndromes in determining visuo-spatial abilities. The authors draw together these distinct areas of research and integrate the findings within an innovative framework of working memory. This text will be a valuable resource for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students of psychology, as well as researchers in the fields of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology and neuroscience.
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''Subitizing,'' the process of enumeration when there are fewer than 4 items, is rapid (40-100 ms/item), effortless, and accurate. ''Counting' the process of enumeration when there are more than 4 items, is slow (250-350 ms/item), effortful, and error-prone. Why is there a difference in the way the small and large numbers of items are enumerated? A theory of enumeration is proposed that emerges from a general theory of vision, yet explains the numeric abilities of preverbal infants, children, and adults. We argue that subitizing exploits a limited-capacity parallel mechanism for item individuation, the FINST mechanism, associated with the multiple target tracking task (Pylyshyn, 1989; Pylyshyn & Storm, 1988). Two kinds of evidence support the claim that subitizing relies on preattentive information, whereas counting requires spatial attention. First, whenever spatial attention is needed to compute a spatial relation (cf. Ullman, 1984) or to perform feature integration (cf. Treisman & Gelade, 1980), subitizing does not occur (Trick & Pylyshyn, 1993a). Second, the position of the attentional focus, as manipulated by cue validity, has a greater effect on counting than subitizing latencies (Trick & Pylyshyn, 1993b).
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Pylyshyn (2001) has theorized that people assign visual indexes to a small number of items in their visual field, which allows them to keep track of the items as they move. The present study asks whether this ability to index and track items develops with age. The task was a modification of the original M.O.T. paradigm. Children had to keep track of two to four targets that were flashed. At the beginning of the trial children were grouped into one of three age groups: five and six year olds, seven and eight year olds, and nine and ten year olds. The results confirmed that there is an increase in the ability to track multiple items with increasing age and that the older children are as good as adults at this task. There was a significant difference between age groups on several scoring methods, but no significant interaction between age and the different scores, which suggests that the children of different ages may differ in their attentional capacity but not in the strategies they use to deal with increasing numbers of targets in this task.
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Videogame playing puts extraordinary demands on our visual and motor skills, offering a unique opportunity to investigate learning and its limits in the visuo-motor domain. In a series of experiments, we have shown that videogame playing pushes the limits of visual attention skills. Videogame players (VGPs) were found to outperform non-videogame players (NVGPs) on the number of visual items they could apprehend at once as measured by an enumeration task, during the localization of eccentric targets among distractors as measured by the Useful Field of View, and during the processing of rapidly serially presented visual events as measured by the Attentional Blink paradigm. These results indicate that videogame playing enhances the capacity of visual attention as well as its spatial distribution and temporal resolution. Non-video gamers trained on a first-person point of view action videogame showed significant improvement from their pre-training scores on all three tasks indicating that as little as ten days of videogame playing can alter these fundamental aspects of visual attention. Thus, unlike most perceptual learning tasks that are rather specific, the learning induced by videogame playing generalizes to three rather different aspects of visual attention. There are multiple ways videogame training could lead to such an enhancement. Changes in known attentional bottlenecks is certainly a possibility; however speeded perceptual processes and/or better management of several tasks at the central executive level are also likely to contribute.
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An experiment is reported which explored the possible dissociation between visual and spatial working memory in children. Children aged 5-6, 8-9 and 11-12 years were given a recognition memory test for visual patterns or for sequences of movements to targets. Memory for patterns was better than memory for movement sequences and this difference was largest in the eldest group, and larger in the middle group than in the younger group. In a contrasting condition, the same groups of children were tested using immediate recall rather than recognition. A similar advantage for visual pattern memory over movement sequence memory appeared, and again this difference became more prominent with the age of the children. The results are interpreted as supporting the fractionation of visuo-spatial working memory into a temporary visual cache for storing visual form and an inner scribe for temporary retention of spatial information.
Article
(NOTE: Each chapter ends with Solutions to the Practice Exercises.) 1. Introduction. Numerical Data and Categorical Data. Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Data. Sample Data and Populations. Biased Data. Statistics, Past and Present. The Study of Statistics. Statistics, What Lies Ahead. 2. Summarizing Data: Listing and Grouping. Dot Diagrams. Stem-and-Leaf Displays. Frequency Distributions. Graphical Presentations. 3 Summarizing Data: Statistical Descriptions. Measures of Location: The Mean. Measures of Location: The Weighted Mean. Measures of Location: The Median and Other Fractiles. Measures of Location: The Mode. Measures of Variation: The Range. Measures of Variation: The Standard Deviation. Some Applications of the Standard Deviation. The Description of Grouped Data. Some Further Descriptions. Technical Note Summations. Review: Chapters 1,2, & 3. 4. Possibilities and Probabilities. Counting. Permutations. Combinations. Probability. Mathematical Expectation. A Decision Problem. 5. Some Rules of Probability. 5.1 The Sample Space. Events. Some Basic Rules of Probability. Probabilities and Odds. Addition Rules. Conditional Probability. Independent Events. Multiplication Rules. Bayes' Theorem. Review: Chapters 4 & 5. 6. Probability Distributions. Probability Distributions. The Binomial Distribution. The Hypergeometric Distribution. The Poisson Distribution. The Multinomial Distribution. The Mean of a Probability Distribution. The Standard Deviation of a Probability Distribution. Chebyshev's Theorem. 7. The Normal Distribution. Continuous Distributions. The Normal Distribution. Some Applications. The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution. 8. Sampling and Sampling Distributions. Random Sampling. Sampling Distributions. The Standard Error of the Mean. The Central Limit Theorem. Review: Chapters 6, 7, & 8. 9. Problems of Estimation. The Estimation of Means. Confidence Intervals for Means. Confidence Intervals for Means (Small Samples). Confidence Intervals for Standard Deviations. The Estimation of Proportions. 10. Tests Concerning Means. 10.1 Test of Hypotheses. Significance Tests. Tests Concerning Means. Tests Concerning Means (Small Samples). Differences Between Means. Differences Between Means (Small Samples). Differences Between Means (Paired Data). Differences Among k Means. Analysis of Variance. 11. Tests Based on Count Data. Tests Concerning Proportions. Tests Concerning Proportions (Large Samples). Differences Between Proportions. Differences Among Proportions. Contingency Tables. Goodness of Fit. Review: Chapters 9, 10, & 11. 12. Regression and Correlation. Curve Fitting. The Method of Least Squares. Regression Analysis. The Coefficient of Correlation. The Interpretation of r. A Significance Test for r. 13. Nonparametric Tests. The One-Sample Sign Test. The Paired-Sample Sign Test. The Sign Test (Large Samples). Rank Sums: The U Test. Rank Sums: The U Test (Large Samples). Rank Sums: The H Test. Tests of Randomness: Runs. Tests of Randomness: Runs (Large Samples). Tests of Randomness: Runs Above and Below the Median. Rank Correlation. Review: Chapters 12 & 13. Appendix A: TI-83 Tips. Statistical Tables. Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises. Index.
Article
This book contains papers concerned with awareness, control, selection and other factors involved in attention. The works presented are based on and influenced by the ideas of Donald Broadbent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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An experiment is reported examining the role of attention and expertise in multiple target tracking. It compares the ability of professional radar operators (experts) and undergraduate students (novices) to acquire and track subsets of randomly moving targets amongst distractors, and respond appropriately to a probe. Participants undertook this tracking task alone then, subsequently, in conjunction with a second, digit categorization task. For half the participants, the second task commenced prior to the tracking task's target acquisition phase, for the remainder after. Results suggest experts are better than novices across all conditions. Further, a comparison of results between the two dual task conditions indicates that attentional resources make a contribution to target tracking in both novices and experts, but only appear to make a contribution to target acquisition in novices. The results have implications for theories of multiple target tracking; the selection of radar operators; and the monitoring of their training. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Driver inattention is thought to cause many automobile crashes. However, the research on attention is fragmented, and the applied research on driving and attention is further split between three largely independent traditions: the experimental research, the differential crash rate research, and the automation research. The goal of this review is to provide a conceptual framework to unify the research—a framework based on the combination of two fundamental dimen-sions of attentional selection: selection with and without conscious awareness (controlled and automatic), and selection by innate and acquired cognitive mechanisms (exogenous and endogenous). When applied to studies chosen to represent a broad range within the experimental literature, it reveals links between a variety of factors, including inexperience, inebriation, distracting stimuli, heads-up displays, fatigue, rumination, and secondary tasks such as phone conversations. This framework also has clear implications for the differential crash literature and the study of automated systems that support or replace functions of the driver. We conclude that driving research and policy could benefit from consideration of the different modes of attentional selection insofar as they integrate literatures, reveal directions for future research, and predict the effectiveness of interventions for crash-prevention.
Article
Working memory span tasks require participants to maintain items in short-term memory while performing some concurrent processing (e.g., reading, counting, or problem solving). The present series of experiments contrasted two models of the development of working memory spans in children. Is this development mainly due to faster completion of the processing component in older children, as Towse and Hitch (1995) suggested, or is it due to resource-related phenomena such as increased processing efficiency and a greater amount of available cognitive resources? Using new computer-paced working memory span tasks that allow a careful control of processing duration, we demonstrate that the cognitive load of the processing component is more important than its total duration in determining working memory spans in children. Moreover, we provide evidence that even when both the duration and the difficulty of the intervening task are equated across age, working memory spans still exhibit a developmental increase that could be underpinned by a greater amount of cognitive resources in older children.
Article
There are two popular frameworks for the study of visual attention. Treisman's Feature Integration Theory focuses on the effortful process of binding together the multiple attributes of an object. Posner's Visual Orienting Theory emphasizes the movement of an attentional spotlight across space. Although both aspects are undoubtedly important in any visual search task, it is not clear how each of these aspects changes with age. We tested observers aged 6, 8, 10, 22, and 72 years on visual search tasks designed to isolate these factors. No age-related differences were found in single- or double-feature discrimination, attention movement to a single item, or search for a single-feature target among distractors. Two age-related changes were found: (1) young children were less able than either young adults or seniors to search for targets defined by a conjunction of features, and (2) both children and seniors were less able than young adults to move attention voluntarily from item to item. This implies that feature integration and voluntary movement of attention have different trajectories over the lifespan.
Article
Attention can enhance selectively the visual information processing of particular locations or objects. Recent studies have shown that this enhancement has limited spatial resolution, the smallest regions that can be isolated by attention are much coarser than the smallest details that can be resolved by vision. Multiple similar objects spaced more finely than the limit of attentional resolution cannot be individuated for further processing and can only be perceived as a grouped texture. As a result, at any given time, only part of the spatial and temporal information registered by the early sensory systems is available to conscious perception. It is likely that attentional resolution is limited at a stage beyond V1 and that it has a finer grain in the lower visual field than in the upper field. The spatial aperture of attention is elongated along the radial axis relative to fixation. The briefest temporal window of attention is also much broader than visual temporal resolution. Many perceptual phenomena related to rapid serial visual presentation may reflect the limited temporal resolution of attention.
Article
This article reviews recent advances in understanding the changes in memory function that take place during the childhood years. Development of the following aspects of memory are considered: short-term memory, comprising phonological memory, visuospatial memory, and executive function; autobiographical memory; episodic memory, including eyewitness memory; and metamemory. Each of these aspects of memory function shows substantial qualitative change from infancy, through the preschool period, to the early school years. Beyond about 7 years of age, however, memory function appears adult-like in organisation and strategies, and shows only a gradual quantitative improvement through to early adolescence.
Article
The paradigm of multiple object tracking (MOT) is an established tool for investigating human performance under conditions of divided attention to several objects. We studied change detection ability for colour and shape information in the setting of MOT. Subjects had to detect colour and shape changes during an MOT task. These changes occurred either openly (with nothing to hide them) or with a mud splash in the background to hide the change transient signal. Our experiment demonstrated that (1) when hidden by mud splashes, we fail to perceive a considerable number of colour changes even in the attended objects (i.e., targets) and (2) the visual system is significantly more likely to miss colour and shape changes in distractors than in target. We conclude that a colour change will be detected a lot more efficiently if attention is drawn to its transient. When a simultaneous mud splash hides the transient signal, subjects are significantly less efficient in detecting the change.
Article
Two types of theories have been advanced to account for how attention is allocated in performing goal-directed visual tasks. According to location-based theories, visual attention is allocated to spatial locations in the image; according to object-based theories, attention is allocated to perceptual objects. Evidence for the latter view comes from experiments demonstrating the importance of perceptual grouping in selective-attention tasks. This article provides further evidence concerning the importance of perceptual organization in attending to objects. In seven experiments, observers tracked multiple randomly moving visual elements under a variety of conditions. Ten elements moved continuously about the display for several seconds; one to five of them were designated as targets before movement initiation. At the end of movement, one element was highlighted, and subjects indicated whether or not it was a target. The ease with which the elements in the target set could be perceptually grouped was systematically manipulated. In Experiments 1-3, factors that influenced the initial formation of a perceptual group were manipulated; this affected performance, but only early in practice. In Experiments 4-7, factors that influenced the maintenance of a perceptual group during motion were manipulated; this affected performance throughout practice. The results suggest that observers spontaneously grouped the target elements and directed attention toward this coherent but nonrigid virtual object. This supports object-based theories of attention and demonstrates that perceptual grouping, which is usually conceived of as a purely stimulus-driven process, can also be governed by goal-directed mechanisms.
Article
There is considerable evidence that visual attention is concentrated at a single locus in the visual field, and that this locus can be moved independent of eye movements. Two studies are reported which suggest that, while certain aspects of attention require that locations be scanned serially, at least one operation may be carried out in parallel across several independent loci in the visual field. That is the operation of indexing features and tracking their identity. The studies show that: (a) subjects are able to track a subset of up to 5 objects in a field of 10 identical randomly-moving objects in order to distinguish a change in a target from a change in a distractor; and (b) when the speed and distance parameters of the display are designed so that, on the basis of some very conservative assumptions about the speed of attention movement and encoding times, the predicted performance of a serial scanning and updating algorithm would not exceed about 40% accuracy, subjects still manage to do the task with 87% accuracy. These findings are discussed in relation to an earlier, and independently motivated model of feature-binding--called the FINST model--which posits a primitive identity maintenance mechanism that indexes and tracks a limited number of visual objects in parallel. These indexes are hypothesized to serve the function of binding visual features prior to subsequent pattern recognition.
Article
This paper outlines research on selective attention within a life-span developmental framework. Findings obtained in both the infancy-child and adulthood-aging literatures are reviewed and discussed in relationship to four aspects of selective attention: orienting, filtering, search, and expecting. Developmental consistencies and inconsistencies are identified and integrative theories are evaluated. Although a single theory is unlikely to accommodate the diverse patterns of age effects, emergent themes are identifiable nonetheless and the essential ingredients of a life-span theory of attentional development are enumerated. Directions for future research and theory are suggested.
Article
It is still unclear whether impairments in visuospatial processing in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are a consequence of their motor deficits or are independent of them. In two experiments, 20 children with DCD and 20 matched controls were tested on the covert orienting of a visuospatial attention task (COVAT). Experiment 1 used a COVAT with peripheral cues and an 80% probability that targets would appear at the cued location. While the results suggested a deficit in the disengage operation of orienting covert attention for the DCD group, they were difficult to reconcile with models of covert orienting and the results of past research. Experiment 2 tested subjects on two new versions of the COVAT: the first used peripheral cues and no probability information (exogenous mode), and the second used central cues and an 80% probability that targets would appear at the cued location (endogenous mode). The DCD group displayed attentional orienting deficits only for the endogenous mode. These results suggest that impairments in the endogenous control of visuospatial attention are independent of motor deficits in DCD.
Article
In three experiments, subjects attempted to track multiple items as they moved independently and unpredictably about a display. Performance was not impaired when the items were briefly (but completely) occluded at various times during their motion, suggesting that occlusion is taken into account when computing enduring perceptual objecthood. Unimpaired performance required the presence of accretion and deletion cues along fixed contours at the occluding boundaries. Performance was impaired when items were present on the visual field at the same times and to the same degrees as in the occlusion conditions, but disappeared and reappeared in ways which did not implicate the presence of occluding surfaces (e.g., by imploding and exploding into and out of existence instead of accreting and deleting along a fixed contour). Unimpaired performance did not require visible occluders (i.e., Michotte's tunnel effect) or globally consistent occluder positions. We discuss implications of these results for theories of objecthood in visual attention.
Article
How are attentional priorities set when multiple stimuli compete for access to the limited-capacity visual attention system? According to Pylyshyn (1989) and Yantis and Johnson (1990), a small number of visual objects can be preattentively indexed or tagged and thereby accessed more rapidly by a subsequent attentional process (e.g., the traditional "spotlight of attention"). In the present study, we used the multiple object tracking methodology of Pylyshyn and Storm (1988) to investigate the relation between what we call "visual indexing" and attentional processing. Participants visually tracked a subset of a set of identical, independently randomly moving objects in a display (the targets), and made a speeded identification response when they noticed a target or a nontarget (distractor) object undergo a subtle form transformation. We found that target form changes were identified more rapidly than nontarget form changes, and that the speed of responding to target form changes was unaffected by the number of nontargets in the display when the form-changing targets were successfully tracked. We also found that this enhanced processing only applied to the targets themselves and not to nearby nontarget distractors, showing that the allocation of a broadened region of visual attention (as in the zoom-lens model of attentional allocation) could not account for these findings. These results confirm that visual indexing bestows a processing priority to a number of objects in the visual field.
Article
Two independent research communities have produced large bodies of data concerning object representations: the community concerned with the infant's object concept and the community concerned with adult object-based attention. We marshal evidence in support of the hypothesis that both communities have been studying the same natural kind. The discovery that the object representations of young infants are the same as the object files of mid-level visual cognition has implications for both fields.
Article
This paper argues that a theory of situated vision, suited for the dual purposes of object recognition and the control of action, will have to provide something more than a system that constructs a conceptual representation from visual stimuli: it will also need to provide a special kind of direct (preconceptual, unmediated) connection between elements of a visual representation and certain elements in the world. Like natural language demonstratives (such as 'this' or 'that') this direct connection allows entities to be referred to without being categorized or conceptualized. Several reasons are given for why we need such a preconceptual mechanism which individuates and keeps track of several individual objects in the world. One is that early vision must pick out and compute the relation among several individual objects while ignoring their properties. Another is that incrementally computing and updating representations of a dynamic scene requires keeping track of token individuals despite changes in their properties or locations. It is then noted that a mechanism meeting these requirements has already been proposed in order to account for a number of disparate empirical phenomena, including subitizing, search-subset selection and multiple object tracking (Pylyshyn et al., Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 48(2) (1994) 260). This mechanism, called a visual index or FINST, is briefly discussed and it is argued that viewing it as performing a demonstrative or preconceptual reference function has far-reaching implications not only for a theory of situated vision, but also for suggesting a new way to look at why the primitive individuation of visual objects, or proto-objects, is so central in computing visual representations. Indexing visual objects is also, according to this view, the primary means for grounding visual concepts and is a potentially fruitful way to look at the problem of visual integration across time and across saccades, as well as to explain how infants' numerical capacity might arise.
Article
This study aimed at investigating the possible dissociation between visual and spatial working memory (WM) by means of two different experiments. In the first experiment, a WM test for visual material and for spatial information was given to a group of 202 normally developing children (chronological age 7 years 5 months, SD 1.6 years; 109 males, 93 females). Results document a different developmental trend in the two span tests. In the second experiment, we presented the same visual and spatial WM tests to a group of 13 individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), seven males and six females (chronological age mean 18 years 3 months, SD 5.1; mental age mean 7 years 2 months, SD 1.5 years), and to a control group of 26 typically developing children 14 males and 12 females matched for mental age (mean 7 years 2 months, SD 1.4). The results of this second experiment show that, on average, the spatial span obtained by individuals with WS was significantly lower than control participants, but visual span was comparable in the two groups. Our data support the hypothesis of a dissociation within the visuo-spatial sketch pad slave system in the WM model.
Article
As video-game playing has become a ubiquitous activity in today's society, it is worth considering its potential consequences on perceptual and motor skills. It is well known that exposing an organism to an altered visual environment often results in modification of the visual system of the organism. The field of perceptual learning provides many examples of training-induced increases in performance. But perceptual learning, when it occurs, tends to be specific to the trained task; that is, generalization to new tasks is rarely found. Here we show, by contrast, that action-video-game playing is capable of altering a range of visual skills. Four experiments establish changes in different aspects of visual attention in habitual video-game players as compared with non-video-game players. In a fifth experiment, non-players trained on an action video game show marked improvement from their pre-training abilities, thereby establishing the role of playing in this effect.
Article
This study investigates children's ability to use language to guide their choice of individuation criterion in the domains of objects and events. Previous work (Shipley, E. F., & Shepperson, B. (1990). Countable entities: developmental changes. Cognition, 34, 109-136.) has shown that children have a strong bias to use a spatio-temporal individuation strategy when counting objects and that children will ignore a conflicting linguistic description in favor of this spatio-temporal bias. Experiment 1 asked children (3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds) and adults to count objects and events under different linguistic descriptions. In the object task, subjects counted pictures of familiar objects split into multiple pieces (as in Shipley, E. F., & Shepperson, B. (1990). Countable entities: developmental changes. Cognition, 34, 109-136.) and described either using an appropriate kind label (e.g. "car") or the general term "thing". In the event task, subjects watched short animated movies consisting of a goal-oriented event achieved via multiple, temporally separated steps. The events were described either with an appropriate telic predicate targeting the goal (e.g. "paint a flower") or with an atelic predicate targeting the steps in the process (e.g. "paint") and the subjects' task was to count the events. Relative to adults, children preferred a spatio-temporal counting strategy in both tasks; there was no difference among the three groups of children. However, children were able to significantly change their counting strategy to follow the linguistic description in the event but not the object task. Experiment 2 extended the object task to include counting of other types of non-spatio-temporal units such as sub-parts of objects and collections. Results showed that children could use the linguistic descriptions to guide their counting strategy for these new items, though they continued to show a bias for a spatio-temporal individuation strategy with the collections. We suggest potential cognitive origins for the spatio-temporal individuation bias and how it interacts with children's developing linguistic knowledge.
Article
The structure of working memory and its development across the childhood years were investigated in children 4-15 years of age. The children were given multiple assessments of each component of the A. D. Baddeley and G. Hitch (1974) working memory model. Broadly similar linear functions characterized performance on all measures as a function of age. From 6 years onward, a model consisting of 3 distinct but correlated factors corresponding to the working memory model provided a good fit to the data. The results indicate that the basic modular structure of working memory is present from 6 years of age and possibly earlier, with each component undergoing sizable expansion in functional capacity throughout the early and middle school years to adolescence.
Article
In three experiments, subjects attempted to track multiple items as they moved independently and unpredictably about a display. Performance was not impaired when the items were briefly (but completely) occluded at various times during their motion, suggesting that occlusion is taken into account when computing perceptual objecthood, from the perspective of preattentive visual processing. Three factors were crucial for this unimpaired performance: (a) Performance was unimpaired (relative to control conditions without any occlusion) only when the items disappeared and reappeared via accretion and deletion cues. Instantaneous disappearances and reappearances resulted in significantly impaired performance. (b) Performance was unimpaired only when this accretion and deletion was along a fixed contour. Performance was significantly impaired when items were present on the visual field at the same times and to the same degrees, but disappeared and reappeared in ways which did not implicate the...
Is the capacity limit of VSTM and attentional tracking one in the same?
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Fougnie, D., & Marois, R. (2004, May). Is the capacity limit of VSTM and attentional tracking one in the same? Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Vision Science Society, Sarasota, Florida.
How many objects can you track? Paper Presented to the 12th Annual Meeting of Working memory: The multiple-component model Models of working memory: Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control (pp Object property encoding and change blindness in multiple object tracking
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Age differences in multiple-object tracking. Paper Presented and 14th Annual Meeting of Canadian Society of Brain
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Trick, L. M. (2004, June). Age differences in multiple-object tracking. Paper Presented and 14th Annual Meeting of Canadian Society of Brain, Behaviour, and Cognitive Science, St. John's, Newfoundland.
How many objects can you track? Paper Presented to the 12th
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Alvarez, G., & Franconeri, S. (2004, November). How many objects can you track? Paper Presented to the 12th Annual Meeting of OPAM, Minneapolis, MN.
When videogaming expands your mind's eye. Presented at the annual meeting of the Vision Sciences Society
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Green, C. J., & Bavelier, D. (2003, May). When videogaming expands your mind's eye. Presented at the annual meeting of the Vision Sciences Society, Sarasota, Florida.
How many objects can you track?
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Alvarez, G., & Franconeri, S. (2004, November). How many objects can you track? Paper Presented to the 12th Annual Meeting of OPAM, Minneapolis, MN.
A framework for age-related change and individual differences in visual attention: Developmental factors
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Attention: Selection, awareness, and control: A tribute to Donald Broadbent
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Treisman, A. (1993). Selection, awareness, and control. In A. Baddeley & L. Weiskrantz (Eds.), Attention: Selection, awareness, and control: A tribute to Donald Broadbent (pp. 5-35). New York, NY, US: Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press.