Article

Evaluation of the environmental impact of agriculture at the farm level: A comparison and analysis of 12 indicator-based methods

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

An increasing variety of evaluation methods is being proposed to address the question of the environmental impacts of agriculture. This paper compares and analyses 12 indicator-based approaches to assessing environmental impact at the farm level, in order to propose a set of guidelines for the evaluation or development of such methods. These methods take into account a number of environmental objectives (e.g. soil erosion, water quality). A set of indicators is used to quantify the degree to which these objectives are attained. A total of 26 objectives were taken into account by one or several of the methods. A great diversity in breadth of analysis exists: the number of objectives considered per method varies from 2 to 13. Indicator-based methods for environmental evaluation at the farm level should take into account a range of objectives covering both local and global effects. Indicators based on the environmental effects of farmer practices are preferable to indicators based on farmer practices as the link with the objective is direct and the choice of means is left to the farmer. Indicators based on farmer practices cost less in data collection but do not allow an actual evaluation of environmental impact. Indicators allowing expression of impacts both per unit surface and per unit product are preferable. Indicators producing output in the form of values are preferred to indicators producing scores. If possible, science-based threshold values should be defined for indicators. The method should be validated with respect to (a) the appropriateness of its set of objectives relative to its purpose and (b) its indicators.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Anthropogenic actions compromise the integrity of the water resource and affect one or more of its characteristics such as the physical structure of the habitat, seasonal hydrological regime, energy sources, biotic interactions and chemical variables of the water [2,3]. Various pollutants from domestic, industrial and agricultural could affect water quality [4,5]. When water is discharged without any treatment in the receiving environment, health and hygiene problems associated with this alteration are emerging and are becoming increasingly critical [6]. ...
... Classes COD (mg/L) NH + 4 (mg /L) NO -2 (mg N/L) PO 4 3 -(mg P/L) 5 1,5-30 less than 0. of the harmful ionic toxicity to agricultural crops, especially those where the fruit is a leaf as the main agricultural crop in our area of study, their exaggerated accumulation in plant tissues results in plant damage such as leaf extremity burning, premature yellowing, and sometimes decreases in plant tissue yield [22]. ...
Article
Aquatic ecosystems continue to be threatened and the impacts of anthropization on biodiversity and human health are unprecedented following untreated wastewater discharges. Our study consists of the analysis of organic pollution parameters (dissolved oxygen, forms of nitrogen, ortho phosphates, and COD) and microbiological indicators of faecal pollution of the waters of Oued El Khell. The latter receives municipal and domestic wastewater from the Ain Salma tourist complex that is poured directly onto the bed of Oued Bou-Iddar tributary of Oued el Kell that is use for the irrigation of vegetable crops. The results obtained show that the water from the study stations is classified as municipal wastewater after biological purification since the COD value varies between 80 and 100 mg / L. The Organic Pollution Index (OPI) shows the waters’ quality of stations sampled from a bacteriological point of view, the ratio (R: FC / FS) total coliforms (CF) and faecal streptococci (SF) show that the origin of faecal contamination is animal and human with a human predominance for S1 and S3 and human origin for station S2. According to Moroccan standards, the waters of the study are not suitable for irrigation and can affect human health.
... An early example is Baumann and Rydberg (1994), who compare three LCIA methods that employ different principles. Most later analyses focus specifically on comparing characterization methods (Dreyer et al. 2003; Van der Werf and Petit 2002;Landis and Theis 2008;Weidema 2015;Chen et al. 2021), but some authors concentrate on normalization methods (Lautier et al. 2010;Myllyviita et al. 2014) or weighting methods (Huppes et al. 2012); Myllyviita et al. 2014), or address the full LCIA pathway (Notarnicola et al. 1998;Brent and Hietkamp 2003;Bovea and Gallardo 2006). This group also includes studies that compare LCA results of an established impact assessment with an updated version (Dekker et al. 2020). ...
... Some of these studies are of an analytical nature: they dissect the logical and/or mathematical structure of the contrasting methods and expose differences in assumptions, principles, and value choices. Examples are Van der Werf and Petit (2002), Amani et al. (2011), Núñez et al. (2016), and Crawford et al. (2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Many methodological papers report a comparison of methods for LCA, for instance comparing different impact assessment systems, or developing streamlined methods. A popular way to do so is by studying the differences of results for a number of products. We refer to such studies as quasi-empirical meta-comparisons. Review of existing approaches A scan of the literature reveals that many different methods and indicators are employed: contribution analyses, Pearson correlations, Spearman correlations, regression, significance tests, neural networks, etc. Critical discussion We critically examine the current practice and conclude that some of the widely used methods are associated with important deficits. A new approach Inspired by the critical analysis, we develop a new approach for meta-comparative LCA, based on directional statistics. We apply it to several real-world test cases, and analyze its performance vis-à-vis traditional regression-based approaches. Conclusion The method on the basis of directional statistics withstands the tests of changing the scale and unit of the training data. As such, it holds a promise for improved method comparisons.
... However, our indicators give only information trends on the impact on groundwater quality pressure that can be discussed as groundwater quality may vary in a more complex manner depending on the local factors that affect leaching. Evaluation of environmental effects of farmer practices would be better at field scale, allowing expression impacts both per unit surface and product (van der Werf and Petit, 2002). ...
... Pour traiter des questions de la protection de la qualité des eaux souterraines vis-à-vis des pesticides et nitrates, nous avons choisi respectivement l'indicateur IFTSA et la balance azotée (cf. chapitre 4 §2.1.4).Ces indicateurs peuvent être classés comme indicateurs de moyens qui sont le plus souvent utilisés du fait de leur facilité d'application, à l'inverse des indicateurs de résultats qui mesureraient directement les quantités de nitrates et pesticides dans les eaux souterraines (van der Werf andPetit, 2002). Cependant, ils ne permettent pas toujours une réelle évaluation de l'impact environnemental des pratiques mises en oeuvre mais permettent d'évaluer l'impact sur la pression polluante.Parmi les indicateurs de moyens pour évaluer la lixiviation de l'azote et des pesticides, un grand nombre d'indicateurs existent(Bockstaller et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
En premier lieu, nous avons étudié l’application des mesures proposées dans le cadre de la directive nitrates. Par leur standardisation, ces mesures sont écrites sans prendre en compte la diversité de fonctionnement des exploitations agricoles. Appuyé sur des entretiens avec 22 agriculteurs situés sur ces deux territoires, l’application par les agriculteurs de ces mesures et leur adéquation avec le fonctionnement de leur exploitation agricole ont été étudiées. Cette analyse montre qu’un grand nombre de mesures réglementaires sont peu cohérentes, ce qui conduit à des résultats insuffisants tant en termes de qualité des eaux souterraines que d’engagement dans la durée, notamment quand l’obligation est levée. Depuis 2000, la Directive Cadre pour l'Eau fixe des objectifs ambitieux imposant un retour vers le bon état physicochimique et écologique des eaux de consommation. Toutefois, la pollution des eaux souterraines par les nitrates et les pesticides d'origine agricole persiste en France malgré la création de dispositifs réglementaires depuis bientôt 30 ans. L’enjeu actuel est donc double ; concevoir des scénarios qui permettent de protéger et reconquérir la qualité́ des eaux souterraines et favoriser leur mise en oeuvre à long terme par les agriculteurs. L’objectif de cette thèse est d’explicitement prendre en compte le fonctionnement global de l’exploitation agricole afin de concevoir et favoriser sa transition vers des combinaisons de systèmes de culture qui répondent à l’enjeu de protection de la qualité́ des eaux souterraines. Nous avons travaillé́ sur deux territoires du bassin Rhône Méditerranée Corse, présentant des eaux souterraines polluées par les nitrates et pesticides, la Plaine des Chères (69) et Val de Durance (04). Ces deux territoires présentent des exploitations agricoles aux systèmes variés, qui montrent une dynamique contrastée face au changement.La deuxième partie a donc porté sur le développement d’une démarche participative afin de proposer de nouvelles pratiques en adéquation avec le fonctionnement des exploitations agricoles et engager une transition dans la durée garantissant la protection de la ressource en eau. L’objectif de cette démarche, caractérisée par une participation exclusive des agriculteurs, est de co-concevoir des scénarios “sur mesure” à l’échelle de l’exploitation agricole. Ces scénarios répondent aux projets des agriculteurs tout en permettant une limitation des pollutions d’origine agricole. Cette méthode a été expérimentée avec deux groupes d’agriculteurs provenant des deux territoires d’étude. Les résultats montrent que l’expertise collective des agriculteurs a produit des propositions de changements qui encouragent une mise en oeuvre de la part des agriculteurs tout en permettant de diminuer la pression polluante sur les eaux souterraines. En effet, certains agriculteurs de ces deux groupes ont mis en oeuvre les propositions dans les mois qui ont suivis la démarche.
... Werf et al. [50] The study evaluated 12 indicator-based techniques for measuring agricultural environmental impact. Indicators based on the environmental consequences of farmer practices are superior to indicators based on farmer practices because the relationship with the goal is direct and the farmer has complete control over the means. ...
Article
Full-text available
Agriculture has a substantial environmental impact. However, little research has been conducted on the relationship between agriculture’s environmental impacts and linkages, particularly for the key agriculture-based Pakistani economy. Additionally, the literature on environmental linkages rarely estimates multiple types of linkages in a single study. This study fills these critical research gaps. The study estimates the land, water, nitrogen, and CO2 impacts and linkages of Pakistan’s agriculture sector using an input–output model and the hypothetical extraction method. The results indicated that agriculture directly accounted for approximately 27%, 93%, 92%, and 1% of Pakistan’s total sectoral land, water, nitrogen, and CO2 impacts (LWNC), respectively. While the sector indirectly contributed almost 2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.4% of Pakistan’s total LWNC. The bulk of direct LWNC impacts were caused by agricultural purchases from downstream sectoral importers. The majority of the indirect LWNC impacts were induced by agriculture's re-imports. The agricultural purchases from the downstream sector of “Food and Beverages” induced the greatest environmental impact. To ensure sustainable agriculture, particularly in Pakistan, the agriculture sector’s direct and indirect environmental impacts should be reduced not only through better management practices and technology, but also by focusing on intermediate sectoral sources of direct and indirect environmental impacts.
... ÀBθ(1 À δ), À B 0, 0 farmers in terms of their technology and compliance choices according to bio-physical and bio-chemical laws in a cumulative manner (Van der Werf and Petit 2002). Finally, as Tisdell (2010) explains, GMVs designed by human ingenuity independently of natural environmental forces are more fragile than conventional varieties and are likely to lose their ecological fitness at a faster rate. ...
Chapter
It is great to launch these conference proceedings from the ISS 2018 conference held in Seoul, July 2–4, Korea. The theme of the ISS 2018 was “Innovation, Catch-up, and Sustainable Development. Keun Lee, one of the guest editors of this volume, served as the President of the Society (2016–2018) and also as the main host or Chairman of the Organizing Committee, for the Seoul conference. Actually, it took 26 years to return to Asia: the last ISS conference in Asia was held in Kyoto, Japan, in 1992. And it turned out to be a good decision for the International Schumpeter Society to return to Asia: About 380 papers were presented out of the 469 initial submissions from more than 50 nations around the world. Among these 380 presentations, there were about 90 papers presented by young scholars who are either graduate students or new Ph.D. students.
... The most outcomes show that the natural cultivating can possibly stretch out, to scale back the dangers of modified yields, and to scale back the effect on the environmental factors [17]. Investigation of key financial markers showing the profitability of natural cultivating comparative with standard horticulture has been led in numerous examinations, for example, Girardin et al. [18]; Rigby et al. [19]; Van der Werf and Petit [20]; Halberg et al. [21]; Halberg [22]. During this regard, to manage the key difficulties confronting the food area at a world level, natural cultivating -focusing on the get together of food with least consequences for the biological systems, creatures and people -is thought about a future answer that benefits the clients, in sync with American state Schutter [23].Therefore, we will in general consider that agribusiness can add to accomplishing these goals [24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Albeit natural cultivating is a significant theme for India, there have been not many accomplishments up until this point. Notwithstanding its consistent increment, the interest for natural food in India is offsetting the occasion of this area. Accordingly, we plan to evaluate the cooperation among traditional and natural agribusiness, just as their effect on the worth of rural creation in India. The principle objective of this article is the appraisal of the effect of natural cultivating, as contrasted and ordinary horticulture on ecological supportability in India. In this way, here various plots are utilized dependent on information gathered from the data set. In this present investigation, the near investigation between natural cultivating and regular cultivating has been made to investigate the ecological supportability in India. It is additionally valuable for the dirt to inside the better kind of using the strategies for natural cultivating, ranchers actually utilizing traditional techniques for cultivating. Examinations show the bigger utilization of customary strategies for cultivating in India when contrasted with natural techniques. The acquired outcomes rely fundamentally upon the qualities of work aground, as some rural designing strategies (crop pivot, bother control, utilization of composts and so forth) influence efficiency and creation.
... We believe that the most adequate technology for the evaluation of sustainability of complex agricultural systems is the framework for the evaluation of management systems using indicators (MESMIS, a Spanish acronym for "Marco para la Evaluación de Sistemas de Manejo de Recursos Naturales Incorporando Indicadores de Sustentabilidad"). This framework proposes six cyclic steps: (1) characterization of the systems; (2) identification of the critical points that are linked to the sustainability attributes-for example, productivity, stability, reliability, resilience, adaptability, equity, and self-reliance; (3) identification and selection of indicators; (4) measurement and monitoring; (5) analysis and integration of data; (6) conclusions and recommendations [11,18,19]. Therefore, we used MESMIS to evaluate and compare the sustainability of rainfed and irrigated agricultural systems of the Otomi communities in two municipalities of the Hidalgo State of Mexico. ...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural sustainability depends on complex relationships between environmental, economic, and social aspects, especially with small farm holders from indigenous communities. This work was centered on two municipalities of Hidalgo State in Mexico, Ixmiquilpan (mainly irrigated systems) and El Cardonal (rainfed systems). Our objective was to understand the relationships between the small farm holders and their agricultural systems. We evaluated the sustainability of their agricultural systems and made some recommendations. We applied the Framework for the Evaluation of Management Systems using Indicators (MESMIS, Spanish acronym); thirty-one indicators were identified, and quantitative indexes were established to assess the sustainability. The results showed that adaptability was a critical factor for irrigated and rainfed systems, and the main problem identified was youth migration. Additionally, the access to water and economic resources and the management of environmental resources are necessary in order to increase the yield of agricultural crops. Therefore, a holistic approach that considers the organization of small producers and synergy between indigenous knowledge and modern technologies is required for the territorial development of the communities.
... With a suite of innovative methods now available for evaluating agricultural impacts [110], it is still theoretically possible to design a regulatory system at the farm (or perhaps landscape) scale that is more fit for purpose than the blunt instrument the EPBC Act has arguably become. Whilst the multiscale nature of environmental governance will continue to be a challenge (especially given states are responsible for land use in Australia, whilst the Commonwealth has international responsibility), suitable frameworks have been developed which can help to disaggregate broad supranational policy objectives for biodiversity conservation by scaling them down to the regional or local level [111]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The regulation of environmental impacts from agriculture can take place at various scales. In some nations, with federal systems of government, the multiscale nature of regulatory interventions can be confusing for farmers, not to mention costly and time-consuming to navigate. Regulatory overlap contributes to inefficiency and wastage in governance efforts, reduced trust in government action and can preclude positive environmental outcomes across the landscape. In this article, we explore how Australia’s national-level law has been applied to agricultural land use. We canvas the concepts of regulatory complexity and ambiguity, and argue for a more integrated and flexible policy mix that rewards positive behaviour and stewardship of natural capital. This model would provide financial and other personal gains for those who can demonstrate objectives are being met. Further empirical research on fine-tuning that policy mix, again across scale, is warranted.
... According to [10], ecological footprint is an area-based indicator that can measure the sustainability of resource consumption patterns, both on an individual, local, national, and global scale. According to [11], ecological footprint is also defined as a method used to measure or evaluate environmental impacts resulting from human activities in a certain area. According to [12], ecological footprint is closely related to indicators of economic value. ...
Article
Full-text available
Soekarno-Hatta International Airport is prone to various environmental problems. The problem of population growth has an impact on increasing economic activity which directly impacts the environment. In every production activity from the environmental side, it will bring up the carrying capacity of the environment and the carrying capacity of the environment or ecological footprint. The problem will be difficult if it turns out that the ecological footprint that occurs exceeds the capacity of the existing environmental carrying capacity, also for airport problems. This will result in the airport being unsustainable. This article will discuss the model of the airport environmental footprint that is currently occurring at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport by utilizing the opinions of respondents who live and have activities around the airport. The factor analysis method is used to process the respondent’s data to obtain the factors that influence the environmental footprint and then through these findings a model can be developed which is expected to be able to abstract the current conditions. The research results show that the dominant environmental footprint at Soekarno-Hatta airport is overload airport activities impact, operational slot time optimization, and renewable of airport energy, which can then be built as an instrument to evaluate, build and develop airport control policies that are environmentally friendly and sustainable.
... Proper selection of indicators to be used in the analysis is critical, and the following criteria for indicator-based approaches must be satisfied (Van Der Werf and Petit, 2002). Indicators should consider a range of objectives covering both local and global effects. ...
Article
The wine industry has faced two significant environmental problems in recent years: productivity is challenged by environmental trends such as global warming, and buyers are becoming more environmentally conscious. From an environmental standpoint, the food industry is one of the most impacting sectors and wine results as one of the most studied agri-food products in the scientific literature. In general, comprehensive studies that consider an application of set of indicators to evaluate the overall sustainability of wine sector are lacking in literature. This paper aims to carry out a sustainable assessment using different indicators for fifteen Italian red wines: Water Footprint (WF), Carbon Footprint (CF), Vineyard Indicator (VI), and Territory Indicator (TI). VI is an indicator of the vineyard's agronomic management's sustainability at plot level with values ranging from 0 (fully sustainable) to 1 (fully not sustainable). Considering system boundaries from cradle to grave, at 90% confidence interval, CF results ranged between 0.97 kg CO2 eq./functional unit and 1.97 kg CO2 eq./functional unit, with an average estimated at 1.47 kg CO2 eq./functional unit, while the WF of a 0.75 L bottle of wine from cradle to gate is 666.7 L/functional unit on average, out of which 86.75% is green, 1.92% is blue and 11.34% is grey water. Concerning the VI, at 90% confidence interval VI results were between 0.117 and 0.498 with an average estimated at 0.307. The results of the correlation analyses confirmed that each indicator is not statistically correlated with each other. Concerning the sub-indicators, a positive correlation has been found between the total CF and the sum of blue and grey WF. The application of a multi-criteria analysis for sustainability performances evaluation of the wine sector presented in this study can be used by wine companies' experts to better assess sustainability performances.
... L'agriculture telle qu'elle est pratiquée aujourd'hui n'est donc pas soutenable. Outre la diminution des impacts environnementaux liés à l'agriculture conventionnelle qui sont aujourd'hui bien connus (Gray and Trigiano, 2011;Skinner et al., 1997;van der Werf and Petit, 2002), il est nécessaire de mettre en place de nouvelles pratiques, plus durables et avec un impact climatique limité. L'ensemble des pratiques répondants à ces critères sont des pratiques dites agroécologiques. ...
Thesis
Les changements climatiques et la croissance démographique de la population mondiale amènent aujourd'hui le monde agricole à s'adapter pour faire face à ces deux enjeux majeurs. Si les surfaces agricoles, qui représentent près d'un tiers des terres émergées, contribuent largement aux émissions mondiales de gaz à effet de serre, elles offrent également la possibilité de mettre en place des leviers d'atténuation des changements climatiques. Dans ce contexte, ces travaux de thèse ont vocation à enrichir nos connaissances sur le fonctionnement des surfaces agricoles, à fournir des outils d'évaluation de la contribution des surfaces cultivées aux évolutions du climat, et à quantifier les effets biogéochimiques (stockage de C) et biogéophysiques (effet albédo) d'atténuation des changements climatiques via la mise en œuvre de cultures intermédiaires. Pour répondre à ces objectifs, deux approches de modélisation ont été développées au cours de ces travaux. Le premier volet de cette thèse s'est intéressé à développer une approche de modélisation spatialisée, permettant de fournir des estimations des productions (biomasses et rendements), des flux de CO2 et d'eau, ces variables servant à la quantification des bilans de carbone et d'eau pour les parcelles de grandes cultures. À cette fin, le modèle agro-météorologique SAFYE-CO2 assimilant des produits satellites d'indice de végétation à hautes résolutions spatiale et temporelle a été développé et appliqué à différentes cultures (blé, maïs et tournesol) et végétations d'intercultures (repousses spontanées, mauvaises herbes, cultures intermédiaires). Cette approche a pu être validée sur un réseau de parcelles du Sud-Ouest de la France, en tirant parti d'un grand nombre d'images satellites et de données de validation sur la zone de l'Observatoire Spatial Régional. Elle a notamment permis d'estimer avec précision les productions de blé, de tournesol et de maïs, ainsi que les flux de CO2 et d'eau sur les cultures de blé et de tournesol. La végétation, pouvant se développer sur les parcelles pendant les périodes d'interculture, a également été prise en compte afin d'améliorer l'estimation des flux de CO2 et d'eau. Cela a notamment permis de quantifier l'impact des cultures intermédiaires sur les composantes du bilan C des parcelles allouées aux grandes cultures sur la zone d'étude. Le second volet visait à développer un modèle d'introduction de cultures intermédiaires à l'échelle européenne, afin d'estimer le forçage radiatif induit par la modification de l'albédo de surface engendré par cette pratique. Grace à des produits albédo moyenne résolution (1/20°), développés par le CNRM (et en collaboration avec ce laboratoire), cette approche de modélisation a permis de fournir des estimations de l'effet albédo relatifs aux cultures intermédiaires. Plusieurs scenarii d'introduction ont été simulés pour rendre compte de l'impact de certains facteurs, tels que la neige ou la pluie. Ils ont permis d'alerter sur le potentiel impact négatif de l'assombrissement du sol, induit à long terme (via l'enrichissement des sols en matière organique) par les cultures intermédiaires sur le forçage radiatif des surfaces cultivées. Enfin, comme tout changement de pratique agricole induit des effets biogéochimiques et biogéophysiques sur le climat, une analyse de ces effets couplés a été menée grâce à l'utilisation combinée de ces deux approches de modélisation. Nous en concluons qu'une fois les cultures intermédiaires mises en place, le sol devrait être couvert en permanence pour que l'effet assombrissement du sol ne fasse pas perdre les autres bénéfices climatiques engendrés par cette pratique agricole.
... Since the 1990s, different analytical and methodological approaches have been developed to establish criteria for measuring the impact of crops on the surrounding environment. To this end, numerous researchers have identified objective standards based on the use of specific indicators, providing useful findings for the identification of specific guidelines to measure the impacts of agricultural practices on the environment both per unit of surface area and per product unit [35]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to achieve an economic feasibility and life cycle assessment of three different olive cultivation systems in the Mediterranean area through the joint use of economic and environmental indicators, in order to identify the key elements to optimize their economic performance and a lower environmental impact. Three different management systems of olive cultivation were analysed by distinguishing Treatment 1—Fully Irrigated, Treatment 2—Partially Irrigated, and Treatment 3—Non-Irrigated, which were conducted through different levels of irrigation strategies. The three scenarios were examined using a Life Cycle Assessment methodology to assess the environmental impacts, and the impact in terms of water footprint was investigated using the Water Scarcity Index approach. The economic sustainability evaluation of olive cultivation was carried out through economic indicators, taking into account all of the cost and revenue factors of the olive cultivation in each management system. The results showed, overall, a suitable level of profitability of different scenarios, except for the Partially Irrigated treatment, as the investment costs of the irrigation system are not economically sustainable with regard to the revenue obtained. Furthermore, the findings highlighted the importance of irrigation management strategies to decrease agricultural practice costs and the negative environmental impact of olive production.
... attributional LCA), functions refer to the performance characteristics of the system assessed (ISO, 2006). In LCA studies of managed ecosystems, the main functions are to provide food if the system is agriculture or aquaculture or to produce wood if the system is a forest (Henriksson, et al., 2012b;Klein, et al., 2015;Van der Werf, Petit, 2002). In conventional EA, the function of a system is defined in a manner similar to that in LCA, corresponding to the product or service studied (Raugei et al. 2014;. ...
Thesis
Malgré un ancrage fort dans le territoire et des fonctions variées, la pisciculture d’étang estune activité en déclin en France. La diversité de ses rôles amène à s’interroger si le cadre des servicesécosystémiques (SE) peut permettre de donner une meilleure visibilité des atouts de cette activité. LesSE peuvent être définis comme étant « les bénéfices dérivés des écosystèmes par les humains ». Ilsregroupent les catégories d’approvisionnement (ex. la production de poissons), de régulation (ex. larégulation de la qualité de l’eau) et culturels (récréatifs, scientifiques, spirituels).Cette thèse a pour objectif de contribuer à préciser les services écosystémiques fournis parles étangs en France. Elle apporte des éléments sur le type de services et une méthode pour les évaluer.Dix SE d’approvisionnement, vingt SE de régulation et onze SE culturels ont été identifiés comme étantpossiblement fournis par les étangs piscicoles.La méthode PoESIE proposée s’appuie sur le cadre des analyses environnementales :Analyse du Cycle de Vie et Emergy. Elle met en parallèle les services et impacts afin de mettre enévidence les éventuels compromis dans la fourniture de bénéfices.Cette méthode a été utilisée sur 135 étangs français regroupés en cinq classes de gestion:les intensifs, les semi-intensifs, les semi-extensifs, les extensifs et les récréationnels. Deux SEd’approvisionnement et trois SE de régulation ont été évalués. Les principaux résultats montrent que lesétangs gérés de manière intensive et semi-intensive fournissent le meilleur niveau de SE, et présententdes impacts environnementaux modérés. Néanmoins, les indicateurs d’Emergy montrent que le SE deproduction de poisson de ces systèmes intensifs a une faible performance de durabilité.La méthode PoESIE proposée a montré son applicabilité à un système faiblementanthropisé à l’interface entre milieu naturel et productif. La pisciculture d’étang peut fournir un bonniveau de SE, principalement quand les étangs sont gérés pour la production de poisson.
... Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess the product impact to the environment. Moreover, LCA also can be performed in animal production system for analyzing environmental impacts (van der Werf and Petit, 2002;Efole Ewoukem, T., et al., 2011). Pelletier et al. (2009) stated LCA is a framework to calculate emission related environmental impact categories and compile an inventory of producing a product. ...
... To overcome these limits, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess environmental impacts of pig and poultry production systems since the beginning of the 2000s (de Vries and de Boer, 2010). Life Cycle Assessment is a multicriterion method that estimates multiple potential environmental impacts of products or services throughout their life cycles, from raw material acquisition to production, use, and disposal/recycling, at global and regional scales (van der Werf and Petit, 2002). Using this comprehensive method, feed production has been estimated to contribute the majority of environmental impacts of monogastric livestock production: 50-85% of CC impact, 64-97% of EU potential, 70-96% of energy use, and nearly 100% of land occupation (LO) (Garcia-Launay et al., 2018). ...
... Table 1 categorizes the sample's articles by sustainability dimension and agri-food chain. We identify articles with single and joint assessments of the three sustainability dimensions (e.g., Van Der Werf and Petit, 2002), namely economic, social, and environmental as single assessments and economic-environmental, socio-economic, socioenvironmental, and triple-bottom-line (3BL) as joint assessments (e.g., Chaparro and Calle, 2017;Longo et al., 2017;Thomassen et al., 2009). The organizational dimension is identified in articles across the different categories. ...
Article
Full-text available
The assessment of sustainability at the level of the agri-food supply chain is complex.Achieving sustainability in agri-food chains requires coordinated interaction between chain actors. The aspect of coordination is rarely included in the assessment of sustainability and current assessment methodologies do not allow conclusions about the linkage between coordination and sustainability. This paper analyzes the state of the art in the assessment of agri-food supply chain sustainability based on a structured literature review. Following the structured review that includes category analysis and content analysis, we develop a comprehensive sustainability assessment framework for agri-food chains across multiple stages. The novelty of the framework is to incorporate the dimension of coordination across chain stages as a critical sustainability dimension. The study contributes to research on the assessment of agrifood supply chain sustainability by incorporating the role of coordination across chain stages and its relationship with economic, environmental, and social performance. This essential relationship between coordination and sustainability offers several areas of interest for future research. The study also contributes to practice by providing scholars, chain actors, and policymakers with directions for improving sustainable strategies.
... ÀBθ(1 À δ), À B 0, 0 farmers in terms of their technology and compliance choices according to bio-physical and bio-chemical laws in a cumulative manner (Van der Werf and Petit 2002). Finally, as Tisdell (2010) explains, GMVs designed by human ingenuity independently of natural environmental forces are more fragile than conventional varieties and are likely to lose their ecological fitness at a faster rate. ...
Book
This volume presents selected contributions from the 2018 conference of the International Schumpeter Society (ISS). The selected chapters in this volume reflect the state-of-the-art of Schumpeterian economics dedicated to the three conference topics innovation, catch-up, and sustainability. Innovation is driving catch-up processes and is the condition for a transformation towards higher degrees of sustainability. Therefore, Schumpeterian economics has to play a key role in these most challenging fields of human societies’ development in the 21st century. The three topics are well suited to capture the great variety of issues, which have the potential to shape the scientific discussion in economics and related disciplines in the years to come. The presented contributions show the broadness and high standard of Schumpeterian analysis. The ideas of dynamics, heterogeneity, novelty, and innovation as well as transformation are the most attractive fields in economics today and offer the most prolific interdisciplinary connections now and for the years to come when humankind, our global society, has to master the transition towards sustainable economic systems by solving the grand challenges and wicked problems with which we are confronted today. Therefore, the book is a must-read for scholars, researchers, and students, interested in a better understanding of innovation, catch-up, and sustainability, and Schumpeterian economics in general.
... This is usually realised by different types of indicator. Exceptionally, many sustainable-agriculture indicators refer to the environmental dimension, including the evaluation of areas such as soil erosion, soil quality, water quality, general quality of agricultural practices, fertiliser use, crop rotation, pesticide use, climate-change trends, organic matter renewability in soil, index of soil cover vegetation etc. (Hayati 2017;Krasowicz and Kuś 2010;Majewski 2008;van der Werf and Petit 2002). Less frequently the analysis of sustainability in agriculture refers to the social and economic dimensions. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of the study was an assessment of the awareness and actions undertaken by farmers in the selected fields of farm activity from the sustainability point of view. The research covered a representative sample of 600 farmers participating in the Polish Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). The data from the FADN database were supplied by the information from interviews with farmers. The sustainability indicators were analysed with regard to the amount and type of subsidies received. The sample was divided regarding type and amount of support. The results showed that, on average, the highest sustainability indicators were in farms receiving support under agri-environmental programmes and located in LFAs (less favoured areas), while the lowest were usually in other farms in the LFAs. The analysis of differences between farms categorised according to the total value of subsidies received, found that on average farms with the highest absolute level of support achieved higher sustainability parameters in all dimensions. Based on the results it can be concluded that higher and more varied subsidies to farmers are positively correlated with sustainability of their farms.
... In contrast, the DEA method is mainly used to measure the ecoefficiency of decision-making units, such as farms, agricultural sectors or countries [58]. DEA and SFA methods have been used in researchers works include Reinhard et al. [30], Kuosmanen and Kortelainen [38], Callens and Tyteca [55], Pacini et al. [59], Reinhard and Thijssen [60], Vand der Werf and Petit [61], Abay and Assefa [62], Alene et al. [21], Hoang and Alauddin [63], Hoang and Coelli [64] Asmild and Hougaard [65]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The analysis of the economic efficiency of agriculture has been the subject of numerous studies. An economically efficient agricultural sector is not always environmentally efficient. Agriculture is a large emitter of greenhouse gases. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change states that food production and agriculture are responsible for 21–37% of total global CO2 emissions. Due to the comprehensive assessment of the agricultural efficiency, it is worthwhile to apply to its measurement an integrated approach based on economic, energy and environmental aspects. These aspects were the main reasons for undertaking this research. The purpose of the study was to determine the economic, energy and environmental efficiency of agriculture in the EU Member States in 2019. The environmental analyses relate to the period 1990–2019. A total of 26 member states of the European Union (excluding Malta and Luxembourg) were selected for research. The sources of materials were Eurostat and the European Environmental Agency. This study was based on the Data Envelopment Analysis method, and used the DEA model focused on minimizing inputs. The research also adopts energy productivity and greenhouse gas emission efficiency indicators. The DEA model features the following variables: one effect (value of agricultural production) and four inputs (land, labour, use of fertilizers and use of energy). It was found that seven out of the 26 studied EU countries have efficient agriculture. The efficient agriculture group included the Netherlands, Denmark, Greece, Cyprus, the United Kingdom, Italy and Ireland. Based on the DEA method, benchmarks have been defined for countries with inefficient agriculture. On the basis of these benchmarks for inefficient agricultural sectors, it was possible to determine how they could improve efficiency to achieve the same results with fewer inputs. This issue is particularly important in the context of sustainable agricultural development. In the next stage of the research, the analysis of economic and energy efficiency was combined with the analysis of GHG emission efficiency in agriculture. Four groups of countries have been distinguished: eco-efficiency leaders, eco-efficiency followers, environmental slackers, eco-efficiency laggards. The leaders of the classification were the Netherlands, Italy, Greece, Cyprus and Portugal.
... drainage). Adapted from:Rogger et al. (2017);Van der Werf and Petit (2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Natural flood management (NFM), or working with natural processes, is a growing flood risk management method in the UK, Europe and worldwide. However, unlike the current dominant technical flood management, it lacks an established evidence base of flood risk parameters. This lack of evidence base can limit the uptake of NFM as a flood management method. This paper critically evaluates examples of NFM and wider relevant literature in order to identify NFM knowledge gaps and suggest how to overcome these. The UK is used as a microcosm of different environments for diverse examples. The sections include: land cover, land management, landscape interactions and trade-offs, evaluating the wider benefits of NFM and, finally, scaling from plot to catchment. This concludes in a suggested framework for a new approach to NFM research, which encompasses spatial scales, interactions and trade-offs of NFM and consistency of reporting results. Widening the NFM empirical evidence base should be seen as an opportunity for a new approach to flood research through exploring new habitats and new flood resilience methods.
... L'intérêt grandissant porté aujourd'hui à l'aquaculture résulte principalement de la baisse des réserves naturelles en poissons, occasionnée par la pêche excessive et incontrôlée (Naylor et al., 2000;Pauly et al., 2002). Il y a aussi la nécessité de produire 40 millions de tonnes de poisson supplémentaires à l'horizon 2030 compte tenu de la stagnation des débarquements de la pêche, de l'augmentation de la population dans le monde et de la transformation de 50% des produits de la pêche en huile et farine servant à l'alimentation animale dont les poissons d'élevage (Subasinghe, 2006). Dans ce contexte, l'aquaculture apparaît comme la seule alternative pouvant combler cette forte demande en poisson pour l'alimentation humaine (Anonyme, 2007;Agbohessi et al., 2018). ...
Article
Dans le contexte actuel de changement climatique et de pollution environnementale généralisée, l’évaluation de la durabilité des systèmes de production s’avère indispensable. Ainsi, les impacts environnementaux de la production de Clarias gariepinus et Oreochromis niloticus dans les whedos du delta de l’Ouémé au Bénin ont été évalués grâce à l’Analyse de Cycle de Vie (ACV). L’estimation des rejets en azote (N) et phosphore (P) dans les systèmes de production (whedos), (T0: poisson nourris normalement 3 fois par jour, T1: 12H de jeûne, T2: 24H de jeûne et T3: 48H de jeûne) a été réalisée selon la méthode du bilan nutritionnel, et le calcul des catégories d’impacts a été réalisé avec l’outil informatique d’analyse environnementale SimaPro®. Il apparaît que, quel que soit la catégorie d’impact environnemental considérée, le système T2 a obtenu les valeurs d’impacts les plus faibles chez C. gariepinus comparé à T0, T1 et T3. Chez O. niloticus, excepté les impacts du changement climatique et d’énergie non renouvelable qui sont plus faible en T2, les autres sont faibles en T3. La production d’aliment reste le contributeur majeur des catégories d’impacts, hormis l’eutrophisation dominée par le processus de production. Mots- Clés : Analyse de Cycle de Vie, happa, vallée de l’Ouémé, Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromis niloticus
... Therefore, a minor spatial level is parcel/field level, followed by the farm level, and higher spatial level such as landscape, region, or state (van Cauwenbergh et al. 2007). Numerous researches have been carried out at various spatial levels all around the world, for example, farm-level (Eckert et al. 2000;López-Ridaura et al. 2002;Meyer-Aurich 2005;van der Werf and Petit 2002), field-level (Bockstaller et al. 1997;Mitei 2011;Terano et al. 2015), and regional-level (Payraudeau and van der Werf 2005;Zhen et al. 2005). With the many sides that must be satisfied at each geographic level, these investigations differ in their indication adoption (field, farm, and regional). ...
Article
Full-text available
The study’s primary purposes were to assess the sustainability of hazelnut farms and explore the effects of part-time and full-time farming types on sustainability in hazelnut production in the Giresun and Ordu Province of Turkey. One hundred fifty-two hazelnut farms were selected using the stratified sampling method, and data were collected by using face-to-face questionnaires. Several steps were taken, including using factor analysis after standardizing the variables to determine their weights to calculate the composite hazelnut farms’ sustainability index. The research findings showed that overall hazelnut sustainability scores of farms varied from 0.28 to 0.59, and the average score was 0.44 at sampled farms. The composite hazelnut sustainability index was at an unsatisfactory level. The social and economic sustainability index values of farms were equal, and they were higher than the environmental index value. The values were 0.50 and 0.30, respectively. The economic sustainability index score of full-time farms was higher than that of part-time farms, and part-time farms had higher environmental sustainability index scores than that of full-time farms. Social sustainability scores were not different in terms of farm type. It was recommended that when designing and regulating support policies, policy-makers should differentiate part-time and full-time farming. Training and extension programs must be planned to increase the level of knowledge of every willing farmer. To increase sustainability, specific policies are developed according to the farming type.
... Research on agricultural functions is undergoing a shift from the qualitative description of functions to the quantitative evaluation of spatial patterns and the analysis of influencing factors and mechanisms. Certain studies of agricultural functions evaluate the level of agricultural functions and its influence factors [47,[53][54][55][56], while paying insufficient attention to the relationship with households' livelihood. Within the context of the diversification of households' livelihoods [57][58][59], the micro-mechanisms and macro-outcomes of agricultural functions are undergoing profound change. ...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the relationship between households’ livelihoods and agricultural functions is important for regulating and balancing households’ and macrosocieties’ agricultural functional needs and formulating better agricultural policies and rural revitalization strategies. This paper uses peasant household survey data obtained from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) and statistical analysis methods, to analyze the differences in livelihood assets and agricultural functions of households with different livelihood strategies and the relationship between livelihood assets and agricultural functions. Households are categorized based on their livelihood strategies as full-time farming households, part-time farming I households, part-time farming II households, and non-farming households. The agricultural product supply and negative effects of the ecological service function of full-time farming households are higher than those of part-time farming and non-farming households. Part-time farming I households have the strongest social security function, while non-farming households have the weakest social security function. Non-farming households have the strongest leisure and cultural function, while part-time farming I households have the weakest leisure and cultural function. Households’ demand for agricultural functions is affected by livelihood assets. Effective measures should be taken to address contradictions in the agricultural functional demands of households and macrosocieties.
... On a global scale, global warming, economic development, landscape change, and increasing population pressure are the driving forces for soil and landscape deterioration leading to land degradation (Geist & Lambin, 2004), as are urbanization and the establishment of industrial areas (Oliveira et al., 2018). Vulnerability to degradation varies under different environmental conditions despite similar land use (Darradi et al., 2012;Van der Werf & Petit, 2002). For example, natural conditions such as topography, soils, climate, and geology significantly shape the susceptibility of agricultural landscapes to land degradation (Nowak & Schneider, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Determining the vulnerability of land to degradation is a crucial factor enabling policy makers to take targeted actions. The main aim of this work was to determine vulnerability to land degradation using the Environmentally Sensitive Area Index (ESAI) in the territory of 206 municipalities with extended power (MEPs), regions (NUTS 3) and in the Czech Republic (CR). The other two aims were found out i) whether land degradation is affected by land use characterized by landscape types according to Löw et al . (2006) and ii) whether land degradation occurred in larger territorial units (regions) or scattered across the CR (in individual isolated MEPs). The Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) method assesses the vulnerability of an area to land degradation using a composite index containing indicators divided into four thematic groups: human activity pressure and management intensity, vegetation cover and vegetation quality, climate, and soil in the assessed area. The ESAI index is expressed on a semi-quantitative scale ranging from the lowest levels of degradation (land not affected and land potentially affected by degradation) to the highest level of degradation (land at high risk). Most MEPs with a share of more than 70 % of their area were in the category "moderately critical areas" at risk of land degradation were located in the Central Bohemia region (15 MEPs) and in the South Moravia region (14 MEPs). For the whole territory of the Czech Republic, 51 % of the territory was found to be critically vulnerable to land degradation, and 38 % of the republic area was vulnerable to land degradation. Vulnerability to land degradation was strongly influenced by the landscape type. Almost all MEPs with a predominantly agricultural landscapes were critically vulnerable to land degradation, as were about half of the MEPs in the forest-agricultural and urban landscapes and only a few MEPs in the forest landscapes. Given the selected indicators, the MEP seems to be the appropriate smallest administrative unit to assess vulnerability to land degradation in the Czech Republic. The map of individual ESAI values can be viewed free of charge online at http://www.imalbes.cz/vysledek.php . We are currently preparing a proposal for appropriate measures to prevent and reduce land degradation throughout the territory of the Czech Republic, and our proposals are coordinated with representatives of the MEPs and regions.
... First, milk production can be organized using conventional or organic systems of production. The eco-efficiency can be measured by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of farm systems (Basset-Mens et al., 2009, Van der Werf andPetit, 2002). The National Organic Program (NOP) is a federal set of requirements in the USA under which organic dairy cows should spend at least 120 days per year on pasture and receive at least 30 percent of dry matter from pasture (Walsh et al., 2020). ...
... Sustainability in agriculture is usually assessed by means of agrienvironmental indicators (Bélanger et al., 2012). With growing awareness of environmental problems in recent decades, numerous agrienvironmental indicators (Piorr, 2003;Petit et al., 2018;Früh-Müller et al., 2020) and indicator-based methods (Van de Werf et al., 2002;Binder et al., 2010; Acosta-Alba and Van der Werf, 2011) have been developed to assess the adverse effects of cropping and farming systems such as gaseous emissions due to energy and agrochemical inputs and water pollution by nitrates, phosphates and pesticides etc. ...
Article
Full-text available
The adverse effects of agriculture and livestock production on the environment are well-known and require mitigation in order to achieve sustainability in the food production chain. This study focused on adverse effects related to biogeochemical flows of phosphorus and nitrogen cycles which natural balances have been greatly disturbed by current practices. To assess the potential benefits and detrimental effects of proposed mitigation measures, adequate impact indicators are required. The challenge lies in identifying and providing indicators that cover the important aspects of environmental sustainability and allow a direct comparison of policy alternatives. A review of potential indicators that are also consistent with those used to indicate the performance of agricultural and general sustainability (i.e. the European Green Deal) led to the selection of fifteen agri-environmental indicators covering the main environmental issues in agriculture. The indicators identified offered an effective representation of environmental behaviour and would be useful in communicating a comprehensive ‘dashboard’ for professional end users of solutions to nutrient recovery and nutrient efficiency improvement in arable and livestock systems. The selected dashboard indicators (DBI) covered the dimensions of ‘use of primary resources’, ‘emissions to the environment’ and ‘resilience to climate change’. Five case studies were investigated to test the DBI using an Excel questionnaire applying the qualitative approach of the Delphi method together with expert knowledge. As expected, the results indicated that there were potential benefits of the technologies in terms of improved ‘nutrient recovery’ and decreased ‘nitrate leaching’. Potential disadvantages included increased electricity and oil consumption and greater ammonia volatilisation due to the increased use of organic fertilisers. The indicator ‘water’ received more neutral responses; thus, the specific technology was not expected to consistently affect the indicator. In relation to ‘particulate matter’, the results were indicated to be ‘unknown’ for some solutions due to the difficulty of predicting this indicator. Furthermore, methodologies for estimating quantitative values for the dashboard indicators were proposed, and a quantitative assessment was performed for the solution ‘catch crops to recover nutrients’, confirming the responses in the qualitative assessment. The dashboard indicators selected covered the main aspects of the solutions, identified in more comprehensive studies of environmental impacts, as being suitable for the rapid assessment of technologies for nutrient recovery in agriculture. As such, they can be used as a pre-screening method for technologies designed to improve the environmental sustainability of arable and livestock systems.
... Most of the impact is almost completely attributed to the input of monopotassium phosphate (MKP), which makes up 41% of the total salt mix by weight. 3 However, MKP was modelled using sodium phosphate as a proxy due to limitations in data availability, making the results for the contribution of the salt mix uncertain. The substantially lower reliance on land for Tr-OVA production compared to egg white powder-the discernibility results showed that 100% of the MC runs resulted in lower land use requirementscan be explained by the difference in the total required agricultural resources per kg of protein for each product. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ovalbumin (OVA) produced using the fungus Trichoderma reesei (Tr-OVA) could become a sustainable replacement for chicken egg white protein powder—a widely used ingredient in the food industry. Although the approach can generate OVA at pilot scale, the environmental impacts of industrial-scale production have not been explored. Here, we conducted an anticipatory life cycle assessment using data from a pilot study to compare the impacts of Tr-OVA production with an equivalent functional unit of dried chicken egg white protein produced in Finland, Germany and Poland. Tr-OVA production reduced most agriculture-associated impacts, such as global warming and land use. Increased impacts were mostly related to industrial inputs, such as electricity production, but were also associated with glucose consumption. Switching to low-carbon energy sources could further reduce environmental impact, demonstrating the potential benefits of cellular agriculture over livestock agriculture for OVA production.
... These issues have caught the attention of the public, who now require more environmentally sustainable farming practices and systems [5], or, in some cases, pose a challenge to farmers' social licence to operate [6]. Consequently, agriculture and environmental sustainability have increasingly become conflicting concepts around the world, drawing attention to much of the scholarly endeavours in recent years [7][8][9]. Governments have also been trying different ways to regulate agriculture, with the aim to reduce its environmental footprint while sustaining the economic and social gains from agriculture [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Worldwide, the agricultural sector is under pressure to demonstrate environmental sustainability. In New Zealand, farm environment plans (FEPs) and their auditing were intended to guide farmers towards sustainable practices by meeting regulations. However, on-farm audits can be time consuming, costly, and stressful for farmers. Meanwhile, the advancement of drone technology has made it possible to incorporate such tools in environmental audits. By means of field observation and in-depth interviews with both farmers and auditors, this research investigated the processes and perceptions of incorporating drones in environmental audits. The aerial views provided additional, high-quality information for the audit. However, flying a drone is subject to weather conditions. Additionally, reductions in audit time were dependent on farm scale, topography, and the auditor’s knowledge of the farm and the farmer. Farmer-auditor relationships are critical for enabling the benefits of drone use within the FEP audit process. Such relationships require a high level of interaction-based trust between farmers and auditors. Further clarity around the use and ownership of drone images could enhance trust, enabling the benefits of drones in audits to be fully utilised, hence furthering the environmental management and compliance processes towards achieving their objectives of better environmental outcomes.
Thesis
Pour nourrir les humains, l’agriculture actuelle est fortement tributaire de l’utilisation de fertilisants issus de ressources fossiles. Or la majorité des nutriments de l’alimentation est ensuite excrétée dans les urines. Celles-ci sont usuellement mélangées aux eaux usées dont la gestion ne permet qu’un faible recyclage de ces nutriments et entraîne de nombreux impacts environnementaux. L’objectif de cette thèse est de caractériser les filières envisageables de valorisation de l’urine humaine en agriculture au niveau agronomique et de leurs impacts environnementaux. Une revue de la littérature des différents traitements de l’urine et des urinofertilisants obtenus montre que : (i) l'efficacité agronomique de la plupart des urinofertilisants est haute et nécessite d’être davantage étudiée ; (ii) la majorité des pathogènes peuvent être facilement inactivés, les résidus de pharmaceutiques sont plus difficilement dégradés ; (iii) la consommation d'énergie et de réactifs des traitements peut être élevée. L’efficacité fertilisante d’une dizaine d’urinofertilisants a ensuite été mesurée au champ et en serre. Elle est élevée pour la majorité et proche de celle des engrais minéraux (équivalence engrais de 52% à 120%). Elle est liée à une forte teneur en azote minéral dans la majorité des urinofertilisants. La volatilisation ammoniacale peut potentiellement être importante (e.g. 34% de l‘azote en conditions propices), le pH élevé et la teneur en azote ammoniacal, selon les urinofertilisants, étant des facteurs de risque importants. Enfin, une évaluation par analyse du cycle de vie des impacts environnementaux associés à la production de céréales a été réalisée selon le mode de fertilisation : biologique et conventionnelle versus trois urinofertilisants. Les impacts sont plus faibles pour la majorité des indicateurs en comparaison aux pratiques actuelles, en grande partie grâce aux impacts évités de l’épuration des eaux usées et de la production d’engrais minéraux. La volatilisation ammoniacale et la consommation d’énergie des traitements sont les deux éléments les plus sensibles du bilan environnemental. Ces résultats montrent que le déploiement de filières de valorisation de l’urine humaine peut contribuer à une transition vers une gestion systémique et soutenable des nutriments.
Chapter
By using a systems approach to the analysis of the environmental sustainability of land use and land use change, this chapter presents a background overview of the past and present links between land use, society and environment. Land use has changed dramatically throughout time in order to support the changing needs of an increasing human population. This has mainly consisted in the conversion of forests to cropland and grassland during the first agricultural revolution. The industrial revolution, coupled with the green revolution, allowed for unprecedented increases in yield, as advances in technology resulted in impressive increases in yield. However, these improvements have not eradicated hunger in the world and, despite some local and sporadic improvements, food insecurity is increasing. Land cover and land use changes are among the most significant impacts of human society on the environment, particularly on climate, ecosystems and biodiversity. Focus is given to the carbon budget. The historical net effect on the carbon balance is substantial. The close link between the carbon and energy cycles highlights the impact on other species caused by disruptions to these cycles. The second part of the chapter identifies a multitude of system tools and frameworks for assessing sustainability. The final section of this chapter integrates the concepts and terms used in these frameworks with those commonly used in LCA. As a result, a harmonised framework is proposed, allowing the convergence of different disciplinary frameworks.
Book
Full-text available
En Bolivia los sistemas agroforestales (SAF) son de gran relevancia para la seguridad alimentaria y el desarrollo de estrategias de vida de miles de familias indígenas y campesinas que practican la agricultura familiar. En regiones como la Amazonia Sur, estos fueron implementados desde finales de los 90; sin embargo, aún son escasas las evaluaciones respecto a su contribución enfocada en la sostenibilidad y su relación con los productores indígenas y campesinos. En ese sentido, esta investigación tuvo como objetivo general caracterizar y evaluar la sostenibilidad de sistemas agroforestales de comunidades indígenas y campesinas de los municipios de San Javier, San Andrés, San Ignacio de Mojos y Baures ubicados todos en la Amazonia Sur del departamento de Beni. La medición de la sostenibilidad de los sistemas agroforestales es compleja por naturaleza, dado que se debe integrar en el análisis las dimensiones social, ambiental y económica para recién entonces determinar la contribución integral de las familias productoras en la consolidación de los SAF, así como los aspectos relacionados a los beneficios. Es por eso que se desarrolló un sistema metodológico de medición a partir de 20 indicadores ambientales, sociales y económicos cuya formulación fue sencilla, práctica y comprensible para los productores indígenas y campesinos. En una primera etapa se realizaron mediciones in situ y entrevistas semi estructuradas con los productores de 239 SAF: 36 en San Andrés, 43 en San Javier, 142 en San Ignacio de Mojos y 18 en Baures. Los sistemas agroforestales evaluados en su mayoría fueron establecidos a partir de 1999, por lo que a la hora de su caracterización se debe considerar su antigüedad. Entre algunas de las variables que se midió están la composición de especies, superficie, la pérdida de cultivos por eventos climáticos y/o antrópicos, el grado de apropiación de la población para con los SAF, etc. A partir de estos resultados se realizó una segunda fase de trabajo de campo en la que se midió indicadores de sostenibilidad en 42 SAF de productores indígenas y campesinos de los cuatro municipios, en donde previamente se identificaron avances importantes en torno al proceso de consolidación. Los resultados indican que, entre las principales características de los SAF son las siguientes: parcelas altamente diversificadas, en algunos casos, con más de 20 especies; una producción catalogada como regular por más de 64 % de los productores en los diferentes municipios; el 50 % tiene un estado de manejo regular, 17,67 % deficiente, 27,45 % bueno y tan solo 4,83 % muy bueno. Asimismo, se estableció que la sequía, seguida de las inundaciones y los incendios son las principales causas de pérdida de SAF y la consecuente reducción de la producción. Los SAF de la Amazonia Sur tienen un tamaño promedio de 0,69 hectáreas a nivel municipal, propio de la agricultura familiar y responden al modelo productivo dirigido a garantizar la seguridad alimentaria. Estos sistemas son la primera o segunda opción de modalidad de producción en las unidades productivas de las familias indígenas y campesinas, y por lo general se centran en cultivos estratégicos como el cacao y la toronja. Con respecto a la sostenibilidad los SAF muestran un grado medio y alto: hasta de un 90 % de los 20 indicadores evaluados, sobre todo aquellos de las dimensiones ambiental y social. En el aspecto ambiental se destaca la alta diversidad florística y sus capacidades de almacenamiento de carbono en la vegetación arbórea y en el suelo, como proceso de mitigación del cambio climático. En ámbito social, se estableció que el conocimiento adquirido por los productores desde la implementación de los SAF, les permite tomar decisiones independientes con respecto a sus actividades; además, logran fortalecer sustancialmente sus modos de vida en la comunidad al reducir la migración, lo que facilita la cohesión social y una gestión sostenible de los recursos naturales a nivel local. Los municipios de Baures y San Andrés avanzaron considerablemente en esta esfera. En cuanto a la dimensión económica, aún se requiere desarrollar acciones para lograr un mayor impacto en la vida de las familias productoras indígenas y campesinas; urge, sobre todo, mejorar la accesibilidad a los mercados para acrecentar los ingresos. Los resultados de esta investigación deben servir para el diseño de estrategias, planes, proyectos y propuestas de políticas públicas, en diferentes niveles, encaminados a resolver los problemas con los que lidian permanentemente los productores que implementan los SAF e impulsar la producción local de la región amazónica de Bolivia.
Article
Full-text available
Food markets are increasingly demanding the implementation of good agricultural practices programs (GAP) in the public or private sectors as a way to guarantee the sustainable and responsible production of safe food. Due to the large number of GAP programs being implemented, producers are often required to participate in several of them to comply with the demands coming from diverse buyers in different target markets; as a result, even though the majority of certificate requirements share factors in common, the costs of implementation and evaluation increase. In this context, a tool was created to analyze and manage multidimensional risks in agriculture (4DGAP tool) (evaluation of the GAP in four dimensions), developed through an alliance between Embrapa and IICA proposing methodological bases that would support the preparation and updating of indicators linked to the GAP programs, facilitate interplay between the different certification programs and likewise between programs and the producers, agribusinesses and governmental agencies that use them. In addition, its objective is to contribute to the reorganization of all kinds of rural farms, based on a concept of property planning in keeping with the technical and environmental parameters needed to comply with the principles of sustainable development.
Article
Improving economic viability of Indian agriculture is contingent upon agri-environmental sustainability (AES). Objective assessment of environmental costs of agriculture is lacking in India. Unless internalise environmental impacts of agriculture will be borne by the society at large, in terms of depletion and degradation of water resources, land degradation and emissions of greenhouse gases, etc. To assess AES of Indian agriculture, the present article builds a comprehensive agri-environmental sustainability index (AESI) based on 40 agri-environmental indicators. The study captures both spatial and temporal aspects of AES by covering 17 major Indian states over 24 years (1990–1991 to 2013–2014). The estimated AESI scores are validated with outcome indicators (e.g., groundwater depletion, depletion of soil nutrients). The results show that states having higher score in Sustainable Irrigation Index are facing lower fall in groundwater level and there are negative correlations across sub-indices of AESI and macronutrient deficiencies in soil. An inverse relationship between AESI scores and agricultural intensity (as measured by average productivity of foodgrains in kilograms per hectare) is also observed. The study comes out with policy suggestions which could help to attain AES of Indian agriculture.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. The purpose of research is to develop a mathematical model for assessing and forecasting the complex negative impacts of agricultural technologies on water bodies. This problem is relevant because of the need to enlarge agricultural enterprises. The created model for forecasting is necessary to make an objective assessment, taking into account the complex effect of machine technologies applied to agricultural production and all biogenic elements that have a negative impact on water bodies. Materials and Methods. There was used the Spesivtsev – Drozdov method of logical-linguistic modeling, which allows giving expert knowledge a form mathematical model. Four experts were interviewed, and the obtained data became a subject of the regression analysis. The adequacy of the model was confirmed using the coefficient of determination and Fisher’s test. Results. A hierarchical system of 6 factors and 14 sub-factors was formed, including both the applied machine technologies and the management decisions on the matter. There was created a model containing a polynomial equation reflecting the influence of factors on the level of negative impact of technologies and equations that determine the influence of sub-factors on factors. Discussion and Conclusion. The created model can be used for practical purposes to support making decisions for planning, forecasting and selecting scenarios to modernize agricultural enterprises. The model equations make it possible to understand the significance of factors and sub-factors affecting the level of negative impact (diffuse load) on water bodies. This allows us to choose more effective ways to reduce the negative impact by choosing the most significant factors and/or sub-factors as objects of management.
Chapter
Intraspecific genetic diversity is an important characteristic of the evolutionary potential, fitness, and conservation status of any species. Monitoring this characteristic is particularly important in rare, vulnerable, or endangered species with small fragmented populations and in domesticated or cultivated species. Humans have been exploiting seabuckthorn (Hippophae L., Elaeagnaceae) for thousands of years, but its considerable economic potential has only recently been appreciated. Studies of genetic resources in the genus have accumulated valuable information on evolutionary history, biogeography, genetic diversity within populations, population structure, and genes with putative specific adaptive functions in its different species and taxa. The further utilization of genetic resources in seabuckthorn strongly depends on understanding the mechanisms behind genetic patterns in its wild populations and specific evolutionary and ecological mechanisms of adaptations of these populations to local environments. Monitoring and preservation of genetic diversity across the genus have so far been an underappreciated issue, which should be included in further research programs on this plant. Further studies should focus on monitoring genetic diversity in poorly studied taxa, identification of endangered populations under threat of genetic erosion, and on identification of genes controlling important adaptive functions and important agricultural traits. These genes can be a part of genomic regions underlying the adaptation to changing environments, resistance and tolerance to diseases, pests, and abiotic stresses, or biochemical pathways of synthesis of bioactive secondary metabolites with strong potential for local and international marketing. Identification and characterization of these genes can lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of adaptation to past and future climatic fluctuations and environmental modifications. Ultimately, this knowledge will help breeding plants with the desired combination of traits. Specifically, the breeding of varieties of high ecological, medicinal, or nutritional value, adapted to the areas of their cultivation, will be greatly facilitated.
Book
Full-text available
Obiettivo 15_Nanotecnologie e ambiente: nuove soluzioni sostenibili ed ecocompatibili
Chapter
Historically, soil testing has been used to quantify bio availability of essential plant nutrients to field grown crops. However, contemporary soil tests are based on philosophies and procedures developed several decades ago without significant changes in their general approach. For a soil test to be accurate, one needs to clearly understand the physico-chemico-physiological processes at the soil-root interface, and, an understanding of soils and plant root systems as polycationic systems is essential. It is this knowledge that leads to sound prescriptive soil management practices inasmuch as nutrient bioavailability vis-à-vis fertilizer application is concerned. The book presents a revolutionary new idea, now globally known as “The Nutrient Buffer Power Concept”, based on the thermodynamics of soil nutrient bioavailability that opens up a new chapter in the domain of soil testing. The success of a new approach, to a large measure, rests with the ingenuity of those applying it to suit the demands of a new situation. “The Nutrient Buffer Power Concept” project was shortlisted for the very prestigious US $1 Million 2012 Rolex Awards For Enterprise for its originality from more than 3500 nominations worldwide and is the only project selected for this coveted distinction from the Asian continent.
Chapter
What can ecological science contribute to the sustainable management and conservation of the natural systems that underpin human well-being? Bridging the natural, physical and social sciences, this book shows how ecosystem ecology can inform the ecosystem services approach to environmental management. The authors recognise that ecosystems are rich in linkages between biophysical and social elements that generate powerful intrinsic dynamics. Unlike traditional reductionist approaches, the holistic perspective adopted here is able to explain the increasing range of scientific studies that have highlighted unexpected consequences of human activity, such as the lack of recovery of cod populations on the Grand Banks despite nearly two decades of fishery closures, or the degradation of Australia's fertile land through salt intrusion. Written primarily for researchers and graduate students in ecology and environmental management, it provides an accessible discussion of some of the most important aspects of ecosystem ecology and the potential relationships between them.
Article
As the sustainable development movement gains traction, many initiatives have aimed to provide support with sustainability assessment methods using a loosely structured set of indicators, resulting in an explosive development of such indicators. Several reviews have sought to gain a clearer understanding of this “indicator zoo” by comparing assessment methods. However, most reviews covered few methods and mainly focused on describing and evaluating them to help users select the one that suited their needs. What is still lacking is an in-depth analysis of the conceptual and methodological framework behind the sustainability assessment methods in order to provide recommendations for assessment method developers and identify research gaps. To fill this gap, we conducted a conceptual and methodological review on a sample of 262 studies covering the worldwide agricultural sector between 1993 and 2019. Because the subject is so vast and due to disciplinary barriers, we restricted this review to studies with an environmental dimension but did not set any geographic limitations (the studies cover both temperate and tropical zones). The initial results show a need for clarity on terminology. Methods should also explicitly specify the purpose, target users and temporal scale. Additional efforts must be made in selecting indicators on the causal chain at emission level or those that pertain to impacts, such as in life cycle assessment. There are additional research gaps when more than a simple sum of scores is required to aggregate indicators, or when dealing with upscaling or spatialization issues. Dynamic assessment of resilience or robustness with multiple criteria also remains a challenge. Environmental sustainability assessment methods will also need to integrate ecosystem services and emerging environmental issues such as pollution from antibiotics or microplastics. Finally, a similar study on assessment methods should be conducted with a focus on social and economic dimensions.
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the studies of Business Model Innovation (BMI) and Circular Economy (CE) have been issues much debated in the literature. Moreover, the sustainable development enhanced by the Green Economy (GE) and by smart technologies represents a huge opportunity for generating profit in a new and environmentally ways. Actually, was not widely investigated in academic literature, what is the impact of the Sustainable Business Model (SBM) in terms of competitive advantage for the firms, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) beyond big companies. The main research question was: "There's a sustainable or circular business model in the literature that can be used in the smart agriculture in-dustry?" Moreover: "How the emerged managerial model can be applied to the case of an Italian firm?" The research design is based on the following phases. Firstly, give a literature review of significant and emerging studies on BMI and SBM. In a second step, access to a conceptual and managerial model, in order to compare it in the scientific community and expand the debate on sustainable development also in managerial perspective. The proposed conceptual model has been tested on EVJA company, a leading Italian innovative start-up operating in the smart agri-food industry. The methodology adopted was a qualitative analysis. Earlier, starting with a deep literature review in order to identify and classify the main contributions on the topic of sustainable and circular business models. Later, by in-depth interviews and focus group to a firm's key informants (namely the CEO and Co-Founder and Chief Technology Officer and Co-Founder of the firm) and on experts and practitioners deriving from the academic and managerial community including the smart agriculture industry. Lastly, the desk research on the case study was enriched by the recurs to primary and secondary sources on the topic of smart technologies and sustainable agriculture. The final aim is to suggest a managerial tool, namely the Triple-Layered Business Model Canvas (TLBMC), in the reference framework of the circular economy, to support the farm manager to figure out an appropriate course of action to promote energy-saving and reuse practice for fighting climate changes. In a managerial way, this could provide better services and products in terms of value for money to the customers. The TLBMC tool in agri-food industries can foster the SMEs to capture value by evaluating the potentials of SBM and producing in a more economical and responsible manner. In a holistic vision, that would involve its customers, suppliers, employees, and communities, as well as its shareholders.
Chapter
Since the 1990s, agri-biotech multinationals have introduced a radical innovation in the form of seeds derived from genetically modified plant varieties or GMVs. However, on the basis of the ‘precautionary principle’ that advocates ensuring a higher environmental protection through preventative decision-taking, many countries have banned the cultivation of GMVs within their territories. Thus, the objective of the present paper is to attempt to explore the rationale for application of the precautionary principle. This is done through development of an evolutionary model of farmers’ technology choice incorporating intrinsic features of agriculture such as the technological obsolescence of seed varieties, impact of environmental degradation engendered by new seed technology adoption and farmers’ compliance choice vis-à-vis sustainability guidelines. Further, instead of a unique representative farmer, two types of farmers are considered. The first type is driven by short term profit maximization, while the second type aims to be sustainable, by maximizing profit over the life time of the technology. Integrating the above elements and considering two possible rules for application of the precautionary principle, the paper explores the conditions under which the precautionary principle can be implemented. It demonstrates that, even under complete and perfect information the need to exercise such caution depends principally on four factors: the economic gains from GMVs, the possibilities for sustaining the production of the conventional variety in the post-GMV period via compliance, the distribution of farmers over types and the compliance-contamination burden.
Article
Indicators are being used in many agricultural sustainability assessment methods, but disputes about a common indicator for the definition of sustainability have resulted in so many various indicators and methods of measurement. The objective of this review is to provide a bibliometric analysis of sustainability pillars and indicators that has been widely applied. In addition, this paper evaluates the impact of pillars and indicators on scientific research through the analysis of their citation and trend. Using Scopus database, a total of 30 articles have been selected. The search revealed more than 500 indicators, and the top 3 indicators of each pillar which were considered in 7 articles or more are (soil erosion, crop diversity and pesticides) for environmental pillar, (education and training) for social pillar are and (Profitability, productivity and farm income) for economic pillar. Results showed that the environmental pillar is the most tackled in terms of the number of articles (n=22) and the most cited with a mean citation of about 60. The pesticide is the oldest indicator in terms of its average year of publication in 2011, the most cited indicator of more than 250 in 2005 and has the highest mean citation of about 42. The least cited indicators are farm income and training with less than 10 mean citation. Nowadays, the economic pillar is considered one of the most discussed and widely implemented with a total of 7 published articles in 2020.
Chapter
As our global crisis on climate, food, fuel and economy continues to aggravate, an advancement into sustainable agriculture has become one of the greatest requirements of this millennium. Despite our knowledge-gap and scepticism around this subject, today’s corporations are demanding for proper assessment methods capable of helping to build business resilience, for the sake of knowing how to well adapt, evolve or transform in the face of future crisis. By reviewing current practices amongst the agrarian sector, findings allowed us to confirm well-established observations from literature and to enlighten the fundamental role of context comprehensiveness when assessing sustainability. This work provides relevant information for micro-level performance evaluations, as results may support decision-makers to recognise, understand or apply any of the analysed 105 assessment tools.
Preprint
Full-text available
The study's primary purposes were to assess the sustainability index of hazelnut farms and explore the effects of part-time and full-time farming types on sustainability index in hazelnut production in the Giresun and Ordu Province of Turkey. One hundred fifty-two hazelnut farms were selected using the stratified sampling method, and data were collected. Several steps were taken, including using factor analysis after standardizing the variables to determine their weights to calculate the composite hazelnut farms sustainability index. The research findings showed that overall hazelnut sustainability scores of farms varied from 0.28 to 0.59, and the average score was 0.44 at sampled farms. The composite hazelnut sustainability index was at an unsatisfactory level. The social and economic sustainability index value of farms was equal, and they were higher than the environmental index value. The values were 0.50 and 0.30, respectively. While the economic sustainability index score of full-time farms was higher than that of part-time farms, and part-time farms had higher environmental sustainability index scores than that of full-time farms. Social sustainability scores were not different in terms of farm type. It was recommended that when designing and regulation support policies, policy-makers should differentiate part-time and full-time hazelnut farming. Training and extension programs must be planned to increase the level of knowledge of every willing farmer. In addition, training and certification programs must be implemented to enhance the quality of the foreign labor force.
Chapter
The chemical era of agriculture began after 1945, when chemical fertilizers and pesticides were discovered and became widely available. Increases in crop yield and labor productivity were a result of mechanization. Further increases were the result of increased education of farmers, improved crop varieties, and improved farming practices. In 1960 there were a few people who questioned the advantages of chemical weed control. There was progress toward reduced labor for weed control and increased agricultural productivity and a quest for the development and use of herbicides in agriculture. There was no compelling reason even to consider the possible disadvantages of herbicides or other pesticides and those who mentioned such thoughts were dismissed because they did not understand agriculture and the obligation to increase food production for a growing population. This book attempts to demonstrate that underlying each set of views on important societal and agricultural issues is an unexamined ethical position. Knowing the ethical foundation for any position on an issue is an important step toward resolving the issue.
Article
Full-text available
Livestock farming is often addressed as one of the most impactful food production systems on the environment due to GHGE-Green-House Gas Emissions- and land use degradation. However, in the last years there is a growing number of studies that underline the beneficial environmental impacts of extensive livestock farming (i.e., providing ecosystem services, increasing biodiversity and improving carbon and nitrogen cycles), as well as social and economic benefits (i.e., offering alternative and additional forms of income in marginal areas). The multitude of livestock management approaches call urgently for specific tools of assessment in order to inform and orientate policies, farming practices and consumer choices. This study proposes a set of 14 agroecological indicators to assess the state of structural/planned agrobiodiversity in livestock farming systems. Our methodology stems from the already established Indicator-Based Framework to evaluate the sustainability of farming systems and adapted it specifically to livestock farming systems. The set of indicators has been clustered with respect to the ecosystem functions/services they describe. The methodology has been applied and validated on a selection of 12 Italian organic livestock farms and analyzed according to animal breeds and geographical regions. The results highlight that the farms show very positive results with optimal values for all indicators, except for Field Adjacency (FA), Share Species (SS), Share Group (SG). This study highlights how livestock farms could actually provide different ecosystem services in comparison to stockless farms.
Chapter
What can ecological science contribute to the sustainable management and conservation of the natural systems that underpin human well-being? Bridging the natural, physical and social sciences, this book shows how ecosystem ecology can inform the ecosystem services approach to environmental management. The authors recognise that ecosystems are rich in linkages between biophysical and social elements that generate powerful intrinsic dynamics. Unlike traditional reductionist approaches, the holistic perspective adopted here is able to explain the increasing range of scientific studies that have highlighted unexpected consequences of human activity, such as the lack of recovery of cod populations on the Grand Banks despite nearly two decades of fishery closures, or the degradation of Australia's fertile land through salt intrusion. Written primarily for researchers and graduate students in ecology and environmental management, it provides an accessible discussion of some of the most important aspects of ecosystem ecology and the potential relationships between them.
Chapter
What can ecological science contribute to the sustainable management and conservation of the natural systems that underpin human well-being? Bridging the natural, physical and social sciences, this book shows how ecosystem ecology can inform the ecosystem services approach to environmental management. The authors recognise that ecosystems are rich in linkages between biophysical and social elements that generate powerful intrinsic dynamics. Unlike traditional reductionist approaches, the holistic perspective adopted here is able to explain the increasing range of scientific studies that have highlighted unexpected consequences of human activity, such as the lack of recovery of cod populations on the Grand Banks despite nearly two decades of fishery closures, or the degradation of Australia's fertile land through salt intrusion. Written primarily for researchers and graduate students in ecology and environmental management, it provides an accessible discussion of some of the most important aspects of ecosystem ecology and the potential relationships between them.
Article
Water table management is a recommended practice to maintain crop production in Eastern Canada. Grain corn is highly susceptible under climate change and adoption of better management practices is almost a necessity. Use of controlled drainage with sub-irrigation is one of the practices recommended. A major question is whether farmers would adopt this practice. Since adoption of new practices often depend on their impact on farm net returns, an economic analysis of controlled drainage with sub-irrigation was undertaken. Results suggest that on grain producing farms, this technology is only slightly superior to the baseline technology of conventional drainage system.
Article
Full-text available
In Australia, the work being carried out on sustainability indicators has become an industry on its own. This paper firstly provides an introduction that reviews the literature on indicator development and use, particularly in relation to agricultural production systems. A number of reasons for the limited use of indicators by farmers are mentioned. Secondly, a focus group study involving farmers from two dryland cropping areas in Queensland to investigate sustainability indicators and sustainable farming systems is presented. The indicators the participants identified during focus groups included indicators that reflect (i)farming system components, (ii) the management of these components, (iii) the management of all components and their interrelationships at the systems level, and (iv) the external factors that influence and interact with this systems level. Focus group analysis also showed that the participants perceived sustainability as an on-going process and a sustainable farming system as dynamic and emergent in nature. The implications of these findings are discussed. Three key issues were raised (i) the value of farmer knowledge with respect to the development of indicators has often been ignored; (ii) there are links between indicators developed through traditional science and those being used by farmers; and (iii) off-farm indicators used by farmers may be very useful in policy development at a variety of levels (e.g. catchment, regional, national, global). The focus group method involving farmers provided a useful way to gain insights about farmer perceptions and for farmers to learn from each other during the research process.
Article
Full-text available
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) evaluates the environmental burdens associated with a product, process, or activity including the entire life-cycle from extracting and processing raw materials to final disposal. LCA was primarily developed in applications to industrial production systems. Several groups in Europe were beginning to apply LCA to agricultural systems. This Concerted Action was set up to investigate how LCA may be applied to agricultural production, to identify methodological difficulties which require further research and to harmonise the approaches of the groups listed in Appendix 1. Three alternative methods of growing wheat were used as case studies and defined in a way that introduced as many as possible of the issues requiring harmonisation and resolution. Initial calculations by the groups showed there were indeed considerable differences needing harmonisation. For each LCA point there is a general conclusion for agriculture and a conclusion for this study.
Article
Full-text available
Significant interest in the concept of sustainable development exists amongst scientists, planners, policy makers and the public, and considerable effort and expenditure is made or envisaged at local, national and international levels to promote a more sustainable society. Until ‘green accounting’ and similar systems are made available and are implemented, the sustainability indicator will be the most effective tool available for monitoring progress towards a more sustainable society. Sustainability indicators are already available but are characterized by a poor or absent theoretical underpinning. This paper addresses this problem by proposing a methodological framework that can be applied to the construction of indicators of sustainable development. In order to be consistent with widely accepted definitions of sustainable development, considerations relating to the measurement of quality of life and ecological integrity are central to the methodology. The methodological framework has relevance to a variety of spatial scales and to geographically diverse areas (urban or rural, developed or developing countries) so that a suite of sustainability indicators can be produced that is tailored to the needs and resources of the indicator user, but which remains rooted firmly in the fundamental principles of sustainable development.
Article
Full-text available
Because people wish to preserve their health and do something equivalent for ecosystems, the metaphor of ecosystem health springs to mind. This paper presents the argument that it is a mistake for environmental scientists to treat this metaphor as reality. First, the metaphor fails because it misrepresents both ecology and health science. Ecosystems are not organisms, so they do not behave like organisms and do not have properties of organisms such as health. Also, health is not an operational concept for physicians or health risk assessors because they must predict, diagnose, and treat specific states called diseases or injuries; they do not calculate indexes of health. Second, attempts to operationally define ecosystem health result in the creation of indexes of heterogeneous variables. Such indexes have no meaning; they cannot be predicted, so they are not applicable to most regulatory problems; they have no diagnostic power; effects on one component are eclipsed by responses of other components; and the reason for a high or low index value is unknown. Their only virtue is that they reduce the complex array of ecosystem responses to various disturbances to one number with a reassuring name. A better alternative is to assess the real array of ecosystem responses so that causes can be diagnosed, future states can be predicted, and benefits of treatments can be compared.
Article
Full-text available
A fundamental shift to a total system approach for crop protection is urgently needed to resolve escalating economic and environmental consequences of combating agricultural pests. Pest management strategies have long been dominated by quests for "silver bullet" products to control pest outbreaks. However, managing undesired variables in ecosystems is similar to that for other systems, including the human body and social orders. Experience in these fields substantiates the fact that therapeutic interventions into any system are effective only for short term relief because these externalities are soon "neutralized" by countermoves within the system. Long term resolutions can be achieved only by restructuring and managing these systems in ways that maximize the array of "built-in" preventive strengths, with therapeutic tactics serving strictly as backups to these natural regulators. To date, we have failed to incorporate this basic principle into the mainstream of pest management science and continue to regress into a foot race with nature. In this report, we establish why a total system approach is essential as the guiding premise of pest management and provide arguments as to how earlier attempts for change and current mainstream initiatives generally fail to follow this principle. We then draw on emerging knowledge about multitrophic level interactions and other specific findings about management of ecosystems to propose a pivotal redirection of pest management strategies that would honor this principle and, thus, be sustainable. Finally, we discuss the potential immense benefits of such a central shift in pest management philosophy.
Article
Because people wish to preserve their health and do something equivalent for ecosystems, the metaphor of ecosystem health springs to mind. This paper presents the argument that it is a mistake for environmental scientists to treat this metaphor as reality. First, the metaphor fails because it misrepresents both ecology and health science. Ecosystems are not organisms, so they do not behave like organisms and do not have properties of organisms such as health. Also, health is not an operational concept for physicians or health risk assessors because they must predict, diagnose, and treat specific states called diseases or injuries; they do not calculate indexes of health. Second, attempts to operationally define ecosystem health result in the creation of indexes of heterogeneous variables. Such indexes have no meaning; they cannot be predicted, so they are not applicable to most regulatory problems; they have no diagnostic power; effects on one component are eclipsed by responses of other components; and the reason for a high or low index value is unknown. Their only virtue is that they reduce the complex array of ecosystem responses to various disturbances to one number with a reassuring name. A better alternative is to assess the real array of ecosystem responses so that causes can be diagnosed, future states can be predicted, and benefits of treatments can be compared.
Article
Increased awareness of the economic importance of losses of nitrogen (N) from agricultural land, together with the recognition that nitrate in drinking water is potentially detrimental to human health, have stimulated research on nitrate leaching1–4. Various reports5–7 have suggested that the leaching of nitrate from arable land is the major source of nitrate to water supplies in east and south-east England. In contrast, leaching from grassland is thought to he small5,8–10. However, this conclusion has been based largely on studies of leaching below cut swards, which exclude the effect of ruminants (cattle and sheep) on nitrate loss. This effect is likely to be substantial as <20% of the input of N to grassland systems is recovered in products of the ruminant animal11. Our study demonstrates that the amount of nitrate leached below a grass sward grazed by cattle was 5.6 times greater than that leached below a comparable cut sward and exceeded the losses normally observed from arable land.
Article
In on-farm studies of sustainable agriculture, farmers often have been classified as sustainable according to their organizational affiliation; self identification; or use or non-use of a particular production practice or input, usually synthetic chemicals. Because this is a great oversimplification, researchers recently have been incorporating several dimensions of sustainability into a composite measure. Typically this is a relative measure of sustainability, with scores assigned by comparing individual farmers' practices to those used by all farmers. In contrast, in the farmer sustainability index (FSI) presented here, practices are scored according to their inherent sustainability. We report on the development of an FSI in a case study involving 33 production practices used by 85 cabbage farmers in Malaysia. We describe its underlying principles, the procedure and rationale for scoring each sustainability item, and the result of combining the constituent items into a composite index.
Article
Each year, about 75 billion tons of soil are eroded from the world's terrestrial ecosystems. Most agricultural land in the world is losing soil at rates ranging from 13 tons/ha/year to 40 tons/ha/year. Because soil is formed very slowly, this means that soil is being lost 13–40 times faster than the rate of renewal and sustainability. Rain and wind energy are the two prime causes of erosion from tilled or bare land. Erosion occurs when the soil lacks protective vegetative cover. Soil erosion reduces the productivity of the land by loss of water, soil organic matter, nutrients, biota, and depth of soil. The greatest threat to providing food for a rapidly growing human population is soil erosion. Abandoned, eroded agricultural land is replaced by clearing forested ecosystems.
Article
Current production systems for flower bulbs in the Netherlands employ considerable quantities of pesticides and nutrients per unit area. In 1993, an association of growers and environmentalists set out to design new farming systems that meet environmental objectives in addition to economic objectives. To support the design process, an explorative study was carried out to bring together the fragmented agronomic information and to assess agro-technical options for sustainable flower bulb production with a time horizon of 10 to 15 years. Crop and inter-crop management systems representing the agro-technical components of sustainability at the farm level, were generated with a computer model by systematically varying four system characteristics, three of which represented strategic and tactical aspects of crop protection. Subjective components, one economic and two environmental objectives and various socio-economic constraints, were identified in interaction with the stakeholders. Interactive multiple goal linear programming was used to optimize the objectives at the farm level and determine the exchange value of the economic objective in terms of the environmental objectives. Calculations were carried out for two reference farm types. The results revealed that the negative impact of environment-oriented production systems on farm gross margin is importantly mitigated by strategic choices at the farm level, such as renting land and allowing a soil health improving crop, even though of low gross margin, into the rotation. In contrast, the a priori attention of the growers was focused on improving tactical pest and nutrient management at the crop level, the effect of which on farm gross margin is constrained by the strategic choices. Sensitivity analyses highlighted the need for more insight into the ecology of soil-borne growth reducing factors and their effect on crop yield. The paper describes the approach used, reports results and discusses the usefulness of the approach for the stakeholders and for disciplinary crop protection research.
Article
The desire of environmentally-conscious consumers and manufacturers to choose more environmentally benign products and processes has led to the development of life cycle assessment (LCA) and design for environment (DfE). In both of these areas, attention has focused initially on the development of inventories of emissions and raw materials consumption for particular products and processes. A number of methods for the comparison and evaluation of an inventory's dissimilar pollution loads and resource demands have been proposed, but no satisfactory solution has yet been identified. This paper compares the structure and properties of six different methods. The health hazard scoring (HHS) system uses the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to weight workplace toxic effects and accident risks. The material input per service-unit (MIPS) aggregates the mass of all the material input required to produce a product or service. The Swiss eco-point (SEP) method scores pollutant loadings based on a source's contribution to an acceptable total pollution load and an environmental scarcity factor. The sustainable process index (SPI) determines the area that would be required to operate a process sustainably, based on renewable resource generation and toxic degradation; an extension of the dilution volume approach. The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry's life-cycle impact assessment (SETAC LCA) impact assessment method aggregates pollutants with similar impacts to equivalency potentials (measured in kg CO2 equivalent, kg benzene equivalent etc.) and uses decision analysis to assign weights to different adverse impacts. The environmental priority system (EPS) characterizes the environmental damage caused by equivalency potentials and expresses it in monetary terms, derived from environmental economics. Despite their use for the same purposes, the six methods differ in what they try to achieve, in the effects they consider, in the depth of analysis, in the way values influence the final score, and in use of ordinal or cardinal measures of impact. Two problem areas are identified: (1) to varying degrees, each of the methods has the potential to recommend an alternative that actually has a higher impact than other alternatives; (2) for some of the methods the data requirement is so extensive and the tolerance of imperfect data is so low that the application of the method for reasonably sophisticated products or processes would be too complicated.
Article
This paper discusses a practical, computerised eco-management system for agriculture which has been developed at the University of Hertfordshire, UK for use by farmers and their advisers to encourage more sustainable practices. The research and software development has been funded by the UK's Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and the Milk Development Council. The computerised system helps to measure environmental performance by evaluating an eco-rating that compares actual farm practices and site-specific details with what is perceived to be the best practice for that site using an expert system together with scoring and ranking techniques. The eco-ratings system utilises a positive-negative scale to aid transparency and interpretation. In practical terms this means that undesirable and unsustainable activities will lead to negative eco-ratings. Activities which adhere to the principles of best practice and sustainable agriculture will lead to positive eco-ratings. The zero position may then be interpreted as representing an environmentally benign activity. In support of the assessment, the system incorporates modules to explore “What-If” scenarios and a hypertext information system. This paper describes the approaches and methodologies used to develop the eco-ratings and outlines the software which utilises these indices within a comprehensive decision-support framework.
Article
Land use in general and particularly agricultural practices can significantly influence soil carbon (C) storage. Changes in topsoil C mass measured in long-term agricultural field trials in Sweden and other Northern European countries were compiled and aggregated into seven treatment classes, including manured, fertilized and straw exported. The impact of crop rotations and management practices on C stocks in the topsoil was analyzed using both a static model and a dynamic soil carbon model (introductory C Balance Model; ICBM). ICBM consists of two state variables and four fluxes (governed by four rate-determining parameters), and one parameter, re, combining most external factors affecting C mineralization (temperature, precipitation, drainage, etc.). Simple `front-end models' were used to estimate values for two of the parameters, i (annual C input) and h (humification coefficient) initially based on incomplete records from the field trials, official agricultural statistics and other literature. The re parameter was then optimized for each class of treatments, using an algorithm for non-linear least squares. Initial soil C mass, present C inputs and abiotic conditions, such as soil temperature and moisture, were the deciding factors in whether C stocks declined or increased. Steady-state values calculated using the static and dynamic model were similar for both models, but differed greatly between treatment classes. For cereal-dominated cropping systems where the straw was removed, manure application increased steady-state values about three times (from 3 to 9 g C m−2), compared with corresponding treatments. Incorporation of straw resulted in intermediate steady-state values (5–6 g C m−2). C mineralization rates were highest in bare fallow treatments. For one class of soils, C retention in the soil was found to increase significantly with increasing clay content. The hypothesis that the climatic gradients in Northern Europe affect decomposition and primary production rates similarly, leading to the same soil C stocks, could not be rejected.
Article
A method is proposed for the evaluation of potential impacts of arable farming systems on the environment. The first step is the calculation of evaluation modules that estimate the impact of each agricultural technique on each environmental component. These modules are aggregated either to rank or classify cropping systems by means of multicriteria methods or to generate an agro-ecological indicator (AEI). Nine agro-ecological indicators have been tested: nitrogen fertilisation, phosphorus fertilisation, pesticides, irrigation, crop succession, cropping pattern, crop covering, organic matter, and ecological structures; two others are in development: energy and soil management. Together, the AEIs provide a `control panel' for the farm. These agro-ecological indicators are calculated mostly at the field level and then averaged over the whole farm. As input, few parameters used in the calculation of these indicators are region-specific (e.g., reference of sowing dates, leaching periods). Since 1994, the indicators are established with data from a network of 17 arable farms in the Rhine plain (France and Germany) to characterise the degree to which the objectives of sustainable agriculture have been reached by these farms.
Article
A pragmatic framework for monitoring, modelling, analysing, and comparing the state and performance of integrated agroecosystems is proposed. Four smallholder rice farms (1.36–2.76 hectares) — including monoculture rice and diverse rice-based systems with livestock, aquaculture, tree, and vegetable components — are used to illustrate the approach. Data collection employs a range of techniques (bioresource flow diagramming, farm transects, direct observation, field measurements, farm records, and informal discussions). Weekly data gatherings are used to construct annual, mass-balance, nutrient (nitrogen) flow models of each farm system. The models form the basis for quantifying a series of agroecological system attributes (species richness, agricultural diversity, efficiency, harvest index, productivity, nutrient cycling, throughput, standing biomass, production/biomass, biomass/throughput, and agroecosystem nutrient balance) and economic properties (gross margin and returns to labour) for each farm. The comparative analysis suggests that what we perceive as ecologically sound farming, i.e. diverse and integrated natural resources management, can indeed be productive, profitable, and manageable, given access to labour and secure tenure. This type of analytical framework can help operationalise the sustainability concept.
Article
A methodical way of prototyping integrated and ecological arable farming systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms is presented. It concerns a, comprehensive and consistent approach of 5 steps. Step 1 is establishing a hierarchy of objectives considering the shortcomings of current farming systems in the region. Step 2 is transforming the objectives in a set of multi-objective parameters, to quantify them and establishing a set of multi-objective farming methods to achieve them. Step 3 is designing a theoretical prototype by linking parameters to farming methods and designing the methods in this context until they are ready for initial testing. Step 4 is laying out the prototype on at least 10 pilot farms in appropriate variants and testing and improving the prototype (variants) until the objectives, as quantified in the set of parameters, have been achieved (after repeated layout). Step 5 is disseminating the prototype (variants) to other farms with gradual shift in supervision from researchers to extensionists. This methodical method is being elaborated and tested by a European network of more than 20 research teams, sponsored by the European Union (AIR-concerted action). The teams express their achievement in a consistent set of 6 parts of an identity card of their prototype. The 6 parts of the EAFS-prototype of the author's team are presented to illustrate the methodical approach. Part 6 presents the state the art. It shows that the desired results are progressively being achieved, which may be considered as the best proof of the effectiveness of prototyping.
Article
This paper reviews the current status of the debate about the concept of environmental sustainability and discusses related aspects of growth, limits, scale, and substitutability. While the paths leading to environmental sustainability in each country or sector will differ, the goal remains constant. But this conceptualization is far from an academic exercise. Ensuring, within less than two human generations, that as many as 10 billions people are decently fed and housed without damaging the environment on which we ail depend rep resents a monumental challenge.
Article
The literature on pesticide losses in runoff waters from agricultural fields is reviewed. For the majority commerical pesticides, total losses are 0.5% or less of the amounts applied, unless severe rainfall conditions occur within 1-2 wk after application. Exceptions are the organochlorine insecticides, which may lose about 1% regardless of weather pattern because of their long persistence; and soil surface-applied, wettable-powder formulations of herbicides, which may lose up to 5%, depending on weather and slope, because of the ease of washoff of the powder. Pesticides with solubilities of 10 ppm or higher are lost mainly in the water phase of runoff, and erosion control practices will have little effect on such losses. Organochlorine pesticides, paraquat, and arsenical pesticides, however, are important cases of pesticides which are strongly adsorbed by sediments, and erosion control can be important in controlling losses of these compounds. The behavior and fate of pesticides in streams receiving runoff is generally not known. Information on such factors as time and distance of impact of a given runoff event, ability of local ecosystems to recover from transient pesticide concentrations, and dissipation or concentration processes in aquatic ecosystems will have to be obtained before 'edge-of-field' pesticide losses can be related to water quality in receiving waters.
Article
A manual for prototyping Integrated and Ecological Arable Farming Systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms is presented. It concerns a comprehensive and consistent approach of 5 steps. Step 1 is establishing a hierarchy of objectives considering the shortcomings of current farming systems in the region. Step 2 is transforming the objectives in a set of multi-objective parameters, to quantify them and establishing a set of multi-objective farming methods to achieve them. Step 3 is designing a theoretical prototype by linking parameters to farming methods and designing the methods in this context until they are ready for initial testing. Step 4 is laying out the prototype on at least 10 pilot farms in appropriate variants and testing and improving the prototype (variants) until the objectives, as quantified in the set of parameters, have been achieved (after repeated layout). Step 5 is disseminating the prototype (variants) to other farms with gradual shift in supervision from researchers to extensionists. This 5 steps method of prototyping has been elaborated and tested by a European network of more than 20 research teams, sponsored by the European Union (AIR-concerted action). The teams express their achievements in a consistent set of 6 parts of an identity card of their prototype. The 6 parts of the EAFS-prototype of the author's team are presented to illustrate the method of prototyping. Part 6 presents the state of the art. It shows that the results desired have progressively been achieved, which may be considered as the best proof of the effectiveness of prototyping.
Article
This paper examines conceptual and methodological barriers to using sustainability as a criterion for guiding change in agriculture and proposes elements necessary for approaches to characterizing sustainability to be generally useful. Two broad interpretations of agricultural sustainability have emerged with different underlying goals: sustainability interpreted as an approach to agriculture developed in response to concerns about impacts of agriculture, with motivating adherence to sustainable ideologies and practices as its goal; and sustainability interpreted as a property of agriculture developed in response to concerns about threats to agriculture, with the goal of using it as a criterion for guiding agriculture as it responds to change. Interpreting sustainability as an approach has been useful for motivating change. However, usefulness of this interpretation as a criterion for guiding change is hindered by a lack of generality of prescribed approaches, a distorted view of conventional agriculture and circular logic. Although interpreting sustainability as a system property is logically more consistent, conceptual and practical problems with its characterization have limited its usefulness as a criterion for guiding change. In order for sustainability to be a useful criterion for guiding change in agriculture, its characterization should be literal, system-oriented, quantiative, predictive, stochastic and diagnostic.
Sustainability of energy crops. A methodology developed and applied, Report no. 234
  • E E Biewinga
  • G Bijl
Biewinga, E.E., van der Bijl, G., 1996. Sustainability of energy crops. A methodology developed and applied, Report no. 234. rH.M.G. van der Werf, J. Petit/Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 93 (2002) 131–145 145 Centre for Agriculture and Environment (CLM), Utrecht, The Netherlands
A procedure for evaluating environmental impact, US Geological Survey Circular 645. Department of the Interior
  • L B Leopold
  • F F Clark
  • B B Hanshaw
  • J R Balsley
Leopold, L.B., Clark, F.F., Hanshaw, B.B., Balsley, J.R., 1971. A procedure for evaluating environmental impact, US Geological Survey Circular 645. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC, USA. Lewis, K.A., Bardon, K.S., 1998. A computer-based informal environmental management system for agriculture. Environ. Modell. Software 13, 123–137.
Regional-programm Ökopunkte Niederösterreich Méthodes multicritères ELECTRE. Description, conseils pratiques et cas d'application à la gestion environnementale
  • P Mayrhofer
  • C Steiner
  • E Gärber
  • E Gruber
Mayrhofer, P., Steiner, C., Gärber, E., Gruber, E., 1996. Regional-programm Ökopunkte Niederösterreich. Informationsheft. NÖ Landschaftsfonds, Wien, Austria. Maystre, L.Y., Pictet, J., Simos, J., 1994. Méthodes multicritères ELECTRE. Description, conseils pratiques et cas d'application à la gestion environnementale. Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, Lausanne, Suisse.
Le diagnostic agri-environnemental pour une agriculture respectueuse de l'environnement. Trois méthodes passées à la loupe L'écobilan, outil de gestion écologique de l'exploitation agricole? Revue suisse Agric
  • P Pointereau
  • J L Bochu
  • S Doublet
  • I Meiffren
  • C Dimkic
  • W Schumacher
  • J Backhausen
  • P Mayrhofer
Pointereau, P., Bochu, J.L., Doublet, S., Meiffren, I., Dimkic, C., Schumacher, W., Backhausen, J., Mayrhofer, P., 1999. Le diagnostic agri-environnemental pour une agriculture respectueuse de l'environnement. Trois méthodes passées à la loupe. Travaux et Innovations. Société Agricole et Rurale d'Edition et de Communication, Paris, France. Rossier, D., 1999. L'écobilan, outil de gestion écologique de l'exploitation agricole? Revue suisse Agric. 31 (4), 179–185.
Décider sur plusieurs critères. Panorama de l'aide à la décision multicritère, Presses Polytechniques et universitaires romandes A critique of ecosystem health concepts and indexes
  • A Schärlig
  • G W Suter Ii
Schärlig, A., 1985. Décider sur plusieurs critères. Panorama de l'aide à la décision multicritère, Presses Polytechniques et universitaires romandes, Lausanne, Suisse. Suter II, G.W., 1993. A critique of ecosystem health concepts and indexes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 12, 1533–1539.
Harmonisation of environmental life cycle assessment for agriculture, Final Report Concerted Action AIR3-CT94-2028 Sustainability of energy crops. A methodology developed and applied, Report no. 234. Centre for Agriculture and Environment (CLM) Is it possible to validate an indicator?
  • E Audsley
  • S Alber
  • R Clift
  • S Cowell
  • P Crettaz
  • G Gaillard
  • J Hausheer
  • O Jolliett
  • R Kleijn
  • B Mortensen
  • D Pearce
  • E Roger
  • H Teulon
  • B Weidema
  • H Van Zeijts
  • Uk Silsoe
  • E E Biewinga
  • Van
  • G Bijl
Audsley, E., Alber, S., Clift, R., Cowell, S., Crettaz, P., Gaillard, G., Hausheer, J., Jolliett, O., Kleijn, R., Mortensen, B., Pearce, D., Roger, E., Teulon, H., Weidema, B., van Zeijts, H., 1997. Harmonisation of environmental life cycle assessment for agriculture, Final Report Concerted Action AIR3-CT94-2028. Silsoe Research Institute, Silsoe, UK. Biewinga, E.E., van der Bijl, G., 1996. Sustainability of energy crops. A methodology developed and applied, Report no. 234. Centre for Agriculture and Environment (CLM), Utrecht, The Netherlands. Bockstaller, C., Girardin, P., 2001. Is it possible to validate an indicator? In: Pykh, Y.A., Hyatt, D.E., and Lenz, R.J.M. (Eds.), Environmental Indices: Systems Analysis Approach, Vol. 2. EOLSS Publishers Co., Oxford, UK.
De l’exploitation agricole à l’agriculture durable, Aide méthodologique à la mise en place de systèmes agricoles durables. Educagri éditions
  • L Vilain
Vilain, L., 1999. De l'exploitation agricole à l'agriculture durable, Aide méthodologique à la mise en place de systèmes agricoles durables. Educagri éditions, Dijon, France.
Harmonisation of environmental life cycle assessment for agriculture, Final Report Concerted Action AIR3-CT94-2028
  • E Audsley
  • S Alber
  • R Clift
  • S Cowell
  • P Crettaz
  • G Gaillard
  • J Hausheer
  • O Jolliett
  • R Kleijn
  • B Mortensen
  • D Pearce
  • E Roger
  • H Teulon
  • B Weidema
  • H Van Zeijts
Audsley, E., Alber, S., Clift, R., Cowell, S., Crettaz, P., Gaillard, G., Hausheer, J., Jolliett, O., Kleijn, R., Mortensen, B., Pearce, D., Roger, E., Teulon, H., Weidema, B., van Zeijts, H., 1997. Harmonisation of environmental life cycle assessment for agriculture, Final Report Concerted Action AIR3-CT94-2028.
L'écobilan, outil de gestion écologique de l'exploitation agricole? Revue suisse Agric
  • D Rossier
Rossier, D., 1999. L'écobilan, outil de gestion écologique de l'exploitation agricole? Revue suisse Agric. 31 (4), 179–185.
  • P Mayrhofer
  • C Steiner
  • E Gärber
  • E Gruber
Mayrhofer, P., Steiner, C., Gärber, E., Gruber, E., 1996. Regionalprogramm Ökopunkte Niederösterreich. Informationsheft. NÖ Landschaftsfonds, Wien, Austria.
Is it possible to validate an indicator?
  • C Bockstaller
  • P Girardin
Bockstaller, C., Girardin, P., 2001. Is it possible to validate an indicator? In: Pykh, Y.A., Hyatt, D.E., and Lenz, R.J.M. (Eds.), Environmental Indices: Systems Analysis Approach, Vol. 2. EOLSS Publishers Co., Oxford, UK.
L’écobilan, outil de gestion écologique de l’exploitation agricole?
  • Rossier
Le diagnostic agri-environnemental pour une agriculture respectueuse de l’environnement. Trois méthodes passées à la loupe
  • P Pointereau
  • J L Bochu
  • S Doublet
  • I Meiffren
  • C Dimkic
  • W Schumacher
  • J Backhausen
  • P Mayrhofer
Sustainability of energy crops. A methodology developed and applied
  • E E Biewinga
  • G Van Der Bijl
The pesticide content of surface water drainage from agricultural fields
  • Wauchope