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The Value of Trees, Water and Open Space as Reflected by House Prices in the Netherlands

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Abstract

An attractive environment is likely to influence house prices. Houses in attractive settings will have an added value over similar, less favourably located houses. This effect is intuitively felt, but does it always occur? Which environmental factors make a location an attractive place to live in? The present study explored the effect of different environmental factors on house prices. The research method was the hedonic pricing method, which uses statistical analysis to estimate that part of a price due to a particular attribute. Nearly 3000 house transactions, in eight towns or regions in the Netherlands, were studied to estimate the effect of environmental attributes on transaction prices. Some of the most salient results were as follows. We found the largest increases in house prices due to environmental factors (up to 28%) for houses with a garden facing water, which is connected to a sizeable lake. We were also able to demonstrate that a pleasant view can lead to a considerable increase in house price, particularly if the house overlooks water (8–10%) or open space (6–12%). In addition, the analysis revealed that house price varies by landscape type. Attractive landscape types were shown to attract a premium of 5–12% over less attractive environmental settings.

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... Fundraising amongst residents is expected to be most successful in positive economic environments and affluent residential areas, as higher household income increases willingness to pay (Zhang and Zheng 2011;Dimke et al., 2013). The hedonic price valuation has been used in many studies in the past decades to show that tree cover and parks have a positive correlation with house prices in (Luttik 2000;Schilling and Logan 2008). This data could allow municipalities to recoup some of their public investment in trees through higher levels of real estate taxation and ground sales. ...
... Hedonic pricing is a form of statistical analysis whereby a component of a price is related to a particular attribute. In the case of NBS valuation, the incidence of different types of nature in a certain area are related to house prices (Luttik 2000;Dimke et al., 2013). Scholars find a positive correlation between tree cover and house prices (Dimke et al., 2013) and different levels of positive correlation for various types of green (and blue) spaces in the vicinity of houses (Luttik 2000). ...
... In the case of NBS valuation, the incidence of different types of nature in a certain area are related to house prices (Luttik 2000;Dimke et al., 2013). Scholars find a positive correlation between tree cover and house prices (Dimke et al., 2013) and different levels of positive correlation for various types of green (and blue) spaces in the vicinity of houses (Luttik 2000). The drawback of hedonic pricing, however, is that it only allows measurement of some components of the total economic value and from residents only. ...
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Obtaining public and/or private finance for upscaling urban nature-based solutions (NBS) is a key barrier for reaching urban sustainability goals, including climate mitigation and adaptation. We carry out a systematic review of the academic literature to understand the key barriers and corresponding strategies for financing urban NBS. First, we report on specific financing challenges and strategies found for NBS uptake in four urban ecological domains: buildings, facades and roofs; urban green space (parks, trees); allotment gardens (including urban agriculture); and green-blue infrastructure. Across domains, we identify two overarching barriers of NBS finance: (1) coordination between private and public financiers and (2) integration of NBS benefits into valuation and accounting methods. We discuss strategies found in the literature that address these barriers; here, two things stand out. One, there is a large variety of valuation strategies that does not yet allow for an integrated accounting and valuation framework for NBS. Two, strategies aimed at coordinating public/private finance generally look for ways to encourage specific actors (real estate developers, residents) that benefit privately from an NBS to provide co-financing. We visualize our findings into a framework for enabling (public and/or private) finance for upscaling urban NBS.
... Correspondingly, house prices reflect macro-economical changes in the wishes and values of society. As such, house prices play a versatile role in quantifying the price of intangible goods such as clean air [4], the presence of green space [14], and accessible infrastructure. Hedonic price models use different types of regression models to estimate the price and weight of each characteristic. ...
... Research successfully shows that linear relationships exist between house prices and the living surface area of a house [15]. Furthermore, many other intrinsic characteristics such as the number of bedrooms [16] and the amount of garden space [14] show an underlying linear contribution to the price of a house. The advantage of the linear regression model lies in its simplicity to have the same response for all data points. ...
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With the rapidly increasing house prices in the Netherlands, there is a growing need for more localised value predictions for mortgage collaterals within the financial sector. Many existing studies focus on modelling house prices for an individual city; however, these models are often not interesting for mortgage lenders with assets spread out all over the country. That is why, with the current abundance of national geospatial datasets, this paper implements and compares three hedonic pricing models (linear regression, geographically weighted regression, and extreme gradient boosting—XGBoost) to model real estate appraisals values for five large municipalities in different parts of the Netherlands. The appraisal values used to train the model are provided by Stater N.V., which is the largest mortgage service provider in the Netherlands. Out of the three implemented models, the XGBoost model has the highest accuracy. XGBoost can explain 83% of the variance with an RMSE of €65,312, an MAE of €43,625, and an MAPE of 6.35% across the five municipalities. The two most important variables in the model are the total living area and taxation value, which were taken from publicly available datasets. Furthermore, a comparison is made between indexation and XGBoost, which shows that the XGBoost model is able to more accurately predict the appraisal values of different types of houses. The remaining unexplained variance is most probably caused by the lack of good indicators for the condition of the house. Overall, this paper highlights the benefits of open geospatial datasets to build a national real estate appraisal model.
... Empirical studies approach tourism's effects on housing from different angles. One stream explores the effect of commercial tourist amenities (e.g., beaches, parks, golf courses, etc.) on housing prices (Anderson & West, 2006;Bolitzer & Netusil, 2000;Do & Grudnitski, 1995;Luttik, 2000;Nicholls & Crompton, 2007), while another examines the effects of accommodation platforms on housing and rental markets (Barron et al., 2020;Eliasson & Ragnarsson, 2018;Garcia-Lopez et al., 2020;Sheppard & Udell, 2016). ...
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Although researchers have confirmed the impact of tourism on housing prices in many destinations affected with overtourism, they do not consider housing affordability in relation to the population's income levels. This study explores the relationship between tourism activity and housing affordability, using a sample of Croatian municipalities. Specifically, the study investigates how tourist accommodation, concentration, seasonality and overall vulnerability to tourism influence housing affordability in this emerging tourism-driven European country. The results obtained reveal tourism intensification's deteriorating effect on local residents' abilities to afford housing. The findings indicate a particularly strong tourism seasonality impact, suggesting the presence of common negative externalities, such as employment fluctuations, difficulties in maintaining economic status, and revenue instabilities, in localities prone to seasonal tourism fluctuations.
... Numerous studies (Rodriguez and Sirmans, 1994;Benson et al., 1998) have shown that people are willing to pay additional money for a pleasant view of nature around the house. In the Netherlands, a house with a picturesque view of water bodies may attract a premium of 8-10 %, whereas open spaces may result in a premium of 6-12 % (Luttik, 2000). Similar findings were reported in a study conducted in Guangzhou, China (Jim and Chen, 2007), which showed that flats with a view of a garden earned a premium of 23.1 %. ...
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The implementation of nature-based solutions (NbS) largely depends on the strategic planning of urban green infrastructure (UGI) and the measures adopted for planning and maintaining urban green areas under investment pressure. UGI planning is highly important for housing areas, and its elements are often used in selling campaigns for developers’ investments. In many cases, when developers refer to ecological values and greenery in pro-motional campaigns, these are often considered as greenwashing (GW). The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency and mechanism of providing greenery and ecological solutions in renderings, the types of vegetation presented, and the approach of the developers to the existing greenery and other ecological values. The authors selected and analysed 73 development offers from 25 developers in Pozna ́n, which is a major city in Poland with intensive development of housing investments. All the investments were analysed for the contents of advertisements and illustrations (plans and renderings). In the first stage of the study, analyses were conducted according to three groups of criteria: 1) creating an image of a green estate, 2) types of green spaces, and 3) approach to the existing green resources. The results revealed the importance of greenery in developers’ stra-tegies. In the second stage, another four criteria for NbS and four indicators of GW were identified. The analysis helped us in assessing whether the offers met the NbS or GW assumptions. Statistical analyses showed that offers with the largest amount of GW indicators, indicating near and accessible green spaces, were primarily located distantly. The study verified that most of the marketing strategies of selected developers in Pozna ́n should be considered as GW, and only a few estates exhibited NbS characteristics. However, the indicators of GW are often observed in the same cases. Further, the question arises whether NbS would be implemented in housing estates, in the absence of systemic regulations mandating the use of environmentally friendly solutions.
... In many developed countries, homes close to inland and coastal waters, especially those with blue space views, tend to be more expensive including in Hong Kong (Jim and Chen, 2009), the Netherlands (Luttik, 2000), and the UK (Gibbons et al., 2014). The same applies to hotel rooms (Lange and Schaefer, 2001), something which extends to hospitality globally with waterfront hotels and sea views commanding higher prices. ...
... Bowman et al. [63] estimated that adjacency to a stream increased a house value by 9.60%. Doss and Taff [64] found that with a 10-m increase in proximity to a lake, a residential property value increased by $187.92, whereas Sander and Polasky [62] reported a 0.01% increase in residential house sale price with a 1-percent increase in proximity to the nearest lake. ...
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Open spaces, including waterfront areas, are critical to coastal communities and provide many benefits, including recreation opportunities, economic development, ecological benefits, and other ecosystem services. However, it is not clear how values of waterfront ecosystem services vary across geographical areas which prevents development and adoption of site-specific natural resource conservation plans and suitable long-term land management strategies. This study estimated the monetary value of distance to different waterfront types in coastal counties of Mississippi and Alabama (U.S.) using a geographically weighted regression (GWR) approach as an extension to a traditional hedonic pricing method (HPM). In addition, the study utilized publicly available data from the U.S. Census Bureau instead of certified rolls of county property assessors and Multiple Listing Service (MLS) data which can be costly and difficult to obtain. Residents valued most waterfront types which was reflected in greater assessed prices for houses in proximity to these waterfronts. However, the value of ecosystem services associated with waterfronts differed geospatially. The marginal implicit prices ranged from −$6343 to $6773 per km depending on a waterfront type. These estimates will be useful to city developers, land-use planners, and other stakeholders to make more informed and balanced decisions related to natural resource preservation associated with coastal areas, land-use planning, and zoning. In addition, information from this study can be used in developing healthy living environments where local economy can benefit from increased property tax revenues associated with waterfronts and their ecosystem services.
... Besides, UGS from an economic point of view, provides amenity value [20,21] by providing several economic services [5,[22][23][24] to generate income [25] and reduce energy consumption by providing shade [23]. Urban green space (UGS) increases the commercial and residential real estate economic values [26,27]. Furthermore, UGS trees have monetary value in terms of carbon trading [28] and storage [29,30] which is addressed in United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and required for reporting under Kyoto Protocol treaty [31,32]. ...
Article
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Covid-19 presented the new perspective of urban green space to battle the pandemic crisis globally. The havoc of Coronavirus became more deadly with the combination of foul air which is one of the urban challenges birthed by the shrinkage of green cover. Significantly, urban trees are valuable and cost-effective solutions to gobble up the concentration of air-borne particulates from the environment. Thus, by keeping in view the importance of trees in the era of COVID-19, the 3D (density, diversity and durability) analysis has been carried out for the first time in the smog prone city (Lahore) with the objective to examine the potential of green cover in the urban graveyards. The current research consists of two data sources. The first source is a Muslim Graveyard and the second one is a Non-Muslim (Christian) Graveyard. Field assessment was carried out in graveyards using a global positioning system. The observation data of trees assessment was used in terms of tree cover, diversity and their physical condition. Results of the study showed that both of the graveyards are deficient in tree cover. Thus, it was concluded from the findings that the unsatisfactory state of tree health and diversity could neither maintain the surrounding environment by absorbing carbon dioxide nor defeat the particulate pollutants. Moreover, the present study will prove to be a valuable source of information for government departments such as forest and urban planning to realign strategies to provide healthy air to breathe, mitigate the risk of pandemic and minimize environmental pollution i.e., smog
... Housing rent and affordability are typically understood as factors of the housing unit and local-neighborhood-characteristics. In particular, research has examined how housing costs and affordability are related to neighborhood built-environment characteristics (Bereitschaft, 2019;Dewita et al., 2019;Song & Knaap, 2004), the quality of schools (Downes & Zabel, 2002;Gibbons & Machin, 2008), proximity to green spaces (Crompton, 2001;Luttik, 2000), neighborhood opportunity (Acevedo-Garcia et al., 2016), and proximity to transit (Cervero, 2004;Duncan, 2008;Smart & Klein, 2017). These studies have been invaluable to our understanding of the localized properties that lead to the observed variations in costs and affordability between neighborhoods. ...
Thesis
Housing affordability is a major problem for many Americans. The increase in residential rents in the past few decades, alongside stagnant and even lower incomes, is forcing households to spend a larger share of their income on housing. The high costs of housing relative to income mean that some households cannot afford non-housing goods and services like food, healthcare, and education. Within the affordability debate, lowering transportation costs by using transit is often viewed as a potential solution to affordability problems. While housing might be expensive, if transportation costs are low, the overall costs of living in a specific neighborhood might still be affordable. Hence, housing and transportation advocates call for improving public transport options that allow households to access destinations without needing a private vehicle. In this dissertation, I examine housing and transportation costs and affordability in twenty-seven U.S. metropolitan areas with intra-urban rail systems. The objective of the study is to understand whether transit-rich neighborhoods, especially those served by rail, are affordable, with an emphasis on lower-income households. To this end, the dissertation adopts a multilevel approach to examining housing and transportation costs and affordability cross-sectionally and over time. Adopting a multilevel approach allows examining how neighborhood- and metropolitan-level factors interact with one another and affect housing and transportation costs and affordability. Neighborhoods (i.e., block groups and census tracts) are classified based on their proximity to rail and their built environments to examine how costs vary between different types of neighborhoods. Finally, affordability is calculated based on metropolitan-wide income levels to assess whether housing and transportation costs are affordable to households at different income levels. The results indicate that the majority of neighborhoods in the sampled metropolitan areas are affordable to median and moderate-income households. Moreover, transit-rich neighborhoods are found to be more affordable than auto-oriented neighborhoods, mainly thanks to lower transportation costs. Still, only small share of neighborhoods is affordable to households earning 50% or less of area median income. Even in transit-rich neighborhoods, the lower transportation costs typically do not translate into more affordable locations for very low-income households. This is because many households still rely on the private vehicle even in the most transit-rich neighborhoods. Housing in transit-oriented development is expensive, in part, due to the high levels of transit job accessibility these neighborhoods offer. However, housing costs in these neighborhoods are also high because of low long-run elasticities of housing supply. Despite an increase in the demand for compact walkable neighborhoods in recent decades, land-use regulations and local opposition direct denser development to rail-station areas. As a result, a higher supply of housing in transit-oriented development is associated with higher housing costs regionwide due to induced demand for these neighborhoods. At the same time, increasing the supply of housing in alternative pedestrian-friendly and transit-rich neighborhoods has a moderating effect on housing costs in transit-oriented development as it allows separating the demand for walkable urban form from the demand for transit accessibility. Hence, rather than focusing on developing more housing only in transit-oriented development, efforts should focus on expanding the housing options in a diversity of neighborhood types both near and away from rail stations.
... For instance, Freeman (1981) listed a set of environmental attributes that may matter for determining housing prices. Studies have shown that certain types of scenery such as ocean, lake, mountain, and greenery views (Benson et al., 1998;Luttik, 2000;Panduro & Veie, 2013;Rodriguez & Sirmans, 1994;Yang et al., 2021), are positively associated with housing prices; while other environmental factors such as air pollution and noise have negative impacts on property values (Chasco & Gallo, 2013;Chattopadhyay, 1999;Espey & Lopez, 2000;Harrison Jr & Rubinfeld, 1978;Wilhelmsson, 2000). Though the role of place in determining housing prices has been examined in literature, these studies mainly focus on the physical part (e.g., locations, and place settings) of the place, leaving the subjective part, i.e., sense of place underestimated. ...
Article
A better formalization of place - where people live, perceive, and interact with others - is crucial for understanding socioeconomic environment and human settlement. The widely used hedonic pricing model for houses was proposed from the perspective of space, focusing mostly on static house structural information and objective built environment factors. However, the value of house settlement is not only determined by its spatial settings, but also varies from one place to another with different cultures, human dynamics, human perceptions and social interactions. In this work, we introduce a place-oriented hedonic pricing model (P-HPM) that incorporates human dynamics and human perceptions of places to understand human settlement. As an empirical study, we employ a large volume of house price data in Boston and Los Angeles, including detailed house and locational amenity information. Besides, we take the hourly number of visits to places as a proxy of human mobility patterns, and obtain human perceptions of places extracted from large-scale street-view images using deep learning. The results show that the P-HPM outperformed the traditional HPM significantly in these two cities. Moreover, through a geographically weighted regression analysis and the Monte Carlo test, we find that the impacts of the proposed place-related variables on house prices are stable across space. Our results provide new insights into the assessment of human settlement values by incorporating the role of place using multi-source big geo-data.
... Moreover, there is an inverse relationship between the amount of urban greenness and residents' mortality due to common causes (Van den Bosch 2017). The positive impact of proximity to nature and green and open spaces in residential areas is evidenced by their effect on housing prices (Luttik 2000, Lutzenhiser and Netusil 2001, Gibbons et al 2014, which declines with increasing distances (Asabere and Huffman 2009). These beneficial effects on residents can also be attributed to agricultural areas, since the term "greenspace" refers to agricultural, forest and natural areas (De Vries et al 2003). ...
... Urbanites seek proximity to nature and choose to live in low density suburbs. Extensive literature presents empirical evidence of this demand and its impact on housing prices for example (Luttik 2000, Irwin and Bockstael 2001, Lutzenhiser and Netusil 2001. At the same time the connectivity of open spaces within and around urban clusters is enabling increasing penetration of animals into residential areas in cities (Toger et al 2015). ...
... Gibbons and Machin (2003), for example, provide evidence on the effect of primary school performance on property prices in the UK. Luttik (2000) demonstrates considerable effects of environmental amenities on housing prices in the Netherlands. ...
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Using Dortmund as a case study we analyse whether rents and housing prices responded to local demographic change in a German city between 2007 and 2016. In a two-step analysis based on a spatial autoregressive hedonic pricing model and a discrete choice model of housing location we find that during the study period as a whole, higher local mortality induced a negative effect on apartment prices and rents. Yet, the neighbourhood effects of local ageing vary across sub-city districts. Most prominently, the study period was characterised by a strong and rising desire to purchase or rent housing in the vicinity of the city centre. Furthermore, prices for owner-occupied apartments and houses increased rapidly in the more well-off southern part of the city and particularly in a previously declining community, where a large-scale urban regeneration and environmental upgrading project has been implemented since 2011. The characteristics of households likely to move to this neighbourhood switched from low to high income.
... There is evidence that proximity to these amenities has a large and positive impact on real estate values (Conway et al, 2010;Lutzenhiser and Netusil, 2001). Urban dwellers are willing to pay a significant positive premium for housing at locations near open and green spaces (Gibbons et al, 2014;Irwin and Bockstael, 2001;Luttik, 2000). Moreover, as the distance from open space amenities increases, residential prices tend to decline (Asaber and Huffman, 2009;Jim and Chen, 2006). ...
... For every 1 km between a water body and a home, the average house price increases by 8.3% (234,550 RMB). This finding is contrary to that reported in a study by Luttik [57] in the Netherlands. ...
Article
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Population agglomeration and real estate development encroach on public green spaces, threatening human settlement equity and perceptual experience. Perceived greenery is a vital interface for residents to interact with the urban eco-environment. Nevertheless, the economic premiums and spatial scale of such greenery have not been fully studied because a comprehensive quantitative framework is difficult to obtain. Here, taking advantage of big geodata and deep learning to quantify public perceived greenery, we integrate a multiscale GWR (MGWR) and a hedonic price model (HPM) and propose an analytic framework to explore the premium of perceived greenery and its spatial pattern at the neighborhood scale. Our empirical study in Beijing demonstrated that (1) MGWR-based HPM can lead to good performance and increase understanding of the spatial premium effect of perceived greenery; (2) for every 1% increase in neighborhood-level perceived greenery, economic premiums increase by 4.1% (115,862 RMB) on average; and (3) the premium of perceived greenery is spatially imbalanced and linearly decreases with location, which is caused by Beijing’s monocentric development pattern. Our framework provides analytical tools for measuring and mapping the capitalization of perceived greenery. Furthermore, the empirical results can provide positive implications for establishing equitable housing policies and livable neighborhoods.
... A home that GI surrounds usually has high values (high market price). For example, a study conducted in three Dutch cities showed that houses were up to 28% more expensive when they offered a pleasant view (Luttik, 2000). Second, the economic role of GI networks in creating Attraction aesthetics place for Tourism has evidence. ...
Article
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Green infrastructure (GI) is a new term that aims to accomplish sustainable development. It is a platform to achieve a balance between environmental preservation and urban development and achieve economic, social and environmental benefits. However, many countries are suffering from a lack of investment in GI benefits, especially developing countries. Therefore, this study aims to assess the level of attitude among practitioners through assessing their willingness to invest in GI benefits. A quantitative research approach and the questionnaire were designed, containing 17 main benefits of GI to achieve the aim of this study. The questionnaires were distributed manually to the agencies of planning and designing of urban area in Mukalla city. The total number of completed questionnaires entered into this study was 82—the SPSS program approved for results analysis. Relative important index (RII) was used to rank the items, means (X̄) was used to assess the level of attitude among practitioners. Pearson's Chi-square test (χ2) was used to explore the impact of the demographic factors of practitioners on their attitude. In contrast, multiple linear regression was used to predict the relation between attitude and demographic factors. Firstly, the overall means (X̄) revealed that the GI attitude among practitioners in Mukalla city was positive. Secondly, the cross-tabulation revealed that all-male, old and non-government practitioners having a positive attitude, similarly all highly experienced and postgraduate practitioners also had a positive attitude. Pearson's Chi-square test (χ2) showed that experience has no significant influence on GI's economic, social and environmental benefits. Thirdly, multiple linear regression showed that gender and education of practitioners contribute positively toward increasing the level of attitude among practitioners in Mukalla city.
... Die Präferenz für Gewässer war damit nicht zwingend mit ihrer Nutzbarkeit verbunden, auch wenn die Gruppen "Selbstverwirklichung" und Stammgäste häufig Wassersportaktivitäten wie Paddeln und Baden als ein herausragendes Motiv für den Besuch des Nationalparks anführten.Asseburg et al. (1985) nannten bei ihren Untersuchungen den häufigen Wunsch der Befragten nach Gewässern. Als abgeleitete Größe fandLuttig (2000) für die Niederlande heraus, dass Häuser mit Gewässerblick, oder deren Garten an einen See grenzte, einen höheren finanziellen Wert hatten als Gebäude ohne diese Eigenschaften. Auch Orians (1980) nennt dieses Beispiel. ...
... Socially, public spaces are places where people can communicate emotionally, which is important in enhancing mutual understanding and social cohesion (Kuo et al., 1998). Economically, the existence of public spaces can improve the liveability of the city, enhance the value of land and real estate in the surrounding areas, and increase the economic benefits of the city (Luttik, 2000). The amount of public space in a city can be a measure of the city's capacity to support public activities. ...
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In 1748, Giambattista Nolli published a large map of Rome, which accurately depicted the form and system of public space in the city. This graphic presentation has become a powerful tool for urban space research. However, given the increasingly abundant types of contemporary urban spaces and diverse functions of public buildings, the application of the drawing principle of the Nolli map to contemporary cities remains uncertain. Taking the Laochengnan area in Nanjing as an example, this study investigates the mapping of urban public spaces based on the Nolli map method. On the basis of a field survey, the public and private spaces in the blocks are identified. By comparing the graphic information of the Nolli map and that of the Nolli-type map in terms of public, private, and green spaces, this work also reveals the similarities and differences between traditional and modern urban spaces. Urban spatial mapping methods, including the figure-ground map, street map, and Nolli-type map, are explored and compared using complementary mapping techniques. The practicality and effectiveness of each technique are also discussed. Results show that the Nolli map method is effective in mapping contemporary urban public spaces and provides an effective tool for urban designers and architects to depict and analyze urban public spaces.
... Meanwhile there has been little connection between property rights and public open space, although most empirical works on property rights have used availability of open space as a policy variable, typically done by regression analysis, and focused on the relationship between open spaces and property values (Correll, Lillydahl and Singell, 1978, Bolitzer and Netusil, 2000, Luttik, 2000, Irwin, 2002, Anderson and West, 2006. Surely health should be as, if not more important than visual amenities in the "dollar votes" of property buyers and tenants. ...
Article
This interdisciplinary paper, informed by property rights economics, urban planning, facility management, and medical science, as well as the study of the quality of life, (a) presents a typology of Hong Kong open space transformation in terms of property rights; and (b) a small scale indicative survey with a sample that was > 1% of the workforce of the constituency. The authors argue with the help the findings of the survey that the government, as a major provider and regulator, should be able to assign a higher priority to, or enact better designs and plans for usable open spaces to contribute to better public health. This would counterbalance the focus on the indoor environment and health after the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and articulate with the issues of property rights and social justice in open space provision.
... The establishment and development of effective urban green infrastructure such as parks includes addressing issues of planning, design, management and governance (Fors et al. 2015;De Vries and Kotze 2016). For example, while well-used and wellmaintained urban parks are a welcome addition to any city, they can result in neighborhood gentrification, where rentals and house costs rise, displacing lower-income residents (Luttik 2000;Thompson 2002;Monare, Kotz e, and McKay 2014). Thus, urban park management must take cognizance of such matters in order to mitigate and manage them. ...
Article
Urban parks play a crucial role in conserving the biophysical environment, yet conservation efforts mostly focus on biodiversity hotspots, iconic mammal species, and nature conservation areas. A challenge in enhancing the role of urban parks in conservation relates to the varied, and often conflicted, priorities of communities and city authorities in the engagement process. Using a qualitative research approach through in-depth interviews with community leaders, councilors, community-based organizations, and youth organizations, this study explores stakeholder engagement in the planning and management of Mofolo Park in Soweto, Johannesburg. Results indicate that although the City of Johannesburg wanted to add food gardens to the park, the community was not united in support of this. Rather, the community wanted better safety, security and ablutions in the park, in contrast to the City of Johannesburg officials. Community members also expressed concerns about water pollution, sewerage spills, security and vandalism within the park, noting this inhibited their full enjoyment of the park. The study also revealed that women’s voices were mostly silenced during community discussions. The facilitator, who represented the City of Johannesburg, a few extroverted, vocal people and men dominated the discourse. This study concludes that although community engagement through stakeholder dialogues can, and should, play a crucial role in managing urban parks, the priorities and voices of the various stakeholders need to be carefully considered if the park is to be sustainably managed and fit for purpose as an urban green recreational space for local communities.
... Lot size and area, number of rooms, electricity supply, the presence of garden and number of floors have been classified as a leading aspect when customers were choosing the house (Clark & Onaka, 1983). Water supply and green environment features also become an essential indicator that affects housing preference (Luttik, 2000). The use of materials and products that intensify energy efficiency, provide natural lighting inside the rooms, provide a sound insulation system, and offer non-allergic qualities have the priority to be purchased by consumers for better indoor environmental quality features (Spetic et al., 2005). ...
Article
This paper aims to investigate the housing factors that affect millennials when they purchase a property. The housing factors used for the housing preferences are location, accessibility, price, facilities, physical attributes, design and aesthetic aspects, developer reputation and land ownership. The methodology used in this research is a qualitative study with conducting a semi-structured interview with several informants. The questionnaire was developed by reviewing the literature study and the author's interpretation. After conducting the interview, the entire informants agreed on the housing factors stated in the conceptual model. The informants would consider those eight factors before purchasing a property. The findings of this research should be useful for stakeholders like the government, real estate developers, and consumers. The reasons and ideas from the informant could be used as an input for the government to set policies regarding affordable houses. The real estate developers also could use this research to make a business strategy to develop the millennials market segment. Finally, for the consumer, this research could be a guide to help the customer find out about their preferences toward housing.
... Freshwater ecosystems provide many services to humans [1] and generally have a high recreation value [2,3], which is reflected in higher property values for sites with freshwater access or views, for example [4]. Aquatic recreation, such as boating, swimming or fishing, satisfies many psychosocial benefits and generates relevant economic outcomes [2,5]. ...
Article
Human presence at water bodies can have a range of ecological impacts, creating trade-offs between recreation as an ecosystem service and conservation. Conservation policies could be improved by relying on robust knowledge about the relative ecological impacts of water-based recreation. We present the first global synthesis on recreation ecology in aquatic ecosystems, differentiating the ecological impacts of shore use, (shoreline) angling, swimming and boating. Impacts were assessed at three levels of biological organization (individuals, populations and communities) for several taxa. We screened over 13 000 articles and identified 94 suitable studies that met the inclusion criteria, providing 701 effect sizes. Impacts of boating and shore use resulted in consistently negative, significant ecological impacts across all levels of biological organization. The results were less consistent for angling and swimming. The strongest negative effects were observed in invertebrates and plants. Recreational impacts on birds were most pronounced at the individual level, but not significant at the community level. Due to publication bias and knowledge gaps, generalizations of the ecological impacts of aquatic recreation are challenging. Impacts depend less on the form of recreation. Thus, selectively constraining specific types of recreation may have little conservation value, as long as other forms of water-based recreation continue.
... Metodą hedoniczną wycenia się także drzewa (np. Anderson, Cordell, 1988;Luttik, 2000;Price, 2003;Donovan, Butry, 2010), krajobraz (Geoghegan, Wainger, Bockstael, 1997;Benson i in., 1998;Jim, Chen, 2009;Waltert, Schläpfer, 2010), plaże (Gopalakrishnan i in., 2011), tereny podmokłe (Bin, 2005;Tapsuwan i in., 2009). ...
... Numerous studies (Rodriguez and Sirmans, 1994;Benson et al., 1998) have shown that people are willing to pay additional money for a pleasant view of nature around the house. In the Netherlands, a house with a picturesque view of water bodies may attract a premium of 8-10%, whereas open spaces may result in a premium of 6-12% (Luttik, 2000). Similar findings were reported in a study conducted in Guangzhou, China (Jim and Chen, 2007), which showed that flats with a view of a garden earned a premium of 23.1%. ...
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Please cite this article as: Gałecka-Drozda A, Wilkaniec A, Szczepańska M,Świerk D, Potential nature-based solutions and greenwashing to generate green spaces: Developers' claims versus reality in new housing offers, Urban Forestry and amp; Urban Greening (2021), Abstract The implementation of nature-based solutions (NbS) largely depends on the strategic planning of urban green infrastructure (UGI) and the measures adopted for planning and maintaining urban green areas under investment pressure. UGI planning is highly important for housing areas, and its elements are often used in selling campaigns for developers' investments. In many cases, when developers refer to ecological values and greenery in promotional campaigns, these are often considered as greenwashing (GW). The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency and mechanism of providing greenery and ecological solutions in renderings, the types of vegetation presented, and the approach of the developers to the existing greenery and other ecological values. The authors selected and analysed 73 development offers from 25 developers in Poznań, which is a major city in Poland with intensive development of housing investments. All the investments were analysed for the contents of advertisements and illustrations (plans and renderings). In the first stage of the study, analyses were conducted according to three groups of criteria: 1) creating an image of a green estate, 2) types of green spaces, and 3) approach to the existing green resources. The results revealed the importance of greenery in developers' strategies. In the second stage, another four criteria for NbS and four indicators of GW were identified. The analysis helped us in assessing whether the offers met the NbS or GW assumptions. Statistical analyses showed that offers with the largest amount of GW indicators, indicating near and accessible green spaces, were primarily located distantly. The study verified that most of the marketing strategies of selected developers in Poznań should be considered as GW, and only a few estates exhibited NbS characteristics. However, the indicators of GW are often observed in the same cases. Further, the question arises whether NbS would be implemented in housing estates, in the absence of systemic regulations mandating the use of environmentally friendly solutions.
... The benefits generated by green infrastructure could be valued using non-market valuation methods (Champ et al., 2003). Both stated preference and revealed preference approaches have been extensively used to value urban environmental assets such as public open space or green infrastructure (Iftekhar et al., 2021;Lanz and Provins, 2013;Luttik, 2000;Pandit et al., 2014;Sander et al., 2010). Stated and revealed preference approaches have their advantages and limitations. ...
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In this paper, we assess residents' preferences for different options of large-scale water sensitive urban improvement of a heritage site in Melbourne, the Main Outfall Sewer (MOS) reserve. We use a hedonic pricing analysis and a discrete choice experiment to understand the benefits associated with improving the MOS reserve. We find that there are significant non-market benefits associated with various options, both in terms of the potential to reflect increases in house value and in terms of people's willingness to pay for improvements in amenity and environmental quality. This information will contribute to determining investment options for this important heritage site. Importantly, we demonstrate the combination of the hedonic and stated choice willingness to pay estimates to provide an aggregate estimate of welfare, revealing a useful approach for greenspace valuation applications where multiple non-market values should be considered.
... Environmental amenities are however implicitly purchased with market goods such as housing, and their values can be estimated using the hedonic pricing method (Rosen, 1974). studies that used the hedonic pricing method to estimate the value of proximity to rivers, canals, and other waterways on residential property values and identified several studies that estimate the amenity benefit of proximity to canals via the change in urban residential property prices (Bonetti et al., 2016;Garrod and Willis, 1994;Luttik, 2000;Nelson et al., 2005). These studies find that proximity to canals has a positive impact on house prices. ...
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Water sensitive practices can improve water quality and city livability, but the extent to which these practices improve the welfare of residents is not well researched. We contribute to knowledge in this area using Singapore's Active, Beautiful, Clean Waters (ABC Waters) Program as a case study. The program includes the renovation and integration of drains, canals, and reservoirs with the surrounding environment. To investigate impacts, we analyse real estate transactions within 2000 m of 13 canals that were renovated between 2008 and 2016 as part of the ABC Waters program using both a difference-in-differences hedonic price model and a difference-in-differences exact matching model. To test the robustness of the result, we implement a placebo test by shifting the restoration project dates. We find the value of residential flats within 500 m of renovation sites increase by 1.6% (95% CI 1.0–2.2%) after renovation projects. The empirical strategy and the placebo test results support a causal interpretation of the effect of canal renovation projects on flat prices. The uplift in value for flats within 500 m of canal upgrading projects is estimated to be between S$336 and S$504 million. This exceeds the combined costs of all ABC Waters projects and provides evidence that the benefits of urban waterway renewal projects are greater than the costs.
... UGSs provide ecosystem services like pollutant sequestration and ambient temperature regulation etc. (Nowak et al, 2006;Jim and Chen, 2008). Urban green spaces also contribute to economic services like increased property prices in urban areas (Luttik, 2000). ...
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Urban green spaces (UGS) supply ecosystem services such as biodiversity, climate regulation and other benefits. Urban green spaces are essential for the quality of life, health, and wellbeing of citizens. Urban green spaces provide a habitat for both flora and fauna. Creating herbal garden(s) or gardens with ornamental plants within the campus is a great way of increasing the green space in a campus. Not only does it help in conserving biodiversity it provides an opportunity to the students to know about their local plant genetic resources. This paper is a based on a pilot project in Gurudas College where faculty and students members of the NSS and Vasudha units increased the green space in the college campus. They created a medicinal garden and also helped in maintaining the ornamental garden.
... Nonetheless, the power of economic instruments has been demonstrated by the results of The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) study (Kumar, 2011), and some of the created co-benefits can be conveyed in economic value. Examples of this include increased real estate value next to urban green or restored river sections in urban areas (Luttik, 2000;Gerwien, 2020) or payment schemes for ecosystem services such as the financial support of the Munich Public Works for organic farming in the Mangfall Valley. This included marketing activities of dairy products originating from the area in order to avoid excessive, expensive technical purification for their main source of drinking water for the city (Grolleau and McCann, 2012). ...
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Planners and engineers increasingly discovered nature as a source of inspiration to mitigate hydro-meteorological risks resulting from extreme weather events. Actors are realizing advantages of such solutions known as Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) to rapidly adapt to changing climate patterns and related impacts such as flooding, landslides, mudflows or rockfalls. NBS also provide multiple co-benefits such as an increased landscape value for society and biodiversity. Because of their inherent characteristics, NBS implementation are more efficient when supported by participative approaches. At the same time, strengthening democratic and collaborative planning into Living Labs approaches generates an increase in interest. This helps to overcome bottlenecks when implementing measures and provide common ground to provide space for new ideas, to promote innovation and to develop solutions with high acceptance. While co-design and implementing NBS has already been applied and well documented for urban areas, there are few publications on collaborative planning, stakeholder perception and NBS co-implementation in rural mountain areas. In our case study analysis from the EU-funded H2020 project PUSICOS, we present stakeholder views on NBS, their possibility to reduce natural hazards in different mountainous case study areas, different discussed measures, NBS types and stages of implementation. We analyze expectations on Living Lab processes to co-design NBS and important topics to be addressed in these processes from the view, perspective and perception of local stakeholders. Despite the importance of NBS on political and research agenda, in both the literature and the interviews, the concept and ideas are less familiar to stakeholders. NBS are mainly encountered within river restoration measures. The main interest was to reduce risks and to find solutions that were attractive and interesting also from an economical point of view e.g. business models for farmers and landowners and less of the multiple benefits.
... The social and ecological value of UGS is widely accepted, while its economic value is not as immediately recognizable, because the services it provides are public goods without market prices [22]. However, real estate markets in developed countries and regions with good environmental quality indicate that many people are willing to pay more for urban properties that are close to UGS [23,24]. Many studies have estimated the economic value or amenity benefits of urban parks and public open spaces [22,25,26]. ...
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Urban green space (UGS) is important in urban systems, as it benefits economic development, ecological conservation, and living conditions. Many studies have evaluated the economic, ecological, and social value of UGS worldwide, and spatial optimization for UGS has been carried out to maximize its value. However, few studies have simultaneously examined these three values of UGS in one optimization system. To fill this gap, this study evaluated the economic value of UGS in terms of promoting housing prices, its ecological value through the relief of high land surface temperature (LST), and its social value through the provision of recreation spaces for residents within a 255 m distance. Subsequently, these three values were set as objectives in a genetic algorithm (GA)-based multi-objective optimization (MOP) system. Shenzhen was taken as the case study area. The results showed that the influencing distance of UGS in Shenzhen for house prices was 345 m, and the influencing distance of UGS for LST was 135 m. Using MOP, the Pareto solutions for increasing UGS were identified and presented. The results indicate that MOP can simultaneously optimize UGS's economic, ecological, and social value.
... Live plantings, such as trees and grass in outdoor spaces, may promote social connectedness [6]. Trees, water, and open spaces, especially attractive ones, are also associated with higher house prices and have the potential to bring economic benefits to the surrounding neighborhood [7]. Urban parks should be inclusive for urban dwellers and visitors as the accessibility, quality, and availability of urban parks impact life in cities [8]. ...
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User-generated content (UGC) is a relatively young field of research; however, it has been proven useful in disciplines such as hospitality and tourism, to elicit public opinions of place usage. In landscape architecture and urban planning, UGC has been used to understand people’s emotions and movement in a space, while other areas and additional functions are yet to be discovered. This paper explores the capability of UGC in revealing city-scale park management problems and the applicability of social media as a future tool in bridging visitor feedback to city parks and recreation department staff. This research analyzed the spatial characteristics and patterns of Google Maps review quantity, rating score, and review comments. The results of this pilot study indicate the spatial and structural features of the Chicago parks and demonstrate distribution problems, financial investment priority concerns, park usage characteristics, and user preferences of the park attributes. Findings affirm that user-generated online reviews can be used as an alternative and self-reporting data source to effectively assess the natural performance and users’ experience of city parks and can potentially serve as an evaluative tool for public park management.
... The hedonic pricing method has been widely applied in park valuation studies, where park location and size are found to be key factors influencing property sales prices (Brander and Koetse, 2011;Crompton, 2001;Yoo and Wagner, 2016). Proximity relates to ease of access (Leslie et al., 2010;Sander and Haight, 2012;Willis and Crabtree, 2011) and scenic views (Crompton and Nicholls, 2019;Luttik, 2000;Weigher and Zerbst, 1973), while park size can contribute both to the park's aesthetic quality and recreation potential (Hatton Macdonald et al., 2010;Mahmoudi et al., 2012;Poudyal et al., 2009;Wood et al., 2017). Having a park adjacent to a property (Barnett, 1985;Dehring and Dunse, 2006) or closer than average distances (Cho et al., 2006;Sander and Haight, 2012) are linked to higher sales prices, while the price impact of proximity to a large park can be double that of a small park (Tajima, 2003). ...
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Climate change is forcing cities to reassess their water management practices, particularly for water-intensive applications like park irrigation. If water scarcity requires governments to deviate from current park management norms and allocate less water towards parks, it is essential that park managers design spaces that maintain community wellbeing. We apply the hedonic pricing method and use detailed park management information to assess the value of parks in a region where local climatic conditions require extensive irrigation to keep turf green, and where climate change is further constraining water supplies. Here we show that the impacts of irrigation on the value of parks differ depending on the dwelling types of the nearby housing populations that they serve. In most cases, the convention that parks have to be irrigated to deliver ecosystem services to the public is supported. However, we find that non-irrigated park areas are also valued positively by nearby apartment dwellers. Accelerating rates of urbanization and shifts towards high-density living may support the development of more diverse park options that are less water-intensive. Increased visibility of these alternative park forms, which could include more areas of native vegetation that do not require irrigation, may subsequently influence public expectations for landscape design.
... The range of criteria they can assess is constrained by their two-dimensional plan view interfaces and data sets. On the contrary, assessments using three-dimensional geometric methods are limited to singlecriteria assessments including privacy (Lonergan and Hedley 2016), shading/lighting (Zhang et al. 2015), ventilation and microclimate (Hong et al. 2011), views (Ervin and Steinitz 2003), financial cost or economic performance (Luttik 2000;Nowak and Dwyer 2007;Wang et al. 2016), water uptake (Javaux et al. 2008), and carbon sequestration (Le Roux et al. 2001). The use of photographs and renderings to assess household landscape preferences is also well-established and sometimes includes water use or cost heuristics (Kuper 2017;Hayden et al. 2015;Nassauer et al. 2009;Zheng et al. 2011). ...
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Designing urban residential landscapes in arid regions requires careful consideration of water use and costs. Landscape performance assessment at the residential scale has historically been limited to esthetic preferences. Landscapes provide many more services. Quantifying these services allows a comprehensive understanding of the costs and benefits of landscapes. Landscape architecture decisions impact urban planning goals like water-use efficiency, yet the links between planning and planting criteria are rarely evaluated in design decisions. To address these deficiencies, this paper presents a Landscape Decision Assessment Tool (LDAT), a multicriteria, geometrically explicit, multiresolution modeling framework. Its use is targeted to urban planning and water engineering departments in arid regions as well as design practitioners. It aims to improve the multicriteria design of villa landscapes to explicitly include beauty, privacy, shade, views, and water conservation. Results from a typical parcel-level case study in the United Arab Emirates identify substantial opportunities to improve water efficiency without compromising residential design criteria by adjusting landscape configurations. Multiple configurations perform nearly equally well indicating a range of choices for households to choose from based on the household weighting of criteria.
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This paper explores the impact of urban parks on real estate prices making use of a hedonic price approach. Focusing on Brisbane, Australia, as a case study site, we use spatial hedonic models to analyse housing sales data across 15,000 sales transactions to investigate the effects of parks on nearby housing prices, paying attention to park typology and classification. Our findings indicate that recreational and sport parks are differently associated with price variations. The study also examines a specific and significant inner-city park currently undergoing a major redevelopment—namely Victoria Park. Our analysis of the Victoria Park site seeks to quantify the value uplift, that is, the future increase in property prices as a result of the transformation of the current private golf course in this location into a new publicly accessible parkland. This study’s property economics modelling analysis indicates the conversion of Victoria Park from a golf course to public parkland will increase property prices by an average of 3% for properties located within 750 metres of the park. The article concludes with a discussion of value capture opportunities that these findings present as well as challenges of green gentrification for this and similar urban renewal projects and possible policy responses.
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The aim of this thesis study is to propose a method that will set an example for all cities, and that will enable the multi-storey mass housing structures in the city of Ankara to be produced with living spaces more related to nature and to contribute positively to the existing urban environment. In order to achieve this aim, the historical process of the production of "housing" and "open and green spaces in buildings" in cities around the world and in Ankara has been examined in detail from technical and theoretical perspectives. Following this examination, the open and green spaces system in low-density city settlements was used as an example model, and a theoretical idea was developed to produce an open and green spaces system that could be included in the multi-storey mass housing buildings in the city of Ankara. The theoretical idea developed was applied on three multi-storey mass housing examples in Ankara, and the open and green spaces system proposal for multi-storey mass housing structures in the city of Ankara was revealed as a finding. Then, the system that emerged as a finding was examined and compared with the components that make up the open and green spaces system in low-density city settlements and selected examples in cities around the world. Subsequently, the changes that need to be made in the design method while the system in question was put into practice were revealed. As a final step, changes that need to be made in the field of legislation and policy proposals that need to be developed in order to put all these studies into practice were put forward. As a result, the effects of the emerged open and green spaces system on nature and people were evaluated. As a result of the evaluation, it has been observed that the system in question has revealed the potential to create positive effects on nature and people, which can be a turning point.
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This thesis explores the role that curriculum-based environmental education plays in influencing young peoples' wellbeing. It adopts a social constructivist approach to understand how wellbeing is understood, articulated and experienced by young people in residential learning environments. The thesis argues that positivistic and adult-centred accounts of wellbeing have restricted our appreciation of the diverse ways in which young people engage with and recognise their emotions in educational settings. In adopting an alternative framework, the thesis argues for experiential and subjective understandings of wellbeing to be developed through a range of methodological tools. The research sought to develop these ideas by focusing on the experiences of students visiting the Field Studies Centre at Slapton Ley (Devon, UK) and utilised focus groups and solicited participant diaries, providing a basis for phenomenological inquiry that enabled a direct engagement with young people participating in environmental education programmes. The empirical research focused on the experiences of young people between the ages of 14 and 18 years on a residential, curriculum-based environmental education programme and examined the role and potential of environmental education for supporting the wellbeing of young people. From an initial thematic analysis of the data five elements were identified as key to the participants' wellbeing: wellbeing as multidimensional, social elements, psychological elements, physical health and environmental elements. These elements were then used to provide a framing for understanding young peoples' experiences of wellbeing throughout the lived experience of curriculum-based environmental education and, as a result, the research yielded three themes that provide an understanding of the key experiences of environmental education and its connection to wellbeing: experiences of place, experiences of people, and the learning experience. Using these themes and the participants' conceptualisations of wellbeing, the research then iii explored how strategies can be developed within environmental education to promote the wellbeing of young people and reveals the importance of fostering feelings of restoration, increasing social bonds and developing a sense of achievement and accomplishment. Consequently, this research contributes to the fields of environmental education and health and wellbeing research within a geographical context through demonstrating the importance of qualitative approaches in revealing the ways young people articulate their emotions in educational settings. Alongside this, it challenges assumptions about the way nature is utilised in wellbeing interventions, highlighting the role that social and cultural backgrounds can play in the way nature is experienced by different groups and how this can be addressed within environmental education. Therefore, a key contribution of this research is in providing an empirical analysis for the relationship between environmental education and wellbeing, and how to best design environmental education programmes that meet the needs of young people.
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This chapter provides an overview of China’s urban-planning system and how it works in a broader political and bureaucratic system and in the socialist market economy. The system benefits significantly from Euro-American planning knowledge. Its performance is highly mixed: it has been remarkably successful in serving the needs of rapid urbanization and rising living standards; but it has not been successful, or responsive enough, in safeguarding the environment and the interests of people – especially the disadvantaged. China’s urban-planning system is designed to serve a technical function, and is embedded in a broad, authoritarian political and bureaucratic system. The role of urban planning is limited under the centralized political system that accords national objectives as its top priorities. The role of planning is also weakened by strong market forces. Looking forward, China could learn from other Global South countries, especially in terms of tolerating and managing urban informalities in the interests of more-inclusive social outcomes. The chapter is included in A. K. Mohan et al. (eds.) 2021. Theorising Urban Development From the Global South. Palgrave MacMillan. (https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-82475-4_5)
Thesis
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Conference Paper
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Water plays a crucial role in designing pure perspective and urban landscape. The water in nature, not only because of its Performance aspects, but also available concerning aesthetics and perceptions. The beauty of water is valuable in the society , therefore, in landscape architecture, water is used as a perceived and significant element in design. From this perspective, water can represent as small and large-scale ponds or waterfalls, or represent a symbol of turbulence or relaxation, etc. The perceptual sense of perspective is worthwhile. The existence of water as an essential element during history is crucial. the relationship between forms and construction of Gardens has caused the functional structure and perception of water with other garden elements and later in parks. In the course of the research, the question which is a matter of discussion is, how this perceptual element affecting people's perception? The results indicate that the relationship between people and their sensory back and water element is beyond the use of this element to meet material needs, and this is the deepest part of the human. Crave for these principles leads to more than water in design and urban planning.
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The trends are world wide: people and goods are increasingly mobile, compact cities develop into urban networks, industrialising agriculture is becoming footloose, rural life becomes urban life in a green setting. Social segregation, traffic nuisance, urban sprawl and other unwanted impacts of these trends challenge urban and regional planners. The search for planning answers to these issues is further complicated by the need for sustainable development at a global scale. What is the role of ecology in the context of the discussions on the future of town and country? The traditional, and still dominant, approach is based on the polarity of urban and rural worlds. In this perspective, ecology focuses on the ‘nature’ of protected areas and biodiversity. The papers in this special issue explore the prospects of a wider perspective in which natural processes are seen as basic to both, rural and urban development. This article is digging up the fundamental ‘discourses’ underlying the two approaches to ecology and nature. Firstly, the ‘object-oriented’ and ‘process-oriented’ discourses are analysed. Secondly, the prospects of a process-oriented discourse are illustrated with plans for the Dutch Randstad and the German Ruhr area. Then, some new concepts are introduced that may strengthen the institutional conditions for the process-oriented approach. Discourses, concepts, plans and projects all circle around the central question in this article about the role of ecology in planning the edge of the city.
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This study was conducted to determine whether or not trees contribute to residential property value and the ex-tent of that contribution in the areas observed. To accomplish this, homes were observed with a substantial amount of mature tree cover and homes were observed without tree cover. It is realized that there are other variables that con-tribute to residential property value and this information was obtained from tax cards on file in the town tax assessor's of-fice. All possible variables were noted for each house ob-served including the sale price. Factor and multiple regression analysis was used to determine the effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable which is sales price of the house. The results showed that trees do contribute to property value in the areas observed. By using the equation formulated by the regression analysis, we can predict the value of homes. From the values derived by the regression analysis, it was found that good tree cover added $2,686 (or six percent of the total) to the property value of the homes observed. Individuals in the field of tree evaluation can easily arrive at and agree upon the value of a tree as it relates to timber use and aesthetic shade value. Formulas have been developed for calcu-lating such values (1). The U.S. Forest Service in a study conducted in Amherst, Massachusetts, showed that trees con-tribute seven percent to the value of the average property and as much as 15 percent to some lots (3). In this study, an effort has been made to measure the value of residential trees by incor-porating tree cover as one of many variables that contribute to residential property value and by comparing property values of residences with and without tree cover. Market analysis and property value can be used in determining the value of trees. "Trees in residential areas are usually valued and may serve in a considerable array of benefits. It will take much research to identify, sort out, and measure the components involved. To a degree, however, they are synthesized in prices people pay for housing" (4). Other studies have indicated that firm values are difficult to obtain and suggest that assigning a value to intangibles and amenities such as tree cover may not dictate whether a property with trees sells faster than a property without (2). This study is directed to help narrow some of these discrepancies by developing a methodology which can provide some insight to the problem of tree cover as a contributing factor in residential property value.
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A survey of the sales of 844 single family residential properties in Athens, Georgia, U.S.A., indicated that landscaping with trees was associated with 3.5%–4.5% increase in sales prices. During the 1978–1980 study period, the average house sold for about $38 100 (in 1978 constant dollars) and had five trees in its front yard. The average sales price increase due to trees was between $1475 and $1750 ($2869 and $3073 in 1985 dollars) and was largely due to trees in the intermediate and large size classes, regardless of species. This increase in property value results in an estimated increase of $100 000 (1978 dollars) in the city's property tax revenues.
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The trends are world wide: people and goods are increasingly mobile, compact cities develop into urban networks, industrialising agriculture is becoming footloose, rural life becomes urban life in a green setting. Social segregation, traffic nuisance, urban sprawl and other unwanted impacts of these trends challenge urban and regional planners. The search for planning answers to these issues is further complicated by the need for sustainable development at a global scale. What is the role of ecology in the context of the discussions on the future of town and country? The traditional, and still dominant, approach is based on the polarity of urban and rural worlds. In this perspective, ecology focuses on the ‘nature’ of protected areas and biodiversity. The papers in this special issue explore the prospects of a wider perspective in which natural processes are seen as basic to both, rural and urban development. This article is digging up the fundamental ‘discourses’ underlying the two approaches to ecology and nature. Firstly, the ‘object-oriented’ and ‘process-oriented’ discourses are analysed. Secondly, the prospects of a process-oriented discourse are illustrated with plans for the Dutch Randstad and the German Ruhr area. Then, some new concepts are introduced that may strengthen the institutional conditions for the process-oriented approach. Discourses, concepts, plans and projects all circle around the central question in this article about the role of ecology in planning the edge of the city.
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This paper examines the ability of the hedonic price method to estimate the premium offered by particular housing attributes or environmental characteristics in an urban setting. Problems of non‐separability in variables within an empirical model, suggest that this methodology is not always suitable for the estimation of specific housing attributes, and an alternative approach to this problem is suggested.
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One reason why urban parks and open spaces are subject to development pressure is that planners and researchers have been unable to articulate their value in economic terms. Three valuation techniques — each with its own strengths and weaknesses — have been applied to urban parks. This paper reviews the three techniques and presents study results from the hedonic valuation technique. Study results indicate landscape planners need to be aware of the strengths and shortcomings of each to properly evaluate research on this topic.
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Recent studies tend to indicate that no longer all presently agricultural land in The Netherlands is required for sustainable agricultural production. Apart from various urban uses and some projects turning agricultural land into nature reserves or giving it a secondary function, like national landscape parks or drinking water supply area, it is not easy to find alternative users for the land presently managed by farmers. At the same time, many urban companies or families are vainly looking for building lots away from our ‘compact urban areas’. This paper explores a way to bring this supply and demand together in a landscape-wise more than acceptable manner: the planning concept and experiment of ‘new rural lifestyle estates’.
The contribution of trees to a residential property value Valuation of urban parks Valuation of urban amenities using an hedonic price model
  • D J T A Morales
  • T Stevens
  • P G Allen
Morales, D.J., 1980. The contribution of trees to a residential property value. J. Agric. 6 (11), 305±308. More, T.A., Stevens, T., Allen, P.G., 1988. Valuation of urban parks. Landscape Urban Plann. 15, 139±152. Powe, N.A., Garrod, G.D., Willis, K.G., 1995. Valuation of urban amenities using an hedonic price model. J. Property Res. 12, 137±147.
Meerwaarde woningen door nabijheid van groen (Surplus value of dwellings in the vicinity of green areas)
  • A T Fennema
  • F R Veeneklaas
  • J Vreke
Fennema, A.T., Veeneklaas, F.R., Vreke, J., 1996. Meerwaarde woningen door nabijheid van groen (Surplus value of dwellings in the vicinity of green areas). Stedebouw en Ruimtelijke Ordening 3, 33±35.
Meerwaarde woningen door nabijheid van groen (Surplus value of dwellings in the vicinity of green areas)
  • Fennema
Ecology on the edge, landscape and ecology between town and country
  • Tjalingii