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Virtual Store Layout: An Experimental Comparison in the Context of Grocery Retail

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Abstract

Interface design and the interaction between customer and computer are factors critical to business effectiveness over the Web. A key aspect of conventional retailing is store layout; an analogous aspect in virtual retail is virtual store layout. This paper reports on an experimental investigation into the use of three different layouts in online grocery retailing: freeform, grid, and racetrack. These three most common conventional retailing layout types were transformed into virtual layouts for computer-mediated interfaces. Subjects in Greece and the UK participated in a laboratory experiment: they were given a planned shopping task with money to spend, and performed their shopping through a virtual store with layout as the manipulated variable. The results show that layout significantly affects online consumer behavior, but that predictions generated from the literature of conventional retailing about differences in the outcome of layouts do not generally hold in a virtual setting. Some of the findings can be explained by reference to research in Human Computer Interaction (HCI).

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... The ultimate goal of layout design is to increase the sale of stores by navigating consumer behavior (Vrechopoulos et al. 2004). Store layout aims to provide four factors such as perceived usefulness, ease of use, entertainment, and time-consuming (Hansen et al. 2010). ...
... Grouping products in this way replaces consumers finding tea in the beverage section, cheese in fresh cheese, and cereal in the cereal section. This layout leads the customer along specific paths to visit as many store sections as possible (Kim and Kim 2008;Vrechopoulos et al. 2004). In addition, the industrial store layout normally arranges related products together such as in the bakery area (with bread, cakes, biscuits, and so on), and the vegetable area (with carrots, beans, and so on). ...
... Fixtures and displays are laid parallel to the walls (Barghash et al. 2017). This type of layout is a popular choice for supermarkets, grocery stores and chain pharmacies (Vrechopoulos et al. 2004). The grid layout is known as end caps, and staple items such as milk and eggs are put at the back of the store. ...
... Ainsworth and Foster (2017) argued that PC plays a significant role in determining the customer perception of customer experience quality. Similarly, Vrechopoulos et al. (2004) highlighted that the customer's positive evaluation of the customer experience positively influences the comfort level. In high credence services such as FS, customers may undergo feelings of uncertainty and risk (Fernandes and Pinto, 2019), and therefore, developing and maintaining customer's PC becomes even more important. ...
... Findings reveal that among all relationships, customer experience has the most significant and positive impact on PC that corroborates to the claims of previous researchers (Ainsworth and Foster, 2017;Lloyd and Luk, 2011;Vrechopoulos et al., 2004) as customer experience successfully generates a positive emotional feeling in customers (Al-Wugayan, 2019; Silva et al., 2021). The four dimensions of customer experience were positive and significant, of which "Moments-of-Truth" emerged as the most important dimension given that it is linked to the bank being flexible and quick in responding and resolving customer's concerns leading to improving customer experience (Klaus and Maklan, 2013). ...
... Findings revealed that customer experience significantly influences customer's PC. These findings add a new dimension to the literature by empirically proving the conceptual relationship (Vrechopoulos et al., 2004). These findings also add to Ainsworth and Foster (2017) findings in the service environment that when customers receive a positive customer experience, their PC is developed and strengthened, with numerous relational advantages (Gaur et al., 2019;Spake et al., 2003). ...
Psychological comfort reflects the customer's peace of mind and a sense of ease during a service encounter that helps in maintaining strong relationships. However, the role of psychological comfort (PC) in retail service relationships is not fully explored. To fill this research gap, this study presents a unique conceptual model grounded in the stimulus organism response (S–O-R) framework to empirically explore the stimulating effect of customer experience on psychological comfort (PC), which influences relationships quality and customer retention as the response. To evaluate the model a quantitative survey was administered on 432 bank customers followed by in depth interviews of 10 bank employees. It was found that customer experience stimulates customer's PC that leads to relationship quality and retention as the response. It was also found that relationship duration influences the customer experience-PC relationship. The theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.
... Tlapane (2009) highlights that in the South African context things like crowd density, staff training & attitude, impulse buying, factor into the buying behaviour of the customers. Vrechopoulos (2004) adds that the layout of a store can create an appealing or not so appealing image to the customer where a customer can even feel crowded and overwhelmed. Customer loyalty is more likely when the image of the store is desirable and in line with what the customer desires (Tlapane, 2009;Vrechopoulos 2004). ...
... Vrechopoulos (2004) adds that the layout of a store can create an appealing or not so appealing image to the customer where a customer can even feel crowded and overwhelmed. Customer loyalty is more likely when the image of the store is desirable and in line with what the customer desires (Tlapane, 2009;Vrechopoulos 2004). Vrechopoulos (2004) further states that when creating a store layout, one should consider: personal interaction, physical appearance, problem solving and convenience. ...
... Customer loyalty is more likely when the image of the store is desirable and in line with what the customer desires (Tlapane, 2009;Vrechopoulos 2004). Vrechopoulos (2004) further states that when creating a store layout, one should consider: personal interaction, physical appearance, problem solving and convenience. Strong store appearances offers recognition, familiarity, confidence which make it easier for the buyer to make their buying decisions. ...
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This study investigates the grocery retail sector in South Africa and what factors in there drive consumer behaviour. The literature emphasises the importance of understanding what shapes customer satisfaction and how this creates customer satisfaction that can then lead to customer loyalty. A quantitative approach was used for this study and the data collected using questionnaire. The study looked at convenience, service, promotion, store atmosphere and expectation and how they impact customer satisfaction. Only expectation had an impact on customer satisfaction. Furthermore the study also showed that customer satisfaction has an impact on customer loyalty. Which was in line with the literature and answered the overall research question. Future studies need to explore the impact of quality on customer satisfaction as this is a key measurement that expectation is tested against. An analysis of how technology impacts the process also needs to be done as a large number of sales in the physical channel start online and there's an advent of price comparison mechanisms. More needs to be done to understand what shapes the customer satisfaction to better understand the behaviour of retail grocery shoppers.
... The ultimate goal of layout design is to increase the sale of stores by navigating consumer behavior (Vrechopoulos et al. 2004). Store layout aims to provide four factors such as perceived usefulness, ease of use, entertainment, and time-consuming (Hansen et al. 2010). ...
... Grouping products in this way replaces consumers finding tea in the beverage section, cheese in fresh cheese, and cereal in the cereal section. This layout leads the customer along specific paths to visit as many store sections as possible (Kim and Kim 2008;Vrechopoulos et al. 2004). In addition, the industrial store layout normally arranges related products together such as in the bakery area (with bread, cakes, biscuits, and so on), and the vegetable area (with carrots, beans, and so on). ...
... Fixtures and displays are laid parallel to the walls (Barghash et al. 2017). This type of layout is a popular choice for supermarkets, grocery stores and chain pharmacies (Vrechopoulos et al. 2004). The grid layout is known as end caps, and staple items such as milk and eggs are put at the back of the store. ...
Article
Full-text available
An efficient store layout presents merchandise to attract customer attention and encourages customers to walk down more aisles which exposes them to more merchandise, which has been shown to be positively correlated with the sales. It is one of the most effective in-store marketing tactics which can directly influence customer decisions to boost store sales and profitability. The recent development of Artificial Intelligence techniques, especially with its sub-fields in Computer Vision and Deep Learning, has enabled retail stores to take advantage of existing CCTV infrastructure to extract in-store customer and business insights. This research aims to conduct a comprehensive review on existing approaches in store layout design and modern AI techniques that can be utilized in the layout design task. Based on this review, we propose an AI-powered store layout design framework. This framework applies advanced AI and data analysis techniques on top of existing CCTV video surveillance infrastructure to understand, predict and suggest a better store layout.
... The ultimate goal of layout design is to increase the sale of stores by navigating consumer behavior (Vrechopoulos et al. 2004). Store layout aims to provide four factors such as perceived usefulness, ease of use, entertainment, and time-consuming (Hansen et al. 2010). ...
... Grouping products in this way replaces consumers finding tea in the beverage section, cheese in fresh cheese, and cereal in the cereal section. This layout leads the customer along specific paths to visit as many store sections as possible (Kim and Kim 2008;Vrechopoulos et al. 2004). In addition, the industrial store layout normally arranges related products together such as in the bakery area (with bread, cakes, biscuits, and so on), and the vegetable area (with carrots, beans, and so on). ...
... Fixtures and displays are laid parallel to the walls (Barghash et al. 2017). This type of layout is a popular choice for supermarkets, grocery stores and chain pharmacies (Vrechopoulos et al. 2004). The grid layout is known as end caps, and staple items such as milk and eggs are put at the back of the store. ...
Article
Full-text available
An efficient store layout presents merchandise to attract customer attention and encourages customers to walk down more aisles which exposes them to more merchandise, which has been shown to be positively correlated with the sales. It is one of the most effective in-store marketing tactics which can directly influence customer decisions to boost store sales and profitability. The recent development of Artificial Intelligence techniques, especially with its sub-fields in Computer Vision and Deep Learning, has enabled retail stores to take advantage of existing CCTV infrastructure to extract in-store customer and business insights. This research aims to conduct a comprehensive review on existing approaches in store layout design and modern AI techniques that can be utilized in the layout design task. Based on this review, we propose an AI-powered store layout design framework. This framework applies advanced AI and data analysis techniques on top of existing CCTV video surveillance infrastructure to understand, predict and suggest a better store layout.
... 16 additional studies were later identified and were added to the analysis. To help the reader navigate through the next sections, in the physical environment the grid layout shows a hierarchy of displays (i.e., from one product category to its product subcategory, then to the end product) (Vrechopoulos et al. 2004), the freeform layout has features and aisles arranged in an asymmetrical form (Levy and Weitz 2008), the racetrack layout (or loop) has fixtures and merchandise arranged around one main aisle (Lin and Lo 2016) (Fig. 3). ...
... In most physical retail settings, the virtual grid layout is most commonly described and used as the quickest way for consumers to find their desired products (Griffith 2005). Vrechopoulos et al. (2004) referred to the virtual grid layout as the use of hierarchical effects models e.g., from one product category, to its product subcategory, then to the end product. The virtual grid layout is most commonly implemented for planned and repeat purchases, like food shopping (Massara and Pelloso 2016). ...
... In the fashion industry, the grid layout is not considered the best solution even in the physical environment (Vrechopoulos et al. 2004;Manganari et al. 2011). In the physical environment, the layout consists of long aisles focused primarily on maximising merchandising, by placing products into categories and groups along with limiting white space (Orvis 2017). ...
Article
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Retail layouts and atmospherics have been widely investigated within the physical retail environment, Research suggests that there is limited understanding of these elements in the virtual environment despite the fact that they would appear to be the easiest and most effective combination to implement by online fashion retailers. Considering potential applications in the fashion industry, a review of current literature on layout and atmospherics has identified the freeform layout as a valuable format for online fashion retailing. The freeform layout has been found to increase consumers’ hedonic motivations to purchase. Furthermore, design and visual cues have a significant influence on consumers, while aural cues despite being very important to the consumers’ experience appear to be underexploited in the online fashion space. This paper contributes a review of established retail elements, and identifies those that adapt well from the offline to online retail environment.
... The present study is positioned in the electronic retailing domain and more specifically in the store atmosphere field. According to store atmosphere theory, store layout, as a component of store atmosphere, has been shown to affect various consumer perceptions and behaviors both in traditional and online environments (e.g., Siomkos and Vrechopoulos 2002;Levy and Weitz 2004;Vrechopoulos et al. 2004;Griffith 2005). Krasonikolakis et al. (2010) report that store layout is a key factor influencing consumer behavior in 3D online environments, prompting further research in the 3D online retail context on how store design affects consumer behavior (Krasonikolakis et al. 2014;Kang 2017;). ...
... Exploiting store atmosphere theory and relevant research insights, we build our research model drawing primarily from research showing that in the 2D and 3D online contexts the design, atmospherics or layout of the selling outlet play a critical role in the way customers perceive various aspects of a store (Dailey 2004;Griffith 2005;Manganari et al. 2009;Lai et al. 2014;Krishnaraju et al. 2016;Barros et al. 2019;Xue et al. 2020b). These aspects include merchandise quality perceptions (Zeithaml 1988;Kerin et al. 1992;Baker et al. 2002;Ladhari et al. 2017;Lin et al. 2018;Vries et al. 2018), perceived usefulness (Lee et al. 2003;Vrechopoulos et al. 2004;Yang et al. 2019), perceived ease of use (Lightner et al. 1996;Vrechopoulos et al. 2004;Wei and Ozok 2005;Tandon et al. 2018), and overall store perception (Park and Kim 2003;Kim et al. 2007;Hewawalpita and Perera 2017;Loupiac and Goudey 2019;Byram 2021). Our model is based on store atmosphere theory (Manganari et al. 2009;Krasonikolakis et al. 2010), which asserts that offline and online store layout is an important component that influences consumer behavior. ...
... Exploiting store atmosphere theory and relevant research insights, we build our research model drawing primarily from research showing that in the 2D and 3D online contexts the design, atmospherics or layout of the selling outlet play a critical role in the way customers perceive various aspects of a store (Dailey 2004;Griffith 2005;Manganari et al. 2009;Lai et al. 2014;Krishnaraju et al. 2016;Barros et al. 2019;Xue et al. 2020b). These aspects include merchandise quality perceptions (Zeithaml 1988;Kerin et al. 1992;Baker et al. 2002;Ladhari et al. 2017;Lin et al. 2018;Vries et al. 2018), perceived usefulness (Lee et al. 2003;Vrechopoulos et al. 2004;Yang et al. 2019), perceived ease of use (Lightner et al. 1996;Vrechopoulos et al. 2004;Wei and Ozok 2005;Tandon et al. 2018), and overall store perception (Park and Kim 2003;Kim et al. 2007;Hewawalpita and Perera 2017;Loupiac and Goudey 2019;Byram 2021). Our model is based on store atmosphere theory (Manganari et al. 2009;Krasonikolakis et al. 2010), which asserts that offline and online store layout is an important component that influences consumer behavior. ...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing adoption of three-dimensional (3D) virtual reality technologies in business practices requires an interdisciplinary research approach to study their effect. In this paper we investigate the effects of different 3D online store layouts on user perceptions in the e-retailing context. We build on recent research on store atmosphere that classifies store layouts in 3D environments as “avant-garde”, “warehouse”, “pragmatic”, “boutique” and “department”. Reflecting the dual identity of individuals as both consumers visiting virtual stores and users interacting with graphical user interfaces, we employ key constructs from both the marketing and the information systems literature to build our research model. The study measures how Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Merchandise Quality Perception and Store Perception vary across the distinct store layouts. We employ a laboratory experiment in the apparel industry to test our model. Our results show that the layouts lead to different perceptions, although the consumers’ Shopping Motivation does not moderate this effect. Building on the differences found on store layout effects on user/consumer behavior in the 3D online context, the paper discusses relevant research and practical implications.
... 2.3.2. Store layout Store layout, referring to the store's merchandise presentation, is a crucial factor in store image creation [35]. This includes "doors, merchandise placement, shelf orientation, music, check-out counters, interior decorating, staff attitude, lighting and location of the loading facilities". ...
... This includes "doors, merchandise placement, shelf orientation, music, check-out counters, interior decorating, staff attitude, lighting and location of the loading facilities". Placing significant influence on in-store traffic, store atmosphere, shopping behavior and operating efficiency, a welldesigned layout is a critical element in building store success [31,35]. Many studies have been undertaken into specific elements of store layout and their roles in enticing customers to a shop; including color, atmosphere, music and light, merchandise and in-store convenience [31]. ...
Article
It is undeniable that convenience stores have expanded rapidly in the Vietnam retail market in recent years [1]. Convenience store chains such as Circle K, 7-Eleven, VinMart and B's Mart have been popular grocery shopping destinations for shoppers in Vietnam due to the busy modern life and the restricted time for shopping. Noticeably, Millennials with the tremendous spending power have become an important shopper group of the convenience store. This research goes to find out the Millennials' buying behaviour and the influential levels of factors including convenience, store layout, price and technology on different Millennial groups in this market.
... Several researchers have shown the positive relationship between store layout and consumer purchase intentions (Ainsworth & Foster, 2017;Baker et al., 1992;Merrilees & Miller, 2001). Also, store layout should be aligned with in-store operations such as shelf stocking to provide operational efficiency (Lewison, 1994;Vrechopoulos et al., 2004). Consequently, well-designed store layouts appeal to the customers and contribute to both product sales and store profitability (Cil, 2012). ...
... In the present work, we aim to satisfy these desired layout characteristics and rules by introducing them as constraints in our mathematical formulation. Vrechopoulos et al. (2004) identified three major layouts in conventional retail settings: grid, freeform, and racetrack. In grocery retail, we commonly encounter stores combining the grid and racetrack aisles as shown in Figure 1. ...
Article
It is well-established that increased product visibility to shoppers leads to higher sales for retailers. In this study, we propose an optimization methodology which assigns product categories and subcategories to store locations and sublocations to maximize the overall visibility of products to shoppers. The methodology is hierarchically developed to meet strategic and tactical layout planning needs of brick-and-mortar retailers. Layouts in both levels of planning are optimized considering eligibility requirements and complete set of shopper paths, thus, they successfully capture the unique shopping behaviour of consumers in a store’s region. The resulting mathematical optimization problem is recognized as a special instance of the well-known Quadratic Assignment Problem, which is considered computationally as one of the hardest optimization problems. We adopt a linearization technique and demonstrate via a real-world numerical example that our linearized optimization models substantially improve the store layout, hence, can be used in practical applications as a vital decision support model for store layout planning.
... Such associations influence marketing activities in retail spaces, where store layout, product positioning and shelf placement are critical determinants of consumer purchase behaviours (Desrochers & Nelson, 2006). Similar to conventional retailing, in online retailing, the virtual store layout can be a critical determinant of business success (Pizzi, Vannucci, & Aiello, 2020;Vrechopoulos, 2004). As an illustration, in the online world, a product's choice probability increases when it is presented on the screen prior to (above) subsequent products (Breugelmans, Campo, & Gijsbrechts, 2007). ...
... In-store or online, visual display elements determine the design of the retail space and thus are fundamental to layout and flow (Roggeveen, Grewal, & Schweiger, 2020). Akin to conventional retailing, in online retailing, the virtual store layout can be a critical determinant of business success (Pizzi et al., 2020;Vrechopoulos, 2004). In this regard, not only does the layout and content of the online store influence shoppers' positive/negative attitudes (Eroglu, Machleit, & Davis, 2003), but vertical (compared to horizontal and diagonal) displays have greater influence on browsing and purchase behaviours (Nordfält, Grewal, Roggeveen, & Hill, 2014;Septianto, Kemper, & Northey, 2020;Septianto, Northey, Chiew, & Ngo, 2020). ...
Article
Consumers describe luxury goods as “high-status” goods that are associated with the “upper class.” If these spatial metaphors are valid, then consumers should prefer luxury goods being positioned higher in the visual field in a consumer setting, which would be because of the psychological theory known as “processing fluency.” Fluency occurs when there is a congruence between two concepts, facilitating ease of processing and thereby liking. We test the effect of high (vs. low) spatial positioning for luxury goods in an online retailing context. Across three experiments, we observe that placing luxury goods higher on a website “matches” consumers’ lay associations about such items, with the positive feelings thereby transferring onto the luxury good. The findings demonstrate that locating luxury products at different heights in the visual field can influence product preference. In doing so, we build on existing theory concerning visual perception, spatial metaphors, and processing fluency.
... In virtual shopping, consumers would perceive the atmosphere of store layout though sensation. Vrechopoulos et al. [86] also suggest that the atmospheric of virtual store layout significantly affect consumer behavior, including the consumer action and their purchasing intentions. ...
... Also, Couture et al. [87] indicate that virtual web shopping environments could be developed by HTML, with the use of discrete perspective displays. Vrechopoulos et al. [86] suggest that with the use of virtual setting, difference layout of virtual store could result different spatial experience which could induce different consumer action and behavior. Tlauka et al. [88] conduct a research in virtual shopping center, and discover that there are no significant gender differences in spatial performance, including navigation and wayfinding. ...
... Several researchers have shown the positive relationship between store layout and consumer purchase inten-tions (Baker et al., 1992;Merrilees and Miller, 2001;Ainsworth and Foster, 2017). Also, store layout should be aligned with in-store operations such as shelf stocking to provide operational efficiency (Lewison, 1994;Vrechopoulos et al., 2004). Consequently, well-designed store layouts appeal to the customers and contribute to both product sales and store profitability (Cil, 2012). ...
... In the present work, we aim to satisfy these desired layout characteristics and rules by introducing them as constraints in our mathematical formulation. Vrechopoulos et al. (2004) identified three major layouts in conventional retail settings: grid, free-form and racetrack. In grocery retail, we commonly encounter stores combining the grid and racetrack aisles as shown in Figure 1. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
It is well-established that increased product visibility to shoppers leads to higher sales for retailers. In this study, we propose an optimization methodology which assigns product categories and subcategories to store locations and sublocations to maximize the overall visibility of products to shoppers. The methodology is hierarchically developed to meet strategic and tactical layout planning needs of brick-and-mortar retailers. Layouts in both levels of planning are optimized considering eligibility requirements and complete set of shopper paths, thus, they successfully capture the unique shopping behavior of consumers in a store's region. The resulting mathematical optimization problem is recognized as a special instance of the well-known Quadratic Assignment Problem, which is considered computationally as one of the hardest optimization problems. We adopt a linearization technique and demonstrate via a real-world numerical example that our linearized optimization models substantially improve the store layout, hence, can be used in practical applications as a vital decision support model for store layout planning.
... Indeed, one can argue that VR's immersiveness can favor individuals' recognition of the entire set of marketing stimuli that are typically displayed in a physical store environment (Van Kerrebroeck, Brengman, & Willems, 2017b), thus potentially improving the efficiency of the shopping experience (Serrano, Baños, & Botella, 2016). On the other hand, the greater cognitive efforts required to navigate the virtual space-which individuals are less familiar with compared to the physical environment-might mean that consumers pay less attention to the multiple stimuli displayed in the virtual environment (Vrechopoulos, O'Keefe, Doukidis, & Siomkos, 2004). However, the extant literature has not provided meaningful indications on whether VR favors or hinders people's recognition of the stimuli that characterize the store environment. ...
... Even though prior retailing studies have scarcely documented if and to what extent individuals are able to feel immersed in a VR retail store, previous literature has acknowledged that consumers attend to environmental cues when evaluating a store, believing that these cues offer information about product-related attributes, store experience, and store image (Baker, Parasuraman, Grewal, & Voss, 2002;Bitner, 1992). Accordingly, the store environment may also be an important element in virtual experiences (Vrechopoulos et al., 2004). Indeed, the sense of presence can be triggered by different means that do not imply a technological mediation, such as reading a book, watching a movie or playing a videogame (Coelho, Tichon, Hine, Wallis, & Riva, 2006). ...
Article
This research investigates whether consumers display similar brand perceptions between physical and virtual store environments. Specifically, it explores the set of causal relationships through which the virtual store experience affects consumers’ perceptions and intentions toward the retailer’s brand. The results from an experimental study manipulating the store environment (virtual vs. physical) reveal that individuals exposed to a virtual-reality-based retail environment perceive higher levels of presence than those exposed to a more traditional, physical store environment; moreover, this positive effect does not depend on individuals’ technological self-efficacy perceptions. Higher levels of presence positively affect the shopping experience, which then produces a positive change in value perceptions, which ultimately lead to higher patronage intentions and WOM referral. Despite the presence of inattentional blindness found in the virtual environment, the results show that such an image transfer from the store environment to patronage intention holds even when individuals cannot correctly recall the store brand.
... The internet users above all confirm the importance of finding the site navigable and the offer accessible. The design of the merchant website can be useful with search tools in the form of a grid or fun and easy to use with a free-form layout for internet users (Vrechopoulos et al., 2004). In this logic, a design allowing the freedom of arrangement of the sections and spaces of the site (site in tree versus site in tunnel) is able to stimulate positive responses among internet users (Pizzi et al., 2020). ...
... Source: Authors of the online experience. Experiential marketing research has attempted to examine immersion as a specificity of experiential environments (Disztinger et al., 2017;Vrechopoulos et al., 2004). The review of the marketing literature on the concept of immersion shows a conceptual vagueness similar to that of immersion, which has already been addressed and dealt with in the theories of human-machine interaction (Maravilla et al., 2019;Bouvier et al. 2014;Parés and Parés, 2006). ...
Chapter
The global pandemic of COVID-19 pushed the technological barriers and forced both retailers and potential customers to seek new ways of mutual interaction. Even though considered as mostly exclusive to the gaming industry, virtual reality has been gaining more interest outside its original niche. However, it is not clear how this new technology is going to be accepted by average customers in e-retail. This chapter focuses on defining the concept of virtual reality and providing an overview of aspects associated with virtual immersion. Further, the effects of virtual immersion are examined on a group of university students and put in a perspective with their intention to use this technology for shopping purposes in the future. The main emphasis is put on the comparison of hedonic and utilitarian factors of virtual reality adoption in e-retail.
... Krasonikolakis et al. (2018) stated that the layout is practical factor for consumer decision making process and it is major component of the for consumer to connect. The study by Vrechopoulos et al. (2004) observed that the freeform layout is significantly more useful in organizing consumers' shopping list in the online store. The study also noted that the grid layout is easier than the racetrack and the freeform layout formats, though the freeform layout is more entertaining. ...
Article
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With high speed internet, the retailers are continually engaged in upgrading mobile apps that facilitate shoppers in shopping anywhere-anytime and arousing their sudden urges to buy impulsively. The present study endeavors to decipher the antecedents of mobile app-based impulsive buying behavior and determining their relative significance in triggering impulsive urges. Using structural equation modeling, causal analysis was undertaken to identify the role of effort expectancy, price and discounts, atmosphere and layout of app, and user experience and satisfaction in creating impulsive buying intentions. It was observed that price and discounts and user experience didn't have any influence in stirring the consumer for impulsive buying. To determine the relative significance of remaining four, artificial neural network modeling was undertaken. Effort expectancy was noted to have highest influence in creating impulsive urges, followed by atmosphere and layout of an app. User satisfaction had minimum impact. The paper concludes with practical implications for m-commerce players.
... For instant, how a site is structured is the same as how a store displays. Vrechopoulos et al. (2004) proved that the design of a page influences how one behaves. When the site map is clear and users can find what they require, there is a greater chance that they will place an order. ...
... Further explorations in this context (Steuer, 1992;Schuemie, 2001) provide arguments in favour of the view that the two aforementioned variables constitute a telepresence, a key concept for the understanding of virtual experience. Virtual reality has already been used as a tool by test laboratories to obtain metrics to predict consumer behaviour in physical stores (Burke, 1996(Burke, , 2002Campo, Gijsbrechts, and Guerra, 1999;Vrechopoulos, Keefe, Doukidis, and Siomkos, 2004;Vrechopoulos, Apostolou, and Koutsiouris, 2009;Breen, 2009;Bigné, Llinares, and Torrecilla, 2016). ...
... For example, given that size is a functional characteristic, would experiential or emotional outcomes differ for browsers and not for searchers? Finally, how might perceptions of sound symbolism in names differ in the context of shopping in virtual reality, which does not necessarily replicate brick-and-mortar effects (Vrechopoulos et al., 2004)? ...
Sound symbolism – the ability of certain phonemes to evoke automatic, implicit associations or meanings – has been documented for a variety of consonants and vowels. However, to date, the literature has not documented shopping-related moderators of sound symbolism, and the role of sound symbolism in online retailing remains understudied. Thus, the present investigation extends the sound symbolism literature into the online retailing domain by investigating size-sound symbolism of online retailers' names and introduces a consumer's given shopping goal (searching versus browsing) as a key moderator of size-sound symbolic effects. The findings of four studies indicate that for names of online retailers, back vowels and voiced consonants lead to greater size perceptions of those retailers than front vowels and voiceless consonants. Further, the findings reveal that, compared to browsers, searchers utilize size-sound symbolism as a filtering heuristic, but the effect does not hold for browsers. Additionally, the findings show that size-sound symbolic effects can influence downstream consumer responses by linking size perceptions as a mediator to patronage intentions. Several implications for theory and practice emerge from the findings.
... For instant, how a site is structured is the same as how a store displays. Vrechopoulos et al. (2004) proved that the design of a page influences how one behaves. When the site map is clear and users can find what they require, there is a greater chance that they will place an order. ...
... That refers to how the different sections and aisles of a store are organized with the basic and simple objective of getting customers shop longer and buy more. Floor layouts are extremely important because they strongly influence in-store traffic patterns, shopping atmosphere, shopping behavior, and operational efficiency (Vrechopoulos, O'keefe, & Doukidis, 2004) ...
Article
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The evolution of visual merchandising brought about a new process of shopping. It is an art of presentation, which puts the merchandiser in focus. Visual Mechandizing includes different types of visual merchandising techniques. Visual merchandising is used in all the fields such as fashion, technology, accessories market and so on. It is today a lifeline of clothing retail stores because clothings have short product life cycles. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between visual merchandising and impulse buying among clothing retail consumers in Kurunegala district. Questionnaires which contained measures of impulse buying, window display, mannequin display, floor merchandising, promotional signage and cross merchandising were administrated among 400 consumers who resides in Kurunegala divisional secretariat area. The outline for analysis is reliability test for dependent and independent variables, descriptive statistic Pearson correlation test and finally, multiple linear regression analysis to illustrate the greater effect on impulse buying. The results of the present study showed that the mean value for the variables were high ie the score is more than 3.5. Correlation analysis showed that there were weak positive relationships (r = 0.104, 0.107, 0.211, 0.101 p< 0.05) between mannequin display, floor merchandising, promotional signage, cross merchandising and impulse buying while strong positive relationship (r = 0.729, p< 0.05) between window display and impulse buying. And it is proved that there is pivotal relationship between types of visual merchandising practices and impulse buying.
... It is found that store design is one of the important factors affecting consumer purchasing behavior and a critical determinant towards the creation of retail store image. Well-designed layouts are extremely important in retailing because they strongly influence in-store traffic patterns in the store, store atmosphere, purchasing operational efficiency, and behavior (Vrechopoulos et al., 2004). (Baker et al., 2002) argues that information that the customer obtains from store layout of a retail setting influence consumers' perceptions of service providers and helps consumers to categorize service firms accordingly. ...
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of retail store atmosphere on consumer purchasing behaviour at self-serving retail convenience stores in Ampara district. There are four contributing factors of store atmosphere are being identified, which are exterior, interior, design, social cues, while consumer purchasing behaviour is a dependent variable. Each of the store atmosphere attributes was tested to determine and measure the relationship with consumer purchasing behaviour. The questionnaires were filled by the respondents who already purchase products at self-serving retail stores for this quantitative research, a total of 300 respondents participated in the survey. The participating respondents represented a return rate of 97% after distributing the questionnaire directly to the respondents face to face. AMOS 23.0 and PSS 20.0 were used. Reliability and Validity test, EFA and SEM analysis was performed to test the hypotheses and model fit. As a result, atmospheric design factors have the greatest impact on purchasing behaviour followed by exterior and interior while the relationship between social cues and consumer purchasing behaviour was not significant. The results from our research are applicable for all self-serving retail stores in Ampara district, Sri Lanka
... Choose strategic layouts. The idea that product layout affects shoppers' perceptions is not new (see e.g., Morales et al. 2005;Norm, Farris, and Freeland, 1994;Vrechopoulos et al. 2004). Retailers have long known the manner in which products are displayed affects interest and purchase. ...
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The evolving retail landscape in the digital age has resulted in opportunities and novel capabilities for retailers. This paper identifies four key challenges facing retailers based on insights from practitioners and academics using the customer journey framework as a guide. It then considers evidence from both practice and theory on how contemporary retailers might best innovate in the face of these challenges, to get “the right message to the right shopper at the right time.” Historically, retail was largely constrained to focus on individual touchpoints as manufacturers drove the majority of communication decisions. More recently, with the ability of e-commerce to capture the shopper decision journey more comprehensively, retailers are better able to understand what the right message would be as well as where, when, and how to deliver it to reach the most responsive shoppers to achieve the retailer’s strategic objectives in each phase of the journey. It is within this context that this paper considers the following key challenges: 1) When is the right time to communicate with a given shopper?, 2) What is the right way to communicate with a given shopper?, 3) What is the right way to leverage in-store collateral?, and 4) How do we cultivate the right long-term relationship with a shopper?
... Further, the result would vary according to the retail store, such as a grocery store and apparel outlet. Apparel stores predominantly follow the freeform layout (Lewison, 1994;Vrechopoulos, O'Keefe, Doukidis, & Siomkos, 2004). Therefore, the study presumes the freeflow store layout to have a constructive effect on impulse buying among female customers. ...
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This paper intends to analyze the impact of store layout, ambient factors, and employ-ees on impulsive decision-making among female customers visiting the apparel out-lets. The responses were collected through a single-stage mall intercept survey method using a structured questionnaire from 385 respondents in leading apparel stores in selected Tier I and Tier II cities in the state of Karnataka, India. The responses were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Constructs such as store layout, ambience and employees were found to be significantly positively correlated with impulse buy-ing behavior. The variables largely explain the variation in impulse buying under store ambiance. Except ‘attention to the window display’ and ‘friendly staff ’ all other twelve variables considered in the study were found to have significant impact on the impulse buying behavior. Though store ambiance, well-structured layout, and pleasant shop-ping experience are essential determinants of customer satisfaction, the study results imply that the number of store staff and sales skills are critical aspects of impulse buy-ing in the apparel business and true assets to the retail organization. Additionally, poor customer interaction, staff shortage, and high employee attrition could discourage the store’s revenue generation.
... Further, the result would vary according to the retail store, such as a grocery store and apparel outlet. Apparel stores predominantly follow the freeform layout (Lewison, 1994;Vrechopoulos, O'Keefe, Doukidis, & Siomkos, 2004). Therefore, the study presumes the freeflow store layout to have a constructive effect on impulse buying among female customers. ...
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This paper intends to analyze the impact of store layout, ambient factors, and employees on impulsive decision-making among female customers visiting the apparel outlets. The responses were collected through a single-stage mall intercept survey method using a structured questionnaire from 385 respondents in leading apparel stores in selected Tier I and Tier II cities in the state of Karnataka, India. The responses were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Constructs such as store layout, ambience and employees were found to be significantly positively correlated with impulse buying behavior. The variables largely explain the variation in impulse buying under store ambiance. Except ‘attention to the window display’ and ‘friendly staff’ all other twelve variables considered in the study were found to have significant impact on the impulse buying behavior. Though store ambiance, well-structured layout, and pleasant shopping experience are essential determinants of customer satisfaction, the study results imply that the number of store staff and sales skills are critical aspects of impulse buying in the apparel business and true assets to the retail organization. Additionally, poor customer interaction, staff shortage, and high employee attrition could discourage the store’s revenue generation.
... With regards to the virtual layout and design, consumers prefer the freeform layout in finding their shopping list products. Even though the grid layout is easier than the freeform and the racetrack layout, the freeform stays to be the most entertaining (Vrechopoulos et al., 2004). As for the virtual atmospherics, color is the main factor to be studied which affects the consumer's response. ...
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... Retailers and organizations have been progressively keen to build their marketing propositions based upon senses that determine the consumer experience, to attract customers' attention and make the experience memorable [12][13][14]. The increased usage of sensory cues is mainly undertaken by organizations and retailers to provide product scent, background music, user interface designs, and so on [11,[15][16][17][18]. ...
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... Implications of ARM embedding for the broader marketing strategy are also not well understood. For example, Dent Reality which highlights products that match personalised search criteria can diminish the effect of physical affordances like store layout ( Pizzi and Scarpi, 2016 ) or eye-level shelf position ( Murray et al., 2010 ) potentially affecting how retailers structure their revenue models ( Vrechopoulos et al., 2004 ). Similarly, de-saturating colour from view of products that did not match a selection criterion (e.g., Chylinski et al., 2014 ), may affect the role of physical packaging displays potentially disrupting aided brand recall in the store ( Scholz and Smith, 2016 ;van Esch et al., 2016 ). ...
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... Store layout has a strong impact on in-store traffic patterns, shopping impressions, shopping atmosphere, and efficiency of retail operations. The store layout is also a critical factor in the creation of store image (Anic et al., 2010;Behera and Mishra, 2017;Vrechopoulos, O'Keefe, Doukidis, and Siomkos, 2004;Wu, Kim, and Koo, 2015). The success of store traffic management relies on the placement of supermarket brands within the retail market (Russell and Kamakura, 1997). ...
... Past studies suggest a positive influence of store layout on the behavior of customers in online contexts ( Mallapragada et al., 2016 ;Krasonikolakis et al., 2018 ). Customers in an online retail store recognize that the freeform design is considerably beneficial in finding products on their shopping lists ( Vrechopoulos et al., 2004 ). ...
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Nomenclatura Internacional de la UNESCO para los campos de Ciencia y Tecnología; CÓDIGOS: 530602, 530802, 531105, 531211. Este trabajo de investigación se centra en el estudio y análisis del comportamiento del consumidor y en como la experiencia del entorno / punto de venta, influye en sus decisiones de compra/consumo. Los antecedentes en los que se fundamenta proceden del área conocida como el “Shopper Marketing” , también el “Marketing Experiencial” e influencias más recientes del “Neuromarketing” Las cuestiones que se plantean en el mismo son relativas a los nuevos canales de compra virtuales que se han abierto al consumidor, y en concreto la vigencia y efectividad de elementos de estímulo a la compra que existen en el punto de venta físico (merchandising / ISD) cuando los trasladas a un canal de venta on-line. Se remarca en el estudio de investigación, que mientras que la experiencia de compra en un entorno físico siempre ocurre en un espacio tridimensional, sin embargo la práctica totalidad de los detallistas de comercio on-line (“e-tailers”) apuestan por una navegación 2D para sus tiendas en la web. El estudio de “mistery-shopper” planteado se centra en la categoría de productos “electrodomésticos” , que resulta de especial interés para este trabajo de investigación, dado que en una gran mayoría de los casos, los consumidores potenciales de electrodomésticos, prefieren utilizar los canales on-line como fuente de investigación para decidir sus comprar (Research On-line), pero finalmente realizar la compra/transacción en un punto de venta físico donde preferiblemente tengan en exposición el producto elegido previamente (Purchase Off-line). El papel de la denominada “webmosfera” y su impacto en la interactividad en un entorno virtual de gran realismo, se plantean en esta tesis doctoral, como una forma decisiva de mejorar la experiencia del consumidor virtual, gracias a la sensación de telepresencia que aportan estos elementos de merchandising virtual de presentación. Mediante un experimento controlado por ordenador se ha podido analizar y realizar estudios comparativos entre distintos formatos comerciales, incluyendo la experiencia de compra en entornos virtuales apoyada en técnicas de online mistery shopping entre otras. Tras la contrastación de las hipótesis inicialmente planteadas y su validación estadística mediante el sistema de regresión de los mínimos cuadrados parciales (PLS) para probar el modelo de investigación se presenta el modelo resultante donde se muestran imultáneamente múltiples relaciones entre construcciones latentes. Sirva como referencia del campo del estudio el siguiente “keywording” de común aceptación en la literatura especializada: Online retailing/shopping; consumer/purchasing behavior; mental imagery/intangibility; Gamification; Virtual worlds; Arousal; store/retail atmosphere: webmosphere; consumer stimuli; ISD (In Store Displays); merchandising; familiarity; sensory marketing; experience marketing; omnichannel/multichannel marketing; Channel congruency; Patronage: Perceived Amount of information, Perceived Risk; Shopper marketing; Retail; Brand experience, Telepresence, e-commerce, virtual merchandising, neuromarketing,
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Tüketicilerin geleneksel alışveriş süreçlerine kıyasla elektronik ortamda farklı alışveriş davranışları sergilediğini literatürde birçok çalışmada ifade edilen bir görüştür. Bu bağlamda, pazarlama disiplininin merkezinde yer alan bir kavram olarak memnuniyet algısının, tüketici davranışlarının değişim gösterdiği elektronik ortamda araştırılması büyük önem arz etmektedir. Bu çalışmada pazarlama yazınında yer alan memnuniyet ve e-memnuniyete ilişkin mevcut modeller incelendikten sonra, e-memnuniyet (elektronik memnuniyet) kavramının açıklanmasında bilişim sistemleri disiplininden de yararlanarak e-perakendecilik sektörü için genişletilmiş bir e-memnuniyet modeli önerilerek, söz konusu modelin geçerliliği test edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Araştırma bağlamında önerilen modelin test edilmesi amacıyla oluşturulmuş olan anket online olarak online alışveriş yapmış olan tüketiciler üzerinde uygulanmıştır. Toplam 795 analize uygun anket geri dönüşü olmuştur. Elde edilen veriler üzerinde tanımlayıcı istatistik analizleri, açıklayıcı faktör analizi ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ile güvenirlilik ve yapı geçerlilik yönünden sınanmakta ve yapısal eşitlik modeli ile test edilmektedir. Araştırma bulguları verilerin önerilen modeli desteklemekte olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Bulgular ışığında, elektronik ortamda müşteri memnuniyetinin belirleyicileri olarak ortaya çıkan 10 faktörün (rahatlık ve zaman tasarrufu, ürün çeşitliliği ve bilgi zenginliği, promosyon etkinlikleri, ürün yorumlama, müşteri ilişkileri ve teslimatın yerine getirilmesi, güven, algılanan risk, görsel unsurlar, e-işlem etkinliği ve eğlence) üç ana boyut altında (web sayfası etkinliği, algılanan fayda ve güvenlik algısı) özetlenebileceğini ortaya koymaktadır. Bu üç boyuttan web sayfası etkinliği ile güvenlik algısının görece olarak daha yüksek belirleyiciliğe sahip olduğu gözlenmiştir. Yine bulgular e-sadakatin en önemli belirleyicisinin e-memnuniyet olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır.
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This chapter discusses traditional and online atmospherics as a sport marketing strategy. Though with traditional retail roots, atmospherics have emerged as a strategy that may be utilized in the physical, online, and mobile sport environments. A comprehensive review of major traditional and sports atmospheric variables, online atmospheric variables including augmented and virtual reality, and applications to sport are discussed. In addition, the spectator experience cycle is introduced with atmospheric correlations. The purpose of the chapter is to explain why traditional and online atmospherics are important to the sport industry and to demonstrate how sport marketers may use physical, online, or mobile atmospherics to enhance spectator experience, increase loyalty, impact attitude, consumer choice, and impact purchase behavior. In addition, the chapter is meant to emphasize the importance of atmospherics to ultimately achieve sport promotional/marketing objectives. Finally, future research directions are recommended.
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Customer concentration inside a store is of pivotal importance for retail management, acquiring controversial contributions about the best number of consumers in the floor space to ensure an enjoyable and pleasant experience. Indeed, the excessive concentration of people (crowd) might discourage from shopping in that location, while on the other hand, a certain traffic to the store generates profit for retailers. The aim of this paper is to support retailers’ informed decisions by refining our understanding of the extent to which store layouts influences consumer density. To this end, we conduct a large field study using a unique dataset covering customers in a real grocery store with agent-based simulations. Results clearly show the extent to which this kind of simulations help predicting the changes in store layout able to affect customer density in the areas, while ensuring the same number of individuals.
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The layout of a store is an important aspect influencing consumer buying behaviour and a significant determinant in the formation of a retail image. Well-designed store layouts are critical because they have a strong influence on in-store movement designs, shopping environment, shopping behaviour, and operational productivity (Behera & Mishra, 2017). When there is inconsistency in the layout of the store, some clients will abandon that establishment in search of one that delivers faster, more convenient, and better services. Taking a more thoughtful approach to retail layout can pay huge returns in terms of higher sales, customer loyalty, and, ultimately, turnover (Clark, 2003). The overarching study goal was to determine whether independent convenience stores in Kwa Mashu are aware of the effects of store layout on consumer purchasing patterns. To achieve the study's aims, a quantitative study was undertaken at Kwa Mashu convenience stores using self-administered questionnaires. A total sample of 400 respondents participated in the study. Non-probability sampling was used to select the respondents, and convenience sampling was utilized. Following that, conclusions and recommendations were derived from the literature and the study's findings. According to the findings of this survey, consumers have issues with store layout. It was discovered that the appearance of the store, merchandise display, retail atmosphere, in-store service, and accessibility are the key contributors to this pain. As a result, it is recommended that convenience shop owners in Kwa Mashu attend to the above-highlighted areas and ensure that strategies are implemented to assist customers where there is a need.Keywords: consumer buying behaviour, merchandise display, merchandise mix, retail strategy, store layoutJEL Classifications: M3, M30, M31, M310 DOI: https://doi.org/10.32479/irmm.11583
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Abstract The study focusses on the store design and store environment of the garment retail stores situated in malls of Mumbai. For this purpose, observation checklist was used; layout and lighting measurements of the store were recorded. The findings of the study revealed that size of the stores and changing rooms were almost same. All the stores had a free flow store layout with adequate circulation spaces between racks except in one international brand store; the shelf height and rods were within the reach except in one Indian brand store that was little high, while clearances spaces between the shelves were adequate, but the clearance in-between the merchandises, rods and hangers was not adequate. The walls of all the stores had smooth finishes and painted in light colours and vitrified tiles, and vinyl was used for flooring. The trial rooms had better privacy in Indian stores, and the lighting levels in store were as per standards. Finally, it can be concluded that some of the design features like counter heights, privacy, clearances and efficient shelves spaces for easy accessibility needs to be considered. Keywords Design Garment store Shelves Lighting Clearances
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Assessed the extent of planning that occurred prior to entering a grocery store, in terms of product category and specific brand intent for toilet paper and coffee. Of 542 shoppers in 3 grocery stores approached during the study, 227 completed a personal interview and a self-administered questionnaire. The frequency of impulse purchasing for both toilet paper and coffee was very low (11.3 and 13.2%, respectively). The best predictors of the degree of planning were task-related factors such as frequency of purchase, strength of product preference, search time, and package examination. Brand loyalty had the greatest overall influence. Price also was a strong predictor, and it was especially influential for partial planners (those with category but no brand intent). Compared to impulse and planned purchasers, partial purchasers rated the brand decision as less important and had less attitudinal and behavioral commitment to the chosen brand. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The consumer interface, whereby consumers interact through the World Wide Web to transact consumer commerce, is a vital component of electronic commerce. We are attempting to understand this interface from a perspective that combines concepts from marketing, human–computer interaction and culture.We have conducted an extensive experiment comparing the reactions of subjects in the United Kingdom, United States and Hong Kong to web sites. We used the web sites for the automobile manufacturers VW, Ford and Toyota so we could vary the origin of the site. We used well-known constructs from advertising and marketing research to measure various aspects of the subjects and their reactions to the web site.Our basic finding is that there are fewer differences between subjects than have typically been observed by paper-based marketing experiments. There is no evidence that the origin of the site interacts with the individual. However, after performing a factor analysis on how subjects reported their purpose for using the Internet, we found considerable differences in purpose of use between US and Hong Kong subjects. American subjects are inclined to use the Internet for information search purposes, and the Hong Kong subjects are more inclined to use the Internet for social communication purposes. Further, in both countries there is a relationship between these purposes and subjects having their views on the product transformed.
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Using product assortment to gain a sustainable differentiation is becoming increasingly difficult in the current retail environment and is likely to become even more challenging as the importance of location continues to decline and the share of Internet-based retailing increases. Recent research, however, suggests that product assortment can play a key role, not only in satisfying wants, but also in influencing buyer wants and preferences. This article reviews and synthesizes empirical evidence indicating that (a) retailers can use the assortment subset that buyers consider to enhance the likelihood that a purchase will be made and to affect the specific option selected, (b) the manner in which the set of considered options are presented also affects buyer preferences and purchase decisions, and, (c) the effects of the considered options and presentation format interact with other elements of the marketing mix such as sales promotions. The implications of these findings for retailers, including ethical aspects of influencing buyer preferences, are discussed.
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Given the resources needed to launch a retail store on the Internet or change an existing online storefront design, it is important to allocate product development resources to interface features that actually improve store traffic and sales. We identified features that impact store traffic and sales using regression models of 1996 store traffic and dollar sales as dependent variables and interface design features such as number of links into the store, hours of promotional ads, number of products, and store navigation features as the independent variables. Product list navigation features that reduce the time to purchase products online account for 61% of the variance in monthly sales. Other factors explaining the variance in monthly sales include: number of hyperlinks into the store (10%), hours of promotion (4%) and customer service feedback (1%). These findings demonstrate that the user interface is an essential link between the customer and the retail store in Web-based shopping environments.
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yin comparing multiple products on the samescreen all have adverse effects on electronic shopping[2]. Can customers find what they want in the stores?Are customers aware of what products are available?After all, diligence in browsing a store is not a virtueretailers should expect from its online customers.We review online retail store attributes such as thenumber of links into the store, image sizes, numberof products, and store navigation features. By reviewingthe user...
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This paper deals with the use of strategic marketing planning for developing and sustaining competitive advantages in virtual retailing. It develops and presents a useful practical guide for the development of marketing plans by virtual retailers. The paper first examines the role of strategic marketing planning within an electronic commerce context. The notion of value creation in electronic marketing, the strategies for competitive advantage and positioning in retailing are analytically presented and the concept of the virtual retailing mix is then developed. The paper concludes with the step-by-step presentation of the stages of the marketing plan for a virtual retailer. The implementation of the marketing planning process and the development and execution of marketing plans, can help virtual retailers to sustain their competitive advantages.
The nature of retail service varies from personal service to the provision of greater ambience. Indeed, anything that adds value to the merchandise itself can be considered part of the service provided by the retailer. The focus of this paper is on that part of retail service that involves direct interactivity between the store and the customer. There are two main types of physical interactivity, namely personal service and store design and atmosphere. This paper aims to develop constructs of these two types of interactivity and analyse their impact on store loyalty. An extra dimension is added to this study by contrasting the role of service between superstores and traditional specialist stores in two retail categories. A key finding was that the major difference between the service provided by superstores compared to traditional specialist stores relates to store design and atmosphere. This leads to the suggestion that the recent wave of superstores has ushered in a new paradigm of retail service, one with elevated emphasis on self-service principles. A further finding was that store design and atmosphere was one of the more important determinants of store loyalty. The paper shows that superstores have revolutionised the nature of retail service, mainly by more effective configuration of self-service, mediated through store design. Yes Yes
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signing a large site requires collaboration between a team of UI professionals, and some UI will prefer to stay with their traditional role of software design rather than moving into the wild world of Web design. There are three possible solutions to the problem: . Make it possible to design reasonably usable sites without having UI expertise; . Train more people in good Web design; and . Live with poorly designed sites that are hard to use. The third option is not acceptable in my opinion. Unless the vast majority of Web sites are improved considerably, we will suffer a usability meltdown of the Web no later than the Year 2000, and most people will refer to the Web as "oh, yes, we tried that last year, but it was no good." Thus, we have to strive for a combination of the first two options: making it easier to design acceptable sites, and increasing the availability of staff who know how to do so. Making it easier to design usable sites will likely involve a combination of template
Retailing management
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Do retail store environment cues affect consumer price perceptions? An empirical examination
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Electronic shopping: How do customer interfaces produce sales on the internet
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