The evaluation of food hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices of food handlers’ in food businesses in Turkey

Health Sciences Faculty, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Baskent University, Bağlica Kampüsü, Eskişehir Yolu, Ankara 06530, Turkey
Food Control (Impact Factor: 2.81). 04/2006; 17(4):317-322. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.11.006


The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety issues among food handlers in Turkey, conducting face to face interview and administrating questionnaire. Of the 764 food handlers who responded, 9.6% were involved in touching or distributing unwrapped foods routinely and use protective gloves during their working activity. A majority of participants (47.8%) had not taken a basic food safety training. The mean food safety knowledge scores was 43.4 ± 16.3. The study demonstrated that food handlers in Turkish food businesses often have lack of knowledge regarding the basic food hygiene (critical temperatures of hot or cold ready-to-eat foods, acceptable refrigerator temperature ranges, and cross-contamination etc.). There is a immediate need for education and increasing awareness among food handlers regarding safe food handling practices.

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    • "As expected, previous participation in different food safety trainings (either organized by Ministry or other institutions) significantly influenced food safety knowledge output, as participants who had undergone some food safety training got 65%, compared to those who had no training at all, with knowledge scores of 59% (p<0.001). These results are in accordance with previous findings reported elsewhere (Baş et al., 2006; Gomes-Neves et al., 2011; Pichler et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate food safety knowledge among meat handlers in Serbian meat establishments along the meat chain, i.e. in slaughterhouses, meat processing plants and retail stores. Design/methodology/approach A structured, self-administrative questionnaire was designed and used to asses the level of food safety knowledge among handlers indifferent meat establishments. In total, 352 meat handlers were involved in this study, with 110 handlers from slaughterhouses (31%), 125 handlers from meat processing plants (36%) and 116 handlers from retail stores (33%). For each participant, the knowledge score was calculated by dividing the sum of correct answers by the total number of correct responses. Additionally, knowledge gaps among meat handlers were identified for each question across the three types of establishments (slaughterhouses, meat processing plants and retail stores). Findings The average knowledge score for all participants was 64%, whereas handlers from slaughterhouses and meat processing plants obtained significantly better scores (65% and 66%, respectively) than handlers from retail (60%, p<0.05). The knowledge score among all meat handlers was significantly associated with the age, education and previous food safety trainings. Results indicated that 57.9% meat handlers could identify that bacteria will readily multiply at 25°C, but they do not understand the manifestation of bacterial growth and incidence in food, as only 5.5% of all meat handlers knew that food contaminated with food poisoning bacteria cannot be recognized by visual, olfactory or taste checks. Originality/value This is the first research aimed to investigate the food safety knowledge among meat handlers in Serbia and also the first research performed to determine food safety knowledge among workers operating in different phases of the meat chain, namely meat handlers from slaughterhouses, meat processing plants and retail stores.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · British Food Journal
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    • "Ranges of questionnaires are available to investigate the knowledge and practice regarding food safety and health. These include Knowledge and Practice on Food Hygiene and Sanitation (Abdul-Mutalib et al., 2012), Food Hygiene Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (Bas et al., 2006), Food Sanitation Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior (Ko, 2011), Hand Hygiene Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Among Food Handlers at Primary Schools (Tan et al., 2013)and Food Safety Knowledge and Attitudes (McIntyre et al., 2012). However, the instruments used by previous study did not focus on food handlers at the school canteen, the "

    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2015
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    • "J. Food Sci. handling cooked or unwrapped foods, which is similar to findings from other studies in Turkey and Nigeria (Baş et al., 2006; Onyeneho and Hedberg, 2013). One study reported that 47% of food service chefs and managers had a lack of awareness that sick persons can spread foodborne illness (Onyeneho and Hedberg, 2013), and surveys of food vendors found that only 42% of workers in Nigeria (Olowogbon et al., 2012) and 23% in Ethiopia (Zeru and Kumie, 2007) had at least one medical examination per year. "
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    ABSTRACT: A longitudinal study was conducted to examine individual worker and institutional hygiene practices and bacterial contamination in food service facilities at Makerere Universities. Questionnaires regarding food service knowledge, attitudes, and practices were administered to 94 individual and institutional respondents from 16 facilities through in-person interviews. A total of 48 samples (3 per facility) were analyzed for evidence of contamination (total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella). Respondents with higher education levels had better knowledge and attitudes regarding food safety, but knowledge in specific areas were varied. The majority of individual workers used safe food handling practices, but the majority of institutions did not practice good environmental hygiene. The majority of food samples tested had APC and total coliform levels higher than acceptable, but only two tested positive for Salmonella. Food service worker training and managerial improvement of environmental hygiene are needed to improve food safety in these facilities.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
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