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Abstract

Job burnout has long been recognized as a problem that leaves once-enthusiastic professionals feeling drained, cynical, and ineffective. This article proposes two new approaches to the prevention of burnout that focus on the interaction between personal and situational factors. The first approach, based on the Maslach multidimensional model, focuses on the exact opposite of burnout: increasing engagement with work by creating a better “fit” between the individual and the job. The second approach draws from the decision-making literature and reframes burnout in terms of how perceptions of the risk of burnout may lead to suboptimal choices that actually increase the likelihood of burning out. These new approaches provide a more direct strategy for preventing burnout than typical unidimensional “stress” models because these new approaches (1) specify criteria for evaluating outcomes and (2) focus attention on the relationship between the person and the situation rather than one or the other in isolation.
... Many times, imbalance is a trigger. The worker feels that work demands are continuously high whilst resources to reach demands are low (Maslach & Goldberg, 1998). Conflict at work may also be noted to precipitate burnout due to unnecessary stress, apprehension and finally exhaustion (Maslach & Goldberg, 1998). ...
... The worker feels that work demands are continuously high whilst resources to reach demands are low (Maslach & Goldberg, 1998). Conflict at work may also be noted to precipitate burnout due to unnecessary stress, apprehension and finally exhaustion (Maslach & Goldberg, 1998). ...
... When a professional is in situations which are emotionally arduous and is not coping well with the stress for a long period of time, this usually results in burnout (Ekstedt & Fagerberg, 2005). In order to predict burnout, which is something chronic rather than acute, Maslach and Goldberg (1998) suggest looking at situational variables, rather than personal variables. Escudero-Escudero et al. (2020) state that BS can affect people on a personal level e.g., sleeping issues, on a cognitive-emotional level e.g., anxiety, and on a socio-familiar level e.g., increased family troubles. ...
Thesis
A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the Master of Health Systems Management and Leadership
... Stress, anxiety, depression, and academic underachievement are often associated with student burnout (Fimian & Cross, 1986;Herrmann et al., 2019;Jagodics et al., 2021;Salmela-Aro et al., 2009;Schaufeli et al., 2002). While the concept of burnout was first developed to explain specific symptoms of health care professionals due to job stress (Freudenberger, 1974;Maslach, 1982), its linkage to a broader occupational context was soon recognized (Maslach & Goldberg, 1998). Research has focused on identifying the professions threatened by burnout (Leiter & Schaufeli, 1996), such as teachers (Caroli & Sagone, 2012;Friedman, 1995;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014), and on exploring mechanisms that include the environmental, demographic, and psychological factors involved in the background of its development (Brouwers et al., 2011;Purvanova & Muros, 2010;Shen et al., 2015). ...
... Research has focused on identifying the professions threatened by burnout (Leiter & Schaufeli, 1996), such as teachers (Caroli & Sagone, 2012;Friedman, 1995;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014), and on exploring mechanisms that include the environmental, demographic, and psychological factors involved in the background of its development (Brouwers et al., 2011;Purvanova & Muros, 2010;Shen et al., 2015). These results have led to the development of possible intervention methods and the application of prevention techniques at workplaces (Awa et al., 2010;Maslach & Goldberg, 1998). Moreover, these findings contributed to the recognition of this serious issue, which has led the World Health Organization (WHO, 2019) to include burnout in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases as an occupational phenomenon, although it has not classified it as a medical condition. ...
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The demand-resource framework is widely used to predict burnout in occupational context. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the links of school demands and resources to student burnout. Six hundred and ninety-six Hungarian students from secondary schools participated in the data collection using online survey method in classrooms. Independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM) were utilized during the analysis procedure. Statistical analysis revealed gender differences in student burnout, with girls scoring higher on “inadequacy” and “exhaustion” scales. Correlation analysis showed resources to be linked positively with burnout (0.24 < r < 0.57), while demands were negatively associated (− 0.15 < r < − 0.65). SEM results demonstrated school demands and student burnout to be positively related, while resources and symptoms were negatively associated. The results supported the usefulness of the school demand–resource framework in the exploration of student burnout. The findings showed demands and resources indicate two opposite processes in the development of burnout. We discuss the findings in the context of possible intervention methods which should be further investigated in future research.
... Turkish version of the inventory was conducted by İnce and Şahin (consisting of 22 items and 3 dimensionsemotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal success). 25 The level of burnout is calculated by evaluating each score obtained from the subscales separately, rather than with a single score. Cronbach Alpha coefficient, calculated separately for each dimension, was 0.88 for emotional exhaustion, 0.78 for the depersonalization dimension, and 0.74 for the personal success dimension. ...
... Cronbach Alpha coefficient, calculated separately for each dimension, was 0.88 for emotional exhaustion, 0.78 for the depersonalization dimension, and 0.74 for the personal success dimension. 25,26 In the scoring key of the inventory, the emotional fatigue dimension has the highest score of 54, followed by the personal achievement dimension with 48 points and the depersonalization dimension with 30 points. In terms of personal achievement, the low-level burnout is the inverse of high scoring. ...
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Aim: Burnout syndrome is a major problem, especially among health care workers. The higher the sense of individual skills and achievement, the lower the likelihood of burnout syndrome. The objective of the study is to measure the level of burnout and job satisfaction of family physicians. Methods: Both data of the Family Physicians (FPs) who are working in rural and urban has been included in the study. The study is designed to measure their level of burnout and job satisfaction using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Minnesota Work Satisfaction Questionnaire. Their relationship with the working area and other factors is also analyzed. Results: Maslach depersonalization subscale was found to be significantly higher in those who lived alone, those who defined their location as rural, and those who did not participate in continuing medical education (CME) (p=0.02, p=0.01, p=0.03). While Maslach personal achievement score was low in those who define their location as rural (p=0.01) it was found to be higher in women and those who did not participate in CME (p=0.02, p=0.03). In addition, as age increases, Maslach emotional burnout and depersonalization scores decrease and personal success scores increase (r =-0.169,-0.205, 0.163 and p=0.00, p=0.00, p=0.00). Conclusions: Emotional and total burnout scores decreased with age, and that attending CME increased personal achievement. CME could be a beneficial tool not only to support FPs but also to prevent burnout. Özet Amaç: Tükenmişlik sendromu özellikle sağlık çalışanları arasında önemli bir sorundur. Bireysel beceri ve başarı duygusu ne kadar yüksekse, tükenmişlik sendromu olasılığı o kadar düşüktür. Araştırmanın amacı, aile hekimlerinin tükenmişlik ve iş doyum düzeylerini ölçmektir. Yöntemler: Çalışmaya kırsal ve kentsel alanda çalışan aile hekimlerinin verileri dahil edilmiştir. Çalışma, Maslach Tükenmişlik Envanteri, Minnesota İş Doyum Anketi kullanılarak tükenmişlik ve iş doyum düzeylerini ölçmek için tasarlanmıştır. Çalışma alanı ve diğer etmenlerle ilişkileri de incelenmiştir. Bulgular: Maslach duyarsızlaşma alt ölçeği, yalnız yaşayanlarda, bulunduğu yeri kırsal olarak tanımlayanlarda ve sürekli tıp eğitimine (STE) katılmayanlarda (p=0,02, p=0,01, p=0,03) anlamlı olarak daha yüksek bulundu. Maslach kişisel başarı puanı, bulunduğu yeri kırsal olarak tanımlayanlarda düşük (p=0,01) iken, kadınlarda ve STE'ye katılmayanlarda daha yüksek bulundu (p=0,02, p=0,03). Ayrıca yaş arttıkça Maslach duygusal tükenmişlik ve duyarsızlaşma puanları azalmakta ve kişisel başarı puanları artmaktadır (r =-0,169,-0,205, 0,163 ve p=0,00, p=0,00, p=0,00). Sonuçlar: Duygusal ve toplam tükenmişlik puanları yaşla birlikte azalmaktadır. STE'ye katılmanın kişisel başarıyı artırdığı görüldü. STE, yalnızca aile hekimlerini desteklemek için değil, aynı zamanda tükenmişliği önlemek için de yararlı bir araç olabilir. Anahtar kelimeler: aile hekimleri, tükenmişlik, iş doyumu. Geliş tarihi /
... One end of the work engagement spectrum could be the occupational burnout described by Maslach et al. with the other being the UWES scales (Spurgeon et al., 2008). The converse relationship between the UWES and burnout theory (Maslach and Goldberg, 1998) are shown in Table 1. While well-being, resilience and burnout are related to engagement they are polar opposite, with the former being experienced by the staff and the latter something that they can choose to exercise (Zhou et al., 2019). ...
... As a result, there has been a significant policy response focussed on improving the physical and psychological wellbeing of young doctors in Australia (NSW Ministry of Health, 2017). However, while burnout is related to engagement its focus is on exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy (Maslach and Goldberg, 1998). Medical engagement's attention to vigour, dedication and absorption (Schaufeli and Bakker, 2004) may offer more productive insights into how we develop junior doctors. ...
Article
Purpose: The study aims to assess medical engagement levels at two teaching hospitals and a 500 bed private hospital in two states operated by the same health care provider and to describe individual and organisational factors that influence and change medical engagement. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was emailed to all junior and senior medical staff, seeking responses to 30 pre-determined items. The survey used a valid and reliable instrument which provided an overall index of medical engagement. Qualitative data were also collected by including an open ended question. Findings: Doctors (n = 810) working at all sites are in the top 20-40 percentile when compared to Australia and the United Kingdom. Two sites in one state were in the highest relative engagement band with the other being in the high relative range when compared to the (UK) and the medium relative band when compared to sites in Australia. Senior doctors working at all three were less engaged on feeling valued and empowered, when compared to having purpose and direction or working in a collaborative culture. This appears to be related to work satisfaction and whether they feel encouraged to develop their skills and progress their careers. Junior doctors at 1 site are much less engaged than colleagues working at another. Since their formal training pathways are identical the informal training experience appears to be an engagement factor. Originality/value: Despite medical engagement being recognised as crucial, little is known about individual and organisational factors that support doctors to be engaged, particularly for juniors and in the private sector.
... Les travaux sur l'épuisement professionnel portent ainsi sur de nombreux aspects : sa compréhension, sa mesure et la mise en avant de ses conséquences, mais aussi sur sa prévention en tant qu'enjeu central dans le domaine de la santé mentale au travail (Maslach & Goldberg, 1998). De nombreuses études (e.g., Demerouti et al., 2002 ;Maslach & Goldberg, 1998) ont exposé les antécédents de l'épuisement professionnel ainsi que des moyens pour y faire face. ...
... Les travaux sur l'épuisement professionnel portent ainsi sur de nombreux aspects : sa compréhension, sa mesure et la mise en avant de ses conséquences, mais aussi sur sa prévention en tant qu'enjeu central dans le domaine de la santé mentale au travail (Maslach & Goldberg, 1998). De nombreuses études (e.g., Demerouti et al., 2002 ;Maslach & Goldberg, 1998) ont exposé les antécédents de l'épuisement professionnel ainsi que des moyens pour y faire face. Ces travaux ont conduit à des lois 2 (e.g., Loi n • 2016-1088) et à des accords interprofessionnels (e.g., ANI, 2020) réaffirmant la nécessité pour les entreprises de garantir la santé physique et mentale des travailleurs. ...
Article
Résumé Introduction La prévention de l’épuisement professionnel est un enjeu majeur pour les entreprises. Toutefois, elles n’ont pas toujours la possibilité d’avoir accès à des outils adaptés pour la mise en place de politique de prévention. Objectif Elle s’inscrit dans le projet de créer et de diffuser un questionnaire, adapté aux besoins des salariés, permettant de mesurer l’épuisement professionnel. Méthodologie L’étude a été diffusée en ligne auprès de salariés francophones (N = 680). Résultats Les résultats des analyses factorielles exploratoires et confirmatoires indiquent deux dimensions (épuisement et tensions interpersonnelles) ayant une cohérence interne élevée. Cette structure factorielle est confirmée auprès des hommes et des femmes ainsi que des travailleurs français et belges par l’intermédiaire d’analyses de l’invariance de la mesure. La validité de critère est vérifiée au regard des relations entretenues entre les scores aux dimensions de l’IFEP et ceux obtenus au MBI-GS, à la mesure de la volonté de quitter l’entreprise, à l’échelle d’évaluation de la santé subjective ainsi que le nombre de jours de congé maladie. Conclusion L’ensemble des résultats aux analyses réalisées dans cette étude montre des qualités psychométriques satisfaisantes de l’inventaire français de l’épuisement professionnel (IFEP), une nouvelle mesure de l’épuisement professionnel utilisable dans de nombreux contextes de travail francophones.
... .) and prescribe different procedures for the management of affect displays in various social settings, roles, etc.' (p. 75). 2. According to Maslach and Goldberg (1998), 'burnout is a type of prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job. It is an individual stress experience embedded in a context of complex social relationships, and it involves the person's conception of both self and others.' (p. ...
Article
Grounded in the Emotional Labour Theory, we aim to study the relationship between emotional demands (the expression of positive emotions and suppression of negative emotions) and work engagement in a sample of Portuguese police officers. We intend to explore the possible effects of these emotional demands on work engagement and ways of preventing and/or mitigating its impact. When analysing the studies conducted in the Portuguese police context, we found a gap regarding emotions and/or emotional regulation. Accordingly, a sample of 924 Portuguese police officers from the Public Security Police (PSP) answered the Emotion Work Requirements Scale and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale voluntarily. Through correlation and multiple linear regression, we found a relationship between these emotional demands toward different interpersonal interactions and work engagement. We discuss these results, providing suggestions for field intervention and clues for future research.
Conference Paper
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Background Academic burnout is a common issue that interferes with the role shift from nursing students to qualified nurses and aggravates a shortage of workforce in global healthcare system. According to the Areas of Worklife Scale, developed by Maslach and Leiter, there are six dimensions that encompass the major antecedents of burnout. Therefore, it's well worth an exploration to understand academic burnout and its' underlying mechanism based on the theoretical instrument. Specifically, academic burnout, professional attitude, academic self-efficacy and smartphone addiction were selected as observation variables after widely literature review. Objective The purpose of this study is to examine academic burnout and figure out the relationships between academic burnout, professional attitude, academic self-efficacy and smartphone addiction among nursing students. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting The study was conducted in a nursing department in Anhui province in eastern China. Participants 1445 nursing students. Methods Academic burnout, professional attitude, academic self-efficacy and smartphone addiction of participants were measured using online questionnaires with a supportive platform called “wenjuanxing”. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlations, and path analysis. Results Of all the participants, 44.26 % had a certain degree of academic burnout. Professional attitude and academic self-efficacy were negatively related to academic burnout. Smartphone addiction was positively associated with academic burnout. Meanwhile, academic self-efficacy and smartphone addiction partly mediated the effect of professional attitude on academic burnout. Conclusion The compound strategies targeted at boosting positive professional attitude, fostering academic self-efficacy, and controlling the smartphone addiction are warranted for decreasing academic burnout.
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It has been almost twenty years since the term "burnout" first appeared in the psychological literature. The phenomenon that was portrayed in those early articles had not been entirely unknown, but had been rarely acknowledged or even openly discussed. In some occupations, it was almost a taboo topic, because it was considered tantamount to admitting that at times professionals can (and do) act "unprofessionally." The reaction of many people was to deny that such a phenomenon existed, or, if it did exist, to attribute it to a very small (but clearly mentally disturbed) minority. This response made it difficult, at first, for any work on burnout to be taken seriously. However, after the initial articles were published, there was a major shift in opinion. Professionals in the human services gave substantial support to both the validity of the phenomenon and its significance as an occupational hazard. Once burnout was acknowledged as a legitimate issue, it began to attract the attention of various researchers. Our knowledge and understanding of burnout have grown dramatically since that shaky beginning. Burnout is now recognized as an important social problem. There has been much discussion and debate about the phenomenon, its causes and consequences. As these ideas about burnout have proliferated, so have the number of empirical research studies to test these ideas. We can now begin to speak of a "body of work" about burnout, much of which is reviewed and cited within the current volume. This work is now viewed as a legitimate and worthy enterprise that has the potential to yield both scholarly gains and practical solutions. What I would like to do in this chapter is give a personal perspective on the concept of burnout. Having been one of the early "pioneers" in this field, I have the advantage of a long-term viewpoint that covers the twenty years from the birth of burnout to its present proliferation. Furthermore, because my research was among the earliest, it has had an impact on the development of the field. In particular, my definition of burnout, and my measure to assess it (Maslach Burnout Inventory; MBI) have been adopted by many researchers and have thus influenced subsequent theorizing and research. My work has also been the point of departure for various critiques. Thus, for better or for worse, my perspective on burnout has played a part in framing the field, and so it seemed appropriate to articulate that viewpoint within this volume. In presenting this perspective, however, I do not intend to simply give a summary statement of ideas that I have discussed elsewhere. Rather, I want to provide a retrospective review and analysis of why those ideas developed in the ways that they did. Looking back on my work, with the hindsight of twenty years, I can see more clearly how my research path was shaped by both choice and chance. The shape of that path has had some impact on what questions have been asked about burnout (and what have not), as well as on the manner in which 2 answers have been sought. A better understanding of the characteristics of that path will, I think, provide some insights into our current state of knowledge and debate about burnout. In some sense, this retrospective review marks a return to my research roots. The reexamination of my initial thinking about burnout, and an analysis of how that has developed and changed over the years, has led me to renew my focus on the core concept of social relationships. I find it appropriately symbolic that this return to my research roots occurred within the context of a return to my ancestral roots. The 1990 burnout conference that inspired this rethinking took place in southern Poland, from which each of my paternal grandparents, Michael Maslach and Anna Pszczolkowska, emigrated to the United States in the early 1900s. Thus, my travel to Krakow had great significance for me, at both personal and professional levels.
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