Recycling as Appropriate Behavior: A Review of Survey Data from Selected Recycling Education Programs in Michigan

The University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1115 U.S.A.
Resources Conservation and Recycling (Impact Factor: 2.56). 06/1990; DOI: 10.1016/0921-3449(90)90022-V
Source: OAI


Data from surveys conducted by six separate recycling education programs funded under the Clean Michigan Fund are compared. The findings indicate that a strong pro-recycling attitude exists among the populations sampled with a significant percentage of respondents planning to increase their level of recycling in the future. To aid this increase in participation these data suggest that education efforts should focus on helping people become more familiar with the details of how to recycle. And finally, these data support the idea that efforts to promote waste reduction and recycling behavior should focus on non-monetary motives.

Download full-text


Available from: Raymond K De Young, Dec 29, 2013
  • Source
    • "Like many other environmental protection initiatives, sustainable waste management has to take place at the local level (Read, 1998). In other words, waste recovery requires the direct and active participation or engagement of other stakeholders, particularly general public (De Young, 1990; Lober, 1996; Barr, 2004). To stimulate community participation in waste recycling, understanding on what encourages people to recycle or discourages people from recycling is the first step. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Efficacy of waste recycling is closely associated with the environmental sustainability of a city. However, just like many other environmental protection initiatives, waste recycling requires stakeholder engagement to succeed. Exploring determinants of waste recycling behaviour helps policy-makers to formulate schemes to promote recycling effectively. While most literature has studied the factors affecting waste recycling in low-rise low-density housing, little ink has been spilt on the same in a high-rise high-density residential setting. In this paper, the determinants of the amount of recyclables collected in 122 private high-rise housing estates in Hong Kong are investigated, with the use of a set of aggregate data. Household income, age and institution of regular reward schemes were found to have positive relationships with the amount of recyclable collected. Despite the optimism among some scholars about more conveniently located waste drop-off facilities as a motivator for waste recycling, the analysis results of this empirical study suggest that a floor-based system of waste separation facilities is by itself not likely to be effective in promoting domestic waste recycling in high-rises. To tackle the contemporary waste problem for the city’s sustainable development, resorts should be made to more intensified environmental education and economic incentives.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Sustainable Development
  • Source
    • "Various studies have shown that perceived inconvenience and the actual personal efforts required reduce participation in recycling schemes (cf., De Young, 1990; Domina and Koch, 2002; Do Valle et al., 2004; Ewing, 2001). Accordingly, convenient recycling schemes (e.g. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Much previous research on recycling behavior has drawn heavily on models of personal and perceived social norms, as well as of personal attitudes, to explain recycling behavior. Although such models have received empirical support, the issue concerning discrepancies between norms, personal attitudes and an individual's behavior is yet to be resolved. Using battery recycling in Switzerland as a case in point, the present questionnaire-based research examines via regression analyses the relationship between self-reported recycling behavior and socio-demographic variables, attitudes towards ecologically positive waste disposal, trust in waste disposal authorities, specific knowledge concerning recycling, justifications for not participating in the recycling scheme, self-organization of recycling behavior, and level of battery consumption. It was found that recycling knowledge, self-organization of recycling, and disagreement with justifications for non-recycling were positively related to recycling behavior, while attitudes towards ecological waste disposal and trust in waste disposal authorities were not directly related to respondents’ self-reported battery recycling behavior. On the basis of these results, with reference to Sykes and Matza's Neutralization theory [Sykes GM, Matza D. Techniques of neutralization: a theory of delinquency. Am Sociol Rev 1957:22(6):664–70] a contextualized model of recycling behavior is proposed. This model is able to account for inconsistencies between personal attitudes and perceived social norms, and has practical implications for the design of public intervention strategies for enhancing participation in the recycling.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · Resources Conservation and Recycling
  • Source
    • "Other intrinsic motivations include factors such as locus of control, personal satisfaction derived from being environmentally responsible, general satisfaction from providing wildlife habitats or participating in a regional conservation program, and the psychological attachment to a cause—in our case, declining bird populations). Motives such as these can strongly stimulate conservation behavior ( Jacobs & Crews 1984; De Young 1986; Oskamp et al. 1991; Pieters 1991; Kempton et al. 1992; DeYoung et al. 1993). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To enhance efforts to conserve birds, especially insectivorous species, we examined the social dimensions of conventional and organic farming in northern Florida (U.S.A.). Using a framework for the adoption of agricultural innovations, we developed a 44-item survey instrument to measure farmers' sociodemographic background, farm characteristics, participation in social organizations, communication and information networks, and perceived barriers and incentives to adopting bird-friendly practices. Seventy-six surveys were completed, with a response rate of 84% for organic farmers and 60% for conventional farmers. The population of conventional farmer was composed of more males who were older, less educated, and earned a greater income than organic farmers. Conventional farms were on average 20 times larger than organic farms and grew less than half the varieties of crops. These two factors correlated with higher agreement with statements that a considerable amount of money is spent on pest management and that leaf-eating insects cause considerable damage. Fewer conventional than organic farmers scouted for pests daily, an important component of integrated pest management. Almost all farmers (95%) reported recognizing most of the bird species on their farms. More organic farmers (31%) than conventional farmers (12%) reported more than 30 bird species on their farms. Farmers' overall willingness to attract birds to their farms was not correlated with economic or noneconomic incentives and barriers to adopting bird-friendly practices, such as current costs of pest management, experience with bird damage to crops, and farmers' knowledge of insectivorous birds and birds on their farms. Innovations in current farming practices that could enhance bird populations should be disseminated through existing social networks and media channels identified in this paper.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2003 · Conservation Biology
Show more