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Effects of warm white, cool white and full-spectrum fluorescent lighting on simple cognitive performance, mood and ratings of others

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Fluorescent illumination has become common, but its alleged effects on behavior are still controversial. This experiment was designed to determine whether warm white, cool white, and full-spectrum fluorescent spectra at approximately equal illuminances differentially affect performance on simple verbal and quantitative tasks, salary recommendations, rated attractiveness and friendliness of others, judged room attractiveness, estimated room size, and self-reported pleasure and arousal. The results showed no significant differences among the three lighting types on any of the dependent measures. A subsequent power analysis indicated that if differences actually do exist, they are quite small. Cool white or warm white lamps are recommended because they are much less expensive than full-spectrum lamps.
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... In ground environments, some literature suggests that colour temperature has an important effect on human cognitive abilities and emotion. Higher colour temperatures (≥4000 K) approximate blue-white light and are often referred to as cool colours, while lower colour temperatures (≤3000 K) approximate red light and are referred to as warm colours [20,21]. Several studies have shown that warm colours (3000 K) significantly induce negative emotions when humans are engaged in cognitive tasks, compared to cool fluorescent lights (4000 K) [21,22]. ...
... Higher colour temperatures (≥4000 K) approximate blue-white light and are often referred to as cool colours, while lower colour temperatures (≤3000 K) approximate red light and are referred to as warm colours [20,21]. Several studies have shown that warm colours (3000 K) significantly induce negative emotions when humans are engaged in cognitive tasks, compared to cool fluorescent lights (4000 K) [21,22]. Besides, two studies comparing the effects of fluorescent and LED light sources of different colour temperatures showed that LED light sources significantly reduced participants' fatigue and enhanced cognitive performance, especially at higher colour temperatures [23,24]. ...
... Besides, two studies comparing the effects of fluorescent and LED light sources of different colour temperatures showed that LED light sources significantly reduced participants' fatigue and enhanced cognitive performance, especially at higher colour temperatures [23,24]. Furthermore, other studies have found an effect of colour temperature on physiological performance and subjective emotion [21,25,26]. Extensive studies have found that CCT affects human thermal comfort, particularly in enclosures similar to spacecraft, and some studies have shown that people feel warmer and more comfortable under yellow light than under blue light. ...
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... e.g. 21,[26][27][28][29][30]34,70 This practice can help identify unusual behaviours-or a mismatch between the experimental stimulus and standardized characterization of the stimulus-before an experiment begins, and is generally valuable when reporting the results. If the customized measures are substantially different from the standardized measures, using the experimental results to establish generalized criteria with the standardized measures is less reliable. ...
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