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Abstract

Probing of the semiotic significance of gift exchange behaviors has recently been resumed. The symbolic exchange value of the gift is especially amenable to investigation via ethnographic methods and projective techniques. In this paper, negativity and ambivalence in gift exchange, a theme derived from a comparative ethnographic study of two midwestern American gift stores, are refined and elaborated through projective analysis. What emerges is a more balanced and comprehensive account of gift giving than presently available in the literature of consumer-object relations. Gift giving and receiving engender high levels of anxiety among consumers. Gifts create and exacerbate interpersonal conflict. They are frequently used as weapons, and consumers' responses to them are carefully canalized. The ways in which negativity is managed by donors and recipients are examined. Consumers, victims of sentiment and symbolism, are found to be entrapped in rituals and enjoined by cultural ideology from expressing discontent in most ways except fantasy. The impact of such fantasy on gift giving, and its relevance for marketers, is explored in this article.

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... Research on gift failure has focused largely on the reasons for such failures (Givi and Galak, 2017) and the emotional responses aroused by wrong gifts, such as frustration, anger, embarrassment and hurt (e.g., Sherry et al., 1993). As this literature and the opening quotation indicate, receivers need to cope with such emotions (Ruth et al., 1999), with their effects on subsequent interactions , or their relationship (Sherry, 1983) with the giver. ...
... A gift failure occurs when a gift does not meet the recipient's expectations (Roster, 2006) and thus fails to achieve its intended goal of pleasing the receiver (Roster and Amann, 2003;Sherry et al., 1993). A gift becomes a failure only after it reaches the hands of the receiver (Sinardet and Mortelmans, 2005) causing disappointment or dissatisfaction . ...
... Recent research suggests that gift mistakes are not always an accident as sometimes givers knowingly choose something suboptimal, as giving a better gift would make them feel less satisfied with their own possessions (Givi and Galak, 2019). From the receivers' perspective, gifts may fail when receivers have high gift expectations, feel obliged to reciprocate the gift (Lowes et al., 1968), perceive that givers take pity on them by giving a generous gift (Sandstrom et al., 2019), push relationship boundaries (Ruth et al., 1999), or have not made an effort Sherry et al., 1993). ...
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Purpose This paper aims to examine coping approaches used by receivers to deal with failed gift experiences, thereby dealing with misperceptions between givers and receivers that could affect their relationship. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a sequential, multimethod methodology using background questionnaires, online diary method and 27 semi-structured interviews. Findings Receivers cope with failed gift experiences through concealing, disclosing or re-evaluating the gift experience. These approaches encompass several coping strategies, allowing receivers to deal with their experiences in ways that help them manage their relationships with givers. Research limitations/implications Informants described gift experiences in their own terms without being prompted to talk about coping, thus some insights of coping with failed gifts may have been missed. Multiple data collection methods were used to minimise this limitation, and the research findings suggest new avenues for future research. Practical implications The present research helps retailers and brands to minimise gift failure by promoting gifts that emphasise aspects of the giver–receiver relationship, assists givers in their learning from gift failure by making them aware of the receiver’s preferences and reduces the cost of gift failure by offering further opportunities to dispose of unwanted gifts. Originality/value This paper contributes to the emerging topic of consumer coping by providing a novel and rounded understanding of coping in the context of failed gift events, identifying new reasons for gift failure, highlighting receivers’ ethical considerations when responding to failed gifts and proposing new insights for the coping literature.
... Jungian psychology, in the early 1980s, received a daughter 62 in Process Oriented Psychology, or Processwork as it is more generally called. Founded by Dr Arnold Mindell and elaborated upon subsequently by many associates, it 'extends the Jungian concept of the unconscious and the methods of Gestalt practice. ...
... Christmas is a time of heightened consumerism and anxiety, in which complex social relationships (that range from love to reluctant tolerance to almost open enmity) are negotiated through gift-giving and the fetishisation of gifts: we are trapped in rituals we do not enjoy, and blackmailed into giving gifts that come not from the soul, but merely from our pockets. 62 The gratitude towards the cosmic event of a God becoming flesh is replaced by a sacralisation of commerce. 63 A time that should uplift the believer's soul rather darkens it. ...
Chapter
This essay illustrates the spiritual malaise caused by our current mode of production, and its attendant culture of consumerism and competition, in order to make a case for a political critique of capitalism that points out the spiritual damage it causes. It does so by discussing the type of desire produced by capitalism, unending and unquenchable; the atheism inherent in the idea of self-made men, and the radical irresponsibility of those whose minds are captured by wealth. In order to discuss these topics, reference is made to the concept of plutoxia (intoxication by excess wealth), the tale of Erysichton in Ovid’s Metamorphoses, the idea of God in Spinoza, the nature of the demonic in the 4 Gita, and F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. The essay also includes, as an example, a brief discussion of what the US far-right has called the War on Christmas, which argues that progressives should take the spiritual malaise that is behind this idea seriously. Finally, a few indications of how spirituality can be included in the public sphere by progressives are outlined.
... "Gift giving studies acknowledge that gift exchange is embedded in a social context" (Lowrey et al., 2004, p.547). This social context sometimes makes givers experience several negative feelings such as anxiety, pressure, and fear of making a mistake (Sherry, McGrath, & Levy, 1993). ...
... "Os estudos sobre o ato de presentear reconhecem que a troca de presentes está inserida em um contexto social" (Lowrey et al., 2004, p.547). Esse contexto social faz com que os presenteadores experimentem vários sentimentos negativos, como ansiedade, pressão e medo de cometer um erro (Sherry, McGrath, & Levy, 1993). ...
Article
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Objective: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how individuals resolve a conflict between reciprocity and social norms when choosing the price of a gift, and to investigate whether gift exchanges conducted in public or private and people’s appreciation for past gifts play a moderating role in this decision.Method: We ran two web-based survey experiments.Main results: Results showed that when people must choose between reciprocity and social norms, people tend to be reciprocal. However, there are some exceptional circumstances: people preferred to follow social norms when they received a cheaper gift in public, and when they were displeased with a prior expensive gift.Contributions: These findings help shed light onto how people make price decisions when choosing a gift.Relevance/Originality: Understanding price decisions in the gift-giving context is surprisingly an underexplored topic in the marketing literature.Managerial Implications: Understanding how people make price choices is important to practitioners. For instance, retailers can adjust their assortments to offer products across different price ranges, and sales people can make better offers to customers based on how much they are willing to spend.
... Carrier stresses the ideological nature of such gifts and reflects on the tensions that this ideology conveys, e.g., "How can the giver freely give in a relationship of mutual obligation?" (Carrier, 1990, p.22). McGrath et al.'s (1993) participants classified 'perfect gifts' as wanted, needed, deserved, appreciated, rigorously selected, difficult to find, and surprising. These overlap Belk's (1996a) properties of the 'perfect gift', namely, sacrifice, altruism, luxury, appropriateness, surprise, and delight. ...
... "The one gift that did make a difference was when I was a kid and my Mum Despite suspecting that her mother probably didn't quite like the earrings she offered her, Veronica still believes that the gift is the 'best gift ever' because it symbolically marked the beginning of her transition from childhood to adulthood. This further demarks the 'best gift ever' from the 'perfect gift', which is suited uniquely to the receiver (Belk, 1996a;Sherry et al., 1993) and fulfills a receiver's desire (Choi et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Scholars and practitioners often consider the ‘perfect gift’ to understand the qualities of the most cherished gifts or to encourage givers to choose such gifts. Whilst useful, this represents a utopian view of gift-giving. This study explores the concept of ‘best gift ever’ through 35 in-depth interviews in order to understand the properties of significant gifts as defined by givers and receivers. Findings reveal that the ‘best gifts ever’ are often associated with unforgettable and life-changing experiences. These properties are compared with those of the ‘perfect gift’ to produce an integrative framework for truly special gifts. Specifically, this paper: 1) identifies the properties of ‘best gifts ever’ as distinct from ‘perfect gifts’; 2) uncovers insights into the ‘perfect gift’ beyond the existing conceptualization; and, 3) integrates the ‘best gift ever’ and the ‘perfect gift’ into a unified framework capturing what makes a gift successful.
... Utilitarian consumer behavior is described from a functional or task-related standpoint and may be thought of as accomplishment of "work" (Babin et al., 1994). Consumers derive UV when the shopping mission or tasks are accomplished efficiently (Sherry et al., 1993). Later research established that consumption can take place for hedonic reasons too (Hirschman and Holbrook, 1982;Lim and Ang, 2008). ...
Conference Paper
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In this study we propose that the value provided by an online shopping site will impact the loyalty of online shoppers. However, we also suggest that the utilitarian value provided by the site will have a higher impact on the consumers’ repetitive shopping at the site when compared with the hedonic and social values. However, once the utilitarian value is provided at a satisfactory level both hedonic and social values provided by the shopping site will have a higher impact on consumer loyalty. We test this model with actual online shoppers and found overall support for the model. These findings have useful implications for sellers in designing and upgrading their shopping websites.
... A variety of factors motivate deliberate inaccurate preference prediction. For example, givers are motivated by aggression, hostility (Orgel and Shengold 1968;Pollak 1964;Schwartz 1967), manipulation and attempts to gain power (Poe 1977). Still further, gifts may be given to impose an unwanted identity upon a recipient (Schwartz 1967;Sherry 1983;Sherry et. al. 1993). Particularly in close but insecure relationships accurate prediction may be a threat. For instance, it may be best to inaccurately predict preferences when accurate prediction would be distasteful and there is a desire for a continued relationship (Ickes 1993). ...
Article
Gift buying in the United States is a billion-dollar business that has implications for brands, retailers, marketers and consumers. This research contributes to our understanding of gifts that cause dissatisfaction and complaining. In particular, the situation in which gift givers intentionally purchase unwanted gifts and recipient's reactions to them are examined. This study employs two methods of data collection: 1) phenomenological in-depth interviews and 2) netnography of an online community. The scholarly contributions of this study are twofold. First, the research lends support for the idea that inaccurate gift preference prediction is not always a mistake and is often a deliberate act. The second contribution of this study is the extension of consumer gift-giving and gift receiving knowledge by the development of the taxonomy of five types of deliberate inaccurate gift preference prediction: 1) threats to self-concept, 2) to you-for me, 3) aggression, 4) ritual and obligation, and 5) bragging rights.
... However, when they restrict sharing information with a small group of service providers, this possibility decreases. By sharing personal information with other people, people feel privacy risks (Acquisti & Grossklags,2005;Balaji, Khong, and Chong 2016;Kim & Kim, 2014) because the presence of third parties increases anxiety (Sherry, McGrath, and Levy 2013;Shmargad & Watts, 2016;Wooten, 2000). Determining information-sharing boundaries by setting linkage privacy control options decreases their anxiety. ...
Article
Despite the diverse benefits of smart home Internet of Things (IoT) services, the biggest obstacle to the actual usage of those services is concern about privacy. However, little research has investigated the impact of privacy control on users' intention to use smart home services. Based on communication privacy management theory and privacy calculus theory, this study investigates how privacy control options affect users' perceived benefits and costs and how those perceptions affect individuals’ intentions to use smart home services by conducting an experiment. Our results showed that smart home privacy control options decreased perceived benefits and increased perceived costs. The perceived benefits and costs significantly affected the intention to use smart home security services. More intriguingly, the effect of perceived benefit was found to be stronger than that of the expected cost. This research contributes to the field of IoT and smart home research and provides practitioners with notable guidelines.
... Utilitarian consumer behavior is described from a functional or task-related standpoint and may be thought of as accomplishment of "work" (Babin et al., 1994). Consumers derive Utilitarian Benefits (UB) when the shopping mission or tasks are accomplished efficiently (Sherry et al., 1993). Later research established that consumption can take place for hedonic reasons too (Hirschman and Holbrook, 1982;Lim and Ang, 2008). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study we suggest that the value (benefits-costs) provided by in-store or online shopping outlet will impact shoppers’ purchase decision. We test the proposed hypotheses by tracking purchases of actual shoppers and found support for them. The findings have implications for both online and in-store shopping outlets.
... Utilitarian consumer behavior is described from a functional or task-related standpoint and may be thought of as accomplishment of "work" (Babin et al., 1994). Consumers derive UV when the shopping mission or tasks are accomplished efficiently (Sherry et al., 1993). Later research established that consumption can take place for hedonic reasons too Lim and Ang, 2008). ...
Article
In this study we assess the various values—utilitarian, hedonic and social—provided by online and instore shopping outlets and their impact on shopper outcomes such as the choice of outlets, loyalty to the outlet and purchase behavior. Building on existing literature in the domain we propose the characteristic aspects of values derived by shoppers in online versus instore shopping formats and their distinctive impacts on the psychology and behavior of shoppers. We test the hypotheses with data from actual online and instore shoppers and find that as expected online shopping provided higher utilitarian value to shoppers and instore shopping provided higher hedonic and social values. Further, as expected, these values impacted shopper behavioral and psychological outcomes in complex ways. While in general shoppers preferred online outlets, they demonstrated greater loyalty for instore outlets. Further, the purchase to visit ratio was found to be higher in instore than in online shopping. These findings have useful implications for retail outlets—online as well as instore.
... Tüketici araştırmaları literatüründe bazı çalışmalar, alışverişin bir "vazife" veya "iş" olarak görülebilecek tarafına odaklanmışlardır (bkz. Fischer ve Arnold, 1990;Sherry, McGrath ve Levy, 1993). Diğer bazı çalışmalar ise alışverişin bir "deneyim" ve "eğlence" boyutuna odaklanmışlardır (Bloch ve Bruce, 1984;Hirschman, 1984;Sherry, 1990). ...
Article
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This study aims to shed a light on the question ‘to what degree shopping centers are continuation of Ottoman bazaars?’ by comparing two major shopping places of two different eras from various angles. To this end, locations, architecture, functions and management practices of the two shopping places are compared using related literature in economics. It is obvious that two shopping places have similarities as well as differences. Similarities seem to be the results of their economic functions. Differences, on the other hand, stems mainly from the differences in the economic environments in their time periods. The main functions that shopping centers perform are the same as historical bazaars’. Therefore, the theories in the shopping centers literature explaining the existence of shopping centers are, also, able to explain the existence of historical bazaars.
... However, what is hidden underneath the seemingly affirmative bonding process is the sense of indebtedness as a result of the obligation to give something in return creating a state of reciprocal bondage, which can be seen as the 'irrational, self--centered, and calculating aspects of the dark side of the gift' (Sherry, McGrath, and Levy, 1993). The 'contractual systems' that the concept of gift can hide is similar in respect to the hidden power structures in the collaborative approaches of art making. ...
Thesis
This PhD research explores the artists’ book as a process of cooperative art making. The practice-­‐based research considers the relational potentials of the artists’ book – an artwork in a book form – through three library-­‐focused social art projects. Each of the projects examines the book as a social medium by employing different participatory processes in the making and sharing of artists’ books. The relational potentials of the artists’ book provide for a more cooperative form of social art practice, where exchange with others is founded on the willingness to share rather than on reciprocal obligation. The research question considers how the relational and social capacities of the artists’ book extend our thinking around authorship and relationality in social art practice. The art projects are founded on the idea of the library as a ‘gathering together’ (Derrida, 2005, p.7). This is set against the general understanding of the library to be an important and valued social space. The idea of the library is illustrated through the participatory process of the ‘library’ coming together as the artists’ books are made and shared. The forming of the ‘library’ also exemplifies the process of ‘shared action’. Tom Finkelpearl suggests ‘shared action’ (Finkelpearl, 2013, p.343) complicates the conventional notions of authorship by defining the aesthetic experience as ‘the modesty of power relations’ (ibid., p.348). The shift from a collaborative to cooperative social art situation asks for a more gentle form of art making where people come together to share what they can, rather than forcefully creating a non-­‐hierarchical environment. The research brings together a constellation of ideas around books, artists’ books, social art practice and libraries. The theory of the gift and gift exchange in anthropological studies provide useful perspectives on attitudes of generosity, reciprocity and sharing that allow us to reflect on the relational potentials of the artists’ book and cooperative art making. The research findings will be of most interest to artists’ book researchers and makers, social art practitioners, researchers of social and participatory art practice and art librarians.<br/
... From the utilitarian viewpoint, shopping motivation includes procuring the product or completes the task of shopping (Batra and Ahlota 1991;Babin et al. 1994). In case of utilitarian motivation, shopping begins with tasks and benefits achieved from completing that task (Batra and Ahlota 1991;Sherry et al. 1993;Babin et al. 1994). The utilitarian motivation is characterized by saving time, one-stop shopping place, lower cost of products and ability to choose from a wide range of products (Sheth 1983). ...
Article
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Evolution of the internet has generated enough scope for marketspace in the past 10–15 years. This digital reform in the way businesses are conducted has generated a need to reexamine the factors influencing purchase intention in the context of the online platform. This paper provides an understanding of the designing of marketspace and purchase behavior in the context of most vulnerable digital natives—millennials. Data collected from Indian millennials were subjected to regression analysis, ANOVA and t-test. Findings reveal that millennials are using marketspace rationally and seeking functionality in their purchase with skepticism towards privacy. Also, marketspace should be designed keeping in mind its functionality rather than emphasizing on fun element of marketspace. Marketers who have designed their marketspace and invested in look and feel may need to motivate millennials to consider it as a deterministic attribute.
... It is rather interesting to note from these findings that utilitarian software product appeared to benefit the most from the interaction effects of different types of value on brand loyalty. Deriving functional benefits from products and services is represented in consumer behavior studies by the themes of consumption behavior "as work" (Babin et al., 1994;Fischer and Arnold, 1990;Sherry et al., 1993) versus the more enjoyable aspects of consumption behavior "as fun" (Babin et al., 1994;Lageat et al., 2003). Perhaps the tedium of work aspects (UV) of software product use is alleviated by the fun aspects of HV and social benefits of SV. ...
Conference Paper
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In this study, we investigate the salience of providing utilitarian, hedonic and social features on brand loyalty of three different types of software products-Flow (a utilitarian software), SnowRunner (a computer game) and TikTok (a video sharing social networking software). We found that while the focus on providing primary value is important, diversifying the features to provide secondary values such as hedonic and social values in utilitarian software had a significantly higher impact on brand loyalty due to the multiplier effect. Statement of Contribution This findings of this study empirically demonstrate that users are loyal to products that are useful, exciting and also socially engaging. Therefore, product managers should diversify features that provide all three types of values HV, UV and SV rather than specializing only on the one pertinent to the product type as the various values have additive as well as multiplicative effect on brand loyalty. 2
... Utilitarian consumer behavior is described from a functional or task-related standpoint and may be thought of as accomplishment of "work" (Babin et al., 1994). Consumers derive UV when the shopping mission or tasks are accomplished efficiently (Sherry et al., 1993). Later research established that consumption can take place for hedonic reasons too (Hirschman and Holbrook, 1982;Lim and Ang, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of social (or symbolic) value of shopping is well researched in in-store shopping literature. However, although the utilitarian (functional) and hedonic (emotional) value of shopping has been investigated before, there are relatively very few studies that investigate the social value of on-line shopping. In this study we propose that the social value may be relevant even for on-line shoppers and will impact their shopping intentions. We test this contention with actual on-line shoppers and find that they do derive social value from on-line shopping and that the social value does significantly impact their shopping behav- ior. These findings have useful implications for sellers in designing and upgrading their shopping websites.
... One of these techniques is to provide better recreational facilities and activities for the shopper. Although shopping may be a task, and a passive, uninteresting and uninvolving obligation for many people (Cho and Workman, 2014;Fischer and Arnold, 1990;Sherry et al., 1993), many consumers see shopping as an interesting, involving and emotional experience (Compeau et al., 2016;Jin and Sternquist, 2004;Triantafillidou et al., 2017). Nicholls et al. (2000) report that consumers in the USA visit malls for diverse reasons, largely revolving around entertainment. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a broader typology and inventory of recreational facilities and activities in shopping malls. The paper then investigates the relation between the proposed entertainment types and shopper behavior both directly and indirectly by considering the mediation of shopper emotional states. Design/methodology/approach A survey-based study with a sample size of 484 mall shoppers is used to test the proposed model. Findings The results indicate that permanent entertainment predicts shopper satisfaction directly and indirectly when considering the emotional state of pleasure as a mediator. Moreover, findings indicate that permanent entertainment indirectly influences the desire to stay at the mall through pleasure and arousal. In addition, pleasure mediates the relation of temporary and special event entertainment with satisfaction and the desire to stay at the mall. Practical implications This study adds to a better understanding of the role of entertainment types in shopping malls. The study also reveals how each type of entertainment can enhance different emotions and behaviors. Practical suggestions to this end are offered. Originality/value There is a lack of studies taking into consideration the different types of entertainment in shopping malls. This study is among the first to examine the effects of each entertainment type on specific behavioral responses. Moreover, the study addresses the mediating role played by shoppers’ emotional states on the impact of entertainment types in satisfaction and desire to stay at the mall.
... Kılıçer vd., (2016) hediye satın alma davranışında kadınların erkeklere göre daha meyilli olduğu sonucuna ulaşmıştır. Sherry (1993) insanların hediye seçerken genellikle hediye alacakları kişi ile akrabalık dereceleine göre seçim yaptıklarını tespit etmiştir. Günümüzde insanların birbirine karşı gösterdikleri saygı ve değerin satın alınan ticari bir ürünle ölçülür hale geldiği görülmektedir (Ateş, 2013:3). ...
Article
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Bu çalışmanın amacı, özel günler için yapılan harcamaların tüketici bütçesindeki yerini tespit etmek ve özel günler için satın alınan üründe aranan niteliklerin demografik özelliklere göre değişiklik gösterip göstermediğini ortaya koymaktır. Özel günler için satın alınacak bir üründe erkeklerin markaya, kadınların ise modaya uygunluğa önem verdiği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Benzer şekilde, gençlerin markaya, orta yaş ve üzerindekilerin ise modaya uygunluğa önem verdikleri belirlenmiştir. Gelir seviyesi yükseldikçe satın alınacak üründe kalite arayanların oranının yükseldiği, ayrıca kadınların erkeklere nazaran özel günlere daha duygusal baktıkları tespit edilmiştir. The purpose of this study is to determine the place of special days expenditures within the consumer budget and to show whether the qualifications sought in products purchased for special days vary according to demographic characteristics. Obtained results for a product purchased for special days have shown that, men attach importance to brand and women attach importance to modality. Similarly, it has been determined that young people attach importance to brand but middle aged and above to fashion suitability. It has been found that as the income level increases, the proportion of quality seekers increases, and women look more emotional to special days than men.
... At the macrolevel, such gifts create deadweight losses in the economy (Waldfogel, 1993) and reinforce outdated social norms (Sherry, 1983). At the individual level, research has likewise illuminated a less rosy view of gift giving (Sherry et al., 1993), demonstrating that givers sometimes feel negative emotions when choosing gifts (Cheng et al., 2020;De Hooge, 2014, 2017Givi & Galak, 2017;Wooten, 2000) and possess conflicting preferences, mindsets, or motives compared to recipients' own (Aknin & Human, 2015;Baskin et al., 2014;Cavanaugh et al., 2015;Chan & Mogilner, 2017;Gino & Flynn, 2011;Givi & Galak, 2017;Goodman & Lim, 2018;Paolacci et al., 2015;Polman & Emich, 2011;Steffel & LeBoeuf, 2014;Ward & Broniarczyk, 2016;Yang & Urminsky, 2018; for a review, see Galak et al., 2016). In complement to these findings, our studies point to a unique case whereby giving even a "good" gift can have negative consequences for an interpersonal relationship. ...
Article
Full-text available
How people choose gifts is a widely studied topic, but what happens next is largely understudied. In two preregistered studies, one field experiment, and an analysis of secondary data, we show that giving gifts has a dark side, as it can negatively affect subsequent interpersonal behavior between givers and receivers. In Study 1, we found that giving a gift to one's romantic partner changes givers' interpretation of which behaviors constitute infidelity. Specifically, we found that givers (vs. nongivers) classified their questionable behaviors (e.g., sending a flirtatious text to someone other than their partner) less as a form of cheating on their partner. In Study 2, we examined how politely participants behave when delivering bad news to a friend. We found that givers (vs. nongivers) wrote significantly less polite messages to their friend. In Study 3, we tested real gifts that people give to friends and found givers (vs. nongivers) subsequently made more selfish decisions at their friends' expense. In all, our research refines the oft‐cited axiomatic assumption that gift giving strengthens relationships and illuminates the potential for future research to examine how decision making can alter interpersonal, romantic relationships.
... This study did not specify how giver and receiver are related when considering gift-giving through the apps. This relationship can affect the type and appropriateness of the gift, as well as the rituals, cultural convention, and norms involved in gift-giving (Larsen and Watson 2001;Sherry et al. 1993). Future studies should consider various relationships (e.g., friendship, business, and parent-child) and cultures. ...
Article
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Service sector companies, like cafes and convenience stores, have introduced applications (apps) that permit customers (givers) to gift beverages to their acquaintances (receivers), who redeem the gift at a convenient outlet. Using social capital theory, affective forecasting theory, and hedonic-utilitarian duality, this study investigates adoption and (continual) use of gift-giving apps. The partial least squares analysis on 223 giver-users and 335 giver-non-users showed that bonding and bridging social capital encourage giver-non-users to use the apps. Bonding social capital encourages giver-users to continue using the apps. Additionally, giver-non-users and giver-users view the apps as hedonic and utilitarian, respectively.
... Shopping is portrayed as work from a utilitarian perspective, the sense that consumers emphasise buying goods in a fruitful and simple means to attain goals (Griffin, et. al, 2000;Sherry, et. al, 1993;Fischer and Arnold, 1990). Utilitarian values are rational and concerned with completing a mission or achieving a goal; they represent the fact that consumers purchase products out of need rather than desire (Scarpi, 2011). It demonstrates how consumers buy out of necessity professionally and thoughtfully (Babin et all, 1994). Consumers ...
Article
Constructed upon female consumers' buying behaviour, this research study investigates the interrelationship of flow experience, hedonic values, utilitarian value, purchase intention and consumer buying behaviour. This study examines the role of purchase intentions as mediation and elaborated the study with the theoretical background of flow theory and consumer value theory. This study was conducted in the beauty & grooming industry, sampling 705 working women consumers of Pakistan and data was analyzed through SEM using Smart PLS. The findings supplement the creation of positive aspect in buying behaviour rather than letting consumer cashed by their psychological state and companies' tactics. Keywords: Flow Experience, Hedonic Value, Utilitarian Value, Purchase Intention, Consumer Buying Behavior
... Motivasi utilitarian menunjukkan bahwa belanja dimulai dari misi atau tugas dan manfaat yang diperoleh. Tugas atau misi akan dikatakan sukses tergantung pada apakah misi selesai atau tidak, atau apakah misi selesai secara efisien selama proses (Batra & Ahtola, 1991;Sherry et al., 1993). ...
Article
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Tujuan paper adalah untuk memberikan kerangka kerja konseptual penelitian empiris tematis tentang perilaku adaptif konsumen (adaptive shopper) dalam menyesuaikan kebijakan physical distancing dari pemerintah selama masa pandemic covid 19 untuk melakukan belanja online dari rumah. Kerangka kerja koseptual diusulkan dengan mengajukan variabel motivasi berbelanja online yang sudah ada berupa motivasi utilitarian, hedonic dan faktor situasional. Kontribusi paper ini yaitu memasukkan variabel moderasi hubungan antara motivasi berbelanja dengan niat berbelanja online, yaitu tipe shopper journey dari konsumen yang beragam. Dalam model konseptual diungkap ada empat tipe shopper journey yang relevan muncul pada masa physical distancing yaitu classical journey, required journey, entertainment journey, dan oursourced journey.
... Consumer motivation is related to problem-solving or searching for arousal and sensory stimulation (Hirschman & Holbrook, 1982). This dichotomy has been studied in the shopping context as related to work (Fischer & Arnold, 1990;Sherry et al., 1993) or fun (Babin et al., 1994;Bloch & Bruce, 1984;Sherry, 1990). ...
Article
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This study aims to understand how utilitarian features of a mobile application moderate purchase motivations and intentions among users and non-users. Taking a case of cinema ticket purchase in the Iranian context, this study has collected empirical data through a questionnaire from 240 respondents. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze data. Motivational variables were grouped into four groups: functional motivations, convenience-based functional motivations, product motivations, and service motivations. In addition, the gender issue of the consumer was also considered. This study finds that such motivational factors significantly affect consumers' motivations, both male and female consumers. Analysis on gender shows no significant differences among male and female consumers. Therefore, these factors should be considered in formulating marketing communication strategy and media management, especially for non-users. Further research should consider other motivational factors, such as hedonic motivations, attitude, and situational factors, to understand consumer behaviors comprehensively.
... Moreover, Harman's Single Factor test was conducted for both samples, where calculated variance for the single factor was within the suggested value (<50%), confirming the absence of significant method bias (Podsakoff et al., 2003). We also assumed respondent fatigue to be minimum considering (1) respondents' spontaneous participation was ensured by explicitly asking their willingness to participate in the survey, (2) responses were collected at respondents' most convenience (home or office) with an online questionnaire (Sherry et al., 1993) and (3) the number of measurement items was fairly concise (Anselmsson et al., 2017), allowing respondents to complete the survey within a reasonable short time. ...
Article
Purpose-End-of-life electronic products exchange (EEPE) program could be an effective approach to e-waste recycling that requires consumers' participation. Thus, it is highly recommended to study factors stirring consumer behavior with regard to EEPE programs, which is largely under-explored in the existing literature. Hence, grounding on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Attitude-Behavior-Context (A-B-C) model, this study attempts to understand the determinants of consumers' EEPE intention by adding contextual and non-cognitive factors to the proposed research model. Design/methodology/approach-Employing a purposive sampling technique, respondents were drawn from university students and general consumers of electronic products in a developing country. Factor analysis, structural equation modeling (SEM) and SPSS PROCESS were used to analyze the collected data. Findings-Empirical results confirm that subjective norm has the strongest positive impact on EEPE intention. Following this, attitude toward EEPE and perceived behavioral control play positive mediating roles in determining EEPE intention. Moreover, government initiatives moderate the unsolicited "attitude-intention gap". Practical implications-Drawing on this study's outcomes, the study urges to form comprehensive awareness-building campaigns, rules and regulations regarding proper e-waste management, promote "exchange offer" programs and educational programs to encourage EEPE. Originality/value-This study makes two fresh contributions to the extant literature. First, by coupling the TPB and A-B-C theory, this study showed that both attitude (i.e. attitude toward EEPE) and context (i.e. government initiatives) are essential in eliciting individual-level post-consumption pro-environmental behavior (PEB) (i.e. EEPE). Second, government initiatives elucidate the attitude-intention gap in the reverse logistics context, especially in developing countries.
... A study of The Rough Mile, a locative experience designed to give and receive music tracks, included a broadly similar account of a gift backfiring (Spence et al., 2017). Indeed, everyday gifting is a socially important and complex phenomena that consequently comes loaded with risks for losing face, both for the giver due to an ill-judged gift and the receiver arising from an ill-judged response (Sherry et al., 1993;Sunwolf, 2006). ...
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We reflect on two museum visiting experiences that adopted the strategy of interpersonalization in which one visitor creates an experience for another. In the Gift app, visitors create personal mini-tours for specific others. In Never let me go, one visitor controls the experience of another by sending them remote instructions as they follow them around the museum. By reflecting on the design of these experiences and their deployment in museums we show how interpersonalization can deliver engaging social visits in which visitors make their own interpretations. We contrast the approach to previous research in customization and algorithmic personalization. We reveal how these experiences relied on intimacy between pairs of visitors but also between visitors and the museum. We propose that interpersonalization requires museums to step back to make space for interpretation, but that this then raises the challenge of how to reintroduce the museum's own perspective. Finally, we articulate strategies and challenges for applying this approach.
Conference Paper
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In this study, we empirically validate Aaker’s (2009) conjecture that providing multiple benefits is more effective than provid- ing fewer benefits in the context of software products. While it is reasonable to expect this outcome, we further suggest that the effect of functional, emotional and symbolic value on consumers’ level of brand attachment as measured by the brand loy- alty will be more than a sum of the impacts of these values. We predict both additive and multiplicative effects of the various values on brand loyalty. The findings of an experimental study with 204 users of software products support this contention and have useful implications for branding of software products.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how informativeness and entertainment, two important online store characteristics, influence consumers’ approach behaviors. The current research also investigates the mechanism and boundary condition behind these relationships. Design/methodology/approach The study proposed a conceptual framework that included five variables to understand consumers’ approach behaviors toward online stores. By surveying 307 Chinese online shoppers using a comprehensive questionnaire, the authors collected data that were then used to test the hypotheses. Data were examined using regression analysis. Findings The results showed that online store informativeness and entertainment significantly affected consumers’ approach behaviors. In the relationship between these two online store characteristics and consumers’ approach behaviors, pleasure played a mediating role. Hedonic value moderated the effect of informativeness on consumers’ approach behaviors. However, the moderating role of hedonic value was not significant in the relationship between entertainment and consumers’ approach behaviors. Originality/value The present study supplements the research on online store characteristics based on the perception of overall online store environmental cues. This paper also examines the online shopping experience of consumers in emerging markets like China.
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This research explores the effect of gift–image congruence on the recipient's gift appreciation, and the moderating effects of intimacy and the recipient's relationship dependence in romantic relationships. The results show that gift-recipient image congruence has a positive effect on the recipient's gift appreciation, while the effect of gift-giver image congruence on gift appreciation is insignificant or even negative in Chinese and non-Chinese samples. For both Chinese and non-Chinese samples, the intimacy and relationship dependence of recipients attenuate the negative effect of gift-giver image congruence and the positive effect of gift-recipient image congruence on the recipient's gift appreciation. This research advances our understanding of what gifts and under what circumstances gifts are appreciated by recipients. Theoretical contributions to the gift-giving literature and practical implications are discussed.
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Increasingly, researchers have come to acknowledge that consumption activities entail both utilitarian and hedonic components. Whereas utilitarian consumption accentuates the achievement of predetermined outcomes typical of cognitive consumer behavior, its hedonic counterpart relates to affective consumer behavior in dealing with the emotive and multisensory aspects of the shopping experience. Consequently, while utilitarian consumption activities appeal to the rationality of customers in inducing their intellectual buy-in of the shopping experience, customers’ corresponding emotional buy-in can only be attained through the presence of hedonic consumption activities. The same can be said for online shopping. Because the online shopping environment is characterized by the existence of an IT-enabled web interface that acts as the focal point of contact between customers and vendors, its design should embed utilitarian and hedonic elements to create a holistic shopping experience. Building on Expectation Disconfirmation Theory (EDT), this study advances a research model that not only delineates between customers’ utilitarian and hedonic expectations for online shopping but also highlights how these expectations can be best served through functional and esthetic performance, respectively. Furthermore, we introduce online shopping experience (i.e., transactional frequency) as a moderator affecting not only how customers form utilitarian and hedonic expectations but also how they evaluate the functional and esthetic performances of e-commerce sites. The model is then empirically validated via an online survey questionnaire administered on a sample of 303 respondents. Theoretical contributions and pragmatic implications to be gleaned from our research model and its subsequent empirical validation are discussed.
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Hybrid gifting combines physical artefacts and experiences with digital interactivity to generate new kinds of gifts. Our review details how gifting is a complex social phenomenon and how digital gifting is less engaging than physical gifting for both givers and receivers. Employing a Research Through Design approach, we developed a portfolio of four hybrid gifting experiences: an augmented advent calendar; edible music tracks; personalized museum tours; and a narrated city walk. Our reflection addresses three concepts: hybrid wrapping where physical gifts become wrapped in digital media and vice versa; the importance of effortful interactions that are visible and pleasurable; and the need to consider social obligation, including opportunities for acknowledgement and reciprocation, dealing with embarrassment, and recognizing the distinction between giving and sharing. Our concepts provide guidance to practitioners who wish to design future gifting experiences while helping HCI researchers engage with the concept of gifting in a nuanced way.
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Shoppers report that 39% of their holiday gift-purchases are for someone “picky.” However, despite the ubiquity of shopping for picky people, little research has examined how people choose gifts for picky people. In the present research, we define the “picky gift recipient” as someone perceived to have narrow and unpredictable preferences, and we show how shopping for someone picky alters gift giving behavior. We find that although gift giving norms prescribe that gift givers spend effort, time, and money on gifts to strengthen their social ties, an exception to this rule occurs when a gift recipient is picky. When shopping for someone picky, givers believe that increasing their resources on a gift will not result in greater recipient-satisfaction with the gift itself—a lay belief that ultimately demotivates givers, causing them to spend fewer resources on picky people (even picky friends). That said, we find that consumers are more willing to spend money on superficial gift-features for picky people, such as professional wrapping, to “dress up” their gifts. Based on this preference, we developed and tested a novel promotion strategy that retailers could implement to recoup some of the lost spending by consumers who are shopping for picky people. In all, this research contributes to the literature on gift giving dynamics, and provides insights more broadly into how shoppers negotiate the burden of shopping for someone whom they anticipate will not like their choice.
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Based on the value they provide to the users software products have been traditionally classified as utilitarian or hedonic. However, in this cross-disciplinary study, we introduce another category of software products called social products i.e. those which provide symbolic value to its users. However, we also suggest that these three types are archetypes. In reality, most software products are hybrid. They provide differing magnitude of all three values: Utilitarian, Hedonic and Social. We use the different levels (high, medium and low) of these three values to classify products as predominantly Utilitarian, predominantly Hedonic, predominantly Social and five types of Hybrids. This classification of products was tested and offers a fresh perspective into how users view different products in terms of the value they provide to them. Additionally, the findings of the study provides insights which can be used by software product managers to evaluate software product positioning and to develop suitable product development strategies.
Article
Traditionally software products have been classified as utilitarian or hedonic based on the value they provide to the users. In this cross-disciplinary study, we introduce another category of software products called social products i.e., those which provide symbolic value to its users. However, we also suggest these three types of software products are ideal types. In reality, most software products are likely hybrid. They provide differing magnitude of all three values: Utilitarian, Hedonic and Social. We use the different levels (high, medium, and low) of these three values to classify products as predominantly Utilitarian, predominantly Hedonic, predominantly Social and five types of Hybrids. This classification of products offers a fresh perspective into how users view different products in terms of the value they provide to them. The insights from the study can be used to assess software product positioning and to develop suitable product development strategies.
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Purpose In social networking services gift giving, the decision to send a gift is often initiated by spontaneous news about others, who may have recently experienced fortune or misfortune. The purpose of this paper is to show that the valence of the other’s event can affect the empathy experienced by the giver and that the level of empathy affects gift selection behavior. Design/methodology/approach Study 1 investigated the relationship between empathy and valence of other’s event and the underlying mechanism of changes in self-esteem. Study 2 explored how different levels of empathies lead to different gift selection behavior. Study 3 replicated the results of Study 2 using a different measurement approach. Findings Across the three studies, findings consistently suggest that the empathy arising from unexpected news of the others’ fortune was lower compared to that of the others’ misfortune because of threats to self-esteem. In addition, greater empathy prompted gift givers to spend more time and effort in gift selection. Practical implications Understanding how valence of event experienced by others might motivate givers to engage in selecting a gift online can help retailers increase predictive insights for recommendations. Originality/value While past research focused on ritual gift giving, this research examined spontaneous gift giving. The study is also unique in that the empathy gap between the giver and the receiver is a result of the changes in the psychological state of the giver.
Article
When a gift is given from a giver to a recipient, there is often an expectation that the recipient will reciprocate, for example, during the winter holidays. However, recipients do not always have gifts to return to their givers for such “reciprocatory occasions.” They might be unaware beforehand, for instance, that the giver will be giving them one. This research examines whether givers accurately assess how uncomfortable recipients feel when they fail to reciprocate a giver’s gift for a reciprocatory occasion. Several studies demonstrate that givers severely underestimate how uncomfortable recipients feel in such situations. This occurs in part because givers feel less strongly than recipients that the actions of the two parties imply an imbalance in appreciation. Moreover, in part because of this forecasting error, givers give gifts more often than recipients prefer when it is known before a reciprocatory occasion that a recipient would be unable to reciprocate.
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Driven by the ubiquity and strong context dependence of mobile app use, Internet companies are in a race of cross-industry expansion to build a seamless ecosystem incorporating various contexts. This paper offers several insights on improving app use in the era of mobile Internet. In contrast to PC Internet, in addition to hedonic and utilitarian states, we uncover a novel social state that is prevalent but transient, indicating mobile users have a fundamental need for frequent light-social activities. Thus, one strategy to increase use is to enrich an app’s social components, specifically on light-social functionalities. In addition, our results show that app use interdependence is the strongest under the hedonic state. This indicates the strategic value of boosting current app use is the highest in the hedonic state, providing guidance to companies on better spending of their limited marketing resources. Furthermore, we show that these internal states are interdependent of each other and their dynamic is affected by contextual factors that are distinct in the mobile context. Thus, companies should put more weight on tailoring their engagement strategies under different contexts in the ear of mobile Internet than the traditional PC context.
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Schenken ist ein allgegenwärtiges Phänomen und ein bedeutender Wirtschaftsfaktor. Allein das Weihnachtsfest als wichtigster Konsumanlass für Geschenke beschert dem Einzelhandel in Deutschenland einen Milliardenumsatz. Dazu kommen Geschenke zu verschiedenen traditionellen Gelegenheiten wie Geburtstag und Hochzeit, Vater- und Muttertag sowie kommerziell erfundenen Geschenkanlässen wie dem Valentinstag. Doch Schenken ist nicht nur ökonomisch, sondern auch psychologisch von außerordentlicher Bedeutung. Denn die uns das ganze Jahr und lebenslang begleitenden Schenkprozesse des Gebens und Nehmens haben ambivalenten Charakter. Einerseits sind sie freiwillige Akte, die starke positive Emotionen wie Freude und Dankbarkeit auslösen. Andererseits gilt für sie eine Fülle von Normen, die wegen ihres verpflichtenden Charakters Unsicherheit und Frust verursachen und bei Regelverletzung starke negative Gefühle wie Enttäuschung und Ärger.
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Geschenke sind eine besonders geeignete Form, Gefühle der Zuneigung und Intimität auszudrücken und spielen daher in romantischen Beziehungen eine große Rolle. Das gilt vor allem für die frühe Beziehungsphase einer ‚beginnenden Liebe‘, die im Mittelpunkt des Forschungsinteresses steht, wobei insbesondere Anlässe und Motive fürs Schenken untersucht werden sowie die Eignung verschiedener Eigenschaften und Arten von Geschenken, romantische Bindungen zu fördern. In langfristig stabilen Beziehungen wandelt sich die anfängliche Leidenschaft in eine mehr kameradschaftliche ‚dauerhafte Liebe‘ und damit auch das romantische Schenken. Während Überraschung und Mühen als Dimensionen eines perfekten Geschenks an Bedeutung verlieren, zeigt sich das weiterhin wichtige Einfühlungsvermögen vor allem in Aspekten der Wertschätzung, der Neugestaltung von Nähe und der Sorge ums Wohlergehen des Partners.
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ABSTRACT Purpose-This paper examines the effects of cultural differences and the types of relationship closeness involved in recipients' emotional and behavioral reactions after receiving disliked gifts. Design/methodology/approach-Collecting data from Thailand and the U.S., two experiments were conducted in a 2 (self-construal: independent/interdependent) x 2 (relationship closeness: close/distant) between-subjects design. Study 1 explores the recipients' feelings and reactions upon receipt of a disliked gift. Study 2 explores the disposition process for a disliked gift. Findings-The results show that a recipient's emotions, reaction, and disposition process can be affected by cultural differences and relationship closeness: specifically, that close and distant relationships moderate the relationship between self-construal and gift-receiving attitudes and behaviors. Research limitations/implications-Future research can investigate representative groups from other countries to broaden the generalizability of the findings. Practical implications-This understanding can guide gift-givers when selecting gifts for close or distant recipients across cultures. Additionally, it can help retailers develop and introduce new marketing strategies by applying self-construal as a marketing segmentation tool for gift purchase and disposition. Originality/value-This research is among the first studies to offer insights into how individuals in different cultures manage disliked gifts they receive from people in either close or distant relationships.
Conference Paper
In this paper, we introduce the concept of saunascape. To that end, we explore what kind of socio-material practices are carried out within sauna bathing, and thereby discover the elements of saunascape. We focus on interrelated practices of sauna bathing and address the agentic capacity of saunascape as it structures these practices. The data were generated through interviews that took place in sauna departments at five different hotels in Finland. In total, 39 informants participated in interviews. The findings show four interconnected socio-material practices relating to sauna bathing: purification, nostalgization, medicalization and democratization. As saunascape emerges in the nexus of these practices, its spatially-constructed elements (places, people, meanings and material processes) appear connected to practices. The study participates in discussions in which the spatiality and non-human agency in consumption practices are evolved. Furthermore, it showcases an example of how an understudied cultural-historical phenomenon may be linked to modern consumption trends.
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Most gifts are occasion‐based as opposed to non‐occasion‐based. That is, most gifts are given in the presence of a special occasion, rather than in the absence of one. Across a series of scenario‐based studies, the present research demonstrates that, despite occasion‐based gifts being much more common, recipients anticipate that their happiness levels will be quite high when receiving non‐occasion‐based gifts, varying little with gift quality. In contrast, they anticipate that their happiness levels will not always be high when receiving occasion‐based gifts, varying greatly with gift quality. These diverging outcomes arise because the caliber of gift that is required to signal care and thus meet a recipient’s expectation is much lower for non‐occasion‐based gifts than for occasion‐based ones. Critically, givers misforecast recipients’ anticipated positive reactions to non‐occasion‐based gifts, helping to explain why these gifts are, unfortunately, rather rare.
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Entry by Researchgate!! See the German entry!! --- Hasso Spode takes the reader on a journey through time to define luxury. He describes how this term has changed over the centuries and how, especially in the period after the world wars, the understanding of luxury has become more democratic, but even today luxury is still understood as a scarce good, although the definition of what is scarce has fundamentally changed. He says that people often do things simply because they are fun, and that there is a special quality of being in the game. ---- The article ia an automatic translation of the publisher!
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Although gift giving, a catalyst of guanxi, plays an important role in doing business in China, few studies have examined how to give a proper gift within business-to-business guanxi. Drawing on guanxi and gift-giving literature, this study investigates gift acceptability in the light of gift type and guanxi in two dimensions (relational closeness and relative status) in a hierarchical Chinese business circle. We classify gifts into monetary and nonmonetary gifts. The findings from two scenario-based experiments indicate that a monetary gift versus a nonmonetary gift decreases gift acceptability through the increased level of perceived manipulation (PM) and face threat (FT) and these indirect effects are contingent on different guanxi types. The mediating roles of both PM and FT turn more significant when relational closeness (gift recipient's status relative to giver) increases. These findings help Western businesspeople select the right gift form to give to the right Chinese counterparts in the right way.
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Hediyeleşmenin toplumsal bir kültür haline geldiği günümüz dünyasında insanlar, pek çok durumda ve pek çok sebeple hediye vermektedirler. Dünyada ve ülkemizde, bebek doğumları, yıldönümleri, mezuniyet, yılbaşı, anneler günü, sevgililer günü, babalar günü ve daha birçok durumda hediye verilmesi olmazsa olmaz bir hal almıştır. Bunun sonucunda, hediyeleşmeyle ortaya çıkan ekonomik büyüklük, toplam tüketim harcamaları içerisinde çok büyük bir paya sahip olmaktadır. Pazarlama araştırmacıları, tüketicilerin hediye satın alma davranışlarını ve onları motive eden unsurları ayrıca ele alarak incelemektedirler. Ülkemizde bu alanda yapılan çalışmaların yetersiz oluşu nedeniyle öncelikle, hediyelerin hangi motivasyonlarla satın alındığına ilişkin, kapsamlı bir literatür taraması yapılarak hediye ve hediye satın alma motivasyonlarına ilişkin teorik bir çerçeve oluşturulmaya çalışılmıştır. Çalışmanın bu alana yönelik daha sonra yapılacak teorik ve ampirik çalışmalara öncülük etmesi ve kaynak oluşturması amaçlanmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Hediye, Hediye satın alma, Satın alma motivasyonları. MOTİVATİONS THAT LEAD CONSUMERS TO GİVE GİFTS Absract In today's world where gift exchanging has become a social culture, people give gifts in many situations and for many reasons. In the world and in our country, giving gifts in baby births, anniversaries, graduation, New Year's Day, Mother's Day, Valentine's Day, Father's Day and many more has become a must. As a result, the economic size resulting from the gift purchase has a very large share in total consumption expenditures. Marketing researchers also examine consumer gift buying behavior and the factors that motivate them. Due to the in sufficient studies in this field in our country, firstly, a comprehensive literature review was made regarding the motivations of the gifts, and a theoretical framework on the motivations of gift and gift purchasing was tried to be established. It is aimed that this study will lead to the oretical and empirical studies that will be carried out in this field and create resources.
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We reflect on two museum visiting experiences that adopted the strategy of interpersonalization in which one visitor creates an experience for another. In the Gift app, visitors create personal mini-tours for specific others. In Never let me go, one visitor controls the experience of another by sending them remote instructions as they follow them around the museum. By reflecting on the design of these experiences and their deployment in museums we show how interpersonalization can deliver engaging social visits in which visitors make their own interpretations. We contrast the approach to previous research in customization and algorithmic personalization. We reveal how these experiences relied on intimacy between pairs of visitors but also between visitors and the museum. We propose that interpersonalization requires museums to step-back to make space for interpretation, but that this then raises the challenge of how to reintroduce the museum’s own perspective. Finally, we articulate strategies and challenges for applying this approach.
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The technology acceptance model (TAM) is widely recognized as one of the more influential information systems (IS) theories and a practical and parsimonious framework for IT adoption. However, TAM is not without its limitation. Numerous incremental additions in TAM due to easy publication possibilities have made the model unwieldly and theoretically impoverished (Bagozzi, 2007). As a result, TAM, even after years of development is able to explain only 30-40% of the variance in the dependent variables (Lee and Kozar, 2003; Venkatesh, Thong and Xu, 2012). In this study we suggest that using the value perspective in technology adoption can overcome the above limitations. The value perspective leads us to propose a General Theory of Technology Adoption (GTTA). This first version of GTTA addresses the limitations of direct and mediating variables in core and extended TAM used for explaining the behavioral intention of users to use a technology.
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Ultra-processed food manufacturers have proposed that product reformulation should be a key strategy to tackle obesity. In determining the impact of reformulation on population dietary behaviours, policy makers are often dependent on data provided by these manufacturers. Where such data are “gifted” to regulators there may be an implicit expectation of reciprocity that adversely influences nutrition policies. We sought to assess Europe’s industry-led reformulation strategy in five countries deploying critical policy studies as an approach. We found that interim results on industry-led food reformulation did not meet their targets. Information asymmetries exist between food industry and policy makers: the latter are not privy to marketing intelligence and must instead rely on data that are voluntarily donated by food industry actors. These data represent a distorted snippet of the marketing intelligence system from whence they came. Because these data indeed bear all the hallmarks of a gift, regulatory and public health authorities operate within a gift economy. The implications of this “data gift economy” are strategic delay and goal-setting when the field is not visible. Ultimately, this could diminish the implementation of public health nutrition policies that are contrary to the commercial interests of ultra-processed food producers.
Article
Purpose The actual uses to which public art is put have been virtually ignored, leaving multifarious dynamics related to its esthetic encounters unexplored. Both audience agency in placemaking and sensemaking and the agentic role of place as more than a mere platform or stage dressing for transformation are routinely neglected. Such transformative dynamics are analyzed and interpreted in this study of the Derry–Londonderry Temple, a transient mega-installation orchestrated by bricoleur artist David Best and co-created by sectarian communities in 2015. Design/methodology/approach A range of ethnographic methods and supplemental netnography were employed in the investigation. Findings Participants inscribed expressions of their lived experience of trauma on the Temple's infrastructure, on wood scrap remnants or on personal artifacts dedicated for interment. These inscriptions and artifacts became objects of contemplation for all participants to consider and appreciate during visitation, affording sectarian citizens opportunity for empathic response to the plight of opposite numbers. Thousands engaged with the installation over the course of a week, registering sorrow, humility and awe in their interactions, experiencing powerful catharsis and creating temporary cross-community comity. The installation and the grief work animating it were introjected by co-creators as a virtual legacy of the engagement. Originality/value The originality of the study lies in its theorizing of the successful delivery of social systems therapy in an esthetic modality to communities traditionally hostile to one another. This sustained encounter is defined as traumaturgy. The sacrificial ritual of participatory public art becomes the medium through which temporary cross-community cohesion is achieved.
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Abstract When the money spent and the effort exerted by the consumers are considered, special days almost serve as an opportunity for the companies. However, the success of the campaigns designed for special days depends on properly identifying the factors affecting the purchasing behavior of consumers. Here comes into play the Planned Behavior Theory (PBT). In this theory, intention is the primary explanatory variable for the individuals to perform a behavior. On the other hand, the intention is explained by the attitudes towards behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. In this study, the purchasing behavior of consumers on special days was examined within the framework of PBT model. Within this scope, it was found that the consumers paid attention the most to the quality, aesthetics, and guarantee when purchasing gift on special days. According to the result of the PBT analysis, it was also found that the variable “Attitude Towards Behavior” made the highest contribution (=0,483) to the intention to purchase gift on special days. Furthermore, it was concluded that the variable of intention explained more the gift-purchasing behavior on special days (=0.402). Keywords: Consumer, Purchasing Behavior, Special Days, Planned Behavior Theory
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Hasso Spode nimmt den Leser auf eine Zeitreise zur Definition und Funktion des Luxus mit. Er beschreibt, wie sich dieser Begriff über Jahrhunderte hinweg von der Quantität zur Qualität verschoben hat, wie sich in der Zeit nach den Weltkriegen das Luxusverständnis demokratisiert hat, und wie auch heute noch Luxus als prestigeträchtiges knappes Gut dem Zweck der sozialen Distinktion dient obgleich sich die Definition dessen, was knapp ist, grundlegend verändert hat. Er betont die heutige Moralisierung des Luxuskonsums im Kampf um Deutungsmacht und vermerkt abschließend, dass der Mensch gleichwohl Dinge oft nur tut, weil sie Spaß machen, und dass im Spiel eine besondere Qualität des Seins liegt ... ------- Bei Problemen mit der Wiedergabe bitte auf meiner Website anklicken!
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Through a field study of 229 men and women, the effect of gender-related variables on Christmas-gift-shopping patterns was explored. Survey results suggest that women are more involved than men in the activity. However, men are likely to be more involved if they hold egalitarian gender-role attitudes. Overall, the study indicates that, while Christmas shopping may be a "labor of love" to some, it is most widely construed as "women's work." Copyright 1990 by the University of Chicago.
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This article reports the results of a study meant to portray a detailed picture of self-gift experiences in four contexts, focusing notably on reward and therapeutic self-gifts. Extending prior conceptual discussions, the findings suggest that self-gifts are a form of personally symbolic self-communication through special indulgences that tend to be premeditated and highly context bound. Discussion centers on theoretical implications and future directions for self-gift research. Overall, self-gifts represent a complex class of personal acquisitions that offer intriguing insights on self-directed consumer behavior. Copyright 1990 by the University of Chicago.
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Two processes at work in contemporary society are the secularization of religion and the sacralization of the secular. Consumer behavior shapes and reflects these processes. For many, consumption has become a vehicle for experiencing the sacred. This article explores the ritual substratum of consumption and describes properties and manifestations of the sacred inherent in consumer behavior. Similarly, the processes by which consumers sacralize and desacralize dimensions of their experience are described. The naturalistic inquiry approach driving the insights in this article is advanced as a corrective to a premature narrowing of focus in consumer research. Copyright 1989 by the University of Chicago.
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Naturalistic inquiry as an ethnographic approach is explained and utilized for exploring emergent themes in buyer and seller behavior at a swap meet. Components of the method used include purposive sampling, triangulation across researchers, emergent theme analysis, autodriving, memoing, member checks, and auditing. Four emergent dialectical substantive themes are discussed: freedom versus rules, boundaries versus transitions, competition versus cooperation, and sacred versus profane.
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Gift giving is a universal behavior that still awaits satisfactory interpretation by social scientists. By tempering traditional consumer research with an anthropological perspective, our understanding of gift exchange can be enriched. A model of the gift exchange process intended to stimulate comprehensive research on gift-giving behavior is presented in this paper.
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The violent fantasies of such figures as Mark David Chapman, killer of John Lennon, and John Hinckley, would-be assassin of President Reagan, have commonly been interpreted, by professionals and public alike, as socially aberrant--as the result of psychological instability. John L. Caughey's provocative study shows not only that such fantasies are shaped by enculturation, but also that they are closely linked in content and form to the more benign imaginative constructs of "normal" Americans.A new departure in the study of American society, this book takes a cultural approach to imaginary social experience, viewing the imaginary social interactions in dreams, fantasies, memories, anticipations, media involvement, and hallucinations as social processes because they involve people in pseudo-interactions with images of other people. Drawing on his anthropological research in the United States, Pakistan, and Micronesia, Caughey explores from a phenomenological perspective the social patterning that prevails in each of these imaginary worlds. He analyzes the kinds of identities and roles the individual assumes and examines the kinds of interactions that are played out with imagined persons.Caughey demonstrates that imaginary social relationships dominate much of our subjective social experience. He also shows that these imaginary relationships have many important connections to actual social conduct. Moreover, cultural values dictate the texture of the mental processes: imaginary conversations both reflect and reinforce the basic beliefs of the society, imagined anticipations of the reactions of real other people can serve social control functions, and media figures affect actual social relations by serving as mentors and role models.Caughey's arresting reappraisal of the world of fantasy is, in the words of James P. Spradley, "an outstanding job of scholarship" and "a unique contribution to the field of anthropology in general, to the study of culture and cognition, and to the study of American culture specifically."
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Consumer behavior depth interviews are grouped with other kinds of story telling-fairy tales, novels, psychological test responses, and myths-as imaginative statements that can be qualitatively interpreted for their functional and symbolic content. Drawing upon the Claude Lévi-Strauss approach to the analysis of myths, a structuralist interpretation illustrates application to the age, sex, and social status dimensions of food consumption.
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The ritual Christmas gift giving in Middletown involves virtually the entire population and is governed by elaborate unwritten rules that are remarkably well enforced without obvious means of enforcement. Most gifts are scaled to the formal relationship between giver and receiver. It is proposed that ritualized gift giving in this society, as in others, is a way of reinforcing relationships that are highly valued but insecure.
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sampling of many of the frameworks that have been used in the cross-cultural study of personality and pathology relationship of assessment to theory how to select a measurement procedure overview of viable cross-cultural measures of personality/pathology / Adjective Check List / California Psychological Inventory / Locus of Control (I-E Scale) / Eysenck Personality Questionnaire / Edwards Personal Preference Schedule / Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory projective techniques comments on the study of schizophrenia across cultures comments on the study of depression across cultures (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Documents the process of gift selection from the perspective of a retail gift store, through participant observation, in-depth interviews, and photography. Perspectives are described that consumer gift shoppers and retailers involved in the gift-giving process have of themselves and of each other. The resulting ethnography details a description of the site, highlights documented changes over 3 yrs, and offers interpretive insights into the consumer gift selection and retailer socialization processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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With growing interest in qualitative research beyond its popular use in focus groups, a greater appreciation of the potential of projective techniques is recommended. Examples are given to illustrate the variety of methods available, and how they may be practically applied in research projects to elicit rich information about perception of products and brands, and about characteristics of respondents.
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The functional equivalence of products and consumer activities across cultures is a largely unexplored area. Yet, the lack of functional equivalence that exists may suggest the need for modification of some concepts and theories of consumer behavior. The study reported in this paper explores the functional equivalence that exists between U.S. and Japanese consumers in an important consumer activity—gift giving. The results suggest a lack of functional equivalence of this activity and illustrate how researchers should give explicit consideration to this issue in the development and testing of consumer concepts and models.
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The Poison in the Gift is a detailed ethnography of gift-giving in a North Indian village that powerfully demonstrates a new theoretical interpretation of caste. Introducing the concept of ritual centrality, Raheja shows that the position of the dominant landholding caste in the village is grounded in a central-peripheral configuration of castes rather than a hierarchical ordering. She advances a view of caste as semiotically constituted of contextually shifting sets of meanings, rather than one overarching ideological feature. This new understanding undermines the controversial interpretation advanced by Louis Dumont in his 1966 book, Homo Hierarchicus, in which he proposed a disjunction between the ideology of hierarchy based on the "purity" of the Brahman priest and the "temporal power" of the dominant caste or the king.
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Ph. D. (Marketing)--Northwestern University, 1983. Vita.
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The ethnographic case study presented in this article illustrates the institutional complexity and sociocultural significance of a midwestern American flea market. A conception of market place structure and function that incorporates informal and festive dimensions of consumer behavior is advanced. The article explores the relationship of primary and secondary economic activity. Buyer and seller behavior, marketplace ambience, the social embeddedness of consumption, and experiential aspects of consumption are considered at length. Copyright 1990 by the University of Chicago.
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Phase transitoire du cycle de vie, l’adolescence se caractérise par une période de construction de l’identité. En permettant aux individus de transmettre un message sur soi aux autres, la consommation symbolique participe à la construction identitaire des 12-18 ans. Afin d’optimiser les campagnes publicitaires à leur intention, il convient alors de déterminer les capacités respectives de la marque et du produit à véhiculer les signes que les adolescents souhaitent diffuser auprès des tiers. Ce papier apporte des éléments de réponse à cette problématique grâce à la présentation d’un cadre théorique et des résultats d’une étude qualitative et d’une étude quantitative menées respectivement auprès de 12 et de 208 adolescents.
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Berman. Morris. Coming to Our Senses; Body and Spirit in the Hidden History of the Wesr. Simon and Schuster, New York. 1989. rJ BtiSN RES 1 9 9 3 : ~ S : 2 : ! 5 - 2 . u Gift Exchange 243 Bird-David. Nurit. The Giving Environment: Another Perspective on the Economic System of Gatherer-Hunters. Curro Anthropol. 31(2. 1990): 189-196
Imagining Social Worlds: A Culwral Approach The Gift Economy, Routledge
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Caughey, John. Imagining Social Worlds: A Culwral Approach, University of Nebraska Press, Uncoln. NE. 1984; Cheal, David. The Gift Economy, Routledge. New York. 1988
A Naturalistic Inquiry into Buyer and Seller Behavior at a Swap Meet The Sacred and Profane in Consumer Behavior: Theodicy on the Odyssey
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Intimate Communications: EfZtics and the Study of Culture, Columbia University Press
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Gift Giving and Receiving: Implications and Limitations of the Exchange Perspective in Consumer Behavior
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McGrath, Mary Ann, Gift Giving and Receiving: Implications and Limitations of the Exchange Perspective in Consumer Behavior, Ph.D. dissertation. Depanment of Mar~ keting, Northwestern University, 1988.
Where the WasteLand Ends: PoLides and Transcendence in Postindustrilll Society, Celestial Am
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Roszak. Theodore, Where the WasteLand Ends: PoLides and Transcendence in Postindustrilll Society, Celestial Am. Berkeley. CA. 197211989.
To :vre From Me: A Descriptive Phenomenology of Self-Gifts Association for Consumer Research
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Straight and In-Beo<;l!l!n: The Sexology of Erotic OrientQlion
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The Gift: Imagination and the Erotic Life of Property, Vintage
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Man Makes Himself, New American Library
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CapiraJ. vols. 1-3, Friedrich Engels
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Carnival in Multiple Planes. in Rite, Drama, Festivals. Spectacle. John MacAJoon Institute for the Study of Human Issues
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Carnival in Multiple Planes
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