Article

Histamin contents and histamine-forming bacteria in natto products in Taiwan

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Abstract

Thirty-six natto products imported from Japan and three domestic natto products sold in the supermarkets in southern Taiwan were purchased and tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. The levels of pH and aerobic plate count (APC) in all samples ranged from 4.9 to 7.3 and 7.8 to 11.2 log CFU/g, respectively. None of these samples contained total coliform and E. coli. Although the average content for each of the nine biogenic amines in all samples was less than 5 mg/100 g, seven of them (17.9%) had histamine content greater than 5 mg/100 g, allowable limit suggested by the US Food and Drug Administration for scombroid fish and/or product. Four histamine-producing bacterial strains capable of producing 13.4 ppm to 17.5 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth (TSB) supplemented with 1.0% l-histidine (TSBH) were identified as Bacillus subtilis (two strains) and Staphylococcus pasteuri (two strains) by 16S rDNA sequencing with PCR amplification. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the occurrence of histamine-forming bacteria in natto products.

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... In contrast, however, since Natto contains abundant dietary amino acid precursors of biogenic amines, it is important to monitor biogenic amine levels in the products. To the best of our knowledge, nevertheless, there has been only one study in which biogenic amine contents in Natto products distributed in Taiwan were analysed (Tsai, Chang, & Kung, 2007). Although the authors identified two strains probably responsible for the biogenic amine formation in Natto, no systematic data on comprehensive bacterial and/or physicochemical contribution to biogenic amine formation in Natto are available. ...
... Moreover, histamine content (mean ± standard deviation) was significantly higher in Korean products (12.1 ± 15.8 mg/kg) than in Japanese products (0.36 ± 1.48 mg/kg), whereas spermidine content was significantly higher in Japanese products (357 ± 63.3 mg/kg) than that in Korean products (268 ± 16.1 mg/kg), although no significant differences in the contents of the other biogenic amines were found between Korean and Japanese products (Fig. 2). In addition, the average contents of most biogenic amines, except for histamine, were found to be somewhat higher than those reported previously by Tsai et al. (2007). ...
... Furthermore, there appeared to be no relationship between the parameters of pH and water activity and the overall contents (and each) biogenic amine of Natto products because the linear fitting between them provided R 2 values less than or around 0.1 (Fig. 3). In addition, the average pH value observed was found to be slightly higher than that (4.9-7.3) reported previously by Tsai et al. (2007). Since the optimum pH for biogenic amine production is slightly acidic (Hassaïne, Zadi-Karam, & Karam, 2009), however, it seems clear that there may be no apparent relationships among the data, including the amounts of biogenic amines and pH values, obtained in the present and previous studies. ...
Article
Twenty-one Natto products currently distributed in Korea were analysed for biogenic amine contents and tested to determine physicochemical and bacterial contributions to biogenic amine formation. Among them, nine products (about 43%) had β-phenylethylamine or tyramine contents greater than the toxic dose (30mg/kg and 100mg/kg, respectively) of each amine, although no products showed total amounts of biogenic amines above the harmful level (1000mg/kg), which indicates that the amounts of biogenic amines in some Natto products are not within the safe level for human health. From four different Natto products, that contained noticeable levels of β-phenylethylamine and tyramine, 80 bacterial strains were isolated. All the strains were identified to be Bacillus subtilis and highly capable of producing β-phenylethylamine and tyramine. Therefore, it seems likely that the remarkable contents of β-phenylethylamine and tyramine in Natto predominantly resulted from the strains highly capable of producing those amines present in the food.
... e tested cultures. Clostridium perfringens grows in protein rich media and can not survive in media that lacks essential amino acid supply (Shimizu et al., 2002). Accordingly, this bacterium is often detected in amino acid rich environment, including protein-fermented foods like Sufu, a traditional Chinese fermented soybean curd (Han et al., 2001). Tsai et al. (2007) identified some histamine producing bacteria belonging to Lactobacillus species in Natto products (traditional Japanese fermented soybean food) manufactured in Taiwan. In the case of fermented food and beverages, the introduction of starter cultures can affect the production of biogenic amines either directly or indirectly through inter ...
... mg/100g), putrescine (1,234 mg/100g), cadverine (634 mg/100 g) and tyramine (3,568 mg/100g). Cho et al. (2006) reported the presence of histamine and tyramine in traditional Korean paste Doenjang at a level of 952.0 mg/kg and 1,430.7 mg/kg. Tyramine was the most abundant BA in different types of soy sauces produced in China (Yongmei et al., 2009). Tsai et al. (2007) tested biogenic amine levels in seven soybean and eleven black bean douchi (traditional chinese fermented soybean product), among which four soybean douchi products had histamine levels greater than 5 mg/100 g while, among the black bean douchi samples, four samples contained histamine at 56.3, 62.1, 80.2 and 80.8 mg/100 g, levels great ...
... Kim et al. (2005) developed a method for the determination of biogenic amine in low salt fermented soybean paste by using benzoylchloride as a derivatization agent and amounts of amine were quantified by HPLC analysis. Previously other researchers also reported a similar method for the determination of biogenic amines in Miso and Natto products (Kung et al., 2007; Tsai et al., 2007). Saaid et al. (2009) determined biogenic amines in some Malaysian soybean products such as soybean sauce, tempe, salty soy sauce, taucu and soybean milk. ...
... A intoxicação alimentar por histamina, conhecida como intoxicação escombróide ou histaminose, tem sido observado após consumo de pescado com altos teores desta amina (Silveira et al. 2001, Du et al. 2002, Emborg et al. 2005, Alencar et al. 2011). A produção de histamina está associada principalmente ao processo de descarboxilação de histidina livre pela ação da enzima exógena histidina descarboxilase (Lehane & Olley 2000, Tsai et al. 2007). Outras aminas como a putrescina e cadaverina podem estar associadas a episódios de hipotensão e bradicardia, além de potencializar a toxicidade de outras aminas (Shalaby 1996). ...
... Estes resultados demonstram que a presença Enterobactérias está extremamente relacionada com a produção de aminas biogênicas. Outros autores têm demostrado que as Enterobactérias são microrganismos descarboxilases positivas (Lehane & Olley 2000, Tsai et al. 2007, Rossi-Júnior et al. 2011) o que explica a alta correlação encontrada entre a produção das aminas biogênicas e os microrganismos desta família no presente estudo. ...
Article
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The main objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between failures existing at the time of the sale of raw peeled cooled shrimp with the development of bacteria and spoilage and physico-chemical quality. Bacteriological analyses were performed with the quantification of coagulase positive Staphylococcus, Enterobacteria and total counts for bacteria of the genus Salmonella spp. Physical and chemical analysis to investigate the quality of the shrimp were measurement of the temperature at aquisition time, pH determination, total volatile bases (N-TVB) and biogenic amines (histamine, cadaverine and putrescine) by thin layer chromatography method (TLC) and quantification of histamine-positive samples by the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). There was a correlation (R= 0.4202) between physicochemical parameters and growth of Enterobacteria (>4 log UFC. g-1). The presence of this bacterial group directly influenced the biogenic amines production (63.69%), revealing the presence of cadaverine in 38.3%, histamine in 11.6%, putrescine in 28.3% of the samples. Of the 60 samples, seven detected the presence of histamine (9.10 ± 5.34 mg.100g-1). The presence of Salmonella spp. was associated to high values of temperature during the shrimp marketing. The results presented show that bad conditions of storage and marketing of shrimp influence its deterioration, and may cause health risks to the consumer.
... Free amino acid, histidine was catalyzed to histamine through exogenous decarboxylases produced by many bacterial strains. Histamine-forming bacteria were found in fermented food products such as Bacillus coagulans [9], B. megaterium [9], [11], B. subtilis, Staphylococcus pasteuri [4,5], S. capitis [4,5], Enterobacter sp. [14]. ...
... Free amino acid, histidine was catalyzed to histamine through exogenous decarboxylases produced by many bacterial strains. Histamine-forming bacteria were found in fermented food products such as Bacillus coagulans [9], B. megaterium [9], [11], B. subtilis, Staphylococcus pasteuri [4,5], S. capitis [4,5], Enterobacter sp. [14]. ...
... However, natto has some safety risks, including the considerable amounts of biogenic amines (BAs) (Tsai et al. 2007), which are common ingredients in high-protein fermented food, have low molecular weights, and form nonvolatile nitrogen-containing organic bases through the decarboxylation of free amino acids by microorganisms (Priyadarshani and Rakshit 2011). Furthermore, BAs are potential precursors of carcinogen nitrosamines. ...
... HI contents of 0-3.97 mg/kg were detected in all 25 natto varieties, which was much lower than the threshold value of 50 mg/kg set by United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA 2001). In contrast, some studies have found that the average HI content in some Japanese natto is 35.4 mg/kg, while the average HI content of Taiwan natto is 45.1 mg/kg (Tsai et al. 2007). ...
Article
Nattokinase activity (NK), biogenic amine content and sensory properties of natto are of great significance to consumers, which are affected by strains and fermentation methods. In this study, changes in the pH, biogenic amine and free amino nitrogen (FAN) contents, NK and protease activities, and sensory characteristics of natto prepared using Bacillus subtilis GUTU09 combined with different strains (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Mucor) and fermentation methods were investigated. The combination of two strains showed the best fermentation performance among all samples. The NK and protease activity and FAN content in double-strain fermentation increased by 10.33 FU/g, 88.78 U/g, and 2.34 g/kg, respectively, compared with those in single-strain fermentation. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that mixed fermentation primarily affected the sensory acceptance. This method also reduced the contents of various biogenic amines in natto compared with single-strain fermentation. Tyramine, cadaverine, spermine, and spermidine were significantly reduced, whereas histamine was slightly increased. The total biogenic amines decreased from 390.76 mg/kg to a minimum of 16.16 mg/kg. Some Mucor strains also reduced the contents of various biogenic amines. In the dual-bacteria fermentation of Mucor and GUTU09, co-fermentation has advantages over stage-fermentation, with higher NK and protease activity and higher sensory scores. Correlation analysis showed that the formation and accumulation of some biogenic amines in natto prepared using different microbial combinations were related to NK activity and pH. All these results showed that the quality of natto was improved by mixed fermentation and suitable fermentation methods, which laid a foundation for its potential industrial application.
... Based on a critical review of published data (refer to Table 2) [25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37], it seems that the amounts of biogenic amines in most fermented soybean food products are usually within the safe levels for human consumption. It is noteworthy, however, that some specimens of the fermented soybean food products, including both fermented soybean pastes and soy sauces, have been reported to contain vasoactive biogenic amines greater than toxic dose of each amine. ...
... It has been known that most fermented soybean foods, except for several types of soybean foods prepared by mold fermentation, are mainly fermented (or contaminated) by Bacillus species (particularly B. subtilis) [5,39,40], which, in turn, leads to biogenic amine formation in the fermented foods, although the abilities of Bacillus strains to produce biogenic amines are diverse depending on the types and/or batches of the food products from which the strains are isolated (refer to Table 3) [25,26,31,[35][36][37]. In the studies, the reported ranges (mean ± standard deviation; minimum-maximum) of biogenic amines produced by Bacillus spp. in assay media, when cultured for 24 h with proper precursor amino acids, are as follows: histamine 0.22 ± 0.65-29.9 ...
Article
Full-text available
Fermented soybean foods possess significant health-promoting effects and are consumed worldwide, especially within Asia, but less attention has been paid to the safety of the foods. Since fermented soybean foods contain abundant amino acids and biogenic amine-producing microorganisms, it is necessary to understand the presence of biogenic amines in the foods. The amounts of biogenic amines in most products have been reported to be within safe levels. Conversely, certain products contain vasoactive biogenic amines greater than toxic levels. Nonetheless, government legislation regulating biogenic amines in fermented soybean foods is not found throughout the world. Therefore, it is necessary to provide strategies to reduce biogenic amine formation in the foods. Alongside numerous existing intervention methods, the use of Bacillus starter cultures capable of degrading and/or incapable of producing biogenic amines has been proposed as a guaranteed way to reduce biogenic amines in fermented soybean foods, considering that Bacillus species have been known as fermenting microorganisms responsible for biogenic amine formation in the foods. Molecular genetic studies of Bacillus genes involved in the formation and degradation of biogenic amines would be helpful in selecting starter cultures. This review summarizes the presence and control strategies of biogenic amines in fermented soybean foods.
... Histamine accumulation occasionally occurs in food, Scombroid fish (EFSA, 2011;FAO/WHO, 2012), fermented fish products (Harada et al., 2008;Hernandez-Herrero et al., 1999;Mongkolthanaruk et al., 2012;Nakazato et al., 2002;Sato et al., 1995;Satomi et al., 1997Satomi et al., , 2008Satomi et al., , 2011Satomi et al., , 2012Stute et al., 2002;Echigo, 1991, 1993), wine (Coton et al., 1998(Coton et al., , 2005(Coton et al., , 2010Landete, et al., 2005;Lonvaud-Funel and Joyeux, 1994;Lonvaud-Funel, 2001;Lucas et al., 2005Lucas et al., , 2008, cheese (Burdychova et al., 2007;Chang and Snell, 1968;Chang et al., 1985;Joosten and Northlt, 1989), meat products (Landeta et al., 2007;Silla Santos, 1998;Suzzi and Gardini, 2003), and others (Calles-Enríquez et al., 2010;Hamaya et al., 2014;Ibe et al., 2003;Le Jeune et al., 1995;Tsai et al., 2007), and is caused by certain histamine-producing bacteria. Furthermore, a number of helpful reviews have discussed histamine in food (Halasz et al., 1994;Silla-Santos, 1996;Spano et al., 2010). ...
... (Kloos and Shileifer, 1986;Götz et al., 2006). In addition, staphylococci have been frequently reported as histamine-producers in salted fishes (Hernandez-Herrero et al., 1999;Echigo, 1991, 1993), fish paste (Harada et al., 2008), and fermented meat (Silla Santos, 1998;Suzzi and Gardini, 2003;Landeta et al., 2007) and soy bean (Tsai et al., 2007) products. There are only two histamine-producing staphylococcal species reliably identified, S. capitis and S. epidermidis (Yokoi et al., 2011). ...
Article
Histamine is the main causative agent of scombroid fish poisoning (SFP). To prevent SFP outbreaks, methods for controlling histamine accumulation have been studied. Histamine accumulation in raw fish, including frozen and semi-dried fish products, can be prevented by employing Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) and Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). However, there is little information about histamine producers and the methods for preventing histamine accumulation in fermented fishery products in Japan. In 2011, CODEX adopted a limit of 400 ppm for histamine content in fish sauce, indicating that many manufacturers of fermented fish products are required to implement appropriate countermeasures. Presented here is recent information about histamine-producing bacteria in fermented fish products.
... The BA content of natto has been determined previously. Tsai et al. (2007) determined the BA content of natto from Japan and Taiwan. They reported that the tested natto samples contained low concentrations of BAs and that the concentrations of histamine and spermidine were higher than those of other BAs. ...
... In our study, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, and tyramine were not detected in natto. We found low levels of putrescine, cadaverine and histamine, and a high level of spermidine, which is in line with the result of Tsai et al. (2007) and Kim et al. (2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we developed a column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection for the simultaneous analysis of biogenic amines (BAs). This method uses an isocratic solution using acetonitrile with water as the mobile phase. Column-switching is achieved by using a switching valve with a set time program to change flow direction. Using this method, seven BAs (tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, and spermidine) could be separated and impurities eliminated. Using fluorescence detection, BAs could be identified with high sensitivity. We employed this method to determine the BA contents of fish (mackerel, tuna, and cod) and fermented food (a soybean product and cheese). Our results are in line with previous reports, yielded highly reproducible and quantitative results, and enabled the quick and simultaneous analysis of multiple BAs. Therefore, the method developed here may be useful for the continuous analysis of BAs in different samples to evaluate food quality.
... Biogenic amines are nitrogenous and low molecular weight organic bases of aliphatic, aromatic or heterocyclic that are formed by decarboxylation of amino acids or amination and transamination of aldehydes and ketones (Silla Santos 1996). The formation of these amines has been reported in soybean-based fermented products such as miso (Kung et al. 2007), doenjang (Shukla et al. 2010), natto (Tsai et al. 2007a), tempe (Nout et al. 1993), douchi (Tsai et al. 2007b) and soy sauce (Yongmei et al. 2009). Consumption of these amines in a dose higher than 1000 mg kg À1 food leads to physiological disorders like headache, nausea, rashes, brain haemorrhage, changes in blood pressure and abdominal cramps and flushing (Ladero et al. 2010;Shukla et al. 2010). ...
... While the TBAC of traditional doenjang was 2121Á1 lg g À1 , that of its modern version was 304Á9 lg g À1 (Cho et al. 2006). Natto and chungkukjang had TBAC of 138Á3 and 334Á6 lg g À1 respectively (Cho et al. 2006;Tsai et al. 2007a). Biogenic amines are formed in fermented soybean products by micro-organisms during fermentation, and high levels of them have been reported for soy products (Yen 1986;Nout et al. 1993). ...
Article
Aims: Optimization of traditional processing of soybeans using response surface methodology (RSM) to achieve a minimum level of antinutritional factors (ANFs) in kinema. Methods and results: Central composite rotatable designs were used to optimize the processing stages of kinema preparation. In each stage, the linear or quadratic effects of independent variables were significant in minimizing ANF levels. The predicted optimum condition for soaking was when the raw beans-water ratio was 1 : 10, and the soaking temperature, time and pH were 10°C, 20 h and 8·0 respectively. Here, tannins content (TC), phytic acid content (PAC) and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) decreased (P < 0·05). While haemagglutinating activity (HA) level remained unchanged (P < 0·05), total biogenic amines content (TBAC) increased. The optimum condition for cooking was optimally soaked beans-water ratio of 1 : 5, and cooking pressure and time were 1·10 kg cm(-2) and 20 min respectively. Here, TC, PAC, TIA and HA decreased (P < 0·05), but TBAC remained unchanged compared to optimally soaked beans. TC and HA went below the level of detection. The optimum condition for fermentation was obtained when inoculum load was 10(3) total cells g(-1) grits, and fermentation temperature and time were 37°C and 48 h respectively. Fermentation of optimally cooked beans caused a reduction (P < 0·05) of PAC. While TIA remained unchanged (P < 0·05), TBAC increased. In kinema, TC, PAC, TIA and HA decreased (P < 0·05) over raw beans by 100, 61, 71 and 100% respectively. Good agreement was observed between predicted values and experimental values. Conclusions: The processing treatments significantly minimized the level of ANFs in soybeans. Significance and impact of the study: RSM was successfully deployed to obtain the optimum condition for kinema-making with a minimum level of ANFs without impairing sensory attributes of the product. The results are useful for commercial production of kinema.
... Arginine usually decomposes into ornithine and agmatine (Halász et al., 1994). Ornithine can be converted into putrescine and lysine into cadaverine while histamine is also formed mainly through the decarboxylation of histidine by exogenous decarboxylase released by many bacterial species known to possess histidine decarboxylase (Tsai et al., 2007). ...
Article
Formaldehyde was used by fishermen and fish vendors to preserve the freshness and quality of fish and seafood. The study was undertaken to determine the formaldehyde content and quality characteristics of fish and seafood from wet markets. Formaldehyde content was in the range of 0.38 to 15.75 μg g-1. Three types of biogenic amines (histamine, putrescine and cadaverine) were detected from all samples in which histamine content ranged from 0.25 to 1.97 μg g-1, putrescine from 0.33 to 9.09 μg g-1 and cadaverine from 0.34 to 5.81 μg g-1. Amino acids as biogenic amines precursor were also determined with lysine ranged from 12.75 to 28.80 mg g-1, arginine from 8.17 to 27.83 mg g-1 and histidine from 1.93 to 10.14 mg g-1. As for the microbiological analyses, total plate counts for all fish types ranged from 5.68 to 7.13 log cfu g-1 and the proteolytic counts from 5.12 to 6.91 log cfu g-1. Samples were also analyzed for the presence of putrescine/cadavarine/histamine producing bacteria where the counts ranged from 3.50 to 6.52 log cfu g-1. The pH of all selected fish ranged from 6.25 to 7.28. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among fish purchased from different wet markets. Hence this study suggested that fish and seafood from wet markets can be considered in good quality since the formaldehyde content and microbiological counts were still below the permissible limits.
... Histamine levels in foods[7][8][9][10][11][12] ...
... have also been reported as histamine producers (Okuzumi, Hiraishi, Kobayashi, & Fujii, 1994; Yatsunami & Echigo, 1991). Recently, we demonstrated the presence of prolific histamine-forming bacteria Raoultella ornithinolytica isolated from dried milkfish implicated in food poisoning and commercial tuna sandwich products (Kung et al., 2009; Tsai, Kung, Chen, et al., 2007). 0956-7135/$ -see front matter Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. ...
Article
Thirty-four tuna candy products sold in retail markets and supermarkets in Taiwan were purchased and tested to determine the biogenic amine, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of bonito meat. The levels of pH value, water activity (Aw), water content, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), aerobic plate count (APC) and total coliform (TC) in all samples ranged from 5.3 to 6.1, 0.47 to 0.65, 7.37% to 17.32%, 12.1 to 54.6 mg/100 g, <1 to 6.2 log CFU/g and <3 to 1700 MPN/g, respectively. None of these sample contained Escherichia coli. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 1.0 mg/100 g. Four histamine-producing bacterial strains isolated from tested samples produced 1.02–1.74 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% l-histidine (TSBH) after incubation at 35 °C for 24 h. Assay of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that adulteration rate of bonito meat was 26.5% (9/34) in tuna candy samples. Tuna species in tuna candy samples was identified as Thunnus albacares for 29 samples (85.3%), Thunnus alalunga for four samples (11.8%) and Thunnus obesus for one sample (2.9%) by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP).
... Sufu is an easily digested, nutritious oriental fermented soybean food. During fermentation, soybean protein is hydrolyzed by microbes and converted into smaller nitrogen-containing compounds, such as low-molecular mass peptides, amino acids and ammonia, which have significant impacts on the characteristics of Sufu (Tang et al., 2011;Tsai et al., 2007). Ot contains various amino acids in a sufficient quantity and reasonable proportions. ...
Article
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Abstract The nutritional, functional and tasty components of three categories of Sufu, divided by strains in the culture phase, were comprehensively investigated in this study. The levels of isoflavones, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), phytosterols and soyasaponin were 0.58-2.20, 7.46-57.95, 0.73-2.72 and 10.89-23.35 mg/g dry matter (DM), respectively. Glu was the most abundant of the 17 detected free amino acids (FAAs), followed by Phe, Leu, Val and Asp. Additionally, potential tasty peptide profiles were typed by the segment of molecular weight (MW) < 300 Da, ranging from 79.22% ± 4.12% to 95.24% ± 2.93%. The complex taste impression based on the electronic tongue showed that the bitterness intensity was the highest, which was followed by saltiness and the umami intensity. To some extent, different Sufu categories can be distinguished according to the electronic tongue. The results provide a theoretical basis for improving the quality control and standardization of the manufacturing process.
... African locust bean tree (Parkia biglobosa) is one of the most NTFPs which seeds are used as protein source condiment after fermentation and consumed by various sociocultural groups of West African countries with different names Afitin, Sonru, Iru in Benin ( Azokpota et al., 2008;Azokpota et al., 2006;Hongbété 2001), Iru, Dawadaw in Nigeria ( Ajayin et al., 2015;Daramola et al., 2009), Soumbala in Burkina Faso ( Diawara et al., 1998;Ouoba et al., 2003) and Netetu in Senegal ( Ndir et al., 2000). This African fermented flavour and taste condiment is similar to traditional fermented soya product, Natto in Japan and Thua-nao in Thailand ( Tsai et al., 2007). In the north Benin, Sonru process involves a fermentation during 48h where cooked African locust bean cotyledons with traditional additive "Yanyanku" obtained from malvacene dried beans (Hibiscus sabdariffa), are spread on jute bags in basket or in fermentation box ( Hongbété et al., 2017b). ...
Article
Full-text available
African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) was traditionally fermented in basket with jute bags to produce Sonru, a food condiment from Benin. Due to hygienic problems, a wooden box was developed to replace basket with jute bags to process African locust bean into Sonru. Changes in microbial, textural and sensory characteristics of the fermented cotyledons from wooden box compared with that from basket with jute bags were investigated at different fermentation times (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours). Bacillus species were found as the main microorganism involved in the fermentation of Sonru. The use of the box allowed increasing Bacillus growth during the fermentation and improving texture (softness) of the product. Penetration forces were significantly lower in samples fermented from the wooden box than that from the traditional method (basket with jute bags). Concerning sensory quality attributes, samples fermented from the wooden box at 12 hours showed higher scores of softness and aroma with when compared to traditional Sonru. The wooden box was suitable to improve the fermentation process of African locust bean to produce Sonru.
... The histamine producing bacterium TYH1 was isolated from a fermented fish paste (fish-miso) containing approximately 10 % sodium chloride [12] and was identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and common phenotypic characteristics [10]. Since staphylococci can grow in high salt concentration environments and are frequently isolated as histamine-producers from several salted or fermented foods, such as salted fish [13,14], fermented meat products [9,[15][16][17], and soy bean products [18], they are regarded as one of the main causative agents of histamine accumulation in these foods. However, there is less information about the genes related to histamine production in staphylococci. ...
Article
Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) from Staphylococcus epidermidis TYH1, a halotolerant histamine-producing bacterium isolated from Japanese fermented fish-miso, was purified to homogeneity for the first time. The enzyme was purified 182-fold from cell-free extracts by ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of two polypeptide chains of 27–30 and 7–9 kDa were highly homologous with those of α- and β-chains of other staphylococcal HDCs. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme were 6.0 and 60 °C, respectively. This enzyme did not decarboxylate lysine, arginine, tyrosine, tryptophan or ornithine. The enzyme activity decreased with the addition of NaCl. At pH 4.8, the V max and K m values were 45.5 μmol histamine min−1 mg−1 and 1.10 mmol/L, respectively. Moreover, this enzyme was resistant to heat treatment (80 °C for 15 min) and was stable upon freezing at −30 °C for 7 days. The very similar physiological properties of this enzyme and the almost identical N-terminal amino acid sequence to that of the HDC from S. capitis indicated that this enzyme may be evolutionally highly conserved in the genus Staphylococcus. The biophysical properties of staphylococcal HDC were elucidated using native purified enzyme.
... The origin of S. pasteuri remains unknown; however, it has been identified in routinely used substances used in human consumption such as fish (25), milk, sausage (26,27) and drinking water (28). Its environmental presence is documented in air samples removed from the stratosphere, at an altitude of 41 km (29). In a recent study two strains of S. pasteuri isolates were shown to be prolific histamine formers (30). ...
Preprint
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, a chronic inflammatory condition of multifactorial etiology, is the leading cause of death worldwide. The concept of bacterial persistence has been proposed as one of several contributing factors to this disease. We hypothesized that the infectious agent(s) found at the site of the atheroma may be dormant but perpetuate virulence in response to host defense and other physiological triggers. In this study, we sought to identify the source of persistent infection in human atherosclerotic plaque and define how pathogen virulence and host defenses mediate plaque vulnerability. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used to identify bacteria from pure cultures obtained from atherosclerotic tissues of living subjects diagnosed with more than 70% occlusion of the carotid artery undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CE). WGS identified the predominant species as S. pasteuri (Spv) in all CE isolates grown in pure culture except one isolate which was identified as B. licheniformis. All S. pasteuri isolates (Spvs) were found to contain genes for widespread virulence, invasion, and intracellular resistance. As macrophages (Mφs) play a decisive role at all stages of this disease we treated mouse Mφs (RAW 264.7) with Spvs. While all Spvs tested demonstrated their ability to survive phagocytosis, the highly virulent Spvs also activated Mφs and induced trans-endothelial cell migration of these cells which was mediated via the CC chemokine CCL1 and its receptor CCR8. In conclusion, we show that Spvs are found in CE plaques, have the capacity to survive phagocytosis and induce the transmigration of Mφs across an endothelial barrier in a CCL1-CCR8 dependent process. These findings highlight the significance of carotid vessels as a reservoir for S. pasteuri, a pathogen found in products used routinely in human consumption; this may explain how microbial pathogenicity modulates plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis.
... practices could originate a contamination with microorganisms owing histidine and tyrosine decarboxylase activity. Different species isolated from fermented soybean products of genera of Clostridium, Bacillus, Enterococci, Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas have been reported as TY and HI producers (Nout, Ruiker, & Bouwmeester, 1993;Han, Beumer, Rombouts, & Nout, 2001;Tsai, Chang, & Kung, 2007;Moon et al., 2010;. According to Guan et al. (2013), to minimise the biogenic amine contents, sufu should be produced under strict hygienic conditions. ...
Article
Biologically active amines were determined in commercial soybean products. The antioxidant polyamines were found in both non-fermented and fermented soybean products. Natto and tempeh showed the highest content of polyamines (75-124 and 11-24mg/kg of spermidine and spermine, respectively). On the other hand, the bacterial-related biogenic amines, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine and β-phenylethylamine, were detected in practically all fermented products with a high variability. The highest contents were found in sufu, tamari and soybean paste. Extremely high tyramine and histamine contents, 1700 and 700mg/kg, respectively, found in some sufu samples could be unhealthy. However, biogenic amines observed in the other soybean products should not be a risk for healthy consumers. However, individuals who take monoamine and diamine oxidase inhibitors drugs should be strongly recommended to avoid this kind of products in order to suffer no adverse health effects. These biogenic amines were not detected in non-fermented soybean products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... The isolated strain (NPUST-B 11) was characterised using the method described by Lovelock et al. (1979). The 16S rRNA gene-sequence was identified as described by Tsai et al. (2007). Briefly, the isolated strain was cultured overnight in 5 ml of mineral broth at 37°C and then centrifuged at 4,0009g for 10 min. ...
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Monascus-fermented products have been widely used in Taiwan and other Asian countries as health foods. Unfortunately, many Monascus strains concurrently produce trace amounts of toxic citrinin. This study isolated a strain NPUST-B11 with the ability to degrade citrinin as the only carbon source. The isolated strain NPUST-B11 was characterised and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae by 16S rRNA gene analysis using UNI-F and UNI-R primers. The isolated strain was then incubated in the mineral broth containing 10ppm of citrinin, 1.2% of glucose, 0.3% of peptone and 100ppm of vitamin C under optimal conditions, including pH 7, 200rpm and 37°C. Citrinin was rapidly degraded with incubation from 97.9% at 1h to 8.67% at 5h and completely depleted at 10h. Overall, this strain could be useful for the degradation of citrinin in food products and other medical applications. Keywords Klebsiella pneumoniae –Degradation– Monascus –Citrinin
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A large section of the human population relies on legumes as a staple food. Legumes are a rich source of nutrients and possess several health-related beneficial properties. However, the nutritional quality of legumes is challenged by the presence of a considerable amount of antinutrients. Consumption of inadequately processed legumes might affect normal metabolism and cause adverse human health-related effects. Effective processing becomes necessary to reduce these antinutritional factors before consumption. Optimizing the processing variables during preparation of legume-based traditional foods by using response surface methodology could be a valuable option to reduce antinutrients. The present review focuses on the efficacy of traditional household-scale processing unit operations vis-à-vis the reduction of antinutrients. Optimally prepared products should ensure meeting the consumer demand of improved, healthy, and more nutritious and safe foods. Modeling-based optimization approach will be helpful to define best practices at the small-, medium-, and large scale production alike. It should contribute towards effective utilization of legume resources, and to alleviate malnutrition and associated diseases world-wide.
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This study was carried out to investigate the changes in ten biogenic amines and chemical properties in stinky tofu and brine during conventional production. Results show that the free amino acid nitrogen was positively correlated with fermentation time in stinky tofu and brine except during the primary fermentation (0–24 h) in stinky tofu. Of the amines analysed, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine and agmatine were detected in stinky tofu, putrescine, cadaverine and spermidine were detected in stinky brine, and only putrescine and cadaverine exhibited a significant positive correlation (P < 0.05) with time in both sample types during extended fermentation (24–144 h). From a toxicological point of view, stinky tofu poses no risk to health; nevertheless, an increase in total biogenic amines in stinky tofu during extended fermentation may be harmful. The results indicate that the fermentation time should be <48 h and a suggested optimum time is 12–18 h.
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An incident of food borne poisoning causing illness in 43 victims due to ingestion of swordfish fillets occurred in December, 2004, in Taichung Prefecture, central Taiwan. Eight frozen raw swordfish fillets were collected from the suspected restaurant and analyzed for bacterial content and histamine-related quality. The levels of aerobic plate count, total coliform, and total volatile basic nitrogen in all samples ranged from 5.39 to 6.71 log CFU/g, <3–1360 most probable number (MPN)/g, and 6.44–14.56 mg/100 g, respectively. None of these samples contained Escherichia coli. The suspected swordfish fillets contained 85.9–293.7 mg/100 g of histamine greater than the hazard action level of 50 mg/100 g set by the US. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for tuna fish. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected swordfish fillets, this food borne poisoning was strongly suspected to be due to histamine intoxication. In addition, although ten histamine-producing bacteria strains, capable of producing 12.7–33.0 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% l-histidine, were identified as Staphylococcus sp. (one strain), S. aureus (two strains) and S. aureus subsp. aureus (seven strains), by 16S rDNA sequencing with PCR amplification, they were not determined to be the main contributors to histamine accumulation in suspected swordfish fillets.
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Sixteen salted mullet roe products sold in the retail markets in Taiwan were purchased and tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. The levels of pH, salt content, water content, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and aerobic plate count (APC) in all samples ranged from 5.4 to 5.8, 5.1% to 7.2%, 15.4% to 27.3%, 32.0 to 69.6mg/100g and <1.0 to 7.1logCFU/g, respectively. None of these samples contained total coliform and Escherichia coli. The average content of each of the nine biogenic amines in all samples was less than 4mg/100g, and only one mullet roe sample had the histamine content (8.18mg/100g) greater than the 5.0mg/100g allowable limit suggested by the US Food and Drug Administration. Two histamine-producing bacterial strains capable of producing 10.7ppm and 9.6ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth (TSB) supplemented with 1.0% l-histidine (TSBH) were identified as Staphylococcus carnosus by 16S rDNA sequencing with PCR amplification, and they were isolated from the sample with higher histamine content (8.18mg/100g). Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
The biogenic amine concentration in Rihaakuru (a fish paste) (n = 28), obtained from different parts of the Maldives (North, South, and Central), was determined by HPLC. Ten biogenic amines were detected; agmatine, not detected (ND) - 161 ppm; cadaverine, ND - 387 ppm; histamine, ND - 5487 ppm; putrescine, ND - 290 ppm; phenylethylamine, ND - 23 ppm; serotonin, ND - 91 ppm; spermine, ND - 329 ppm; spermidine, ND - 79 ppm; tryptamine, ND - <5 ppm; and tyramine, ND - 50 ppm. Nine biogenic amines were found in 3 samples, 8 in 10 samples, 7 in 6 samples, 6 in 3 samples, 4 in 5 samples, and 1 was found in 1 sample. Histamine was detected at levels that are regarded as a risk to human health. Fourteen isolates were selected from two randomly selected samples out of the 28 samples of Rihaakuru and screened for histamine production. Twelve of the 14 isolates produced histamine, with the highest histamine producers being Bacillus massiliensis Nai5 (6.65 ppm) and Bacillus polyfermenticus (5.58 ppm); while Bacillus malacitensis produced the least (<0.5 ppm).
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Histamine production from histidine in fermented food results in food spoilage, and is harmful to consumers. From fish-miso, we have isolated a new bacterial strain Staphylococcus epidermidis TYH1, which produced histamine under acidic condition in the medium supplemented with glucose. Using oligonucleotides deduced from the histidine decarboxylase gene (hdcA) of Lactobacillus hilgardii, about 14-kbp DNA region of the TYH1 genome was cloned and sequenced. This region contained two putative genes hdcA(TYH1) and hdcP(TYH1) encoding proteins HdcA(TYH1) (310 amino acid residues) and HdcP(TYH1) (495 residues), respectively. Nucleotide sequence around this hdc cluster showed similarity to SCCpbp4 region of S. epidermidis ATCC 12228. Downstream of the cluster, ccrA, ccrB (Type II, respectively) and pbp4 were located. The CcrA and CcrB proteins catalyzed excision of the hdc cluster from the TYH1 chromosome, upon introduction into the TYH1 strain via multicopy plasmid. When hdcA(TYH1) was expressed in Staphylococcus warneri M, histamine was extracellularly accumulated in dependence on exogenous histidine. These results indicate that the gene encoding a histidine decarboxylase resides in a movable genetic element, SCC. This new element is designated as SCChdc.
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Traditional fermented food is not only the staple food for most of developing countries but also the key healthy food for developed countries. As the healthy function of these foods are gradually discovered, more and more high throughput biotechnologies are being used to promote the old and new industry. As a result, the microflora, manufacturing processes and product healthy function of these foods were pushed forward either in the respect of profundity or extensiveness nowadays. The application and progress of the high throughput biotechnologies into traditional fermented food industries were different from each other, which was reviewed and detailed by the catalogues of fermented milk products (yogurt, cheese), fermented sausages, fermented vegetables (kimchi, sauerkraut), fermented cereals (sourdough) and fermented beans (tempeh, natto). Given the further promotion by high throughput biotechnologies, the middle and/or down-stream process of traditional fermented foods would be optimized and the process of industrialization of local traditional fermented food having many functional factors but in small quantity would be accelerated. The article presents some promising patents on traditional fermented food industry.
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Different lagoon grey mullets such as Liza ramada (thinlip mullet), Liza aurata (golden grey mullet), and Liza saliens (leaping grey mullet) were analyzed for their nutritional, microbiological, and safety parameters. The microbiological values never exceeded the lower limits stipulated by the Italian Higher Institute of Health. The pathogenic species frequently associated with seafood (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Aeromonas hydrophila) were never detected. The absence of coliforms and of Escherichia coli was noted in all fish species after 4 days of storage in ice. Heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury were always below the detection limits (0.01 mg/kg). All three fish species had low levels of total biogenic amines (80 to 100 mg/kg), and the presence of histamine was sporadic. All Liza species, particularly L. ramada and L. saliens, are a good source of omega3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
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Abstract This study was performed to examine the microorganisms responsible for the high tyramine content of Cheonggukjang, a traditional Korean fermented soy food, and to establish a technology for controlling the growth of these microorganisms. The tyramine content in 13 collected Cheonggukjang samples averaged 604.9 mg/kg. Since the tyramine content measured from most samples was sufficient to cause harm to the human body, it is necessary to control its production in food. Enterococci were confirmed to be the bacterial species producing most of the tyramine through the microbial examination and were present in high numbers from not detected (<10(1)) to 7.0×10(10) colony-forming units (CFU)/g. To control the growth of enterococci, various plant extracts with antimicrobial activity, common salts, and variable temperature conditions were tested. It was found that 4 samples among the 159 plant extracts had a strong antimicrobial activity in Cheonggukjang, especially against Enterococcus faecium, showing viable cell counts of <10(1)-10(3) CFU/g after 24 h of ripening, which were significantly lower values compared to the control (10(9)-10(11) CFU/g). The Cheonggukjang with the addition of the four plant extracts showed ∼83%-95% lower concentrations of tyramine compared to the control. Cheonggukjang prepared with the Schizandra chinensis Baillon extract had the lowest tyramine content without sacrificing the sensory quality. Not only was the bacterial species of E. faecium reduced more remarkably, by up to 10(3) CFU/g compared to the 10(9)-10(11) CFU/g shown in the control, but it also decreased the tyramine content by up to 91%.
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The main objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between failures existing at the time of the sale of raw peeled cooled shrimp with the development of bacteria and spoilage and physico-chemical quality. Bacteriological analyses were performed with the quantification of coagulase positive Staphylococcus, Enterobacteria and total counts for bacteria of the genus Salmonella spp. Physical and chemical analysis to investigate the quality of the shrimp were measurement of the temperature at aquisition time, pH determination, total volatile bases (N-TVB) and biogenic amines (histamine, cadaverine and putrescine) by thin layer chromatography method (TLC) and quantification of histamine-positive samples by the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). There was a correlation (R= 0.4202) between physico-chemical parameters and growth of Enterobacteria (>4 log UFC. g -1). The presence of this bacterial group directly influenced the biogenic amines production (63.69%), revealing the presence of cadaverine in 38.3%, histamine in 11.6%, putrescine in 28.3% of the samples. Of the 60 samples, seven detected the presence of histamine (9.10 ± 5.34 mg.100g-1). The presence of Salmonella spp. was associated to high values of temperature during the shrimp marketing. The results presented show that bad conditions of storage and marketing of shrimp influence its deterioration, and may cause health risks to the consumer.
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Forty-one cod steaks, fifteen escolar steaks, and fifteen salted escolar roe products sold in Taiwan market were purchased and tested to determine the biogenic amine, histamine-forming bacteria, and identification of fish species. The levels of pH value, salt content, Aw, TVBN and APC in all samples ranged from 5.3 to 7.0, 0.7 to 5.6%, 0.80 to 0.99, 0.8 to 59.9 mg/100 g and 2.5 to 7.3 log CFU/g, respectively. None of these samples contained coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli. The average content of histamine in all samples was less than 5 mg/100 g US Food and Drug Administration guideline value. Nine histamine-forming bacterial strains isolated from cod, escolar, and salted escolar roe samples produced 2.0–62.3 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth (TSB) supplemented with 1.0% l-histidine (TSBH). Assay of DNA direct sequence and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) revealed that mislabeling rate of 41 cod steaks was 31.6% (13/41). Among them, 7 samples (17%) and 6 samples (14.6%) were identified as Ruvettus pretiosus (oilfish) and Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Greenland halibut), respectively. In addition, most of escolar steaks and salted escolar roe products were identified as Lepidocybium flavobrunneum (escolar), while other samples were identified as R. pretiosus.
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This study was carried out to investigate the biogenic amine content and chemical properties of sufu (furu, in Chinese mandarin), a traditional cheese-like fermented soybean food product produced in China. Thirty-eight samples of sufu collected from the retail market and factories, which had been manufactured in various regions in China, were divided into white, red and grey sufu according to the dressing mixtures used for maturing the product. The biogenic amines and chemical properties exhibited large variations among samples of the same type and brand. Moreover, no consistent significant correlation between the biogenic amines and the chemical properties among the three types of sufu was observed. At least five of the ten biogenic amines studied were found in each type of sufu. In the three types of sufu, putrescine and cadaverine were the most commonly found biogenic amines, and putrescine and tyramine were those in the largest proportions. Serotonin and agmatine were not detected in any sample. The mean total biogenic amine content in grey sufu (570.5 ± 386.4 mg/kg, wet weight basis) was higher than that in white sufu (153.6 ± 160.2 mg/kg) and red sufu (10.9 ± 11.6 mg/kg). Five out of 28 white sufu samples posed histamine intoxication risk (over 50 mg/kg). Therefore, avoidance of excessive consumption of sufu on a regular basis is recommended. The findings suggest sufu should be manufactured under strict hygienic conditions to minimize the biogenic amine content of sufu and its associated risks to health.
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Fibrinolytic enzymes are effective and highly safe in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Therefore, screening fibrinolytic enzyme-producing microbial strains with excellent fermentation performance is of great value to industrial applications. The fibrin plate method was used in screening strains with high yields of fibrinolytic enzymes from different fermented food products, and the screened strains were preliminarily identified using molecular biology. Then, the strains were used for solid-state fermentation of soybeans. Moreover, the fermentation product douchi was subjected to fibrinolytic activity measurement, sensory evaluation, and biogenic amine content determination. The fermentation performance of each strain was comprehensively evaluated through principal component analysis. Finally, the target strain was identified based on strain morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence, and phylogenetic analysis results. A total of 15 Bacillus species with high fibrinolysin activity were selected. Their fibrinolytic enzyme-producing activity levels were higher than 5,500 IU/g. Through molecular biology analysis, we found 4 strains of Bacillus subtilis, 10 strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and 1 strain of Bacillus velezensis. The principal component analysis results showed that SN-14 had the best fermentation performance and reduced the accumulation of histamine and total amine, the fibrinolytic activity of fermented douchi reached 5,920.5 ± 107.7 IU/g, and the sensory score was 4.6 ± 0.3 (out of 5 points). Finally, the combined results of physiological and biochemical analyses showed SN-14 was Bacillus velezensis. The high-yield fibrinolytic and excellent fermentation performance strain Bacillus velezensis SN-14 has potential industrial application. HIGHLIGHTS
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This comprehensive monograph surveys original data on the subject of both dietary tyramine and drug interactions relevant to Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs), about which there is much outdated, incorrect, and incomplete information, in the medical literature and elsewhere. Fewer foods than previously supposed have problematically high tyramine levels because international food hygiene regulations have improved both production and handling. Cheese is the only food that has, in the past, been associated with documented fatalities from hypertension, and now almost all ‘supermarket’ cheeses are perfectly safe in healthy-sized portions. The variability of sensitivity to tyramine between individuals, and the sometimes unpredictable amount of tyramine content in foods, means a little knowledge and care are still advised. The interactions between MAOIs and other drugs are now well understood, are quite straightforward, and are briefly summarized here (by a recognised expert). MAOIs have no pharmaco-kinetic interactions, and the only significant pharmaco-dynamic interaction, other than the ‘cheese reaction’ (caused by indirect sympatho-mimetic activity [ISA], is serotonin toxicity ST (aka serotonin syndrome) which is now well defined and straightforward to avoid by not co-administering any drug with serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SRI) potency. There are no therapeutically used drugs, other than SRIs, that are capable of inducing serious ST with MAOIs. Anaesthesia is not contra-indicated if a patient is taking MAOIs. Most of the previously held concerns about MAOIs turn out to be mythical: they are either incorrect, or over-rated in importance, or stem from apprehensions born out of insufficient knowledge.
Chapter
The consumption of food containing high amounts of histamine and other biogenic amines can cause food poisoning with different symptoms linked to the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by the European Commission in fish and fishery products, because it can lead to a fatal outcome. However, also fermented foods can be involved in outbreaks and sporadic cases of intoxication. The factors affecting the presence of histamine in food are variable and product specific including the availability of the precursor amino acid, the presence of microorganisms producing decarboxylases, and the conditions allowing their growth and enzyme production. Generally, the good quality of raw material and hygienic practices during food processing as well as the use of histidine decarboxylase-negative starter cultures can minimize the occurrence of histamine. Further studies are necessary to estimate the human exposure and the relationship between the total amount of the biogenic amines ingested with food and health effects.
Article
Biogenic amines are formed by microorganisms during fermentation. Major biogenic amines found in food are histamine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, spermidine, and spermine. Doenjang is a traditional fermented food made of soybean and is widely used for cooking of various foods in Korea. During fermentation, harmful substances such as biogenic amines could be produced in Doenjang. In this study, we examined the types and quantities of biogenic amines in commercial Doenjang and analyzed the destructive effects of cooking on biogenic amines in Doenjang. Biogenic amines were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). The concentrations of biogenic amines in commercial Doenjang depended on the manufacturer and ranged from none detected to 415.08 mg/kg. Putrescine and tryptamine were the most abundant biogenic amines in Doenjang samples, whereas cadaverine was not detected in any commercial samples. For all cooking conditions, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, and tyramine were detected in Doenjang, and their concentrations decreased significantly after 10 min of roasting. The total concentration of biogenic amines in Doenjang soup was not changed significantly by boiling. Therefore, roasting, unlike boiling, can be considered more effective at reducing the amount of biogenic amines in Doenjang.
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Biogenic amines are produced by bacterial decarboxylation of corresponding amino acids in foods. Concentration of biogenic amines in fermented food products is affected by several factors in the manufacturing process, including hygienic of raw materials, microbial composition, fermentation condition, and the duration of fermentation. Intake of low amount of biogenic amines normally does not have harmful effect on human health. However, when their amount in food is too high and detoxification ability is inhibited or disturbed, biogenic amines could cause problem. To control concentration of BAs in food, decarboxylase activity for amino acids can be regulated. Levels of BAs can be reduced by several methods such as packaging, additives, hydrostatic pressure, irradiation, pasteurization, smoking, starter culture, oxidizing formed biogenic amine, and temperature. The objective of this review paper was to collect, summarize, and discuss necessary information or useful data based on previous studies in terms of BAs in various foods.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of organic acids, sugars, and oils used as food additives on histamine production by a halotolerant histamine-producing bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis TYH1, isolated from fermented fish paste. The test strain was incubated in LB medium (pH 5.0) containing 0.5% histidine and various concentrations of organic acids, sugars, or oils. TYH1 proliferated and produced significant amounts of histamine in the medium containing 1–10% (w/v) glucose or soybean oil. Histamine production was markedly accelerated in the medium with 30 mM acetic acid, 30 mM malic acid, and 10 mM citric acid. However, histamine accumulation was suppressed by the addition of higher concentrations of organic acids to the medium. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acetic, malic, citric and lactic acids for both histamine accumulation in the medium and proliferation of TYH1 were 80, >100, 30, and >100 mM, respectively. These findings may contribute to the development of techniques to prevent histamine food poisoning.
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Sufu, a traditional Chinese fermented soybean product, is obtained through solid-state fermentation of tofu followed by ripening in a dressing mixture. To explore the functionally important bacteria for sufu industrial production, the dynamics of bacterial community and metabolites during sufu fermentation were investigated and their relationships were elucidated here. The bacterial community was analyzed by both culture-dependent approach and high-throughput sequencing. Flavor compounds and non-volatile polar metabolites were identified and quantified by HS-SPME-GC-MS and ¹H NMR, respectively. The results showed that Enterobacteriaceae, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Lactococcus were predominant taxa during sufu fermentation. Thirty three non-volatile metabolites and 72 flavor compounds were detected. Correlation analysis revealed that the final characteristics of sufu were strongly influenced by Enterobacter and Lactococcus. Unclassified genera of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterobacter were correlated to sugars, such as glucose and fructose, and most of the amino acids. Enterococcus was linked to eight amino acids. Lactococcus is one of the major flavor producers, especially for ester and acids. Pseudomonas was correlated with biogenic amines which were undesirable in sufu, such as histamine and cadaverine. These findings will help to understand the biochemical processes and fermentation mechanism of sufu production.
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The importance of amino acids and biogenic amines is widely recognised in various fields, particularly in the fields of food science and nutrition. This mini-review contains a summary of my main research field that centres on aspects of Food Quality and Food Safety, with a particular emphasis on amino acids and biogenic amines. It also gives an overview of the recent developments on the related areas. ©2019 IUPAC & De Gruyter. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. For more information, please visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ 2019.
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Biogenic amines (BA) are biomolecules of low molecular weight with organic basic functionalities (amine group) that are formed by the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids of fermented food/beverages. Hence BAs are an important indicator in estimating the freshness and quality of meat, sea foods, and industrial food products with high protein content. Reaction of BAs with nitrites available in certain meat products forms nitrosoamine, a carcinogenic compound. Hence BAs are in general considered to be food hazard and monitoring the level of BAs in food samples becomes crucial as their high concentrations may lead to health problems. This review offers an overview on the available chemical and electrochemical methods that are typically used for the sensing of BAs in food samples. Certain compounds are known to selectively interact with BAs via chemical or non-covalent interactions and these interactions are often accompanied by fluorescence or visible color changes (sometimes visual detection), that could be monitored/assessed by fluorescent spectrophotometer or UV-Vis spectrophotometer (colorimetric methods). The colorimetric methods are limited by sensitivity and selectivity as they are based on straight-forward chemical reactions. In the case of electrochemical sensing of BAs, mediators are often used which undergoes oxidation/reduction to produce intermediates that could interact with BAs accompanied by changes in their electrochemical potential. Overall, this review summarizes the available chemical and electrochemical strategies towards the sensing of BAs with a discussion on the further available prospects
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One of the most important initial steps in exporting a food product to another country from the R&D perspective is to describe and translate the sensory characteristics of a food product appropriately into the language of the target country. The objectives of this study were to describe and compare the sensory characteristics of Korean and Japanese style fermented soybean products, and to cross-culturally compare the lexicons of the identical product generated by the Korean and Japanese panelists. Four types of Korean and 4 types of Japanese style fermented soybean consisting of whole bean type and paste type were analyzed. Ten Korean and 9 Japanese panelists were recruited in Korea. Two separate descriptive analyses were conducted, with the panelists differing in their country of origin. Each group was trained, developed lexicon, and conducted descriptive analysis independently. Analysis of variance and various multivariate analyses were applied to delineate the sensory characteristics of the samples and to compare the cross-cultural differences in the usage of lexicon. The Korean and Japanese panelists generated 48 and 36 sensory attributes, respectively. Cross-cultural consensus was shown for evaluating the whole bean type fermented soybean and white miso, which were relatively distinctive samples. However, for the less distinctive samples, the panelists tend to rate higher in negative attributes for the fermented soybeans that originated from the other country. The Japanese panelists grouped the samples by their country of origin and soy sauce flavor was the main attribute for cross-cultural differentiation. However, the Korean panelists did not make a cross-cultural distinction among the samples.
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Thirty-one natural cheese and 39 processed cheese products were collected from food markets in Taiwan and analyzed for bacterial content and histamine-related quality. The natural cheese samples had <1 to 6.84 log colony forming unit (CFU)/g of aerobic plate count (APC) and <3 to 60 most probable number (MPN)/g of total coliform (TC). On the other hand, the processed cheese products had <1 to 4.57 log CFU/g of APC and <3 to 30 MPN/g of TC. None of the tested samples contained Escherichia coli. Only 2 of the natural cheese and 2 of the processed cheese products contained more than 10 MPN/g of TC, which is beyond the regulatory limit of hygienic quality. The tested natural cheese products had an average histamine content of 7.9 mg/100 g, while 17 of them (54.8%) had histamine content greater than the 5 mg/100 g limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for scombroid fish and/or product. In contrast, only 6 processed cheese products (15.4%) had histamine levels greater than this limit. The average content of the other 8 biogenic amines in all tested samples was lower than 2 mg/100 g. Among the 37 presumptive histamine-forming bacterial colonies isolated from the natural cheese products, 15 produced histamine, ranging from 6.4 to 16.4 ppm, in MRS broth supplemented with 0.25% L-histidine. These histamine-producing bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus spp. Of the 7 L. brevis identified, one produced 71.2 ppm of tyramine in histidine-supplemented MRS broth.
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Histamine poisoning can result from the ingestion of food containing unusually high levels of histamine. Fish are most commonly involved in incidents of histamine poisoning, although cheese has also been implicated on occasion. The historic involvement of tuna and mackerel in histamine poisoning led to the longtime usage of the term, scombroid fish poisoning, to describe this food-borne illness. Histamine poisoning is characterized by a short incubation period, a short duration, and symptoms resembling those associated with allergic reactions. The evidence supporting the role of histamine as the causative agent is compelling. The efficacy of antihistamine therapy, the allergic-like symptomology, and the finding of high levels of histamine in the implicated food suggest strongly that histamine is the causative agent. However, histamine ingested with spoiled fish appears to be much more toxic than histamine ingested in an aqueous solution. The presence of potentiators of histamine toxicity in the spoiled fish may account for this difference in toxicity. Several potentiators including other putrefactive amines such as putrescine and cadaverine have been identified. Pharmacologic potentiators may also exist; aminoguanidine and isoniazid are examples. The mechanism of action of these potentiators appears to be the inhibition of intestinal histamine-metabolizing enzymes. This enzyme inhibition causes a decrease in histamine detoxification in the intestinal mucosa and results in increased intestinal uptake and urinary excretion of unmetabolized histamine.
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The sequences of the 16S rRNA genes (rrs genes) of Clostridium chauvoei, the causative agent of blackleg in cattle, and the phenotypically related organism Clostridium septicum were determined. After amplification of 1,507-bp PCR fragments from the corresponding rrs genes, the sequences were determined in a single round of sequencing by using conserved region primers. A sequence similarity analysis of the sequences revealed the close phylogenetic relationship of C. chauvoei and C. septicum in Clostridium cluster I (M. D. Collins, P. A. Lawson, A. Willems, J. J. Cordoba, J. Fernandez-Garayzabal, P. Garcia, J. Cai, H. Hippe, and J. A. E. Farrow, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44:812-826, 1994), which includes Clostridium carnis, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, and Clostridium tetani. We found that 99.3% of the nucleotides in the genes of C. chauvoei and C. septicum are identical.
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Pasteurella aerogenes is known as a commensal bacterium or as an opportunistic pathogen, as well as a primary pathogen found to be involved in abortion cases of humans, swine, and other mammals. Using broad-range DNA probes for bacterial RTX toxin genes, we cloned and subsequently sequenced a new operon namedpaxCABD encoding the RTX toxin PaxA in P. aerogenes. The pax operon is organized analogous to the classical RTX operons containing the activator genepaxC upstream of the structural toxin genepaxA, which is followed by the secretion protein genespaxB and paxD. The highest sequence similarity of paxA with known RTX toxin genes is found withapxIIIA (82%). PaxA is structurally similar to ApxIIIA and also shows functional analogy to ApxIIIA, since it shows cohemolytic activity with the sphingomyelinase of Staphylococcus aureus, known as the CAMP effect, but is devoid of direct hemolytic activity. In addition, it shows to some extent immunological cross-reactions with ApxIIIA. P. aerogenes isolated from various specimens showed that the pax operon was present in about one-third of the strains. All of the pax-positive strains were specifically related to swine abortion cases or septicemia of newborn piglets. These strains were also shown to produce the PaxA toxin as determined by the CAMP phenomenon, whereas none of thepax-negative strains did. This indicated that the PaxA toxin is involved in the pathogenic potential of P. aerogenes. The examined P. aerogenes isolates were phylogenetically analyzed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequencing in order to confirm their species. Only a small heterogeneity (<0.5%) was observed between the rrs genes of the strains originating from geographically distant farms and isolated at different times.
Article
The biogenic amine content of various foods has been widely studied because of their potential toxicity. Biogenic amines, such as tyramine and β-phenylefhylamine, have been proposed as the initiators of hypertensive crisis in certain patients and of dietary-induced migraine. Another amine, histamine, has been implicated as the causative agent in several outbreaks of food poisoning. Histamine poisoning is a foodborne chemical intoxication resulting from the ingestion of foods containing excessive amounts of histamine. Although commonly associated with the consumption of scombroid-type fish, other foods such as cheese have also been associated with outbreaks of histamine poisoning. Fermented foods such as wine, dry sausage, sauerkraut, MISO, and soy sauce can also contain histamine along with other biogenic amines. Microorganisms possessing the enzyme histidine decarboxylase, which converts histidine to histamine, are responsible for the formation of histamine in foods. One organism, Lactobacillus buchneri, may be important to the dairy industry due to its involvement in cheese-related outbreaks of histamine-poisoning. The toxicity of histamine appears to be enhanced by the presence of other biogenic amines found in foods that can inhibit histamine-metabolizing enzymes in the small intestine. Estimating the frequency of histamine poisoning is difficult because most countries do not regulate histamine levels in foods, nor do they require notification when an incident of histamine poisoning occurs. Also, because histamine poisoning closely resembles a food allergy, it may often be misdiagnosed. This review will focus on the importance of histamine and biogenic amines in cheese and other fermented foods. Copyright © International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians.
Article
Seventeen low-sodium and low-salt cheeses and 50 Swiss cheeses were surveyed for histamine and histamine-producing organisms. Two of the low-salt cheeses and nine of the Swiss cheese samples contained greater than 45 mg histamine per 100 g of cheese, as determined by the AOAC method. Over 800 total colonies were randomly chosen and screened for histamine production by the leucocrystal violet detection method following their initial isolation from MRS media. However, none of the leucocrystal violet-positive isolates from the low-salt cheese and only five from the Swiss cheese were found to produce histamine in MRS broth supplemented with L-histidine. Proteolysis (determined by the trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid assay) was also measured in the low-salt cheeses in an attempt to further understand the role of free histidine as a substrate with respect to histamine content. In general, the cheese samples with high histamine levels also had the high values for trichloroacteic acid-soluble nitrogen. However, the highest proteolysis values did not necessarily correlate with the highest histamine values. Two samples of low-salt Swiss cheese that had high trichloroacetic acid-soluble nitrogen (greater than 200 μmoles glycine equivalents per g of cheese) contained less than 15 mg histamine per 100 g cheese. Copyright ©, International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians.
Article
This study was undertaken to find the salt tolerant histamine-forming bacteria in commercial rice-bran pickles of sardine. Eight isolates of histamine-forming bacteria were found in the rice-bran pickles of sardine and shown to be salt tolerant bacteria and mesophiles. Five out of the 8 isolates were nonhalophiles. Especially, 2 out of these 5 isolates produced large amounts of histamine. All isolates were cocci, Gram positive, and non-motile bacteria. They were identified as Staphylococcus biologically. A remarkable histamine producer, strain No. 7 was mixed into a histidine broth added with 10% and 12% NaCl. The histamine level reached 100mg/100ml after 3 days at 37°C. Strain No. 7 seemed to be related to the accumulation of histamine in commercial rice-bran pickles of sardine.
Article
We have studied the histidine decarboxylase activity in 118 strains of bacteria isolated from commercial samples of Spanish semi-preserved anchovies. The lysine and ornithine qualitative decarboxylase activity was also studied. The microorganism that presented the highest histamine activity was Morganella morganii, with 2123.26 ± 414.00 ppm of histamine after 24 h of incubation at 37°C. Two strains of Bacillus spp. and a strain of Staphylococcus xylosus were isolated with the capacity to form 10.54 and 110.00 ppm of histamine, respectively. However, the histidine decarboxylase activity of Bacillus spp. is not likely to be significant to human health. The microbic species with capacity to form histamine and those with capacity to form other biogenic amines were similar. Therefore, the prevention of the proliferation of microorganisms able to form histamine would also mean avoiding amine accumulation that leads to histamine food poisoning. The Niven medium was an efficient test to valutate the histamine production of isolated strains after an incubation of 24 h at 37°C and using a backwards technique for quantification and detecting the false positives. This incubation time should be longer (48 h) when Bacillus is detected, with the finality to eliminate false negatives on the initial screening. The application of the enzymic technique for histamine quantification was excellent. In our research, we have observed that the number of microorganisms is an important factor in the accumulation of histamine, but other factors exist which also influence such accumulation, probably depending on the kind of enzyme decarboxylase.
Article
Histamine and other biogenic amines were evaluated in canned anchovies recalled by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In addition, bacteria were isolated from the products and identified to species. The recalled products were divided into 2 groups of high and low histamine, depending on the histamine contents as determined by the AOAC method. The high histamine group had the histamine contents >200 ppm, and 24 of the 30 cans analyzed belonged to this group. The most prevalent biogenic amine in this group was histamine followed by cadaverine. On the other hand, the low histamine group of 6 cans contained approximately 50 ppm histamine. The most prevalent biogenic amine found in this group of samples was cadaverine at levels >200 ppm. Other biogenic amines, such as putrescine, serotonin, and spermidine, were also detected in all the products, although at varied levels. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts, if present in all of the recalled products, were below the detection limit of 102 colony-forming units (CFU)/g. Bacteria were recovered only after enrichment of the test samples. They were mostly halophilic bacteria. Bacillus spp. were most frequently identified, followed by Staphylococcus spp. However, these isolates produced negligible amounts of histamine in culture broth, indicating that they are not the contributors to histamine accumulation in the canned anchovies.
Article
The occurrence of histamine, histamine-forming bacteria and yeast were tested in 37 mustard pickle products sold in both retail markets and supermarkets in southern Taiwan. Aerobic plate count (APC), total coliform, and Escherichia coli were also tested for microbiological quality. Salt content, pH value, titratable acidity and sulphite content were determined for quality of mustard pickle products. Only one retail market sample and one supermarket sample had 8.9 and 7.4 mg histamine per 100 g products, although the average content for each of the nine biogenic amines was less than 2 mg/100 g. Ten histamine-forming bacterial strains and 6 histamine-producing yeast strains capable of producing 8.7 to 1260 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth (TSB) supplemented with 1% l-histidine (TSBH) were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (four strains),Staphylococcus pasteuri (two strains), Enterobacter cloacae (four strains), Candida glabrata (two strains) and Candida rugosa (four strains). S. capitis, which was previously reported to be halotolerant, was a potent histamine-former, capable of producing more than 1000 ppm of histamine in TSBH in the presence of 0.5–10% NaCl. The numbers of the aerobic plate count (APC) in all samples were below the Taiwanese regulatory level of 5 log CFU/g. None of the samples contained total coliform or E. coli. The values of pH, salt content, titratable acidity and sulphite content in all samples ranged from 3.8% to 5.0%, 2.0% to 10.0%, 0.21% to 1.18% and <2.0–1876 ppm, respectively.
Article
Twenty-seven miso products sold in supermarkets and 13 products sold in retail markets were purchased from southern Taiwan, and tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. The levels of pH, salt content, and aerobic plate count (APC) in all samples ranged from 5.1 to 5.8, 6.1% to 13.8%, and 2.1 to 9.1 log CFU/g, respectively. Only one of the supermarket miso products contained 100 MPN/g total coliform. None of these samples contained Escherichia coli. Although the average content for each of the nine biogenic amines in all samples was less than 5 mg/100 g, two supermarket samples (22.1 and 11.9 mg/100 g) and one retail market sample had histamine content (10.2 mg/100 g) greater than the 5.0 mg/100 g allowable limit suggested by the US Food and Drug Administration. Eight histamine-producing bacterial strains, capable of producing 10.4–39.4 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth (TSB) supplemented with 1.0% l-histidine (TSBH), were identified as Staphylococcus pasteuri (one strain), Bacillus sp. (one strain), B. amyloliquefaciens (two strains), B. subtilis (two strains) and B. megaterium (two strains), by 16S rDNA sequencing with PCR amplification.
Article
Twenty kimchi products sold in supermarkets and 17 products sold in retail markets were purchased from southern Taiwan and tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. The levels of pH and salt content in all samples ranged from 3.6 to 5.1 and 1.5–16.0%, respectively. The supermarket kimchi products had 1–7.2 log CFU/g of APC and <3–600 MPN/g of total coliform (TC), and the retail market kimchi products had 4–8.03 log CFU/g of APC and <3 to >2400 MPN/g of TC. Only one of the retail market kimchi products contained 20 MPN/g Escherichia coli. Although, supermarket kimchi products had an average histamine content of 49.8 mg/100 g, 15 of them had histamine content greater than 5 mg/100 g, the allowable level set by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for scombroid fish and/or product. In contrast, only eight retail market kimchi products had histamine levels greater than 5 mg/100 g. Among the supermarket samples, three contained histamine at 50.2, 273 and 535 mg/100 g, that are more than the 50 mg/100 g hazard action level. Four histamine-producing bacteria capable of producing 13.6–43.1 ppm of histamine in MRS broth supplemented with 0.25% l-histidine were identified as Lactobacillus para. paracasei (one strain), Lb. brevis (one strain), and Brevibacillus brevis (two strains). To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the occurrence of high contents of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria in kimchi products.
Article
Twelve white and ten brown sufu products sold in the supermarkets in southern Taiwan were purchased and tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. The levels of pH, salt content, and aerobic plate count (APC) in all samples ranged from 4.6 to 6.6, 6.2% to 12.0%, and 3.0 to 7.9 log CFU/g, respectively. None of these samples contained total coliform and Escherichia coli. Although the average content for each of the nine biogenic amines in all samples was less than 5 mg/100 g, only one brown sufu sample had histamine content (15.8 mg/100 g) greater than the 5.0 mg/100 g allowable limit suggested by the US Food and Drug Administration. Two histamine-producing bacterial strains capable of producing 1.33 mg/100 ml and 1.34 mg/100 ml of histamine in trypticase soy broth (TSB) supplemented with 1.0% l-histidine (TSBH) were identified as Bacillus subtilis by 16S rDNA sequencing with PCR amplification.
Article
Biogenic amines are natural antinutrition factors and are important from a hygienic point of view as they have been implicated as the causative agents in a number of food poisoning episodes, and they are able to initiate various pharmacological reactions. Histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, spermine, and spermidine are considered to be the most important biogenic amines occurring in foods. These amines are designated as biogenic because they are formed by the action of living organisms. Histamine has been implicated as the causative agent in several outbreaks of food poisoning, while tyramine and β-phenylethylamine have been proposed as the initiators of hypertensive crisis. The toxicity of biogenic amines to chicks in terms of loss of weight and mortality was also reported. The toxicity of histamine appeared to be enhanced by the presence of other amines such as cadaverine, putrescine, and tyramine. Biogenic amines may also be considered as carcinogens because of their ability to react with nitrites to form potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines. The biogenic amine content of various foods and feed have been widely studied and found in cheese, fish and meat products, eggs and mushrooms. Food substances that have been prepared by a fermentative process, or have been exposed to microbial contamination during aging or storage, are likely to contain amines. Alcoholic beverages such as beers can contain biogenic amines, as do some other fermented foods such as sauerkraut and soy bean products. Amines were also considered as endogenous to plant substance that is commonly used for food, where some fruits and vegetables were found to contain high concentrations of various amines.
Article
Twenty-seven imported fermented fish products from Southeast Asian countries and sold in the supermarkets in Taiwan, including fish sauce, fish paste and shrimp paste, were tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. The levels of pH, salt content, total volatile basic nitrogen, trimethylamine, and aerobic plate count in all samples ranged from 4.8% to 6.5%, 16.2% to 45.3%, 51 to 275 mg/100 g, 5.4 to 53.9 mg/100 g and 1.0 to 4.2 log CFU/g, respectively. The average content for each of eight different biogenic amines in all samples was less than 90 ppm, except for histamine which has an average content of 394 ppm in fish sauce, 263 ppm in fish paste, and 382 ppm in shrimp paste. Most of the tested fermented fish products (92.6%) had histamine levels greater than the FDA guideline of 50 ppm, while seven of them (25.9%) contained >500 ppm of histamine. Although Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus megaterium were identified as the two histamine-producing bacteria capable of producing 13.7 and 8.1 ppm of histamine, respectively, in trypticase soy broth broth supplemented with 1.0% l-histidine, they were not determined to be the main contributors to histamine accumulation in these fermented fish products.
Article
This chapter discusses about histamine toxicity from fish products, often called scombroid poisoning, generally involves the ingestion of scombroid fish from the families Scomberesocidae and Scombridae. Scombroid fish include saury, tuna, bonito, seerfish, butterfly kingfish, and mackerel. The free histidine can, under certain conditions, be decarboxylated by some bacteria to produce high levels of histamine. Scombroid fish poisoning clinically resembles that of histamine poisoning intoxication, although controversy still exists as to whether histamine ingested orally is actually toxic, whether histamine is the sole toxic factor or not. It is generally found at high concentrations in foods causing scombroid poisoning. “Samma sakuraboshi” was incriminated in many of the Japanese histamine and histamine–like fish poisonings. The incriminated fish generally contains histamine levels in excess of 100 mg%. No fish could be obtained for chemical analysis, but the outbreak was presumed to be caused by bacterial degradation of histidine to histamine. It is most likely that the histamine produced by autolysis was because of previous bacterial contamination or unsterile conditions during experimentation, thus enabling histamine production by the contaminating microorganisms. However, the use of ammonia levels as a freshness indicator becomes unreliable when fish are kept at a room temperatures of 20°C. Several studies of bacterial histidine decarboxylase have indicated that the addition of vitamins and coenzymes did not enhance histamine formation. Histamine formation in aerated cultures, achieved by the addition of bubbled gas, was much less than that from anaerobic and aerobic cultures.
Article
The peroral toxicity of histamine in the guinea-pig is shown to be potentiated by simultaneous administration of cadaverine. Toxic effects are observed with relative cadaverine-histamine levels that are similar to those found in scombrotoxic fish. On the basis of currently available evidence, it seems likely that cadaverine, along with histamine, is of importance in the aetiology of scombroid poisoning.
Article
The existence of a potent fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase, NK) in the traditional fermented food called 'natto', was reported by us previously. It was confirmed that oral administration of NK (or natto) produced a mild and frequent enhancement of the fibrinolytic activity in the plasma, as indicated by the fibrinolytic parameters, and the production of tissue plasminogen activator. NK capsules were also administered orally to dogs with experimentally induced thrombosis, and lysis of the thrombi was observed by angiography. The results obtained suggest that NK represents a possible drug for use not only in the treatment of embolism but also in the prevention of the disease, since NK has a proven safety and can be massproduced.
Article
A strong fibrinolytic activity was demonstrated in the vegetable cheese Natto, which is a typical soybean food eaten in Japan. The average activity was calculated at about 40 CU (plasmin units)/g wet weight. This novel fibrinolytic enzyme, named nattokinase, was easily extracted with saline. The mol. wt and pI were about 20,000 and 8.6, respectively. Nattokinase not only digested fibrin but also the plasmin substrate H-D-Val-Leu-Lys-pNA (S-2251), which was more sensitive to the enzyme than other substrates tried. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate and 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl-o,o-dimethylphosphate strongly inhibited this fibrinolytic enzyme.
Article
A histidine-containing agar medium has been devised for quantitative detection of histamine-producing bacteria that are alleged to be associated with scombroid fish poisoning outbreaks. The responsible bacteria produce a marked pH change in the agar, with attendant color change of pH indicator adjacent to the colonies, thus facilitating their recognition. Proteus morganii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two most common histidine-decarboxylating species isolated from scombroid fish and mahi mahi.
A rapid, sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of nine biogenic amines in fish by improved benzoylation with benzoyl chloride was developed. The benzoylation of amines with benzoyl chloride at 30 degrees C for 40 min was the optimal condition to eliminate the influence of interfering peaks during analysis. The calibration curve for each amine was linear within the range of 0.02-4 microg. The amine recovery from fish meat was better by extraction with 6% trichloroacetic acid than with 1 M HClO4. The application of this method to detect amines in a fried marlin fillet implicated in a food poisoning incident indicated that a high level (84.1 mg/100 g) of histamine was present in the sample.
Article
Soybeans, tea leaves, and mushrooms were conspicuously rich in spermidine, while oranges contained a large amount of putrescine. Among the fermented foods, soy sauces were rich in putrescine and histamine, while Japanese sake contained plenty of agmatine. These polyamines are thought to be produced from amino acids during fermentation with amino acid decarboxylases formed by the micro-organisms.
Article
This study was performed to investigate halotolerant and halophilic histamine-producing bacteria isolated during the ripening of salted anchovies. Of the isolates obtained during the ripening of anchovies, 1.37% showed histamine-forming activity, most of them (70%) belonging to the Staphylococcus genus. S. epidermidis showed a powerful histamine-forming activity, producing more than 1,000 microg/ml in the presence of 3% and 10% NaCl. Another powerful histamine-producing bacterium isolated during the ripening of salted anchovies was S. capitis. It was able to produce about 400 microg/ml of histamine in 10% NaCl under experimental conditions. Most of these species might be expected to be found as a result of contamination of fish during capture and subsequent unhygienic handling. However, no increase in histamine content was found in any batches through the ripening process. Histamine content always was acceptable in accordance with the maximum allowable levels of histamine fixed by the Spanish and European Union regulations.
Article
Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (> or =50 mg/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the pathogenesis of HFP has not been clearly elucidated. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain why histamine consumed in spoiled fish is more toxic than pure histamine taken orally, but none has proved totally satisfactory. Urocanic acid, like histamine, an imidazole compound derived from histidine in spoiling fish, may be the "missing factor" in HFP. cis-Urocanic acid has recently been recognised as a mast cell degranulator, and endogenous histamine from mast cell degranulation may augment the exogenous histamine consumed in spoiled fish. HFP is a mild disease, but is important in relation to food safety and international trade. Consumers are becoming more demanding, and litigation following food poisoning incidents is becoming more common. Producers, distributors and restaurants are increasingly held liable for the quality of the products they handle and sell. Many countries have set guidelines for maximum permitted levels of histamine in fish. However, histamine concentrations within a spoiled fish are extremely variable, as is the threshold toxic dose. Until the identity, levels and potency of possible potentiators and/or mast-cell-degranulating factors are elucidated, it is difficult to establish regulatory limits for histamine in foods on the basis of potential health hazard. Histidine decarboxylating bacteria produce histamine from free histidine in spoiling fish. Although some are present in the normal microbial flora of live fish, most seem to be derived from post-catching contamination on board fishing vessels, at the processing plant or in the distribution system, or in restaurants or homes. The key to keeping bacterial numbers and histamine levels low is the rapid cooling of fish after catching and the maintenance of adequate refrigeration during handling and storage. Despite the huge expansion in trade in recent years, great progress has been made in ensuring the quality and safety of fish products. This is largely the result of the introduction of international standards of food hygiene and the application of risk analysis and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) principles.
Histamine poisoning associated with fish, cheese, and other foods. Monograph, World Health Organization. VPH/FOS/85.1
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Taylor, S.L. (1985). Histamine poisoning associated with Wsh, cheese, and other foods. Monograph, World Health Organization. VPH/FOS/85.1. Geneva.
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