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Abstract

Relying on four in-depth case studies of firms involved with open source software, we investigate how firms make use of open source communities, and how that use is associated with their business models. Three themes – accessing, aligning and assimilating – are inductively developed for how the firms relate to the external knowledge created in the communities. For each theme, we make an argument about the tactics associated with each theme and their positive and negative consequences. The findings are related to the literature on the open and distributed nature of innovation, and various theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

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... Open Source Software (OSS) is for many firms today a fundamental building block for creating, delivering and supporting their product and service offerings, or internal operations [1,2]. The development and maintenance of an OSS project are performed within a software ecosystem [3], often referred to as a community. ...
... Instead, the firm is a stakeholder among many which may introduce conflicting agendas from other stakeholders [6,7,8], and a new type of power and politics than the firm might be used to [9]. Consequences may include a lack of control over what requirements that are implemented, and miss-alignment with the firm's internal RE process [1,10]. A firm who wish to affect the RE process according to their agenda may, therefore, have to build up an influence within the community [7]. ...
... For a firm engaged in many communities, such investments may be costly if it is distributed over all communities. It may be that only a few communities are of such strategic importance to the firm, and are in a state where the firm needs to have an influence on their RE processes [1]. For a strategic community that is healthy, predictable and aligned with a firm's internal agenda, it may be that a high level of influence is not motivated [2]. ...
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Context: In the Requirements Engineering (RE) process of an Open Source Software (OSS) community, an involved firm is a stakeholder among many. Conflicting agendas may create miss-alignment with the firm's internal requirements strategy. In communities with meritocratic governance or with aspects thereof, a firm has the opportunity to affect the RE process in line with their own agenda by gaining influence through active and symbiotic engagements. Objective: The focus of this study has been to identify what aspects that firms should consider when they assess their need of influencing the RE process in an OSS community, as well as what engagement practices that should be considered in order to gain this influence. Method: Using a design science approach, 21 interviews with 18 industry professionals from 12 different software-intensive firms were conducted to explore, design and validate an artifact for the problem context. Results: A Community Strategy Framework (CSF) is presented to help firms create community strategies that describe if and why they need influence on the RE process in a specific (meritocratic) OSS community, and how the firm could gain it. The framework consists of aspects and engagement practices. The aspects help determine how important an OSS project and its community is from business and technical perspectives. A community perspective is used when considering the feasibility and potential in gaining influence. The engagement practices are intended as a tool-box for how a firm can engage with a community in order to build influence needed. Conclusion: It is concluded from interview-based validation that the proposed CSF may provide support for firms in creating and tailoring community strategies and help them to focus resources on communities that matter and gain the influence needed on their respective RE processes.
... Dell'Era et al. (2020) recently demonstrated for the free software, the postmodern design and the slow food movements, GOCs can have a strong impact on traditional business models and enforce deep transformations in society and industries. Private companies (PCs) that manage to collaborate with them can benefit greatly from an extension of resources and perspectives when solving a technological or social challenge (e.g., Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008;Stürmer et al., 2009). However, other research acknowledges that PCs often struggle in OI collaborations with GOCs due to an incompatibility of core values, structures and processes (e.g., Boudreau & Lakhani, 2009;Haefliger et al., 2011;Kera, 2014;Shaikh & Levina, 2019), although explanations for such incompatibilities are fuzzy. ...
... The first and most recent one investigates how PCs can establish ODI collaboration with radical circles, that is, groups of individuals who connect voluntarily and tightly to collaborate outside organizational schemes for developing an radical vision, to benefit from inspiration and support with the development of new products, services and business models (Altuna et al., 2017;Dell'Era et al., 2020;Vanhaverbeke, 2017 Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008;Ferdinand & Meyer, 2017;Pénin & Wack, 2008). ...
... While PCs engage in ODI with GOCs to remain competitive and to reap the benefits of innovations in market economies (Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008;Dahlander & Wallin, 2006;Henttonen et al., 2012;Piva & Rossi-Lamastra, 2012;Stam, 2009;von Hippel & von Krogh, 2006), GOCs operate in a 'social economy' (Hargreaves et al., 2013, p. 869) which is designed to assist with the creation of solutions where markets fail to do so. GOCs are driven by the aim to solve pressing real-life societal problems such as deficit resource consumption (Altuna et al., 2017;Dell'Era et al., 2018), sustainability transitions (Seyfang & Haxeltine, 2012;Hargreaves et al., 2013.;Seyfang ...
Article
In the scholarly discussion of inbound innovation, open innovation approaches for how private companies (PCs) can collaborate with grassroots-driven open communities (GOCs) have received much less attention than crowdsourcing approaches. At the same time, research acknowledges that PCs struggle to collaborate with GOCs in open distributed innovation (ODI) processes due to the incompatibility of central values, structures and activities. Based on the results of a systematic literature review that identifies (1) incompatibilities and (2) collaborative practice(s) and structures to resolve incommensurability between the parties, this paper conceptualizes a GOC-PC ODI framework and propositions for successful collaboration.
... However, in this new open context, RE has moved to become more decentralized and collaborative with an evolving set of stakeholders. This may lead to an increased innovation potential for a firm's technology and product offerings, but also imply frictional losses [5]. Conflicting interests and strategies may arise, which may diminish a firms own impact in regards to feature selection and control of product planning [6]. ...
... For firms engaged in OSS ecosystems [3] [9], this is important input to their product planning and contribution strategies. Disclosure of differentiating features to competitors, un-synced release cycles, extra patch-work and missed out collaboration opportunities are some possible consequences if the identification and analysis of the ecosystem's stakeholders is not done properly [6] [2] [5]. Most identification methods however refer to the context of traditional software development and lack empirical validation in the context of OSS ecosystems [13]. ...
... The same reasoning also applies for analysis of competitors. Due to the increased openness and decreased distance to competitors implied by joining an ecosystem [7], it becomes more important and interesting to track what the competitors do [5]. Knowing about their existing collaborations, contributions, and interests in specific features offer valuable information about the competitors' strategies and tactics [24]. ...
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[Context and motivation] Ecosystems developed as Open Source Software (OSS) are considered to be highly innovative and reactive to new market trends due to their openness and wide-ranging contributor base. Participation in OSS often implies opening up of the software development process and exposure towards new stakeholders. [Question/Problem] Firms considering to engage in such an environment should carefully consider potential opportunities and challenges upfront. The openness may lead to higher innovation potential but also to frictional losses for engaged firms. Further, as an ecosystem progresses, power structures and influence on feature selection may fluctuate accordingly. [Principal ideas/results] We analyze the Apache Hadoop ecosystem in a quantitative longitudinal case study to investigate changing stakeholder influence and collaboration patterns. Further, we investigate how its innovation and time-to-market evolve at the same time. [Contribution] Findings show collaborations between and influence shifting among rivaling and non-competing firms. Network analysis proves valuable on how an awareness of past, present and emerging stakeholders, in regards to power structure and collaborations may be created. Furthermore, the ecosystem's innovation and time-to-market show strong variations among the release history. Indications were also found that these characteristics are influenced by the way how stakeholders collaborate with each other.
... Another issue besides awareness, is managing conflicts and different needs of the stakeholders [16]. As they may have clashing intents with business stakes involved, creating a common vision becomes troublesome [2]. In such cases it may be beneficial to know who are aligned and those to persuade, as some stakeholders could be unknown and reside silent until confronted. ...
... Stakeholder management may hence be considered as an important area to master for a firm to adapt itself to an OSS community, as well as to gain and maintain a profitable position with sustainable influence in the community's governance structure [2]. Consequently, it may further be considered an enabling factor for firms to more effectively be able to perform other RE practices such as elicitation, prioritization and release planning in relation to the community [7]. ...
... Reasons for opening up and releasing a software project, or parts of it, could be many, and often of a strategic nature [2]. On an upper management level, such decisions may be rare, and with time to analyze. ...
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In recent years Open Innovation (OI) has gained much attention and made firms aware that they need to consider the open environment surrounding them. To facilitate this shift Requirements Engineering (RE) needs to be adapted in order to manage the increase and complexity of new requirements sources as well as networks of stakeholders. In response we build on and advance an earlier proposed software engineering framework for fostering OI, focusing on stakeholder management, when to open up, and prioritization and release planning. Literature in open source RE is contrasted against recent findings of OI in software engineering to establish a current view of the area. Based on the synthesized findings we propose a research agenda within the areas under focus, along with a framing-model to help researchers frame and break down their research questions to consider the different angles implied by the OI model.
... To gain potential benefits by acting in line with contribution objectives, an organization needs to access the external workforce, either by contributing its software artifacts to an existing OSS community or by creating a new community, each with its respective costs and risks [11]. In either case, the organization then needs to work actively to align its internal strategy with the community where they are a stakeholder among many, potentially including competitors with conflicting agendas [10,12]. ...
... A common theme is the cost-saving aspects [3,49,50]. By extending the resource-base [11] and agreeing on a common standard [74], organizations can share the maintenance and quality assurance, accelerate the development and potentially decrease their time-to-release and market [23,27,42,44,48,66]. By freeing up internal resources, they can focus on more value-adding activities [42,48,68]. ...
... By opening up the innovation process [8] and "pooling" the R&D/product development [74], organizations get access to an external workforce [43], which may bring increased knowledge sharing [44,51] and innovation at a lower cost [66,80]. However, this external workforce should be seen as a complement rather than a substitute for internal knowledge and development [11,65]. Munir et al. [50] describe it as a catalyst for ideas that may help organizations in broadening their offerings. ...
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Context: Software-intensive organizations' rationale for sharing Open Source Software (OSS) may be driven by both idealistic, strategic and commercial objectives, and include both monetary as well as non-monetary benefits. To gain the potential benefits, an organization may need to consider what they share and how, while taking into account risks, costs and other complexities. Objective: This study aims to empirically investigate objectives and complexities organizations need to consider and balance between when deciding on what software to share as OSS, when to share it, and whether to create a new or contribute to an existing community. Method: A multiple-case study of three case organizations was conducted in two research cycles, with data gathered from interviews with 20 practitioners from these organizations. The data was analyzed qualitatively in an inductive and iterative coding process. Results: 12 contribution objectives and 15 contribution complexities were found. Objectives include opportunities for improving reputation, managing suppliers, managing partners and competitors, and exploiting externally available knowledge and resources. Complexities include risk of loosing control, risk of giving away competitive advantage, risk of creating negative exposure, costs of contributing, and the possibility and need to contribute to an existing or new community. Conclusions: Cross-case analysis and interview validation show that the identified objectives and complexities offer organizations a possibility to reflect on and adapt their contribution strategies based on their specific contexts and business goals.
... an OI perspective. Dahlander & Magnusson [27] describe how a firm may access the OSS ecosystems in order to extend its resource base and align its product strategy with ecosystems' strategies. In another study, Dahlander & Magnusson [28] describe how a firm can adapt its relationships with the OSS ecosystems based on how much influence the firm needs, e.g., by openly contributing back to the OSS ecosystem, or by keeping new features internal. ...
... Hence, the limited attention that contribution strategies have gotten is not surprising with some exceptions [15,16]. There is literature explaining general incentives and strategies for how firms should act [27,5,47], but neither of the aforementioned or existing models [19,20] consider aspects specific to OSS, and how firms should synchronize internal product strategy and planning with OSS ecosystem participation [2]. This study aims to address this research gap through a close academia and industry collaboration. ...
... This contribution affects the OSS which in turn is sourced in an outside-in direction [7] from the ecosystem to the firm and is a key enabler in achieving the potential benefits of OI [2]. Earlier research in this area of OI [1], and OSS [2], is sparse and often limited to a management level (e.g., [28,27,18,19]). To occupy this research gap, we aim to design a solution that supports firms in strategic product planning. We pose our first research question (RQ1) as: ...
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Open Source Software (OSS) ecosystems have reshaped the ways how software-intensive firms develop products and deliver value to customers. However, firms still need support for strategic product planning in terms of what to develop internally and what to share as OSS. Existing models accurately capture commoditization in software business, but lack operational support to decide what contribution strategy to employ in terms of what and when to contribute. This study proposes a Contribution Acceptance Process (CAP) model from which firms can adopt contribution strategies that align with product strategies and planning. In a design science influenced case study executed at Sony Mobile, the CAP model was iteratively developed in close collaboration with the firm's practitioners. The CAP model helps classify artifacts according to business impact and control complexity so firms may estimate and plan whether an artifact should be contributed or not. Further, an information meta-model is proposed that helps operationalize the CAP model at the organization. The CAP model provides an operational OI perspective on what firms involved in OSS ecosystems should share, by helping them motivate contributions through the creation of contribution strategies. The goal is to help maximize return on investment and sustain needed influence in OSS ecosystems.
... L'Open Source met donc en relation des organisations et des communautés de personnes qui se créent autour de projets Open Source (Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008). ...
... La deuxième typologie des liens avec les communautés de projets Open Source utilise les cinq stratégies de réponses à des pressions institutionnelles, qui sont les suivantes : l'accord (« acquiescence »), le compromis (« compromise »), l'évitement (« avoidance »), la défiance (« defiance ») et la manipulation (« manipulation ») (Mouakhar & Tellier, 2017, p. 5;Oliver, 1991 (Sims & Seidel, 2016;Stam, 2009 (Ciesielska & Westenholz, 2016;Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008;Lisein et al., 2009;Morgan et al., 2013;Mouakhar & Tellier, 2017 ;Stam, 2009 ) Formalisé Formalisme ...
... Mettre en place des règles, des licences, clarifier la propriété du code produit par les communautés et les organisations Partager le développement avec les communautés de concurrents, intermédiaires, sur les composants non différenciants (Ciesielska & Westenholz, 2016;Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008;Germonprez et al., 2017;Lerner & Tirole, 2002) Orienté Résultat (Ciesielska & Westenholz, 2016;Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008;Germonprez et al., 2017;Lisein et al., 2009;Mouakhar & Tellier, 2017;Schaarschmidt et al., 2015) Rameur ...
Thesis
L’Open Source est apparu dans l’industrie du logiciel au début des années 1980 sous le terme de logiciel libre (Von Hippel, 2001). Il est maintenant utilisé dans toutes les infrastructures digitales et certaines industries en dehors du logiciel ont commencé à s’y intéresser. L’Open Source est une forme aboutie d’Open Innovation (Chesbrough, 2003, 2006, 2017) qui fédère autour de projets Open Source des organisations et des communautés externes (Von Hippel & Von Krogh, 2003) générant ainsi des formes nouvelles d’organisations et de business models. L’adoption organisationnelle de l’Open Source se décline en deux axes, un axe d’utilisation de méthodes, outils et composants Open Source et un axe d’implication dans ces communautés Open Source. Les organisations font face à des dilemmes d’ouverture pour l’adoption de l’Open Source et sous-estiment les rôles de leur implication dans les communautés et du degré d’ouverture de leur offre dans la performance de leurs business models. Nous nous concentrons sur les organisations utilisatrices et offreuses de solutions Open Source. L’objectif de la recherche est d’étudier pourquoi et pour quelles conséquences les organisations adoptent l’Open Source comme mode d’innovation. Nous montrons qu’envisager ces dilemmes d’ouverture sous la forme de paradoxes permet de trouver des voies vertueuses de développement et de performance (Lauritzen & Karafyllia, 2019; Smith & Lewis, 2011). Nous utilisons pour étudier ces business models le cadre d’analyse RCOV – Ressources, Compétences, Organisation, proposition de Valeur - (Demil & Lecocq, 2010; Warnier, Lecocq, & Demil, 2012). Avec un positionnement « positiviste aménagé », dans une première phase de notre design de recherche, grâce à 24 entretiens d’experts, nous explorons et améliorons les panoramas conceptuels des déterminants et facilitateurs principaux pour l’adoption de pratiques Open Source par les organisations informatiques et industrielles. Puis dans une deuxième phase quantitative, par une modélisation structurelle appliquée à une enquête commanditée par le CNLL, le Syntec-Numérique et Systematic-Paris-Région en 2017, nous identifions trois formes d’implication dans les communautés et nous distinguons deux types de business models. Nous montrons par une analyse multi-groupes qu’en fonction de ces deux types, les facettes d’implication dans les communautés n’ont pas le même impact sur la performance perçue par les organisations. L’implication de type formalisé qui est la plus choisie par les organisations est moins performante que d’autres formes d’implication.
... To gain potential benefits by acting in line with contribution objectives, an organization needs to access the external workforce, either by contributing its software artifacts to an existing OSS community or by creating a new community, each with its respective costs and risks (Dahlander and Magnusson 2008). In either case, the organization then needs to work actively to align its internal strategy with the community where they are a stakeholder among many, potentially including competitors with conflicting agendas Magnusson 2005, 2006). ...
... A common theme is the cost-saving aspects (Munir et al. 2018b(Munir et al. , 2016Andersen-Gott et al. 2012). By extending the resource-base (Dahlander and Magnusson 2008) and agreeing on a common standard (West and Gallagher 2006), organizations can share the maintenance and quality assurance, accelerate the development and potentially decrease their time-torelease and market (Munir et al. 2018a;Stuermer et al. 2009;Henkel 2006;Lindman et al. 2009;Olsson and Bosch 2017;Lundell et al. 2011). By freeing up internal resources, they can focus on more value-adding activities (Munir et al. 2018a; Van der Linden et al. 2009;Lindman et al. 2009). ...
... By opening up the innovation process (Chesbrough and Appleyard 2007) and "pooling" the R&D/product development (West and Gallagher 2006), organizations get access to an external workforce (Lundell et al. 2010), which may bring increased knowledge sharing (Nagle 2018;Lundell et al. 2011) and innovation at a lower cost (Stuermer et al. 2009;Ziegler et al. 2014). However, this external workforce should be seen as a complement rather than a substitute for internal knowledge and development (Stam 2009;Dahlander and Magnusson 2008). Munir et al. (2016) describe it as a catalyst for ideas that may help organizations in broadening their offerings. ...
Article
Full-text available
Context Software-intensive organizations’ rationale for sharing Open Source Software (OSS) may be driven by both idealistic, strategic and commercial objectives, and include both monetary as well as non-monetary benefits. To gain the potential benefits, an organization may need to consider what they share and how, while taking into account risks, costs and other complexities. Objective This study aims to empirically investigate objectives and complexities organizations need to consider and balance between when deciding on what software to share as OSS, when to share it, and whether to create a new or contribute to an existing community. Method A multiple-case study of three case organizations was conducted in two research cycles, with data gathered from interviews with 20 practitioners from these organizations. The data was analyzed qualitatively in an inductive and iterative coding process. Results 12 contribution objectives and 15 contribution complexities were found. Objectives include opportunities for improving reputation, managing suppliers, managing partners and competitors, and exploiting externally available knowledge and resources. Complexities include risk of loosing control, risk of giving away competitive advantage, risk of creating negative exposure, costs of contributing, and the possibility and need to contribute to an existing or new community. Conclusions Cross-case analysis and interview validation show that the identified objectives and complexities offer organizations a possibility to reflect on and adapt their contribution strategies based on their specific contexts and business goals.
... Over time the boundaries between the two theories have been blurring (Bogers et al., 2017) as long as firms have started to apply more and more 'distributed' (Bogers and West, 2012) or 'networked' (Hurmellina-Laukkanen et al., 2021) collaboration strategies mixing up elements typical of both the paradigms (Bartl et al., 2012;da Mota Pedrosa et al., 2013;Dahlander and Magnusson, 2008;de Araújo Burcharth et al., 2014;Hienerth et al., 2014a,b). ...
... On the side of firms, over time the many advantages of involving users in innovation processes have become clear to firms (von Hippel, 2006). Therefore, firms started putting in place new strategies, organizational solutions, routines, and managerial processes to optimize the contributions provided by users (Dahlander and Magnusson, 2008;Bartl et al., 2012;Hienerth et al., 2011Hienerth et al., , 2014aKatila et al., 2017). ...
... Aligning firms' aims and strategies with users' goals and needs is not easy but it is key to ensure success to the collaboration (Hienerth et al., 2014a,b;Pisano and Verganti, 2008;Van Oost et al., 2009). Changes in a firm's business model (Dahlander and Magnusson, 2008) and strategic leadership levels may also be needed (Bartl et al., 2012;da Mota Pedrosa et al., 2013) to prepare the ground for collaboration with users and to reduce potential defensiveness against external ideas among employees (de Araújo Burcharth et al., 2014). The same can be said for a firm's platform designs and reward structures, which can enhance users' involvement (Nambisan et al., 1999;Foss et al., 2013). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to systematize and consolidate scattered literature on the theme of firm-user collaboration by focusing on the strategic, organizational, and managerial dynamics of firms. To achieve this aim, a systematic review of 152 articles was carried out. Papers were first organized into six clusters of firm-user collaboration: (1) Identifying and Selecting Users and Ideas, (2) Organizing Collaboration with Users, (3) Networking with Users, (4) Engaging Users in the Innovation Process, (5) Developing Resources and Capabilities to support Collaboration with Users, and (6) Strategizing for Users’ Involvement. The main topics within each area were then organized sequentially, following a typical innovation-management process to facilitate the identification of further research opportunities and under-addressed topics that could be relevant to tackle. The paper contributes to the innovation literature by providing a firm-centered perspective on the strategic, organizational, and managerial preconditions and dynamics needed to enable and enhance collaboration with users.
... EMOs were originally deemed operationally superior to commercial organisations by some proponents, who argued that open systems reach correct results more effectively than closed or proprietary ones, because of the flexible manner in which massive numbers of reviewers can address defects or 'bugs' (Moglen, 1999;Raymond, 1999). The benefits of ethical-modular and commercial collaboration are a staple of management scholarship (Bonaccorsi et al, 2006;Dahlander and Magnusson, 2008;Demil et al., 2013). A primary motivation of firms is that outsourcing labour to volunteer projects lowers production costs. ...
... Further, Nagle (2018) argues that firms who engage in the apparently irrational behaviour of helping to produce open code which can help their competitors, actually benefit from the learning accrued by their employees during the process. Firm engagement strategies include establishing completely new projects, working with existing EMOs, or attempting to influence the direction of development in existing EMOs (Dahlander and Magnusson, 2008). Well-known examples of firms which support F/OSS projects include information technology giants such as Google, Microsoft, and Facebook. ...
Article
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Information technology (IT) firms are paying developers in Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) projects, leading to the emergence of hybrid forms of work. In order to understand how the firm–project hybridisation process occurs, we present the results of an online survey of participants in the Debian project, as well as interviews with Debian Developers. We find that the intermingling of the commercial logic of the firm and the communal logic of the project requires rhetorical legitimation. We analyse the discourses used to legitimise firm–project cooperation as well as the organisational mechanisms which facilitate this cooperation. A first phase of legitimation, based on firm adoption of open licenses and developer self-fulfilment, aims to erase the commercial/communal divide. A second more recent phase seeks to professionalise work relations inside the project and, in doing so, challenges the social order which restricts participation in FOSS. Ultimately, hybridisation raises the question of the fair distribution of the profits firms derive from FOSS.
... However, studies say little about changing long-standing closed innovation processes to accommodate co-creation (Zynga et al., 2018) and the functioning of customer interaction in such a process (Nardi et al., 2019). Earlier work focused on the use of technology for interaction (Dahlander and Magnusson, 2008) and mechanisms to support customer innovation, including toolkits (Franke and Piller, 2004), but not the practice of joint innovation activities (Gemser and Perks, 2015) or managing actors in a change process (Ramaswamy and Ozcan, 2020). The management of this new form of open innovation process is frequently overlooked (Zynga et al., 2018), and our collective knowledge of the effectiveness, challenges, and solutions for consumer participation in NPD is scant (Chang and Taylor, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Organizations now look beyond their boundaries to locate NPD resources among suppliers, lead users, customers, and consumers. Consumer involvement in an innovation process implies considerable changes in traditional innovation practice and management. Consumers become partners in co-creation, a form of open innovation, and not mere objects of study. However, what is little known is how managers can innovate to enable co-creation. This paper presents an in-depth, single case study of a global confectionery brand and its multinational owner. We discuss the co-creation process undertaken to innovate both the product and the innovation process itself. We propose a process for new product development and discuss changes implicit with its adoption.
... Contrariamente a la idea tradicional que ata incentivos para innovar y propiedad privada, la liberación de una innovación puede no involucrar una pérdida de beneficios para el innovador, sino una ganancia por la difusión de la innovación y por la obtención de efectos de red. El proceso de innovación de las empresas que se involucran se ve impulsado y acelerado por la participación en lo que aparece como un pool de I+D colectiva (Dahlander y Magnusson, 2008), de modo que se reduce significativamente las inversiones requeridas para desarrollar un nuevo software. ...
Chapter
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La industria del software exhibe un marcado crecimiento general en los últimos años. En este contexto, la aparición del Software Libre y de Código Abierto o Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) ha modificado las actividades y modelos de negocio de la cadena de valor de toda la industria del software y actualmente es prácticamente imposible realizar negocios sin encontrar software creado con métodos de desarrollo Open Source (OS). A su vez, el ámbito OS ha ido virando progresivamente hacia esquemas de sostenimiento de las comunidades antes basadas en trabajo voluntario, por parte de las empresas de toda envergadura que en términos de financiamiento y de recursos humanos amplían su participación y valorización del FLOSS cada vez más notoriamente. En este marco se propone un trabajo exploratorio orientado a describir la relación de grandes actores privados de la industria global del software con la comunidad FLOSS, y aportar a comprender por qué estas empresas realizan inversiones significativas a esta actividad, cuyos beneficios pueden ser inmediatamente apropiados por la competencia. Las compañías conformadas como unidades de análisis son Microsoft, Google (Alphabet), IBM/Red Hat, Oracle, SAP, Canonical y Tencent. Se utiliza el concepto de “coopetición abierta” (open coopetition) desarrollado por Teixeira, Qayyum Mian y Hytti (2016) para analizar el comportamiento de estos actores. Se observa que el FLOSS ocupa un lugar preponderante en las estrategias actuales de negocios de las empresas líderes y que el FLOSS atraviesa el ámbito del cloud computing, que parece constituir hoy uno de los nichos centrales del mercado global del software dominado por estas compañías. Así, quien quiere convertirse en líder de mercado hoy debe orientarse hacia el desarrollo de software, quien se orienta al desarrollo debe orientarse a las tecnologías aun no maduras como cloud, quien se orienta a cloud debe acoger al FLOSS, ergo en cloud se encuentran “coopitiendo abiertamente” las empresas líderes que pretender ganar mercado.
... Indeed, the desire for greater innovation has led many firms to engage with and sponsor FOSS development communities (Agerfalk & Fitzgerald, 2008;Jullien et al., 2019;Temizkan & Kumar, 2015). However, FOSS development engagement remains challenging for proprietary firms, with concerns regarding limited control over community activities , the potential undermining of organizational strategies (Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008), and difficulties maintaining open source software development community interest in firm-specific functionality (Ven & Mannaert, 2008). ...
Article
In recent years, consortium-based open source software (COSS) development has emerged as a strategic alternative to resource-intensive in-house development and misaligned commercial software acquisition. Yet consortia undertaking such collaborative efforts struggle to balance the oft-competing demands of innovation and sustainability. Drawing upon a longitudinal case study of the Kuali initiative, this analysis examines the mechanisms of exploration and exploitation involved in developing and sustaining a COSS approach. Based on our findings in the Kuali case, we develop a conceptual framework to discern whether and how COSS development initiatives can achieve contextual ambidexterity, balancing the strategic goals of innovation and sustainability over time. While exploration- and exploitation-oriented efforts compete for resources, our analysis reveals that they may also complement one another across distinct layers of institutional activity. The contextual ambidexterity is achieved through multi-level collaboration enabled by a modular technical and organizational design.
... In this context, new actors arise, and there are new ways of creating value using ecosystems that go beyond individual value chains. Openness can create communities with similar interests and therefore monetise innovation through other routes (Dahland and Magnusson, 2008). Openness can let users indicate what they want and allow them to be engaged with the business, leading to value creation for both sides. ...
Article
Over the last five years, several scholars from a range of disciplines have started to analyse how Artificial Intelligence (AI) affects businesses outcomes. This research effort has produced many predictions on the expected impact of automation on labour demand and equilibrium employment. However, most of the expected results are dependent on how businesses change their behaviour due to adopting AI. We argue that, as AI diffuses across the economy, changing behaviour is a necessary outcome for incumbents: the argument is that the diffusion of AI across an industry generates the conditions for a process of value migration from incumbents to new entrants (Helper et al. 2018); in these cases, the only mechanism available to incumbents to offset the negative impact of the migration process is by changing the architecture of their business, i.e., the business model. However, companies can choose from several AI-driven business models; their preference for one model is driven by many industry-level factors such as technical standards, the structure of the technology industry and the presence of an ethical framework for the use of AI. This monologue summarises the existing literature on business model innovation and AI; it then analyses the industry-level factors that may shape the business-level preference for specific business models. Finally, the monologue offers some suggestions for future research in the area.
... Prior literature identifies some prevalent challenges (e.g. Burger-Helmchen and Cohendet, 2011;Sarazin et al., 2017), including firms' tendency to try to create instead of harnessing communities (Dahlander and Magnusson, 2008), the difficulties associated with maintaining or growing the community, and management challenges, including the high coordination costs needed. In line with empirical evidence, we propose that successful, mature firms that innovate with their user communities still must deal with two main tensions, too. ...
... Compared to individual developers, companies focus less on social motivations such as reputation and learning benets but emphasize economic and technological reasons instead [6,43]. Some studies focused on business strategies around rm participation in OSS [20,21,88]. For example, Daara [20] analyzed 120 rms that derive their main revenue stream from OSS, and classied them into six business strategies, such as twin licensing, platform providers, and consulting. ...
... The open innovation literature provides further guidance on how to pursue the depth and breadth of the external knowledge search simultaneously (Chesbrough, 2003;Laursen and Salter, 2006;Schilling and Green, 2011;Kobarg et al., 2019). Furthermore, given that openness introduces both opportunities and challenges for generating innovativeness among firms, the extent to which a firm's openness efforts result in innovativeness may vary with its ability to identify and acquire external partners' knowledge resources to be transformed into innovativeness (Dahlander and Magnusson, 2008;Love et al., 2014;Monteiro et al., 2017). Therefore, we posit that the ambidextrous search mechanism affects the ability of openness to integrate partners' knowledge to generate innovativeness. ...
Article
Purpose Openness to external knowledge has recently gained popularity as a means for firms to complement and leverage internal knowledge in the pursuit of innovation outcomes. However, conflicting evidence exists regarding the role of openness in external knowledge acquisition. This paper aims to propose that openness to external knowledge has a nonlinear effect on innovation performance and that this nonlinear relationship is contingent on an ambidextrous knowledge search strategy. Design/methodology/approach Based on original large-scale survey of 246 interfirm collaborations in the high-technology industry, it is found that the impact of openness to external knowledge on innovation performance exhibits an inverted-U shape and that this relationship is affected by an ambidextrous knowledge search strategy. Findings The results indicate that an ambidextrous knowledge strategy that addresses the depth and breadth of external knowledge significantly influences a firm’s ability to derive benefits from increased openness to external knowledge. Empirically, the authors provide an original contribution to high-technology firms by exploring how and why an ambidextrous knowledge strategy can be a critical catalyst spurring innovation performance. Research limitations/implications The research scope is limited to a single industry. Further research could extend the theoretical framework to multiple industries, which may increase the likelihood of innovation theory development. Practical implications The results suggest that firms opening up the boundaries of their innovation activity to engage in external knowledge are able to leverage their in-house innovation to enhance their innovation performance. The authors advocate that in innovation management domains, greater emphasis is needed on how openness to external knowledge has more positive impacts not only on innovation performance but also on innovation implemented management. Originality/value This study is among the first to investigate the ambidextrous knowledge search effect on the external knowledge of high-technology firms. This paper contributes to the theoretical and practical literature concerning openness innovation and knowledge management by reflecting on the ambidextrous knowledge search strategy.
... Nuvolari [100] proposes that companies reveal their ideas to their competitors without any identifiable negative consequence. Through revealing, using a marketing lens, firms can increase their reputation [101], goodwill [102], brand recognition [103] and their target-public [104]. ...
Article
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Generating innovation with environmental impact is crucial for firms to achieve sustainable eco-innovative performance. In the reference literature on open innovation, gaps still persist at the level of scarce and limited knowledge on the use of knowledge sources and flows, for the purpose of strengthening the eco-innovative performance of the bioeconomy sector. To address these caveats, this study analyses the effects of open innovation on eco-innovation, based on inbound and outbound support practices. Specifically, it aims to analyse the effects of these practices on the eco-innovative performance of bioeconomy and non-bioeconomy firms, using secondary data gathered from the Community Innovation Survey—CIS 2010 for a sample of moderately innovative countries, namely Slovakia, Spain, Hungary, Italy, Portugal and the Czech Republic. The conceptual model proposed is tested using multivariate tobit regression models, in order to ensure the accuracy and reliability required to validate empirical tests. Overall, the empirical evidence allows the conclusion that inbound and outbound practices and public policies have a positive and significant influence on the eco-innovative performance of the firms studied. The contribution provided is two-fold: (i) in theoretical terms, an operational model of open innovation inbound and outbound practices is extended, crossing financial flows and innovation directions; and (ii) in empirical terms, new light is shed on the still limited knowledge about the positive and significant effects of open innovation outbound practices on the eco-innovative performance of companies belonging to a global strategic sector—that is, the bioeconomy sector, which has renewed strategic importance in the face of global climate change.
... While the network literature suggests access to diverse knowledge domains, our study suggests that connecting to focused interests, yields new ideas. Second, when companies want actively to contribute to online communities similar to companies within open-source software communities (Dahlander and Magnusson, 2008;, our findings indicate that one promising strategy is to aim for bridging structural holes, while concentrating on a narrow set of knowledge domains. Without a broker position, however, it is beneficial to develop a lower domain focus. ...
Article
Social networks provide individuals with diverse or redundant information depending on the network structure. Both types of information offer advantages for generating new ideas. At the same time, network structure and network content are independent. As a result, two individuals with the same network position can access diverse or redundant content from their social peers. In this study, we investigate the function of social networks in innovative endeavors given individuals’ different kinds of information accessing behavior. In accordance with previous research, we argue that individuals with a broker status access more diverse information through non-redundant network structures and develop, on average, more novel ideas. We further propose that redundancy in content complements brokers’ structural non-redundancy by providing familiar knowledge elements and therefore interpretability, while non-redundancy in both content and structure leads to information overload. Thus, we hypothesize that brokers accessing more information depth, and independently, less information breadth generate newer ideas. To test our hypotheses, we collected data from a popular online maker community containing 18,146 ideas, 19,919 profiles, and 52,663 comments. We used topic modeling (Latent Dirichlet Allocation) to extract hidden knowledge elements and social network analysis to identify brokers. In line with our hypotheses, we find that information depth (breadth) strengthens (weakens) a favorable broker position. These findings have implications for the literature on idea generation in social networks and household sector innovation.
... Management studies have for decades investigated the advantages of the team approach to innovation (Hammedi et al., 2011;Quinn, 1985;Stam et al., 2013;Wiita & Leonard, 2017) or how teams in many cases optimally combine different perspectives, competencies and technical skills (de Dreu et al., 2008;Ilgen, 1999;Khurana & Rosenthal, 1998 (Burger-Helmchen & Cohendet, 2011;Chesbrough, 2006;Felin et al., 2017;Frey et al., 2011;J. Füller et al., 2017;Howe, 2006aHowe, , 2006bLeifer et al., 2000;McDermott & O'Connor, 2002;Pellizzoni et al., 2015;Remneland Wikhamn & Styhre, 2019;Sawhney et al., 2005), with a variety of sub-approaches related to one another: crowdsourcing, innovation marketplaces, and engagement with large communities of experts and/or users One of the most widespread sets of assumptions behind this open-innovation strategizing has been that the greater number of ideas, idea creators, perspectives and innovation inputs, the more serendipitous and effective problem solving, the more efficient control of R&D costs, and the higher the probability of longterm innovation success (Afuah & Tucci, 2012;Benkler, 2017;Chesbrough, 2003;Czarniawska-Joerges & Sev on, 2005;Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008;Hautz et al., 2017;Huston & Sakkab, 2006;Jeppesen & Lakhani, 2010;Laursen & Salter, 2006;Shan et al., 1994;Terwiesch & Xu, 2008). ...
Article
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Radical circle is an innovation approach, alternative in comparison to innovation teams and innovation communities, superior to these when detailed managerial guidance is not readily available because of high uncertainty, high ambiguity, or both. Through an empirical case analysis of Angry Birds, the video game, we strengthen earlier radical-circle research findings on how a common sense of malaise with a current situation and dominant visions sometimes a small group of creative individuals meaningfully together, each volunteering to contribute much to change situation and dominant meaningfully vision. We find in this case that radical circles were more fluid in their membership and boundaries than what these earlier studies have found. There was considerable change over time in both the radical circles and visionary innovation. After Angry Birds's launch, a huge and very active brand community ensued, with radical creativity, with innovative community members contributing meaningful new inputs both for free and for global market and industry transformation. We call for further research on why and how line-up changes in radical circles in between times of original visionary innovation and later-phase market and industry transformation may matter. We also call for further research to study in what kinds of situations, why, and how radical circles are a good approach to mobilize extra-organizational volunteers for visionary innovation of new-to-the world products or processes.
... Second, the success of FLOSS development has attracted more and more companies to participate in it (Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008). Companies first need to understand how FLOSS communities operate before they can successfully participate in FLOSS development. ...
... The motives for companies to purposefully share a part of their knowledge have been extensively studied in the broader context of open innovation, in particular in the context of open source software development (e.g. Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008;Harhoff, Henkel, & von Hippel, 2003;Henkel, 2006). By revealing knowledge, companies may invite informal, external development support, set a standard, and facilitate the generation of revenues from complementary services. ...
Article
Digitalization has vastly increased the availability, the use, and the value of data. We show that this has implications also in the context of innovation, specifically, for basic research in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). While corporations in recent decades have generally shifted away from scientific research, this has not been the case in the field of AI. In AI, we show that a number of large corporations including Google, Facebook, and their Chinese counterparts hire leading researchers and publish increasing amounts of high-quality basic research. Conventional explanations of corporate science fail to fully explain why corporations would undertake this research and disseminate their results. We suggest that a central aspect of digitalization—the rising importance of data as a strategic resource—drives corporate participation in AI science and publication. Owning strategic data resources makes firms lead users of AI tools, gives them a novel comparative advantage over universities in doing research in AI, and constitutes a specialized complementary asset that facilitates value appropriation. We conclude that the phenomenon we observe reflects an overall shift in the sources of competitive advantage in AI, from exclusivity in technology to exclusivity in data.
... Past literature points to some of the benefits that firms can expect from revealing (Henkel et al. 2014). From a marketing perspective, revealing can increase reputation (Henkel 2006), goodwill (West and Gallagher 2006), brand recognition (Dahlander and Magnusson 2008), and can be used to extend firms' target audience (West 2006). From a technological perspective, benefits can accrue when firms use crowdsourcing as a source of knowledge instead of trying to problem-solve internally or contracting a specialized supplier (Afuah and Tucci 2012;Piezunka and Dahlander 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Open innovation (OI) refers to the inbound and outbound flows of knowledge beyond the boundary of the organization, which can be in the form of pecuniary or non-pecuniary exchanges. Investigation into pecuniary and inbound innovation types has advanced rapidly, but non-pecuniary outbound OI (free revealing) has received less attention. Presenting a scale developed through a systematic literature review, expert testing and exploratory factor analysis, we show that revealing is reflected by five motivational factors, namely seeking complementary capabilities, product diffusion, strategic spillovers, product enhancement, and co-creation with firms. Regression models show that these factors influence the variety of innovation types and shareholder expectations of value capture through future returns.
... Whereas the original approach of OI was organisation centred, other OI research has linked it to further open practices, such as users as innovators (e.g. Bogers, Afuah, & Bastian, 2010), open-source software development (Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008) and collaborations among and within communities, crowds and networks of individuals, including both audiences and scientists (e.g. von Hippel, 2007). ...
Article
Open Innovation (OI) represents a promising approach to addressing the difficulty experienced by legacy media companies in adjusting to a digitised environment. This study summarises OI knowledge by reviewing 54 articles and focusing on OI core process archetypes, practices and sources as well as motives and media-specific conditions. Within three processes (outside-in, inside-out, and coupled), six key practices are identified and discussed: (1) cooperation, (2) mergers and acquisitions, (3) crowdsourcing, (4) co-creation, (5) collaboration and (6) spin-outs. Media companies’ OI use is mainly motivated by market-related outcomes and sourced through technology, audience or other media companies. The most relevant media-specific condition is cultural uniqueness. Aligning OI practices to strategic innovation management and developing OI management competencies could be key to successful OI implementation.
... The collaboration between companies and OSS communities is characterized by intensive knowledge exchange. Companies are increasingly engaging with the development of OSS [10,15,17]. To sustain a relationship with OSS communities, mutual sharing of knowledge is essential [6,16]. ...
... (3) open players (players who produce FAQs, blogs, websites, and social media groups about the game); (4) beta testers (players who play the demo, alpha, or beta versions of the game and disseminate content related to these versions to create negative or positive attention); (5) creative testers (players who create artwork or creative content around the game); and (6) the previously mentioned crowd-sourcers. Dahlander and Magnusson (2008) define this symbiotic relationship as "harnessing the community" and define three phases: access, alignment, and assimilation. Adapting to the video game industry, the access phase refers to the developer company providing access to some of the content and tools around the game to the community, so that the gamers can direct their creative skills and time toward the game. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Jenkins (2012; Jenkins & Deuze, 2008) proposes that today’s media cultural scene is a participatory one. This defines both the consumption of the media and the processes of production. Especially for the video games industry, it is seemingly less and less possible for gamers to consume a video game without actually participating in its extended media presence (e.g., social media content and interactions, gaming news, review videos, playthrough videos, fan fiction, fan art, forums, walkthroughs, leaderboards, internet memes, transmedia practices, etc.). Postigo (2007) asserts that “the fan culture for digital games is deeply embedded in shared practices and experiences among fan communities, and their active consumption contributes economically and culturally to broader society.” (p. 300) Video game producers begin this communication and participation process during the production of a game, and an increasing number of video games rely on prerelease marketing or communication to be successful. Preview copies, demos, crowd-source funding, developer blogs, and alpha and beta tests constitute some of the methods mobilized for this aim. Equally useful are do-it-yourself tools and media kits released along with the video games to promote fan production and modding.
... (West and Sims, 2016). Firms that are involving in open innovation activities and practices are leveraging the role of communities as a crucial source of external innovation such as producers and designers of open source software (Dahlander and Magnusson, 2008;West and Lakhani, 2008;West and Sims, 2016). The role of virtual community through internet is being considered as a prominent way of interacting with external communities (Rheinghold, 2000). ...
Conference Paper
Nowadays, more firms tend to open up their innovation activities and obtain innovative solutions through collective wisdom by novel notion of crowdsourcing among crowds instead of individuals. This paper aims to contribute to the literature by highlighting some prominent topics in crowdsourcing as a new smart strategic approach. This is interesting to know how crowdsourcing strategies could be applied for the firm's strategic problem solving, not just focusing on how crowd systems and platforms operate. This paper responds how various types of crowdsourcing strategies as smart open innovative solutions contribute firms to solve their organizational open call problems. The research design was based on providing, collecting, classifying and reviewing different literature streams from different academic papers and scientific reports relevant to the concept of crowdsourcing by searching relevant keywords. The results show Crowd Communities as external collaboration sources contribute firms to solve their strategic innovative problems through open call platforms.
... In addition, Ma and Agarwal (2007) provide an explanation of how and why individuals in online communities are more likely to contribute to knowledge co-creation. We encourage management scholars to deepen the role of online communities, digital networks, and ecosystems (Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008;West & Lakhani, 2008). In this regard, the way in which members contribute in these digital entities to co-creating knowledge has been neglected. ...
Article
The importance of digital innovation is widely acknowledged among managers and scholars alike. However, its actual conceptual treatment in academic research is not necessarily clear or precise. Most research considers digital innovation as the final result of adopting digital technologies, such as new products, processes, services, or business models. In other words, this research advances the concept of digital innovation as an outcome. In parallel to this research on digital innovation as an outcome, the concept of digital innovation as a process has emerged, linking innovation capabilities, organizational structures, boundaries, and technology management in organisations. The scattered existing research on digital innovation as a process explores the anatomy of the digital transformation of the innovation process by focusing on its phases, underlying mechanisms, barriers, and enabling factors. We argue that management research should pay more attention to this perspective on digital innovation. Therefore, in this essay, we take stock of research on the topic and identify four orchestration mechanisms that are inherently processual, enabling the firm to effectively coordinate and leverage different types of resources to create and capture value through the adoption and exploitation of digital technologies in the innovation process. Based on these orchestration mechanisms, we develop an agenda for future research that will hopefully inform further scholarly inquiry in the field of digital innovation.
... It is possible to notice that the interconnection between context and resources is evident in the theories of networks. More, to tap into partners' resources, organizations may have the opportunity to build Strategic Alliances with other companies or to use Open Innovation Communities [37,38]. ...
Article
This study had three objectives: to discover the main concepts and theories used in research around entrepreneurship; systematize the entrepreneurial process in a model that allows teaching it more efficiently, and substantiate the model by applying it to various social entrepreneurship projects. To this end, a systematic scoping review was carried out to identify the main concepts, theories, and processes, which constitute the six crucial building blocks to someone could be successful as a(n) (social) intra/entrepreneur. Then, a design-science approach led us to use real social innovation and social entrepreneurship cases to evaluate the constructs and the model. Consequently, it is concluded that all concepts, theories and models identified can be classified as external factors (Context and Resources), internal factors (Objectives and entrepreneurial Will) and achievements (Action and Impact). The CROWAI model fits well with the data obtained on 465 innovation and social entrepreneurship projects. Thus, this model presents a more comprehensive approach, applicable to all profitable or social intra/entrepreneurship situations, allowing this new conceptual arrangement to be more easily taught. Additionally, it makes sense to use the term ‘social’ in innovation and intra/entrepreneurship because it has excellent defining power of the scope one wants to achieve with human endeavours. Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2022-06-01-02 Full Text: PDF
... Another type of OSBM generates significant revenue streams from the software itself (direct-sale models), for example, by using different licenses regarding specific product parts. While essential parts are open source, the rest of the software remains closed (e.g., dual licensing or open core) (Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008). However, the underlying design elements of OSBMs are hardy described in most research. ...
Article
Full-text available
The open-source paradigm offers a plethora of opportunities for innovative business models (BMs) as the underlying code-base of the technology is accessible and extendable by external developers. However, finding the proper configuration of open-source business models (OSBMs) is challenging, as existing literature gives guidance through commonly used BMs but does not describe underlying design elements. The present study generates a taxonomy following an iterative development process based on established guidelines by analyzing 120 OSBMs to complement the taxonomy's conceptually-grounded design elements. Then, a cluster-based approach is used to develop archetypes derived from dominant features. The results show that OSBMs can be classified into seven archetypical patterns: open-source platform BM, funding-based BM, infrastructure BM, Open Innovation BM, Open Core BM, proprietary-like BM, and traditional open-source software (OSS) BM. The results can act as a starting point for further investigation regarding the use of the open-source paradigm in the era of digital entrepreneurship. Practitioners can find guidance in designing OSBMs.
... Empirical support for this complementary expertise motive has been found (Fosfuri, Giarratana, & Luzzi, 2008), in which a firm's expertise is measured by patents and trademarks. In addition, open source communities have been recognized as complementary assets for business firms to leverage during their innovation processes (Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008;O'Mahony & Karp, 2020;Stam, 2009). ...
... The reasons that gradually lead more and more corporations to open-source software can be justified by several arguments. Bonaccorsi and Rossi (2006) (Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008;Dahlander, 2005;Ågerfalk & Fitzgerald, 2008;Ebert, 2009) indicate that using standard FOSS components creates profit for the companies as they can focus on the core of the product they design. In parallel, the maintenance, bug spotting, and future improvement costs of open source applications get reduced since the community developers are the ones who often do this job by code contributions (Andersen-Gott et al., 2012). ...
Thesis
The development of Machine Learning models has evolved into a vital activity for the smooth operation and the perpetual growth of modern organizations. Nonetheless, one of the most prevalent challenges that enterprises confront during ML operations is the inability to productize their implemented solutions. That phenomenon primarily origi-nates in the technical interdependencies between Data Scientists and Software Engineers. While the first should be responsible only for designing and developing models, often, they need the assistance of the second to deploy, scale and serve their ML code. As a con-sequence for the organizations, technical debt is generated, leading to time, resource, and eventually monetary costs. To overcome this problem, MLOps, a relatively new concept based on the DevOps method, is utilized by automating the lifecycle of ML systems. This thesis, implemented in cooperation with the Mercedes-Benz AG, presents the design and the development of a complete MLOps lifecycle, integrated into one of the major company’s open-source projects, the Data and Analytics Platform (DnA). The so-lution is based on existing Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) technologies and tools such as Kubeflow, which were utilized and adjusted to meet the needs of modern organi-zations. In parallel to the setup process of the MLOps pipeline, research was conducted to gather evidence and data about the enterprise readiness of FOSS solutions. The im-plemented MLOps workflow eliminates the technical debt and enables Data Scientists to scale and deploy their ML models without requiring technical expertise. Furthermore, a real-life use case scenario within Mercedes-Benz is used to validate the developed solu-tion. Finally, the thesis applies criticism to the security-design nature of open-source soft-ware and provides recommendations for the further improvement of the implemented MLOps architecture.
... Various scientists discuss the development of software using open source software method in context of open innovation (Chesbrough, Vanhaverbeke, & West, 2006;Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008;Enkel et al., 2009;Lichtenthaler, 2011;von Hippel & von Krogh, 2009;West & Gallagher, 2006). In both concepts, knowledge outside the company is used to generate and develop ideas and create value (Chesbrough, 2006b). ...
Thesis
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The desire of the population for environmentally friendly mobility without burdening social fairness and human rights is constantly increasing and the achievements and conveniences in mobility that have been reached so far are to be safeguarded. A solution for this can be electromobility along with new business models to support it. The question is: what kind of business model is able to fully develop the potential of electromobility?The aim of the thesis is to contribute to the literature on sustainable business models through the lens of the fast-growing market of electromobility. For this purpose, the concept of electromobility is analyzed and defined in a comprehensive manner. Also, the key elements of electromobility are revealed, underlining the basic principles of value proposition for customers.Electromobility is based on new technologies. However, it is shown that technology alone is not sufficient and the business model is an essential vector of innovation. Conventional and sustainable business models are discussed. The latter have a special significance for electromobility, as they already consider the environmental and social aspects of business alongside the economic one.A new framework in order to analyze and/or to design sustainable business models for electromobility is proposed. It allows to better support the specific key values of electromobility. The framework of sustainable business models for electromobility (SBMEM) has to be based on close cooperation between producers, suppliers, and providers. An ecosystem has to be formed in which the individual value chains of the involved companies in electromobility are interlinked; they contribute all together to the value proposition and the value creation and delivery. In the framework, the environmental, social and economic dimensions are transversal to the basic elements “value proposition”, “value creation and delivery” and “value capture”, considered on the basis of a comprehensive ecosystem.The framework of SBMEM is then used to analyze different existing business models of electromobility. It is shown that the latter are not sufficient for the success of electromobility because they take too little or no account of all of the environmental, social and economic aspects of the innovation.The theoretical framework developed in this study contributes to the architecture of electromobility business model and aims to broaden the understanding of the role and applicability of business models in sustainability-oriented innovations and services. This framework is intended to enable the design of new sustainable business models for electromobility or to review existing business models and draw conclusions on which measures will make them more sustainable.This new framework enables companies to find a compromise between the different dimensions of the approach. In doing so, they can satisfy the growing needs of the population regarding mobility, the preservation of environment and social fairness while achieving their business objectives.The proposed SBMEM framework was discussed based on five case studies. It reveals to be a valuable tool both to analyze existing business models and to structure business models for future businesses.
... An early discussion was about how to build a mutually beneficial relationship between commercial organizations and communities (Dahlander and Magnusson, 2008). These relationships included (1) access (resource base via communities), (2) aligned company strategies with the chosen communities, and (3) assimilation of communities to integrate and share results. ...
Article
Full-text available
Peer-to-peer governance of blockchain technology reemerges a number of interesting practical and theoretical questions. This article aims to bridge current research on blockchain technology to earlier research on open source software (OSS) and to suggest a number of concepts from OSS research that are useful in discussing governance of blockchain systems. Thus, the purpose of this article is to provide a theoretically oriented review of some of the earlier concepts and discuss their applicability in a novel context. Bridging these extending literatures and concepts accelerates theoretical development in the area of governance of technology, opening fertile avenues for future research and offering a variety of insights to both practitioners.
... The software is then made available through Peer-to-Peer Free Diffusion via a website and one or more servers. In some cases, producers get involved either by contributing to the open-source software making it more suitable for their internal use (Innovation Support arrow) or by identifying a related service such as training for which they can appropriate value and make a profit (Lerner and Tirole, 2002;Henkel, 2006;Stewart et al., 2006;West and Gallagher, 2006;Dahlander and Magnusson, 2008). The for-profit pathway initiates with the downward arrow Innovation Design and proceeds through Production and Market Diffusion. ...
Article
The paper introduces a conceptual approach explaining how end users, user communities and /or for-profit firms provide benefits to society through new product or service development. We show that innovation may occur in different economic environments including non-market ones as well as that social innovation will not occur on its own in a purely producer for-profit environment. To explain such cases, we suggest integrating product and user innovation paradigms into the Producer-User Social Innovation (PUSI) Model that demonstrates how infrastructure and enabling technology is provided either by producer or user to introduce new market product or service. To provide face validity and illustrate the versatility of the proposed approach we consider five very different cases. These illustrative examples allowed to provide evidence that user-driven innovation is socially oriented in its nature as it implicitly addresses community or societal needs. In addition to providing insights into the nature of social innovation, the model can be utilized to help understand why social innovation may fail and how to increase the likelihood of success by engaging with appropriate for-profit producers, communities, and users. Implications to policy and practice are provided, including the opportunity for government to encourage social innovation directly and indirectly.
... Empirical support for this complementary expertise motive has been found (Fosfuri, Giarratana, & Luzzi, 2008), in which a firm's expertise is measured by patents and trademarks. In addition, open source communities have been recognized as complementary assets for business firms to leverage during their innovation processes (Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008;O'Mahony & Karp, 2020;Stam, 2009). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The open source software ecosystem has become a vibrant innovation ecosystem and the main stream innovation model in IT industries over the past two decades. In recent years, China also started to embrace this innovation model. Specifically, many firms in China have sponsored their own open source software platforms, in order to create their platform ecosystems. What is the knowledge strategy associated with open source software? What is unique about open source innovations in China? What lessons can we learn from the experiences of Chinese firms, in their open source software endeavors? This chapter sets out to examine open source software ecosystems in China and answer these questions. As a result, this chapter not only enriches the technology innovation management knowledge base by studying open source innovations in China, but also sheds new lights on the managing of open source software systems in general.
... Even when volunteers establish an OSS project, if firms have dominated the project, then such a project does not constitute a volunteer-driven project. Corporate OSS projects often have more defined management structures, more explicit coordination mechanisms, and more co-location activity than volunteer-based OSS projects (Dahlander, 2007;Dahlander & Magnusson, 2008;Feller, Finnegan, Fitzgerald, & Hayes, 2008;Germonprez et al., 2016;Germonprez, Kendall, Kendall, & Young, 2014). The characteristics of volunteer-driven OSS projects require researchers to explain such conditions because the characteristics of volunteer-driven OSS projects differ from those of traditional organizations (e.g., hierarchy-based or market-based). ...
Technical Report
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In der neuen Expertise „Open Source als Innovationstreiber für Industrie 4.0“ des Forschungsbeirats der Plattform Industrie 4.0 zeigen das Fraunhofer-Institut für Materialfluss und Logistik IML und der Lehrstuhl für Industrielles Informationsmanagement der TU Dortmund die Chancen und Potenziale von Open Source Software (OSS) für die Produktion auf. Basierend auf Expertenbefragungen in Unternehmen werden Handlungsoptionen für Wirtschaft, Politik und Wissenschaft entwickelt. Die dazugehörige Leitlinie für unternehmerisches Open-Source-Handeln richtet sich konkret an Führungskräfte in der Industrie.
Article
Purpose The concept of open innovation has captured the attention of both academics and practitioners alike. However, there is a dearth of research on how innovations can be diffused within open innovation ecosystems, a critical condition for the sustainability of such ecosystems. In this regard, the study advances a research agenda for guiding future inquiries into innovation diffusion within open innovation ecosystems. Design/methodology/approach Based on a systematic review of the extant literature on open innovation, this article identifies knowledge gaps in innovation diffusion, along with recommendations for bridging these gaps in the future. The study advocates that future research should consider not only innovation generation processes, but also innovation diffusion processes, especially in light of the growing application of open innovation in the context of digital goods and services. Findings Subscribing to an evolutionary view of innovation diffusion, the article draws on a five-phase framework – knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation – to illustrate the roles played by three distinct yet interconnected parties (i.e. platforms, complementors, and individuals) within open innovation ecosystems as well as the research opportunities it brings. Originality/value The article examines the critical, yet underexplored role of innovation diffusion in sustaining open innovation ecosystems and outlines potential research avenues that can contribute to growing the understanding of the innovation diffusion process.
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This paper explores the role of the business model in capturing value from early stage technology. A successful business model creates a heuristic logic that connects technical potential with the realization of economic value. The business model unlocks latent value from a technology, but its logic constrains the subsequent search for new, alternative models for other technologies later on--an implicit cognitive dimension overlooked in most discourse on the topic. We explore the intellectual roots of the concept, offer a working definition and show how the Xerox Corporation arose by employing an effective business model to commercialize a technology rejected by other leading companies of the day. We then show the long shadow that this model cast upon Xerox's later management of selected spin-off companies from Xerox PARC. Xerox evaluated the technical potential of these spin-offs through its own business model, while those spin-offs that became successful did so through evolving business models that came to differ substantially from that of Xerox. The search and learning for an effective business model in failed ventures, by contrast, were quite limited. Copyright 2002, Oxford University Press.
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This paper examines the dynamics of allocation under increasing returns within a model where agents choose between technologies competing for adoption and where each technology improves as it gains in adoption. It shows that the economy, over time, can become locked-in, by "random" historical events, to a technological path that is not necessarily efficient, not possible to predict from usual knowledge of supply and demand functions, and not easy to change by standard tax or subsidy policies. Rational expectations about future agents' technology choices can exacerbate this lock-in tendency. It discusses the implications for economic history, policy, and forecasting. Copyright 1989 by Royal Economic Society.
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There has been a recent surge of interest in open source software development, which involves developers at many different locations and organizations sharing code to develop and refine programs. To an economist, the behavior of individual programmers and commercial companies engaged in open source projects is initially startling. This paper makes a preliminary exploration of the economics of open source software. We highlight the extent to which labor economics, especially the literature on "career concerns", and industrial organization theory can explain many of these projects' features. We conclude by listing interesting research questions related to open source software. Copyright 2002 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Some simple economics of open source The Magic Cauldron. Available from: http://www.catb.org/wesr/writings/magic-cauldron
  • J Lerner
  • J Tirole
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