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The assessment of subjective well-being (issues raised by the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire)

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Abstract

This commentary raises conceptual issues related to recent efforts to develop measures of subjective well-being (SWB). Specifically, Hills’ and Argyle's (2002) article on the development of the 29-item Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), and its predecessor, the 20-item Oxford Happiness Inventory (Argyle, Martin & Crossland, 1989). Instead of assessing the structure of subjective well-being (SWB), items of the OHQ tap into self-esteem, sense of purpose, social interest and kindness, sense of humor, and aesthetic appreciation. The item content of the OHQ fails to differentiate the assessment of SWB from the predictors, correlates, and consequences of SWB. In contrast to published SWB findings with other measures, data are presented suggesting that the OHQ has artificially inflated correlations with those constructs tapped by the OHQ: self-esteem, sense of purpose, and social interest/extraversion. The operationalization of SWB by the OHQ is not based on relevant definition and theory and appears to invite nonrandom error into the study of SWB. The article concludes with an appeal for the use of more stringent conceptual and analytic approaches.

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... Lyubomirsky et al. [32] proposed that a happy person is someone who experiences frequent positive emotions (e.g., joy, interest and pride), high life satisfaction and infrequent negative emotions (e.g., sadness, anxiety and anger). Frequent and intense positive affective states, the relative absence of anxiety and depression and global life satisfaction are three specific factors that comprise SWB [22]. Kim-Prieto et al. [25] proposed in their study (Crosscultural research conducted in 47 countries) that happiness is rated higher than all other personal values such as love, wealth or health and the majority of people are interested to have the maximum level of well-being [8]. ...
... The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), developed by Hills and Argyle [20], has 29 items to assess SWB. The OHQ was presented to measure the combination of SWB, various human strengths, cognitive characteristics, and physical fitness [22]. Medvedev et al. [37] proposed that well-being, SWB, and psychological well-being are used as synonymous to happiness in describing the OHI and OHQ by Hills and Argyle in 2002. ...
... The OHQ cannot report the level of associations for items [22]. Since the happiness score in OHQ is the sum of the average values for 29 items, all items in OHQ has the same effect on the overall happiness score. ...
Article
Different assessment tools and questionnaires have been developed to measure happiness. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), that has 29 items, has been used widely to estimate personal happiness. The OHQ is used to quantify personal happiness based on an equal effectiveness assumption for all 29 items. Although the OHQ has been used by several studies, very few studies assess the contribution of the individual OHQ items in explaining personal happiness. The current study attempts to fill this gap by assessing the contribution of the individual OHQ items in explaining personal happiness as a latent variable. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used to assess the relationship of the individual OHQ items in explaining personal happiness in Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. The significant OHQ items that are extracted from SEM results, are used to develop a new personal happiness measurement score. The SEM factor loading values are used to weight the extracted items. All usual clustering methods are used in this study and the most suitable one based on the higher silhouette value is chosen to cluster the proposed personal happiness index. Finally, the relationships between socio demographic factors and the proposed personal happiness index clusters are tested by Gamm and Pearson Chi-Square tests. The SEM results show that 16 out of the 29 OHQ items have poor associations with personal happiness and can be excluded from the model. Most of the non-significant items (items with low level of association) are negatively worded items and the majority of the significant items are related to personal attitudes. The proposed personal happiness index can help to save time and avoid confusion.
... Up to this day, the concept of happiness remains a debatable among psychologists. Currently, researchers agree that happiness is only influenced by the cognitive and emotional components (Diener, 1995;Kashdan, 2004;Shimmack, 2008;Van Hemert et al., 2002). However, Ryff (1989) claims that the conceptual and theoretical frameworks of happiness are not yet concrete and external factors should be considered as one of the criteria for explaining happiness. ...
... The reason is happiness cannot only be assessed through cognitive and feeling but depending too on external criteria such as health, good relations with others, environment and so on, which are concurred by other scholars such as Cummins (1997); Diener, (1995); Kashdan, (2004). Thus, to harmonize, some psychologists consent the view that the concept of happiness can be developed by including the external components as contributors to happiness besides of cognitive and feelings (Harding, 1982;Hills & Argyle, 2001;Kim et al., 2007;Lee et al., 1999;Lu & Shih, 1997;Ryff, 1989;Santos, 2009). ...
Article
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Industrial Revolution (IR) 4.0 had severely impacted human being as much as it helps the advancement in human life. Despite the growing problem regarding mental health especially among youth, there were still hope in order to bring happiness again to its original states or better. In order to do so, people need to have a correct definition of happiness which can bring them to fulfilment of live and tranquillity. This study aims to identify the concept of happiness. This concept paper utilizes literature review for data collection. Islam had offer various ways to attain happiness, thus people should really consider to find the solution through practicing Islamic teaching in future.
... Mutluluk yaşamın bütünüyle ilgilidir ve bütün yaşamı değerlendirmek için iki kaynağa ihtiyaç vardır: Kişi nasıl hissediyor ve birçok başarı standardını nasıl kıyaslıyor? Bu kaynakları "mutluluğun bileşenleri" olarak adlandırabiliriz: "hazcı seviye" olarak adlandırılan duygusal bileşen, kişinin değişik hoş, güzel duygular yaşama derecesiyken, "memnuniyet" olarak adlandırılan bilişsel bileşen, kişinin isteklerinin karşılanma derecesidir (Bruni, 2004;Brülde, 2007:17-20;Campbell, 1976:119;Chekola, 2007:59;Haybron, :215, 2000bHaybron, , 2003Haybron, :310, 2005Kashdan, 2004Kashdan, :1226Sirgy vd., 2006:387;, 1996. Aslında mutluluk bir bütün olarak hem duygusal hem de bilişsel bileşenlere dayanır. ...
... Özellikle Sosyal Gösterge Hareketinden sonra, kişinin iyi olma derecesi olarak tanımlanan öznel refah (subjective wellbeing) kavramı, mutluluk yerine kullanılmaktadır (Veenhoven, 2000a). Aslında öznel refah kavramı, mutluluktan çok daha geniş bir anlama sahiptir ve mutluluk, yaşam memnuniyeti, aidiyet duygusu, sağlıklı olma, olumlu duygulara sahip olma, olumsuz duygulardan yoksunluk gibi durumları içerir (Ahuvia, 2002:23;Böhnke, 2005:8;Cummins, 1998:308;Diener vd., 1997:200;Diener vd., 1999:277;Easterlin, 2001:465;Easterlin, 2003:11176;Frey vd., 2000;Kashdan, 2004Kashdan, :1226Myers vd., 1995:10-11-17;Phillips, 2006:15;Veenhoven, , 2000aVeenhoven, , 2001cYetim, 2001:14,17). ...
... OHI is an inventory created as an alternative scale for non-clinical populations with a focus on the manifestation of positive feelings rather than anxiety. OHQ has 29 items, a total of 20 items are items adapted from OHI and 9 items of which OHQ measures nine aspects, namely social interest, kindness, entertainment, awareness of life goals, beauty, independence, self-efficacy, physical health, and self-esteem (Kashdan, 2004). This research uses OHQ which has been adapted into Indonesian (Rahmawati, Irmayanti Saragih, & Adeline, 2017). ...
... Meanwhile, there are some criticisms aimed at OHQ and IHS. According to Kashdan (2004) OHQ has failed to distinguish measurements in subjective well-being (SWB). The definition of happiness in OHQ is not based on relevant definitions and theories, and the items contained in OHQ measure the causes, relationships, and consequences of SWB. ...
Article
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p>Happiness is a concept that is difficult to understand to this date. Differences in individual perspectives in interpreting happiness also affect the processing construct of the measurement. This study aims to conduct convergent validation of the existing happiness scale. Convergent validation can test how good the happiness scale is by comparing the externally to another scale that is considered to have a relationship. The happiness convergent-scale validation adapted the Multi-trait Multi-method (MTMM) analysis. Respondents involved in this study were 186 students from traditional Muslim schools or Santri who were selected according to the specified characteristics and studied at UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung. The three measuring instruments used are the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), the Indigenous Happiness Scale (IHS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-Bref). The correlation coefficient (r) shows values of 0.52 (OHQ-IHS), 0.53 (OHQ-WHOQOL-Bref), and 0.45 (IHS-WHOQOL-Bref). The result indicated that the correlation of the three scales tested has a statistically high relationship so that the three measuring instruments used have convergent validity and can be used to measure the construct of happiness.</p
... To measure happiness, we distributed the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI) and the Fordyce Happiness Inventory (FHI) to the participants. These tools are known to approach the "happiness" construct in a comprehensive and multidimensional manner compared with other measurement tools (Kashdan, 2004). Because demographic features (including age, sex, and education) have little correlation with happiness (Eddington & Shuman, 2005;Veenhoven, 1994), these features were considered to have no effect on our sampling. ...
... The OHI, first designed by Argyle and Lu (1990), is a well-known self-evaluation tool for measuring happiness. This tool has been widely used by psychology researchers (Abedi, 2004;Francis, 1998;Hayes & Joseph, 2003;Kashdan, 2004). Argyle's tool was based on Beck's Depression Inventory (Argyle, 2001), one of the most successful scales for measuring depression (Alipour, Nourbala, Ezhehei, & Motieyan, 2000). ...
Article
This study explores the relationship between daylight exposure in urban residential units and the mood/happiness of nonworking female residents (housewives) in Isfahan, Iran. A growing body of evidence points to the physiological and psychological benefits of daylight, yet few studies have focused on the relationship between residential daylight and women's mental health. A cross‐sectional study was conducted using two‐stage random cluster sampling of nonworking female occupants of buildings in four residential districts. Mood/happiness was determined using the Oxford Happiness Inventory and the Fordyce Happiness Inventory. Spearman's rank correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the variables. A significant relationship was found between residents’ happiness and the amount of daylight in their residential units (Oxford Inventory, r = 0.68, P < 0.05; Fordyce Inventory, r = 0.53, P < 0.05). The findings suggest that features of physical residential environments, such as daylight, may be linked to the happiness of housewives. Persons belonging to various demographic groups who spend the majority of their time indoors (e.g., housewives, children, elderly individuals, and people with disabilities) are most dependent on architecture and environmental design for their well‐being, and therefore, are most affected by design decisions.
... Subjective well-being is a person's subjective, positive evaluation toward their overall life, including work life and leisure life (Carter 2004;Diener and Lucas 2004;Kashdan 2004). Diener (1984) pointed out three features of subjective well-being: (1) it is a subjective feeling, (2) it is evaluated in positive terms, and (3) it includes an individual's overall evaluation of life. ...
... Carter (2004) argued that subjective well-being is the frequency of fluctuation between positive emotions during a certain time period and mentioned that subjective well-being may influence a person's mid-and long-term behavior. Furthermore, Kashdan (2004) noted that a high subjective well-being involves three elements: (1) frequency and strength of positive emotion, (2) relative lack of depression and anxiety, and (3) overall life satisfaction. From a review of well-being in tourism literature, Uysal et al. (2016) pointed out the necessity of studying the significant mechanism of subjective well-being on tourists' tourism experiences. ...
Article
Following the Reasonable Person Model, this study examines the effects of destination fascination on subjective well-being and destination attachment as well as looking at the subsequent outcome of destination loyalty. A total of 936 responses were collected from tourists to national parks (302), forest recreational areas (300), and theme parks (334). The results of this study prove the effect of destination fascination on improving subjective well-being and destination attachment and shows the effects of subjective well-being and destination attachment on enhancing destination loyalty. Subjective well-being and destination attachment fully mediated effects from destination fascination to destination loyalty. Moreover, extensive validity of the proposed model was verified by engaging different destination types. The findings of this study enrich the base of knowledge about destination fascination in the tourism academy and contributes practical implications for destination management and marketing.
... К та ким методикам относятся шкала качества жизни ВОЗ (WHOQOLBREF) [Skevington, Lotfy, O'Connell, 2004], опросник качества жизни и удовлетворенности (QLesQ) [Endiсott et al., 1993;Рассказова, 2012а), опросник качества жизни М. Фриша (QOLI) [Frisch et al., 2005; Рассказова и др., 2019], Оксфордский опросник счастья (OHQ) [Hills, Argyle, 2002], шкала психического благополучия ВарвикЭдинбург [Tennant et al., 2007). Хотя эти инструменты демонстрируют высокую надежность и конвергентную валидность (соответствие получаемых результатов) по отноше нию к инструментам из двух первых групп, в них зачастую смешаны характеристи ки собственно позитивного функционирования и удовлетворенности им, а также симптомы благополучия и его предикторы [Kashdan, 2004;Рассказова, 2012б], что создает проблемы с теоретической интерпретацией полученных связей и раз личий. Хотя эти методики могут быть полезными в прикладных исследованиях или при проверке интервенций, проблемы с конструктной и дискриминантной валид ностью (эти методики нацелены на достаточно размытые конструкты и включают весьма широкий набор индикаторов) осложняют их использование в фундамен тальных исследованиях благополучия. ...
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В статье дан краткий обзор основных возможностей и ограничений модели субъективного благополучия Э. Динера, а также существующих русскоязычных методик для измерения различных характеристик благополучия. Представлены два исследования, посвященных русскоязычной валидизации популярных инструментов для измерения благополучия. В первом исследовании изучаются психометрические характеристики Шкалы субъективного счастья С. Любомирски и Шкалы удовлетворенности жизнью Э. Динера на большой выборке взрослых, представителей различных социальных групп (N=7091). Оба русскоязычных инструмента демонстрируют теоретически ожидаемую структуру, высокую надежность и предсказуемые связи с другими индикаторами субъективного благополучия, конструктивного мышления и позитивного функционирования. Во втором исследовании на выборке онлайн-панели (N=1021), стратифицированной по федеральным округам России, изучена валидность опросника «Спектр психологического благополучия» К. Киза, включающего шкалы эмоционального, социального и психологического благополучия. Изучены связи его показателей с другими индикаторами субъективного благополучия и качества жизни. Результаты свидетельствуют о структурной валидности и высокой надежности показателей методики. В приложении представлен стимульный материал методик, которые могут быть использованы в рамках мониторинговых исследований благополучия на русскоязычных выборках. Благодарность. Статья подготовлена при поддержке Российского научного фонда, проект № 18-18-00341.
... Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) - (Hills & Argyle, 2002;Kashdan, 2004), includes 29 self-report items (17 direct; 12 reversed) measured on a 6-point scale ranging from "Strongly disagree" to "Strongly agree." Cronbach alpha coefficients (cf. ...
Article
The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), Goal Orientation Questionnaire (GOQ), Revised Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F), and Academic Volitional Strategy Inventory (AVSI) plus a brief demographics questionnaire were administered to 395 Thai, and 313 Australian undergraduate students to investigate cross-cultural differences in personality, motivation, learning styles and academic achievement (measured via GPAs). Equivalence of English- and Thai-language measures was ensured using a well-established standard translation-backtranslation procedure. Australian students exhibited higher AVSI scores, whereas Thai students scored more highly on Psychological Wellbeing, as well as on Study Approach, Self-Efficacy Enhancement, Stress Reducing Actions, and Negative-Based Incentives. Nevertheless, our findings provide some evidence that Asian and Western learning style stereotypes may be breaking down in the modern digitally connected world.
... Hills y Argyle(2002), con el objetivo de obtener una versión abreviada de la escala que facilitase su uso cuando el tiempo disponible es limitado, sometieron el COF a un análisis discriminante que les permitió obtener una versión reducida de la escala en 8 ítems (COF-8; Hills y Argyle, 2002) con una alta y significativa correlación con la versión extendida. Cruise, Lewis y Mc Guckin (2006) probaron la consistencia interna, la fiabilidad, así como la estabilidad temporal de esta versión de 8 ítems en un test-retest con 2 semanas de diferencia con resultados satisfactorios, incrementando así la evidencia de la validez psicométrica de esta escala y su estabilidad temporal.Entre las críticas vertidas sobre el desarrollo de esta escala se encuentran las formuladas porKashdan (2004), quien advierte la falta de un modelo que respalde la inclusión de las fortalezas, las características cognitivas o el estado físico de la persona en la evaluación del bienestar subjetivo. En este sentido, apunta que estos aspectos son más bien antecedentes, correlatos o consecuencias del bienestar subjetivo que éste propiamente dicho.Pese a estas críticas, tanto la versión extendida como la abreviada del COF han sido ampliamente utilizadas en la investigación del bienestar subjetivo. ...
Book
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This book provides in its first three chapters’ contents about important theoretical-conceptual and empirical aspects of Positive Psychology and logotherapy, such as subjective wellbeing (including happiness and satisfaction with life), psychological wellbeing and its dimensions (described by Carol Ryff in her multidimensional model) and meaning in life. In the last chapter, theoretical-conceptual and empirical relationships between the main concepts of both psychological perspectives are exposed.
... Individuals actively seek and strive for a good and happy life such as controlling the external environment, identifying their potential, being creative, and knowing their goals (Lu & Gilmour, 2006 ). According to Kashdan (2004) , the measurement of happiness should be based on a clear definition, a solid theoretical framework and an appropriate and accurate methodology. In Islam, the measure of happiness is those who succeed both in this life as well as in the hereafter. ...
... Several studies have examined the scale's reliability and construct validity, finding that SWSL is a useful single-factor measure of global satisfaction with life with several advantages compared to single item measures (e.g., Corrigan et al., 2013;Esnaola et al., 2017). Furthermore, the SWLS has important advantages in comparison to other scales used to measure subjective well-being, such as, for example, the popular Scales of Psychological Well-Being (Ryff, 1989), which consists of 6 scales with low internal consistency (Clarke et al., 2001) or the Oxford Happiness Inventory (Hills & Argyle, 2002) where the composite score has no simple conceptual structure (Kashdan, 2004). ...
Article
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The article studies the causal effect of subjective well‐being on the consumption behavior of individuals aged 50 and above using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). To establish a causal link between subjective well‐being and six distinct types of consumption (food consumed at home, food consumed outside of home, spending on clothing, leisure consumption, monthly rent, and utility consumption), it exploits the longitudinal dimension of the dataset and instruments for subjective well‐being. The analysis reveals that subjective well‐being positively affects spending on food outside of home and leisure activities, while having no significant effect on the consumption of food consumed at home, clothing, monthly rent, and utilities. These results imply that people with higher levels of subjective well‐being are more engaged in social and leisure activities, such as going out for dinner, which offers important implications for both long‐term, as well as habitual buying behavior.
... Although researchers have no clear consensus on the definition of well-being, most agree that well-being encompasses several domains of human functioning, relating to issues of mental health, life satisfaction, and social functioning as well as practical aspects of quality of life [18][19][20]. Well-being has been studied based on two perspectives: the hedonic approach and the eudaimonic approach. ...
Article
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The current study used the value-attitude-behavior hierarchical framework as a theoretical foundation to investigate how consumers’ personal values and attitudes influence organic food consumption intention and behavior and how organic food consumption contributes to their perceived subjective well-being. The responses from a total of 420 Korean consumers were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results of this study indicated that universalism was positively related to attitudes toward environmental and psychological consequences of organic food consumption, whereas benevolence was positively related to attitudes toward health-related consequences. Further, intentions to consume organic foods were positively influenced by attitudes toward health-related and psychological consequences from consuming organic foods, and a positive, significant relation between the intention and the behavior regarding organic food consumption was revealed. Lastly, it was found that organic food consumption significantly affected consumers’ physical, psychological, and social well-being perceptions. Research contributions were discussed, and managerial implications were offered in the conclusions.
... A pitcher's relative number of fastballs, curveballs, sliders, and changeups (but probably not knuckleballs -only 3 pitchers in the entire league threw one in 2019) might predict how good they are (causes of quality), but pitch counts are not measures of pitching quality. The same idea holds for well-being -a measure of well-being should be agnostic to potential causes of well-being (e.g., Kashdan, 2004). ...
Article
In an earlier paper (Goodman et al., 2018), we found that two models of subjective well-being demonstrated substantial overlap, with correlations between .85-.98. We concluded that these two models do not capture distinct types of well-being – a conclusion consistent with a growing list of studies that have found high correlations between various models of well-being. In response to our work, the developer of one well-being model wrote a commentary offering an alternative conclusion (Seligman, 2018). In this paper, we continue this important discussion by delineating areas of disagreement and common ground. We present our new hierarchical framework of well-being and illustrate how it can resolve long-standing points of contention in well-being measurement.
... The 24-item Memorial University of Newfoundland Scale of Happiness (MUNSH; Kozma & Stones, 1980) was originally devised for measuring happiness in elderly, but it was rarely used in the literature. The 20-item Oxford Happiness Inventory (Argyle et al., 1989) and its successor Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (Hill and Argyle, 2002) were both criticized for length, redundancy, conceptual confound and lack of a sound theoretical rationale (Kashdan, 2004). The Orientation to Happiness Scale (Peterson et al., 2005) is an 18-item instrument designed to assess an individual's orientations to happiness by the pursuit of pleasure, engagement and meaning. ...
... Higher score reflect greater happiness. Although this scale is widely used and literally many researchers agree that this scale is suitable to measure happiness, Kashdan (2004) raise the issue to explicate salient conceptual regarding the item of the OHQ whether it's really assessing happiness or not. ...
... Any model of happiness could not explain many of these factors, for example, self-esteem and self-efficacy. It has already been reported that the item content of OHQ failed to differentiate subjective well-being from its antecedents and precedents (Kashdan, 2004). The potential development of a revised OHQ is possible as OHQ is a widely used measure and is also available in the public domain. ...
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This study examines the factor structure of the Hindi version of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) (Hills & Argyle, 2002) in a sample of 1000 Indian university students. OHQ is a widely used in positive psychology research. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA)has resulted in six factors. Another study has been carried to test the results of EFA and other reported models with a sample of 800 students. Confirmatory factor analysis has resulted in the six-factor model showing a better fit against the other tested models. The study results support the multi-dimensional structure of OHQ. The factor structure of OHQ in India has some common factors and many differences when compared to the Euro-American studies.
... Surprisingly, the groups in the present sample showed no LS related differences (even though the means were higher for the practitioners and the Kruskal-Wallis test did cross the significance threshold), unlike a previous study which showed enhanced "self-satisfaction" among Rajayoga practitioners as compared to controls (Ramesh et al., 2013). The previous study did not examine LS using the "gold standard" (Diener et al., 1985) but instead, they used a subset of questions from the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (Hills & Argyle, 2002), an instrument that has received criticism for not being directly relevant to assessment of SWB (Kashdan, 2004). Closer examination revealed that LTP and STP show enhanced LS as compared to the population score (Agrawal et al., 2011) reported in the literature (p <0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively). ...
Article
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Several studies have shown physical and mental health benefits associated with different schools of meditation. However, reviews have recommended interpretation of study outcomes in the context of school specific traditional practices. In the literature, practice proficiency is often conflated with hours or years of meditation practice and it is difficult to attribute wellbeing gains directly to the proficiency of practice. We carried out two studies to examine wellbeing, practice proficiency, and duration of practice amongst Brahma Kumaris Rajayoga (BKRY) practitioners from India. In Study 1, we surveyed participants (n = 1009) to record the socio-demographics, spiritual lifestyle components, and wellbeing enhancement attributed to their spiritual practice. We developed new measures for evaluating proficiency of BKRY practice and for assessment of progress in wellbeing attributed to BKRY practice. Both measures had high internal consistency scores (alphas 0.95, 0.93). Block-wise hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that after accounting for demographic variables, BKRY practice proficiency strongly predicted progress in wellbeing, explaining over 51.6% of the total variance. In Study 2, we took three well-matched groups (n = 86) that were distinct on the basis of duration of practice (long term, short term and zero term). We examined wellbeing differences in these three groups and the extent of correlation of wellbeing with practice proficiency, progress in wellbeing and duration of practice. We conclude that meditation practice does improve wellbeing and that proficiency of practice is better correlated with most aspects of wellbeing than duration of practice but there are a few aspects of wellbeing that increase with sustained practice over a long time. We recommend that studies involving other schools of spiritual/religious practice incorporate tradition-specific proficiency assessment (instead of using years of practice as a proxy) and also use the Progress in Wellbeing scale for assessing practice-aided improvements in wellbeing.
... The results showed that eating Greater positive emotions Lower blood pressure [9] Increased vigor and optimism Improved immune functioning [10,11] Increased positive affect, life satisfaction, optimism Increased longevity [14][15][16] Increased overall well-being, positive affect, life satisfaction, happiness, optimism Enhanced career success [21,24] Happiness, life satisfaction Improved social relationships [18][19][20][21][22] Increased happiness, resilience, overall well-being, positive affect breakfast regularly, consuming more meals and snacks, and eating more fruits and vegetables were all associated with greater well-being. Though the authors reported that food intake was linked to happiness, they employed the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire which has been criticized as a measure of happiness [28]. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire consists of 29 items that assess much more than happiness. ...
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The newly emerging field of positive psychology focuses on the positive facets of life, including happiness, life satisfaction, personal strengths, and flourishing. Research in this field has empirically identified many important benefits of enhanced well-being, including improvements in blood pressure, immune competence, longevity, career success, and satisfaction with personal relationships. Recognizing these benefits has motivated researchers to identify the correlates and causes of well-being to inform them in the development and testing of strategies and interventions to elevate well-being. As positive psychology researchers throughout the world have turned their attention toward facets of food intake, a consensus is developing that the consumption of healthy foods can enhance well-being in a dose-response fashion. The link between unhealthy foods and well-being is less clear. Some studies suggest that under certain conditions, fast food may increase happiness, though other studies demonstrate that fast food can indirectly undermine happiness. The positive impact of food consumption on well-being is not limited to what people consume but extends to how they consume it and social factors related to eating. Though the research suggests that our food intake, particularly fruits and vegetables, increases our well-being, this research is in its infancy. Research specifically focused on subpopulations, including infants and pregnant mothers, is mostly lacking, and the mechanisms that underlie the relationship between food consumption and well-being remain to be elucidated.
... It is worth noting that the OHQ has been criticized for including items that tap into constructs other than happiness (Kashdan, 2004). The consequence of such a broad measure is the inflated correlation with the other three variables assessed in the present study. ...
Article
Studies have found that extraversion enhances happiness indirectly through social support. However, it is unclear how social support may be connected to happiness. On the basis of a literature review, we hypothesize that individual hope may play an important role in the relationship between social support and happiness. Using a serial mediation model, the present study attempted to investigate the hypothetical mediating role of hope in the relationship between extraversion and happiness and between social support and happiness. Analysis of responses of 360 undergraduate students showed that extraversion, social support, and hope were significantly linked with happiness. Moreover, hope was found to mediate the linkage of extraversion and happiness and of social support and happiness. The results also supported the view that extraversion enhances happiness through social support and then hope (serial mediating effect). Lastly, the serial mediating effect was found to be significantly lower than the other two indirect effects. The findings offer insights into the effect of social support on happiness and extend the understanding of the relationship between extraversion and happiness.
... Our use of the Subjective Happiness Scale limited our conceptualization of happiness. There are other happiness measures that operationalize it as a multidimensional construct (e.g., Kashdan, 2004). Using one of these measures would permit a more nuanced view of the ways that materialism and happiness relate to each other and how different facets of happiness might relate to what people most value and view as really mattering in their lives. ...
... We should note that self-esteem and well-being are conceptually distinct and differ in their relationships with other variables, yet self-esteem is often found to be moderately to strongly correlated with subjective (Kashdan, 2004;Lyubomirsky et al., 2006) and psychological well-being (Paradise & Kernis, 2002). When combined with other indicators of wellbeing in a factor analysis (e.g., affect balance, optimism, happiness, selfactualization), self-esteem loads along with indicators thought to tap subjective well-being (Compton et al., 1996). ...
Article
We examined whether intragroup helping mediates the relationship between identification with one’s fandom and self-esteem and psychological well-being in three different samples of fans: bronies (fans of the television series My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic), anime fans (fans of Japanese animation and graphic novels), and furries (fans of anthropomorphic art and stories). Fans completed measures of ingroup identification, intragroup helping, and self-esteem (Studies 1 & 2) or psychological well-being (Study 3). Across all studies, the results tended to support intragroup helping as a mediator of the relationship between identification and self-esteem (Studies 1 & 2) and psychological well-being (Study 3). The results highlight a possible mechanism contributing to the benefits of belonging to fan groups and illustrate the possible benefits of helping others within one’s fan group.
... It is a 29item scale designed to measure a person's subjective well-being (Hills & Argyle, 2002;Kashdan, 2003). The OHQ is considered to be the improved version of the Oxford Happiness Inventory (Argyle et al., 1989) and is answerable using a 6-point Likert Scale (1 = strongly disagree to 6 = strongly disagree). ...
Article
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The main intent of this research is to test the effectiveness of expressive writing in processing and dealing with inhibited emotions of university students. The use of expressive writing targets the subjective well-being of the subjects, specifically their happiness and life satisfaction. Employing a between-subjects design, a thorough and rigorous psychological experiment was performed on 23 student volunteers where expressive writing was designated as the independent variable and happiness and life satisfaction as dependent variables respectively. Results of the non-parametric analysis showed that after the experimentation, both the happiness and life satisfaction of the subjects improved. Theoretical implications of the study are discussed in this paper.
... First, the results for global well-being did not confirm our hypothesis as only personality traits and not cardiac IAc predicted global wellbeing. In retrospect, the most likely explanation for this finding is that, as discussed by Kashdan (2004Kashdan ( , p. 1225, "items of the OHQ tap into self-esteem, sense of purpose, social interest and kindness, sense of humor, and aesthetic appreciation". These dimensions are not affected by the proposed moderating mechanisms of the IAc-SWB relation. ...
Article
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Interoceptive accuracy (IAc), the ability to perceive signals from within the body, has been linked to many beneficial health outcomes but also to psychopathologies such as anxiety disorders. Therefore, its relation to a person's subjective well-being (SWB) is unclear. Here, we predicted that individuals who are prone to interpreting interoceptive signals positively benefit from IAc and exhibit higher SWB. In contrast, individuals with predispositions towards negative interpretations suffer from it, resulting in lower SWB. Participants completed a measure of cardiac IAc, measures of extraversion, neuroticism, optimism and pessimism as personality traits that have been related to positive and negative attributional styles, and various measures of well-being. Psychiatric and physical well-being were predicted by the interaction between optimism/pessimism and IAc. While for optimistic participants, IAc did not predict higher well-being, for pessimistic individuals, it predicted lower well-being. These findings shed light on the role of interoception for SWB and its adaptiveness for individuals with different personalities.
... Happiness or life satisfaction indicates the extent to which people are content with their lives, accept their living conditions, and have their needs and wants fulfilled in their lives (Aw & Sabri, 2020;Kashdan, 2004;Sousa & Lyubomirsky, 2001). Conversely, unfulfilled needs and desires can cause unhappiness (Chekola, 1975(Chekola, , 2007Wilson, 1967). ...
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Previous studies have found that average cognitive ability at the national level, which has been called national intelligence and scaled as IQ, is an important determinant of economic growth at the cross-national level. The current study re-investigates the claim that being a happier society weakens the positive association between IQ and economic growth. It investigates whether there is a threshold effect of happiness on the relationship between national IQ and economic growth between 1960 and 2017. Controlling for endogeneity with instrumental variables (IVs), the results confirmed that the relationship between IQ and economic growth is weaker in countries with high levels of self-reported happiness. The diminishing returns of IQ for economic growth can be recognized above a threshold level of 6.25 on the zero-to-10 happiness scale. The suggested explanation is that higher levels of happiness tend to reduce the aspiration for higher productivity among the people, which reduces the impact of cognitive human capital on economic growth.
... 1. Pozitif duygu durumunun yoğunluğu, 2. Negatif duyguların yokluğu, 3. Genel yaşam doyumu (Kashdan, 2004 (Grant vd., 2012;Güner, 2018 (Grant, 2011). ...
Thesis
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Bu araştırmada öğretmenlerde çözüm odaklı düşünme ile mutluluk ilişkisinde sürekli umut ve yaşam doyumunun aracı etkisinin belirlenmesine yönelik bir modeli test etmek amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemini 2020 - 2021 eğitim öğretim yılında Muş İl Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü'ne bağlı Muş merkez ve ilçelerinde bulunan okul öncesi, ilkokul, ortaokul, lise ve Rehberlik ve Araştırma Merkezleri'nde görev yapan 479'u kadın, 307'si erkek olmak üzere toplam 786 öğretmen oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada toplanan veriler, Çözüm Odaklı Düşünme Envanteri, Sürekli Umut Ölçeği, Yaşam Doyumu Ölçeği ve Oxford Mutluluk Ölçeği Kısa Formu ile elde edilmiştir. İlişkisel tarama modelinde yürütülen araştırmada verilerin analizi için SPSS Statistics 25 ve AMOS 24 programları kullanılmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında önerilen model, yapısal eşitlik modellemesi ile test edilmiş ve kabul edilebilir uyum değerleri ile doğrulanmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında yapılan fark istatistiklerine göre öğretmenlerin çözüm odaklı düşünce ve tüm alt boyutları, sürekli umut, yaşam doyumu ve mutluluk düzeyleri istenilen sosyal ilişkilere sahip olma durumuna göre farklılaşmıştır. Öğretmenlerin çözüm odaklı düşünce alt boyutlarından problemden ayırma, kaynakları harekete geçirme boyutları ile yaşam doyumu düzeyleri cinsiyetlerine göre istatistiksel olarak anlamlı düzeyde farklılaşmıştır. Modelde, çözüm odaklı düşünce ile mutluluk ilişkisinde erkek örnekleminde sürekli umut ve yaşam doyumunun kısmi aracılığı, kadın örnekleminde ise tam aracılık rolü saptanmıştır. Buna göre araştırmada öğretmenlerin çözüm odaklı düşünce düzeyinin sürekli umut ve yaşam doyumu düzeyleri üzerinde, bunların da mutluluk üzerinde anlamlı birer yordayıcı olduğu belirlenmiştir. Çözüm odaklı düşünce ile mutluluk arasında modelde belirlenen dolaylı etkinin anlamlı olduğu bulunmuştur. Bulgular alanyazın kapsamında tartışılmış araştırmacı ve uygulayıcılara çeşitli öneriler sunulmuştur.
... .57 with Argyle's own life satisfaction index. The conceptualisation and operationalisation of happiness offer broad coverage of subjective well-being, embracing as Kashdan (2004) observes, the notions of aesthetic appreciation, autonomy, humour, kindness, physical health, self-efficacy, self-esteem, sense of purpose and social interest. ...
Article
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This study was designed to test the hypothesis that events such as the Christmas Eve Carol Services at Liverpool Cathedral that include some regular churchgoers (people who attend services most weeks) and much larger numbers of occasional visitors (who may attend church only once or twice a year) make a significant impact on the psychological health and well-being of the participants. Using a repeat-measure design, participants were invited to complete a copy of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire while they were waiting for the service to begin and then to complete a second copy during a five-minute organ improvisation just before the close of the service. Data provided by 802 participants who completed both copies of the instrument demonstrated a significantly higher score on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire at time two than at time one, suggesting that attendance at the service had exerted a positive impact on psychological health and well-being. Contribution: Situated within the science of cathedral studies, this article demonstrates by means of a repeated-measure study that cathedrals can make a significant impact on the psychological health and well-being of the wider community served by them. The same well-being measure was completed by 802 participants at the Christmas Eve Carol Services before and after the event, with a significant increase in scores at time two.
... This inventory was originally based on the underlying hypothesis that happiness includes three partially independent components: the frequency and intensity of positive affect or joy, the average level of satisfaction, and the absence of negative feelings, such as depression and anxiety (18). Some authors have stated the OHQ decreases its utility in the study of SWB when compared with other available measures (19). Measures of SWB should be informed by theory-driven de nitions of well-being, and according to them, Hills and Argyle fail to specify a de nition and a theory of SWB that supports the item content of their scale (16). ...
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Background: Happiness is a complex concept that has been associated with mental health. Measures of happiness incorporate affective states predisposition and personality traits. Following the link established between subjective wellbeing and positive emotions and mental health, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) may be considered a broad measure of personal happiness. We aimed to validate OHQ in the Portuguese speaking population. METHODS: A sample of 421 young adults fulfilled the 29 and 8-item items of OHQ Portuguese version. Participants also completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A principal component analysis with Varimax rotation, Kaiser rule, complemented by a scree plot graphical representation, was performed. RESULTS: Seven components of the OHQ explained 58.22% of the total variance, and a correlation of 0.90 between the long 29 items version and the 8 items short version. Both versions related inversely with negative feelings (depression, anxiety, and stress), and directly with subjective happiness. CONCLUSION: The OHQ performs as a happiness assessment tool suitable for patients and healthy populations. The application of this questionnaire may furthermore contribute to clarify the concept of happiness and test the real usefulness of these tools in the clinical setting.
... No time was allocated for this test but participants were asked to respond promptly. The scores that can be taken from the scale vary between 24 and 145, and higher scores indicate higher levels of happiness (Kashdan, 2004). ...
Article
People have different moods that vary in different spaces, and the “light” is one of the most important factors affecting the mood of people in an indoor environment. Conducted with 50 volunteers using a church design in the virtual reality environment, the study aims to test individuals’ mood changes in the designed church according to natural and artificial light conditions. In the study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule mood scale and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used, in addition to the Likert-type Architectural Liking Scale. A significant correlation was found between the architectural liking scores and the difference in the average positive moods scores in the spaces with natural lighting and artificial lighting. It was also noted that the rate of positive mood reported by female participants was higher than male participants in the study.
... The former corresponds to hedonic happiness, or the degree of experiencing positive affective. The latter corresponds to the degree to which an individual perceives that his/her aspirations are met (Brulde, 2007;Kashdan, 2004). Happiness therefore, is an amalgamation of these two and is essential for life satisfaction. ...
Article
Internet usage and happiness are eminent constructs affecting well-being and perceptions of a good life. The present study was conducted to explore the differences in the level of internet usage, happiness, and the relationship between these variables in working and non-working mothers. Internet usage was measured using the Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1998) and happiness was measured using the Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, 1999). Data was obtained from 110 women between the age of 30-40 years. Analysis of data presented a significant difference in the level of internet usage and happiness between working and non-working mothers. Furthermore,
... Our use of the Subjective Happiness Scale limited our conceptualization of happiness. There are other happiness measures that operationalize it as a multidimensional construct (e.g., Kashdan, 2004). Using one of these measures would permit a more nuanced view of the ways that materialism and happiness relate to each other and how different facets of happiness might relate to what people most value and view as really mattering in their lives. ...
Article
Poirier, S., Brinthaupt, T., Kwon, J., Remsen, M., and Iyer, U. (2020). Relationship between Materialism, Life Value, and Happiness in a U.S. College Sample, International Journal of Home Economics,13 (1), 96-106
... Kangal (2013), in his conceptual evaluation on happiness, stated that there is no general definition of happiness, and it can be simply defined as the degree of liking one's life. Although there are different definitions, generally speaking, happiness includes the intensity of a positive mood, the absence of negative emotions, and general life satisfaction (Kashdan 2004). When these three elements are evaluated together, a happy person is one who rarely experiences negative emotions, is satisfied with his general life, and experiences positive emotions most of the time. ...
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The aim of this study was to test a model to determine the mediating effect of dispositional hope and life satisfaction in the relationship between solution-focused thinking and happiness in teachers. The sample of the research is composed of 786 teacher 479 of whom are women and 307 of whom are men working at the preschools, primary schools, middle schools, high schools and Guidance Research Center's in Muş and its districts. The data are accumulated via The Solution-focused Inventory, Dispositional Hope Scale, Satisfaction With Life Scale and he Oxford Happiness Questionnaire Short-Form. The recommended model within the research was tested with structural equation modeling and it was confirmed via acceptable model fit indices. In the model, in regard of the relationship between solution focused thinking and happiness, role of partial mediation of dispositional hope and life satisfaction with the men and whole mediation with the women was detected. In these terms it has been determined with the research that the level of solution focused thinking of teachers is a determiner on the levels of hope and life satisfaction and these two are significant determiners on happiness. The indirect effect between solution focused thinking and happiness, which has been detected within the model is significant.
... Kangal (2013), in his conceptual evaluation on happiness, stated that there is no general definition of happiness, and it can be simply defined as the degree of liking one's life. Although there are different definitions, generally speaking, happiness includes the intensity of a positive mood, the absence of negative emotions, and general life satisfaction (Kashdan 2004). When these three elements are evaluated together, a happy person is one who rarely experiences negative emotions, is satisfied with his general life, and experiences positive emotions most of the time. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to test a model to determine the mediating effect of dispositional hope and life satisfaction in the relationship between solution-focused thinking and happiness in teachers. The sample of the research is composed of 786 teacher 479 of whom are women and 307 of whom are men working at the preschools, primary schools, middle schools, high schools and Guidance Research Center's in Muş and its districts. The data are accumulated via The Solution-focused Inventory, Dispositional Hope Scale, Satisfaction With Life Scale and he Oxford Happiness Questionnaire Short-Form. The recommended model within the research was tested with structural equation modeling and it was confirmed via acceptable model fit indices. In the model, in regard of the relationship between solution focused thinking and happiness, role of partial mediation of dispositional hope and life satisfaction with the men and whole mediation with the women was detected. In these terms it has been determined with the research that the level of solution focused thinking of teachers is a determiner on the levels of hope and life satisfaction and these two are significant determiners on happiness. The indirect effect between solution focused thinking and happiness, which has been detected within the model is significant.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of peer support group on subjective well-being (SWB) of wives of war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Selected participants were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups (n = 40 for each group). The intervention group was divided into four subgroups, with each participating in 8 weekly based 1.5 hr peer support group sessions. SWB and its dimensions in the intervention group increased significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.001). Peer support group can be a useful tool to enhance SWB in spouses of war veterans with PTSD.
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Founder's Mentality is a very fragile framework that describes how companies fail while on the growth trajectory. The path from start-up is not a straight line that only 1 in 9 companies show sustainable growth for Ten Plus years. This growth paradox creates complexity and complexity slowly in turn kills growth. Most companies which fail to reach their corporate growth objectives actually blame themselves, not the market conditions for their non-growth. There are various causative factors, known or unknown, visible or invisible, obvious or confusing factors which come as killers on Leaders Founding Mentality who were once the stalwarts start to become worn out without even aware of what is happening and why is it happening. This causal analysis study is to analyze from previous research and current trending research reports the various factor impacting on Leadership.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in university students. The statistical population of this study were all students of University of Isfahan among whom 294 students were selected through random multistage sampling as the sample of the study. Cronbach's Alpha and split-half coefficients were used for computing the reliability of SHAPS. Also, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to calculate the concurrent validity of SHAPS. The results showed that SHAPS has an appropriate reliability. Significant correlations between SHAPS with OHQ and BDI, confirmed the concurrent validity of the scale (P < 0/01). Also, the results of confirmatory factor analysis, confirmed factor validity of SHAPS. Based of the results of this study, SHAPS is a reliable, and valid instrument to assess pleasure in population university students.
Chapter
In this opening chapter, Crowther outlines the historical perception of nature as positively transformative in Scotland. She provides an overview of nature and wellbeing research to date in the UK whilst questioning current popular methodologies for understanding these ephemeral and intangible experiences. This chapter concludes that to understand human experiences in nature, we must adopt qualitative methods that can tackle the experiential and phenomenological. This chapter introduces the research questions and establishes the book’s flow. Crowther situates nature as an experiential term and introduces liminality as an overarching theme. She also asks the questions, do we instrumentalise wellbeing in pro-environmental endeavours, and is this helpful to understanding the positive benefits of nature engagement? This chapter sets up a framework for understanding the nature experience that encompasses sociality, place, and the self.
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Conference Paper
The aim of the current research was to examine the relationships between the variables that were represented in: the sense of self-confidence, psychological health, anxiety and depression, and study the impact of each of them on the demographic variables of gender, specialization and social situation, as well as the impact of interaction between demographic variables on both self-confidence and mental health and anxiety and depression , The application of tools to measure the variables of research on a sample of (233) students, and the use of statistical methods of testing the differences between averages and analysis of global variability, Pearson correlation coefficients and regression analysis and global analysis, Search for many of the results was the most important: - The effect of demographic variables on self-confidence, mental health, anxiety and depression, and positive correlation between self-confidence and mental health, and negative correlation between mental health and anxiety and depression. The results also revealed that the mental health of an individual can be predicted by high self-esteem and low anxiety and depression, and that he can meet search variables on a bipolar factor, his pole positive self-confidence, mental health and his negative pole of anxiety and depression
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Background: Happiness is among fundamental concepts in mental health that influence many aspects of life. It becomes particularly more important for people who are working under continuous stress especially medical students. Objective: This study was conducted to identify different factors and find out their effectiveness in predictinghappiness scores among medical students of Rawalpindi Medical University. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of Rawalpindi Medical University with ethical approval from institution. Stratified random sampling was used to select the participants. Data was collected using two questionnaires. First was Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and a second questionnaire included various variables being tested. SPSS V23 was used to analyse data. Results: A total of 450 students were enrolled including 297 females and 153 males. The Mean ± SD value of happiness of the participants was 4.01 ± 1.12. There was significant relationship between the happiness scores and physical activity, fulfilling religious obligations and participation in social activities while there was no significant relationship between happiness and gender, frequency of playing video games and listening to music and Facebook usage. Conclusion: The mean value of happiness among students of RMU coincided with average happiness scores in general population. Those participants of study who had increased physical activity by either doing exercise or going to gymnasium had significantly higher scores of happiness. Similarly, individuals who were fulfilling religious obligations and had increased participation in social activities also scored significantly higher on happiness scale.
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W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Using a ''subjectivist'' approach to the assessment of happiness, a new 4-item measure of global subjective happiness was developed and validated in 14 studies with a total of 2 732 participants. Data was collected in the United States from students on two college campuses and one high school campus, from community adults in two California cities, and from older adults. Students and community adults in Moscow, Russia also participated in this research. Results indicated that the Subjective Happiness Scale has high internal consistency, which was found to be stable across samples. Test-retest and self-peer correlations suggested good to excellent reliability, and construct validation studies of convergent and discriminant validity confirmed the use of this scale to measure the construct of subjective happiness. The rationale for developing a new measure of happiness, as well as advantages of this scale, are discussed.
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A theoretical model of psychological well-being that encompasses 6 distinct dimensions of wellness (Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, Personal Growth, Positive Relations with Others, Purpose in Life, Self-Acceptance) was tested with data from a nationally representative sample of adults (N = 1,108), aged 25 and older, who participated in telephone interviews. Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the proposed 6-factor model, with a single second-order super factor. The model was superior in fit over single-factor and other artifactual models. Age and sex differences on the various well-being dimensions replicated prior findings. Comparisons with other frequently used indicators (positive and negative affect, life satisfaction) demonstrated that the latter neglect key aspects of positive functioning emphasized in theories of health and well-being.
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This meta-analysis used 9 literature search strategies to examine 137 distinct personality constructs as correlates of subjective well-being (SWB). Personality was found to be equally predictive of life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect, but significantly less predictive of negative affect. The traits most closely associated with SWB were repressive-defensiveness, trust, emotional stability, locus of control-chance, desire for control, hardiness, positive affectivity, private collective self-esteem, and tension. When personality traits were grouped according to the Big Five factors, Neuroticism was the strongest predictor of life satisfaction, happiness, and negative affect. Positive affect was predicted equally well by Extraversion and Agreeableness. The relative importance of personality for predicting SWB, how personality might influence SWB, and limitations of the present review are discussed.
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Subjective well-being (SWB) is evaluation of life in terms of satisfaction and balance between positive and negative affect; psychological well-being (PWB) entails perception of engagement with existential challenges of life. The authors hypothesized that these research streams are conceptually related but empirically distinct and that combinations of them relate differentially to sociodemographics and personality. Data are from a national sample of 3,032 Americans aged 25-74. Factor analyses confirmed the related-but-distinct status of SWB and PWB. The probability of optimal well-being (high SWB and PWB) increased as age, education, extraversion, and conscientiousness increased and as neuroticism decreased. Compared with adults with higher SWB than PWB. adults with higher PWB than SWB were younger, had more education, and showed more openness to experience.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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A flood of new studies explores people's subjective well-being (SWB) Frequent positive affect, infrequent negative affect, and a global sense of satisfaction with life define high SWB These studies reveal that happiness and life satisfaction are similarly available to the young and the old, women and men, blacks and whites, the rich and the working-class Better clues to well-being come from knowing about a person's traits, close relationships, work experiences, culture, and religiosity We present the elements of an appraisal-based theory of happiness that recognizes the importance of adaptation, cultural world-view, and personal goals
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Pleasures of the mind are different from pleasures of the body. There are two types of pleasures of the body: tonic pleasures and relief pleasures. Pleasures of the body are given by the contact senses and by the distance senses (seeing and hearing). The distance senses provide a special category of pleasure. Pleasures of the mind are not emotions; they are collections of emotions distributed over time. Some distributions of emotions over time are particularly pleasurable, such as episodes in which the peak emotion is strong and the final emotion is positive. The idea that all pleasurable stimuli share some general characteristic should be supplanted by the idea that humans have evolved domain-specific responses of attraction to stimuli. The emotions that characterize pleasures of the mind arise when expectations are violated, causing autonomic nervous system arousal and thereby triggering a search for an interpretation. Thus pleasures of the mind occur when an individual has a definite set of expectations (usually tacit) and the wherewithal to interpret the violation (usually by placing it in a narrative framework). Pleasures of the mind differ in the objects of the emotions they comprise. There is probably a
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The handbook, woven around the hope theory that has received the most attention in the 1990s, is divided into 6 sections. Two chapters describe the rise and fall of hope—that is, how hope develops normally in children and how it tragically can die for some people in their childhood or adult years. A chapter gives an overview of the various instruments for and approaches to measuring hope. Five chapters deal with how hope theory relates directly to the processes of helping people in general. 11 chapters cover hope theory applied to benefit various people: from children to adolescents to the elderly, minorities, athletes and others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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An improved instrument, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), has been derived from the Oxford Happiness Inventory, (OHI). The OHI comprises 29 items, each involving the selection of one of four options that are different for each item. The OHQ includes similar items to those of the OHI, each presented as a single statement which can be endorsed on a uniform six-point Likert scale. The revised instrument is compact, easy to administer and allows endorsements over an extended range. When tested against the OHI, the validity of the OHQ was satisfactory and the associations between the scales and a battery of personality variables known to be associated with well-being, were stronger for the OHQ than for the OHI. Although parallel factor analyses of OHI and the OHQ produced virtually identical statistical results, the solution for the OHQ could not be interpreted. The previously reported factorisability of the OHI may owe more to the way the items are formatted and presented, than to the nature of the items themselves. Sequential orthogonal factor analyses of the OHQ identified a single higher order factor, which suggests that the construct of well-being it measures is uni-dimensional. Discriminant analysis has been employed to produce a short-form version of the OHQ with eight items.
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A comparative study has been made of the positive moods generated by four common leisure activities: sport/exercise, music, church and watching TV soaps. Some 275 participants whose ages ranged from 18 to 82 were invited to indicate the intensity of their personal, positive feelings for the items of four measures designed to be representative of each of the activities. It was found that each activity was a significant source of positive moods. Factor analysis of the measures showed that they each contained a strong social component, as well as a factor characteristic of each activity. Using the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI) as a measure of happiness, only sport/exercise appeared to result in increased happiness, and the reasons for this are explained in terms of the several components of the OHI. The associations of each of the activities with the Eysenck personality traits as measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) were also examined and the most frequent association is with extraversion. Church membership is atypical, in that church members exhibit significantly lower scores for psychoticism (tough mindedness) and higher lie-scale scores (social conformity).
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This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual's physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed.
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This study was designed to investigate the dimensionality of positive emotions and was run in two parts. In part 1, subjects were given a set of 24 different life-situations all of which commonly give rise to positive emotions. They sorted the 24 situations into groups on the basis of whether or not they produced similar emotional responses. In part 2 of the study subjects rated each of the 24 situations on 13 emotion scales. The grouping data obtained in part 1 were submitted to multidimensional scaling (MDS) and returned a four-dimensional solution. Canonical correlations between the four MDS dimensions and the 13 emotion scales revealed that dimension 1 is best explained by ‘absorption’, dimension 2 by ‘potency’, dimension 3 by ‘altruistic’ and dimension 4 by ‘spiritual’. These correlations were then married to an interpretation of the situations falling high and low on each of the four dimensions, with the following results. Dimension 1 distinguishes internal or private situations from social situations, dimension 2, achievement from leisure situations, dimension 3, social demands from self-indulgence, and dimension 4, serious from trivial situations. The implications of these findings for the study of emotion are discussed.
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Although the original 20-item Purpose in Life Test (PIL) has been subjected to various reliability and validity tests, its use has been limited largely to American culture. In this paper ten items were selected from the original scale, and both directionality and response categories were modified. This Ten-Item Modified Purpose in Life Test was then validated through item analysis by using two cross-national samples of elderly people. One sample consisted of 177 retirees from the school system in Payne County, Oklahoma, and the other consisted of 202 retired teachers in Taipei, Taiwan. It was concluded from this study that the Ten-Item Modified Purpose in Life Scale can be reduced to the Seven-Item Modified Purpose in Life Scale as an alternative measure for comparing the psychological well-being of the elderly cross-nationally.
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Over 100 subjects completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Inventory. The results showed a predicted positive correlation between happiness and extraversion (r = 0.55, P < 0.001) and negative correlation between happiness and neuroticism (r = 0.43, P < 0.001). The results provide confirmatory evidence of previous research as well as validation for the happiness inventory.
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Addressing the question of why some people are happier than others is important for both theoretical and practical reasons and should be a central goal of a comprehensive positive psychology. Following a construal theory of happiness, the author proposes that multiple cognitive and motivational processes moderate the impact of the objective environment on well-being. Thus, to understand why some people are happier than others, one must understand the cognitive and motivational processes that serve to maintain, and even enhance, enduring happiness and transient mood. The author's approach has been to explore hedonically relevant psychological processes, such as social comparison, dissonance reduction, self-reflection, self-evaluation, and person perception, in chronically happy and unhappy individuals. In support of a construal framework, self-rated happy and unhappy people have been shown to differ systematically in the particular cognitive and motivational strategies they use. Promising research directions for positive psychology in pursuit of the sources of happiness, as well as the implications of the construal approach for prescriptions for enhancing well-being, are discussed.
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One area of positive psychology analyzes subjective well-being (SWB), people's cognitive and affective evaluations of their lives. Progress has been made in understanding the components of SWB, the importance of adaptation and goals to feelings of well-being, the temperament underpinnings of SWB, and the cultural influences on well-being. Representative selection of respondents, naturalistic experience sampling measures, and other methodological refinements are now used to study SWB and could be used to produce national indicators of happiness.
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A sample of 222 undergraduates was screened for high happiness using multiple confirming assessment filters. We compared the upper 10% of consistently very happy people with average and very unhappy people. The very happy people were highly social, and had stronger romantic and other social relationships than less happy groups. They were more extraverted, more agreeable, and less neurotic, and scored lower on several psychopathology scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Compared with the less happy groups, the happiest respondents did not exercise significantly more, participate in religious activities significantly more, or experience more objectively defined good events. No variable was sufficient for happiness, but good social relations were necessary. Members of the happiest group experienced positive, but not ecstatic, feelings most of the time, and they reported occasional negative moods. This suggests that very happy people do have a functioning emotion system that can react appropriately to life events.
What are the differences between happiness and self-esteem?
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