Nutritional value of bread: Influence of processing, food interaction and consumer perception

Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent, Belgium
Journal of Cereal Science (Impact Factor: 2.09). 09/2008; 48(2):243-257. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2008.01.003


The nearly ubiquitous consumption of cereals all over the world gives cereals an important position in international nutrition. Besides the high starch content as energy source, cereals provide dietary fibre, nutritious protein and lipids rich in essential fatty acids. Important micronutrients present in cereals are vitamins, especially many B vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and phytochemicals. In general, cereals provide important amounts of most nutrients. However, processing may decrease or increase the levels of the bioactive components in grains and also modify the bioavailability of these components. In addition, interactions between bread and companion foods have effects on the nutritional quality. The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature on the effects of processing techniques and interactions with other food components in a mixed meal on the nutritional quality of bread. Furthermore, research findings on the consumer perception of bread in Belgium are included. This information can help health professionals and policy-makers to give clear and targeted advice about the positive effects of bread in the human nutrition during consultations and information campaigns.

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    • "Efforts are increasingly numerous and more common actions to the variety of conventional diet to protect the consumer against diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and cancer (Sun and Ho 2005; Dewettinck et al. 2008; Pedersen et al. 2011). Currently, wheat flour is usually used in bread making (Giménez-Bastida et al. 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of an in vitro procedure that mimics the physiochemical changes occurring in gastric and small intestinal digestion on the antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds from 16 types of buckwheat-enhanced wheat breads was assessed. The methodology was based on the Global Antioxidant Response (GAR) which combined bioaccessible antioxidant capacity of the soluble fraction from digestible portion measured by the standard Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and antioxidant capacity of the insoluble fraction from the undigested portion by the QUENCHER method. The bioaccessibility of the phenolics was measured in the soluble fraction with Folin-Cicalteu reagent and in the insoluble fraction by modified QUENCHER method. The studies showed almost 20-fold higher GAR values as compared to the antioxidant capacity of the respective undigested reference breads. The bioaccessible antioxidant capacity of soluble fraction from digestible portion increased significantly whereas the undigested residue displayed antioxidant capacity that accounted for up to 15 % of the GAR. The bioaccessible phenolics accounted for up to 90 % of the total phenolics after digestion and were highly correlated with GAR results of buckwheat-enriched wheat breads. Our results indicate that in vitro digestion is the crucial step that releases of high amount of phenolic antioxidants. The combination of QUENCHER assay with Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) assay estimated on Folin-Ciocalteu reagent has been useful for the determination of the bioaccessible antioxidant activity and phenolics of the soluble and insoluble fraction of buckwheat-enhanced wheat breads.
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    • "activity and low pH in the bread pulp; however, under favourable development conditions; higher amounts of spores outgrow into vegetative cells and cause ropiness spoilage. Bread defects can cause huge economic losses for bakery industry (Thompson et al., 1998; Dewettinck et al., 2008). In order to prevent the development of ropiness defect in wheat bread, it is necessary to determine what level of bread contamination by aerobic spore-forming bacteria can cause the defect of ropiness, and what impact in this regard could have the duration of bread storage and temperature. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of the study was to determine the level of contamination of white bread by aerobic spore-forming bacteria that may cause the ropiness and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against aerobic spore-forming bacteria during the storage of wheat bread at different temperatures. The contamination of dough samples by aerobic spore-forming bacteria did not affect the quality of bread in the initial storage phase (6–16 h after baking). The critical Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii ATCC 6633 levels that cause ropiness in baked bread were determined: 7.8 × 106 CFU (colony forming units) g-1 after storage of samples for 3 days at 2 ± 2°C, 1.3 × 106 CFU g-1 after storage of samples for 3 days at 18 ± 2°C and 6.0 × 106 CFU g-1 after storage of samples for 1 day at 30 ± 2°C temperature. It was determined that contamination of dough by aerobic spore-forming bacteria should not exceed 1.0 × 103 CFU g-1. The evaluation of antimicrobial activities of lactic acid bacteria from Lactococcus and Lactobacillus genera against aerobic spore-forming bacteria was performed using an agar well diffusion method. In wheat bread, that had been fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 148/3, L. acidophilus 336 and L. casei subsp. casei, the antimicrobial effects were observed for up to 3 days of storage at 18 and 30°C temperature. Weak signs of ropiness spoilage (sweet rope odour, discoloration of the crumb) were observed during the storage of the bread samples at 18 ± 2°C for 5 days (1.7 × 102 CFU g-1) and at 30 ± 2°C for 3 and 5 days (1.5 × 102 CFU g-1).
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    • "Potential of sourdough fermentation and baking techniques to improve nutritional properties of bread. Antúnez et al. 2013; Talaei et al., 2013; Békés, 2012; Belz et al. 2012; Jones, 2011; Dewettinck et al. 2008; Katina et al. 2005; Yusufali et al., 2012; Ozola and Straumite, 2012 ++ Nutritional value is core in communication strategies of the local chain. The characteristics of raw materials is the most relevant aspect. "
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    ABSTRACT: Over the 2000s', consumers' food purchases have been increasingly informed by supply chain-related issues, with growing concerns about the sustainability of chains differing for their geographical scope. As a result, short food supply chains and local food systems have risen to policymakers and food chain stakeholders' attention as more sustainable alternatives to mainstream food networks. However, associating food chain's geographical scope and sustainability performance may not be straightforward. This paper aims at shedding lights on the connection between geographical scope and sustainability by comparing and discussing 19 attributes owing to different sustainability dimensions. The analysis anchors on the wheat-to-bread chain, due to its global relevance. Bread is a worldwide staple food and wheat is (generally) a commodity traded globally. However, wheat processing often occurs locally and baking is influenced by local heritage and consumption patterns, particularly in the EU and in Italy, where gastronomy is culturally embedded. The paper identifies critical aspects and provides a qualitative assessment of the performances of local vs global wheat-to-bread chains. The assessment is carried out on Italian case studies.
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