Article

Lead, cadmium and nickel in chocolates and candies from suburban areas of Mumbai, India

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Abstract

Nickel, lead and cadmium contents were determined in 69 different brands of chocolates and candies available in local markets of suburban areas of Mumbai, India. The majority of these chocolates and candies are made mainly from cocoa, milk solids, dry fruits, fruit flavours and sugar. Out of 69 brands of chocolates and candies analysed, 23 were cocoa-based, 22 milk-based and another 24 were of fruit flavour and sugar-based. Cadmium level ranged from 0.001 to 2.73 μg/g with an average of 0.105 μg/g. Nickel ranged from 0.041 to 8.29 μg/g with an average of 1.63 μg/g and lead level ranged from 0.049 to 8.04 μg/g with an average of 0.93 μg/g. Cocoa-based chocolates are found to have higher contents of the analysed heavy metals than milk-based chocolates, fruit flavour- or sugar-based candies.

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... Although previous studies evaluated the concentration of some trace elements in chocolate, [25][26][27][28][29] to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that determines 38 elements (including lanthanides and actinides). Moreover, levels of trace elements found in chocolate were used to establish a fingerprint that could be further combined with chemometrics to determine the authenticity of organic samples. ...
... 31 This study observed similar Pb concentrations between conventional (50.1 ± 47.9 ng g −1 ) and organic chocolate (52.9 ± 38.5 ng g −1 ), P > .05. These concentrations are lower than those reported by Yanus et al, 27 87.9 ± 4.8 ng g −1 ; Iwegbue, 28 800 ± 800 ng g −1 ; and Dahiya et al, 29 927 ng g −1 . In this regard, the contribution of Pb in chocolate is coming from the raw material used, manufacturing process, and product packaging. ...
... 38,39 In the present study, concentrations of Cd in chocolate were generally low, both in organic samples (44.6 ± 36.1 ng g −1 ) and conventional samples (66 ± 101 ng g −1 ), even when compared with other studies. 27,29 However, our values are similar to those in Nigerian chocolates. 28 Mean levels of Ni in conventional and organic chocolate were 2.8 and 2.6 μg g −1 , respectively. ...
Article
Chocolate is an appreciated food derived from cacao fruit. The flavonoids and minerals present in the chocolate have benefits to health, and some specific minerals are known to be toxic. Because of differences in their production systems, organic chocolate has a distinguishable pattern in mineral concentrations than conventional chocolate. Aiming for authenticity and study of the toxic elements in organic chocolate, we present in this work a simple method to classify organic chocolate samples based on elemental fingerprint profiling and multivariate data analysis. Thirty‐eight elements (toxic and essential) were determined in 36 chocolate samples (organic and conventional) by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to establish reference ranges and to identify differences in patterns of elements in both type of samples. Our results showed that Al, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Ba are the most present components for both types of chocolate, and higher concentrations of essential elements Fe, Zn, and Mg are found in conventional type, opposing the idea that organic food is rich in essential elements. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were used for multivariate data analysis, and sample differentiation was possible with 83% accuracy. We present a method to differentiate organic from conventional chocolate based on elemental fingerprint profiling and multivariate data analysis. Thirty‐eight elements (toxic and essential) were determined in samples by inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry. We found that Al, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Ba are the most commonly present elements for both types of chocolate, whereas higher concentrations of essential elements Fe, Zn, and Mg are found in the conventional samples.
... Heavy metals are introduced into the chocolate products via cocoa powder and cocoa fat, which are obtained by pressing the cocoa mass, as well as hydrogenated plant oils ( Mounicou et al., 2003;Rankin et al., 2005;Pedro et al., 2006). The level of these elements also depends on the cocoa plant's geographical origin, the environment in which they are cultivated (use of fertilizers, application of pesticides, metals naturally occurring in the soil and air), local pol- lution, the use of leaded fuel, and the transport and storage conditions of the cocoa beans (Taylor, 2005;Dahiya et al., 2005;Rehman and Husnain, 2012;Bertoldi et al., 2016). Furthermore, the products from various batches can differ significantly, as each batch could be con- taminated due to the influence of various factors and concentrations of raw materials (Dahiya et al., 2005;Pedro et al., 2006). ...
... The level of these elements also depends on the cocoa plant's geographical origin, the environment in which they are cultivated (use of fertilizers, application of pesticides, metals naturally occurring in the soil and air), local pol- lution, the use of leaded fuel, and the transport and storage conditions of the cocoa beans (Taylor, 2005;Dahiya et al., 2005;Rehman and Husnain, 2012;Bertoldi et al., 2016). Furthermore, the products from various batches can differ significantly, as each batch could be con- taminated due to the influence of various factors and concentrations of raw materials (Dahiya et al., 2005;Pedro et al., 2006). ...
... mg/kg. In twenty-three dark chocolate samples, Dahiya et al. (2005) reported a nickel content of between 0.049 and 8.29 mg/kg. The authors observed a high variability in two batches of individual brands. ...
Article
This study is a comprehensive approach to contamination from heavy metals (cadmium Cd, lead Pb, nickel Ni) in raw cocoa and the masses resulting from the various steps of the chocolate manufacturing process in three different companies. This study provide new and reliable data for food safety authorities, stakeholders and consumers. It also broadens knowledge of the contribution made by particular raw materials, production processes and/or machines in the overall level of these metals in the final product. The total reduction observed in the levels of metals varied according to the production line (10.5-33% Cd, 0-100% Pb, 11-42% Ni). It was noted that the two steps which have the greatest impact on decreasing the concentration of theses metals are winnowing of cocoa bean shell and conching. Nickel was the most abundant toxic metal (max. 12.1. mg/kg in raw cocoa and 4.5. mg/kg in chocolate) and its presence creates a serious risk to children's health. The chocolate obtained from one of the producers posed a similar danger in terms of its cadmium content (0.43. mg/kg). Therefore, chocolate products should be monitored constantly and an absolute limit should be established regarding permissible levels of heavy metals.
... Rich in organic compounds, chocolate is a complex sample, which requires effective sample treatments. For this, the use of microwave digestion, wet digestion with heating plate or digesting block and dry ashes are some examples of useful methods (Dahiya et al. 2005;Romero-Estévez et al. 2019;Vanderschueren et al. 2019;Mohamed et al. 2020). Regarding the wet procedures, concentrated acids and peroxides are commonly used to improve sample decomposition. ...
... All the analysed samples showed Pb concentration above the maximum set limit (0.200 µg g −1 for samples with up to 40 % of cocoa and 0.400 µg g −1 for samples above 40 % of cocoa). Some of these values are in agreement with those reported by Dahiya et al. (2005) and Jalbani et al. (2009), where the lead concentration ranged from 0.049 to 8.04 µg g −1 and 2.25 to 2.48 µg g −1 , for different brands of chocolates and candies (Dahiya et al. 2005;Jalbani et al. 2009). In addition, there was no evidence of a relationship between cocoa percent and the concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb in the samples analysed. ...
... All the analysed samples showed Pb concentration above the maximum set limit (0.200 µg g −1 for samples with up to 40 % of cocoa and 0.400 µg g −1 for samples above 40 % of cocoa). Some of these values are in agreement with those reported by Dahiya et al. (2005) and Jalbani et al. (2009), where the lead concentration ranged from 0.049 to 8.04 µg g −1 and 2.25 to 2.48 µg g −1 , for different brands of chocolates and candies (Dahiya et al. 2005;Jalbani et al. 2009). In addition, there was no evidence of a relationship between cocoa percent and the concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb in the samples analysed. ...
Article
In this work, an effective and simple method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead and copper in chocolate samples by Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV). An ultrasonic bath was used for the extraction of cadmium, lead and copper from fourteen chocolate samples using HNO3 solution (7 mol L⁻¹). The electrochemical system consisted of a cell with three electrodes and HCl solution (10 mmol L⁻¹) as the supporting electrolyte. An efficient extraction of the metals (~100%) was attained after 1 h of ultrasonic pre-treatment. Quantitative analysis was carried out by the standard addition method. Good linearity, precision and accuracy were obtained in the range of concentrations examined. The accuracy was evaluated by means of a reference sample of spiked skim milk powder (BCR 151) to prove the reliability of the method. Detection limits (LOD) of 0.089, 0.059 and 0.018 µg g⁻¹ were found for cadmium, copper and lead, respectively, in the chocolate samples. Concentrations in chocolate samples were 4.30–138 µg g⁻¹ for Cu and 0.83–27.9 µg g⁻¹ for Pb, with no significant Cd. The simultaneous determination brings advantages to other methods already reported for chocolate analysis and the samples preparation proposed avoids the traditional sample mineralization step. These characteristics show this new method is especially attractive for case studies and routine analysis.
... Beberapa penyakit yang disebabkan logam Cd yaitu gangguan saluran pernafasan dan pencernaan, radang paru-paru, hati dan menjadi racun pada tulang (Zhong, Ren, & Zhao, 2016). Penyakit yang sebabkan oleh keracunan logam Pb antara lain mengurangi tingkat IQ, menghambat pertumbuhan dan merusak ginjal, keguguran, kehilangan keseimbangan, gangguan pendengaran, anemia, dan merusak alat pendengaran (Suherni, 2010) Sumber utama kontaminasi logam berat Cd dalam cokelat berasal dari bahan baku pembuatan cokelat, proses produksi dan pengolahan cokelat yang dilakukan di dalam alat berbahan baja, pencucian logam dari vessel yang digunakan (Dahiya, Karpe, Hegde, & Sharma, 2005). Sementara itu, logam berat Pb dalam cokelat dapat berasal dari bahan pangan yang ditambahkan, peralatan produksi yang digunakan serta bahan pembungkus cokelat yang beraneka warna. ...
... Studi penelitian tentang cokelat telah dilakukan terhadap 69 merk cokelat di Mumbai India. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa cokelat mengandung logam berat Pb, Cd, dan Ni dengan konsentrasi berturut-turut sebesar 0,93; 0,105 dan 1,63 µg/g (Dahiya et al., 2005). Penelitian lain juga pernah dilaporkan bahwa cokelat mengandung logam berat Cd, Cu, Ni dan Zn dengan konsentrasi masing-masing sebesar 1,95; 14,15; 2,90 dan 20,02 µg/g (Ramtahal et al., 2014). ...
... Konsentrasi tersebut lebih besar jika dibandingkan dengan nilai ambang batas maksimum yang dipersyaratkan oleh standar nasional Indonesia dengan nomor SNI 7934:2014 (BSN, 2014), sedangkan menurut food and drug administration (FDA) konsentrasi Pb maksimum 0,1 mg/kg. Tingginya konsentrasi logam Cd dan Pb dapat disebabkan beberapa faktor antara lain asal tanaman cokelat (Suherni & Group, 2010), komposisi bahan pangan yang ditambahkan, peralatan yang digunakan saat proses produksi, dan jumlah zat warna yang dicampurkan baik pada cokelat itu sendiri (Dahiya et al., 2005) maupun pada wadah atau pembungkus yang digunakan (Dias & Wickramasinghe, 2016). ...
Article
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p align="center"> ABSTRAK Pengembangan dan validasi metode analisis telah dilakukan untuk penentuan logam berat Cd dan Pb dalam 2 (dua) jenis sampel cokelat. Sampel ditambahkan HNO<sub>3</sub> 65 % dan didestruksi dengan gelombang mikro rumahan (domestic microwave) selama 2 menit, kemudian dianalisis menggunakan spektroskopi serapan atom (SSA). Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa destruksi gelombang mikro telah memenuhi persayaratan validasi seperti linieritas lebih besar dari 0,99, kisaran perolehan kembali 93,8-103,2 %, standar deviasi relatif (RSD) < 5 %, konsentrasi Cd dan Pb lebih besar dari batas deteksi metode (LOD) dan batas kuantitasi (LOQ), dan memiliki kekuatan metode (robustness) cukup baik untuk penentuan logam Cd dan Pb dalam cokelat. Uji t indenpenden (sig 5%) menunjukkan standar deviasi relatif (RSD) dan perolehan kembali (akurasi) logam Cd dan Pb menggunakan metode destruksi basah sistem gelombang mikro dan destruksi kering (standar SNI 7934:2014) relatif sama atau tidak berbeda secara signifikan. Prosedur destruksi gelombang mikro sangat praktis, dan dikategorik sebagai metode preparasi yang mudah, cepat, akurat, dapat diandalkan dan dapat dijadikan sebagai metode analisis rutin di dalam laboratorium dengan beberapa jenis sampel dalam jumlah yang banyak.</p
... The levels of heavy metals, especially lead and cadmium in cocoa beans, have been of concern for many years (BCCCA, 1996). Concentrations of toxic heavy metals in cocoa powders and cocoa liquors used for chocolate production are of great public significance (Mounicou et al., 2002;Dahiya et al., 2005, Jalbani et al., 2009). An investigation by Lee and Low (1985) reported high levels of heavy metals Cd, Cu and Pb levels in raw cocoa beans. ...
... Typically, heavy metals may be extracted from samples with different oxidizing acids using a variety of techniques. These acids include nitric Mounicou et al., 2002), hydrochloric (Ano et al., 2007), nitric/perchloric (Dahiya et al., 2005;Srogi, 2006), nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide (Güldaş, 2008). Wet digestion and dry ashing represent the two main procedures by which trace metals in food samples are extracted (Soylak et al., 2006). ...
... acids in open boiling tubes heated on hot plates, with tubes held in aluminum heating blocks (Dahiya et al. 2005;Korn et al., 2008;Duran et al., 2009), or in closed or pressurized digestion vessels with thermal (Mounicou et al., 2002) or microwave heating (Srogi, 2006;Güldaş et al., 2008;Dickson, 2010). ...
Thesis
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Trinidad and Tobago produces fine or flavour quality cocoa, which is in high demand and fetches premium prices on the international market. However, continued export of our cocoa beans may be affected by increasingly stringent regulations by chocolate-manufacturing countries governing the safety of agricultural commodities, including cocoa beans. These include the European Union (EU), Canada and the USA. Recent trends in food safety issues have generated concerns over the levels of heavy metals in cocoa, especially lead, cadmium, copper and nickel. While copper, nickel and zinc are essential trace elements at low concentrations; excessive levels may have adverse health effects. However, lead and cadmium are not considered essential elements and consequently are more strictly controlled in foods. It was therefore essential that steps be taken to protect the local cocoa industry, through monitoring and control of these heavy metals cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in local cocoa beans. For this purpose, a method of analysis of heavy metals in cocoa and cacao tissues was validated and quality-controlled, using Certified Reference Materials and internal quality control materials prepared from local cocoa beans. Additionally, local technical personnel were trained in the test method, to allow for independent monitoring of heavy metals by local laboratories. A survey of cocoa beans, cacao tissues, soil and litter from Trinidad and Tobago was undertaken between 2006 and 2009. This study confirmed that levels of nickel, lead and zinc in cocoa nibs all met international food safety standards, whereas only a few samples exceeded the maximum permissible levels for copper. However, cocoa nibs from some areas of Trinidad and Tobago are unlikely to meet food safety standards for cadmium in chocolates and other cocoa products, if >50% cocoa solids are used in such products. The study also demonstrated that shells of cocoa beans have significantly higher cadmium levels than nibs. Thus if the entire cocoa beans, rather than the nibs only are used to determine the cadmium contents of beans, such a distribution can cause results of analyses of cadmium-contaminated beans to be higher than those for nibs alone. Since entire cocoa beans are still being analyzed by some cocoa-purchasing countries, this may lead to incorrect decisions on the acceptability of cadmium levels in cocoa beans, based on food safety standards and possibly adverse effects on the marketability of such beans. Additionally, significant correlations were obtained in metal concentrations between cacao tissues, soil and litter samples, suggesting that soils are the main route of cadmium uptake by the cacao tree. Soils and cacao nibs of North-Eastern Trinidad have been found to contain higher levels of cadmium compared to those from other areas of Trinidad. However, flooding of cacao fields during the wet seasons, as well as some granular fertilizers, also contribute to cadmium in soils. The evaluation of different single-extraction procedures demonstrated that the complexing extractant DTPA can be used to measure cadmium bioavailability in soils. A lime treatment of cadmium-contaminated soils at a cacao farm in North-Eastern Trinidad has resulted in expected increases in pH and decreases in leaf cadmium levels, but unexpected increases in bioavailable soil cadmium. While consistent trends have not yet been obtained in these variables, the results demonstrate that soil treatment may provide a means of reducing cadmium uptake by cacao plants. However, this will require monitoring over many years, to determine the true effects of liming on cadmium uptake by cacao trees. A preliminary greenhouse trial with a commercial soil mycorrhizal preparation in a cadmium-spiked soil and a single cacao variety did not yield the expected decrease cadmium uptake by cacao plants. However, further investigations are suggested with other soil mycorrhiza and cacao varieties, to determine the potential of such soil treatments for reducing cadmium uptake by cacao plants. Low-level cadmium contamination from storage bags, tools and fermentation boxes during cacao bean fermentation and drying has also been demonstrated. Consequently, recommendations to prevent cadmium contamination from such sources, as well as from fertilizers used on cacao fields, have been made. Keywords: Cocoa; cacao; soils; heavy metals; cadmium; Trinidad; Tobago
... Furthermore, in a total of 30 chocolate samples, the highest concentration of nickel was 2.05 mg/ kg and lowest concentration of nickel was 0.005 mg/kg. Several workers (Dahiya et al., 2005;Jalbani et al., 2009) have worked on nickel concentrations in candies and chocolates, the result indicated the value of nickel is normal in sugar based candies. ...
... Among all 30 samples of local chocolates, it was found that the highest concentration of cadmium was 3.25 mg/ kg and lowest concentration of cadmium was .5 mg/kg. Several workers (Dahiya et al., 2005;Jalbani et al., 2009) have worked on concentration of cadmium in candies and chocolates, the result indicated the value of cadmium is high in candies and chocolates. ...
... mg/kg. Several workers (Dahiya et al., 2005;Jalbani et al., 2009) has worked on concentration of chromium in candies and chocolates, the result indicated the value of chromium is high in candies and chocolates. ...
Article
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Heavy metal toxicity can either be acute or chronic effects. Long-term exposure of the body to heavy metal can progressively lead to muscular, physical and neurological degenerative process. In this research, a total of 30 representative chocolate samples were collected from local shops and markets in Lahore. All the samples were analysed to assess the levels of Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer in Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR), Lahore. It was observed that the majority of chocolate samples contain heavy metals levels higher than the permissible limits as recommended by Punjab Food Rules (PFR) 2011. The levels of Pb ranged between 0.375 and 3.4 mg/kg with 90% samples having concentrations exceeding PFR allowable limit (0.5 mg/kg). Whereas, Ni concentrations varied from 0.005 to 0.28 mg/kg and 80% samples were above the PFR limit (0.025 mg/kg). Further, Cr levels analysed between 0.005 to 0.28 mg/kg and 53% samples had Cr concentrations higher than PFR limit (0.02 mg/kg). Similarly, Cd levels were observed between 0.50-3.25 mg/kg with 53% samples having Cd concentrations exceeding the PFR limit (1.0 mg/kg). Investigation indicates that the quality of available chocolates is not recommendable for eating because of the higher concentrations of toxic heavy metals.
... Thus, 0.29 mg/kg Cd, 1.36 mg/kg Pb, and 0.90 mg/kg As were found by ICP-AES in milk chocolate from Malaysia, as well as 0.39 mg/kg Cd, 1.82 mg/kg Pb and 1.17 mg/kg As, which seem dangerously high [5]. Similarly, Dahiya et al. [6] obtained a mean value of 1.92 mg/kg for Pb and 0.24 mg/kg for Cd in dark chocolates after open perchloric acid digestion and flame AAS. According to the experience of the author from the analysis of mineral fertilizers, Pb in phosphate matrices, done by flame AAS gets too high near the detection limit, and all three As-emission lines are quite matrix sensitive. ...
... In Italy, mean chocolate intake has been calculated as 9 g per day [8]. In India, the ingestion rate of chocolate for children has been estimated at 20 g per day [6]. In Turkey, the most preferred chocolate type is milk chocolate (33%), followed by chocolate with pistachio (21%), chocolate with hazelnut (16%), with caramel (15%), and plain (12%) [9]. ...
... In 2004, mean cadmium in chocolates sold in India was 0.07 mg/kg (range 0.01 -0.85), which is about the same as in this work [3]. In Poland, the Polish National standard for cadmium in chocolates (0.050 mg/kg) was not reached by any of the samples investigated [6,20], however. Apart from progress in trace element analytical techniques and blanks, concerns about cadmium might have led levels to decrease. ...
Chapter
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Because chocolate receives most of its element loads from the cocoa, milk chocolate, dark chocolate and cocoa may have different elemental compositions. Milk powder might be a significant source for Ca, I, and Na, and on the other hand, cocoa resp. chocolate additions impose significant changes to milk-based drinks. Among the sweet stuffs, chocolate contains most elements at much higher levels than other sweets and candies. Levels found in this work are compared with data encountered in staple foods like wheat and potatoes. Chocolate and cocoa are valuable nutritional sources for Cu, Fe, and Mg, but may contain appreciable amounts of Ni also.
... Thus, there is a high need for determining the content of trace metals and heavy metals in different types of candies. Previously, several researchers have reported the leaching of Pb and Cd in candies from their metallic ink dyed colorful packaging (Dahiya et al., 2005;Duran et al., 2008;Kim et al., 2008). Martinez et al. (2010), have reported a high level of trace metals in candy samples marketed in Mexico City. ...
... As far as Nickel is concerned, its maximum permitted limit in some food samples was decided at 0.2 mg/kg, by Anonymous 2002, whereas in candies, the permitted level for Nickel was not defined by any food safety authority (TurkishFoodCodex, 2002). Previously, several researchers as Duran et al. (2008) and Dahiya et al. (2005), have also reported Ni content in the range of 0.041-8.23 µg/g and 0.120-2.588 µg/g in different types of chocolates and candy samples as depicted in the Table 6. ...
... Earlier studies have reported Copper content in the range of 0.219-2.455 µg/g and 1.07 -2.74 µg/g in various candy samples (Dahiya et al., 2005;Duran et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Virtually almost everyone enjoys chocolates and candies every now and then. Usually, chocolate and candies are the most craved food among children and pregnant women. This craving kicks high during the phase of stress, anxiousness, hormonal changes or mood swings. As children and pregnant women are the most sensitive groups of human population, the presence of any kind of toxicants in their food products can raise serious health concerns. In view of this, an approach has been made to estimate the quantity of nine metals in three different variety of commonly available candies (67 samples) i.e., cocoa-chocolate based, milk based, and fruit flavored candies. Few metals were found at relatively high level in cocoa-chocolate based candies followed by milk based and fruit flavored candies. The findings of this study enlightens the international food safety and public health protection authorities to implement strict permissible limits for the presence of metals in candies. The statistical approach of multiple discriminant analysis was also performed in this study to reverse identify the candy groups based on their inter-comparative profiling of multi-elemental contamination among similar type of candy samples which points towards stipulating stringent quality policies and establishing strict standards for manufacturing, processing, storage and transportation of candies and their raw materials.
... Nickel is found as complex bond Ni 2+ ions in diets [23]. Despite the possibility of cocoa solid being a source of nickel in chocolate, the major source of nickel contamination in chocolate results from the manufacturing process when hardening is done by hydrogenation of unsaturated fats using nickel as catalyst [24]. Nickel at trace amount may be beneficial as an activator of some enzyme systems. ...
... At higher levels, it accumulates in the lungs and may cause bronchial hemorrhage. Other symptoms of nickel toxicity include nausea, weakness and dizziness [24]. ...
Article
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This study reviews the concentration of heavy metals in four imported chocolate candies (Samples 1, 2, 3 and 4) marketed and sold in Anyigba, Kogi state. In order to evaluate the quality of the products, the levels of some heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, and Cr) were evaluated in the samples using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Concentrations of metals in the studied samples ranged 0.50-0.80 mg/100g for Cu, 1.94-3.82 mg/100g for Pb, 0-1.40 mg/100g for Cd, 0.59-7.75 mg/100g for Zn, 0.08-0.53 mg/100g for Cr. Nickel was generally below detection level in the four samples. The data showed that these metals are at lower levels in the studied samples compared to other studies in chocolate candies in Nigeria. Thus, frequent intake of these selected products is likely not to induce health effects arising largely from Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn.
... There is a need therefore to study the overall dietary exposure and human health risk assessment to trace metals and potential toxic metals. The presence of heavy metals in candies and chocolates reported by various researchers in recent times across the globe with varying levels of contamination in different countries (Rehman and Husnain 2012;Jalbani et al. 2009;Kim et al. 2008b;Ortiz et al. 2016;Dahiya et al. 2005) validates the growing evidence that heavy metal contamination is one of the major problems mitigating against food safety around the world. This study has estimated the heavy metal risk associated with consumption of candies, chewing gum, and chocolates which are mainly imported into Nigeria. ...
... Until 2015, there was no acceptable limit for Ni in food, but the new tolerable daily intake of 2.8 mg/kg adopted by the CONTAM panel (EFSA 2014) has helped in assessing the risk of Ni exposure to the general population. Dahiya et al. (2005) in an Indian-based study reported Ni levels in candies which ranged from 0.041 to 8.29 mg/kg are similar to our data in the present study which ranged from 0.3 to 7.46 mg/kg but lower than Turkey candies' Ni levels with an average of 0.85 mg/kg (Duran et al. 2009). ...
Article
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The affordability of candies and chocolates makes their consumption common especially in children. Heavy metal contamination of these candies is well known. This study has estimated health risks associated with heavy metals (HM; Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in commonly consumed candies in Nigeria. Fifty candies/sweets and chocolates/chewing gums bought from different stores in Port Harcourt and Uyo in Niger Delta, Nigeria, were processed and digested in perchloric acid. The filtrate was analyzed for these heavy metals using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Pb/Zn and Cd/Zn ratios were calculated. Daily intake, the target hazard quotient (THQ), the hazard index (HI), and the cancer risk were estimated for children. About 80% of the samples exceeded the 0.1 mg/kg permissible lead level in candies. Milk sweet had the highest Pb:Zn and Cd:Zn ratios of 0.99 and 0.40 respectively. For chocolates, the Emperor had the highest Pb:Zn (0.50) ratios and Trident had the highest Cd:Zn (0.57) ratios. The calculated percentage provisional tolerable weekly intake (%PTWI) of cadmium from consumption of chocolates and candies was higher than the Joint Expert Committee for Food Additives (JECFA) standard, and the cancer risk of lead, cadmium, and chromium ranged between 10⁻⁷ and 10⁻³. Consumption of some candies by children in Nigeria may pose significant health risks.
... Moreover, the dietary exposure of adults (cocoa consumers only) to Cd in Europe is 1.1 μg day −1 (WHO, 2013). This grave situation has been further intensified by the detection of Cd in cocoa and chocolates, virtually in every corner of the world (Table 2), such as Europe (Kruszewski et al., 2018), Asia (Dahiya et al., 2005), Africa (Orisakwe et al., 2019), and Americas (Abt et al., 2018;Alves Peixoto et al., 2018). According to multi-elemental fingerprinting analysis, the bean-Cd concentrations (mg kg −1 ) in different regions were in the following order: South America (1.4) N East Africa and Central America (0.5) N Asia (0.3) N West Africa (0.09) (Bertoldi et al., 2016), which implies that bean-Cd levels are region-dependent. ...
... According to multi-elemental fingerprinting analysis, the bean-Cd concentrations (mg kg −1 ) in different regions were in the following order: South America (1.4) N East Africa and Central America (0.5) N Asia (0.3) N West Africa (0.09) (Bertoldi et al., 2016), which implies that bean-Cd levels are region-dependent. There is nearly 3.4 times more Cd in cocoa-based chocolates than milk-based chocolates (Dahiya et al., 2005). Based on this information, it is quite clear that Cd is subjected to higher bioaccumulation in cacao plants, and the accumulation rates are geographically different. ...
Article
In the recent decades, Cd burden in cocoa-based products threatened global food safety, human health and the future of chocolateries. Increased Cd bioavailability is an acute problem in cacao-based horticulture. Poverty, poor maintenance, unjustified traditional farming, and paucity of knowledge on Cd-binding propensity in cacao discourage the application of risk-mitigation measures. Progressive accumulation of Cd, with a half-life of 10–30 years, in the human body even at ultra-trace levels may lead to serious health complications. If Cd accumulates in the food chain through cocoa products, consequences in children, who are the primary consumers of chocolates, include morbidity and mortality that may result in a significant demographic transition by the year 2050. Developing cacao clones with an innate capability of taking up low Cd levels from soils, and site-specific Cd-cacao research might contribute to limiting the trophic transfer of Cd. This review highlights the possible routes for Cd uptake in cacao plants and discusses the measures to rescue the chocolateries from Cd pollution to promote “healthy” cacao farming. The potential human health risks of chocolate-laden Cd and mitigation strategies to minimize Cd burden in the human body are also presented. The challenges and prospects in Cd-cacao research are discussed as well.
... Introduction of lead or lead salts to the human body can occur mostly through inhalation or ingestion. Lead intake accumulates in the different organs of the body and affects all ages [6]. ...
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This study reports the levels of lead and cadmium in local and imported peach juice samples commercially available in Alkoms city in Libya. The levels of the metals were determined in six varieties of juice samples collected from local supermarkets by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) after digesting the juice samples with HNO 3 and H 2 O 2. The average levels of Pb and Cd found in and the local samples, were in the ranges: 0.004 and 1.22 mg/kg, and in the imported were; 0.004 and 1.36 mg/kg, respectively. Comparison between levels of Pb and Cd in local and imported samples showed that the difference in the levels is not significant. However, the levels of Pb were under the limits of the maximum permit (MPL), while the levels of cadmium were higher in four samples.
... 2005;Ferreira et al., 2008;Güldas, 2008;Shittu & Badmus, 2009;Rehman & Husnain, 2012;Alagić & Huremovié, 2015), Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GFAAS) (Güldas, 2008;Rehman & Husnain, 2012, Sepe, Constantini, Ciaralli, Ciprotti, & Giordano, 2001Jalbani et al., 2007;Ieggli, Bohrer, do Nascimento, de Carvalho, & Gobo, 2011;Peixoto, Devesa, Vélez, & Cervera, 2016), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) ( Villa et al., 2015;Peixoto et al., 2016;Anthemidis & Pliatsika, 2005;Pedro, de Oliveira, & Cadore, 2006;Sager, 2012) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) ( Villa et al., 2015;Sager, 2012;Yanus et al., 2014; Mounicou et al., 2003). However, the use of these techniques usually involves the solubilisation of the samples, including the partial or total destruction of the matrix, with high time analysis, and they are not direct methods. ...
Article
The present study has exploited the rapidity of the analysis and the multi-elemental capability of the energy dispersive X- ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) technique for the mineral profile determination in cocoa powder. A fast, cheap and environmental sustainable method without reagent consumption or toxic waste generation has been proposed. The samples can be prepared in the form of pellets of 13 mm in diameter and 2–3 mm thickness. The different internal calibrations used by ED-XRF equipment did not provide accurate results when comparing the mineral profile with the concentration obtained by Inductively Couple Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) after microwave assisted digestion of samples. For direct ED-XRF analysis of the cocoa samples, an external calibration using as standards the cocoa samples diluted with sugar was prepared. The analytical parameters of Relative Standard Deviation and Limit of Detection for the determined elements are adequate to the concentration levels found in the samples.
... The samples were taken in 2002. Dahiya et al. [14] have examined Cd, Ni and Pb levels of 69 chocolate brands sold locally in the suburban areas of Mumbai, India. They found that the Cd levels ranged from 0.001 to 2.730 g/kg. ...
Article
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Concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, As and Hg) were assessed for cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L) originating from East Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia after five-day fermentation. Consisting of PB 123, BR 25, and MCC 02 cocoa clones, the spectrophotometric analysis showed that concentrations of Pb, Cd, As and Hg in the cocoa beans over the three clones was below the detection limits of 0.100; 0.050, 0.010 and 0.005 mg/kg. For Cu, they were 19.343; 10.391, and 18.594 mg/kg respectively, but still below the maximum critical levels, established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Concentrations of those five heavy metals in the bean shells were found to be parallel to those in the cocoa beans, except for Pb.
... A major concern is the presence of nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) [37]. Most research mentioned below were conducted to examine heavy metal contents in chocolate and cocoa products [38,39]. Increased contamination was mostly because of the use of fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, etc. ...
Article
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The cocoa and chocolate industries have huge problems with the utilization of waste generated during the production process. Waste material generated during production include cocoa pod husk, pulp, and cocoa bean shell. Cocoa shell is a by-product that has great potential because of its composition. It consists of dietary fibers, proteins, polyphenols, methylxanthines, etc. However, despite its favorable composition, cocoa shell often cannot be used directly in food production because it may contain components that are harmful for human health. Cocoa shell can carry mycotoxins, different microorganisms, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. High voltage electrical discharge presents a novel non-thermal method that has great potential for the decontamination of waste materials and can also be used for extraction of valuable compounds from cocoa shell.
... These health problems include respiratory system cancer and a skin disorder known as nickel eczema [3]. Nickel is used as catalyst in hydrogenation process [4]. This element in chocolate and cocoa powder is a matter of health. ...
Article
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In this study, ultrasound-assisted cloud point extraction (UA-CPE) method was developed for the determination of Ni(II) and Co(II) in milk-based products. After extraction and preconcentration, the Ni(II) and Co(II) contents of samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). After their complexation with hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB) in the presence of cationic surfactant, CTAB at pH 4.0, the Ni(II) and Co(II) were taken within the micellar phase of nonionic surfactant, TX-114. The micellar phase containing the analytes were diluted to a volume of 0.7 mL with 1.0-mol/L HNO3 in ethanol to reduce its viscosity and to facilitate sample treatment and then was analyzed by FAAS. The various analytical parameters affecting UA-CPE efficiency were investigated. The analytical features obtained after optimization are as follows: limits of detection are 0.56 and 0.78 μg/L; sensitivity enhancement factors are 48.6 and 53.9; the calibration curves were linear 3–180 and 2–160 μg/L for Co(II) and Ni(II), respectively, after preconcentration of 50-fold. The precision (as RSD%) between 1.8–3.6% and 2.2–3.8% (25 and 100 μg/L, n = 5) for Ni(II) and Co(II), respectively. The accuracy was statistically verified by analysis of two certified reference material samples (CRMs), including recovery studies after spiking. The method was applied to the analysis of milk-based samples with satisfied results.
... While dry ashing technique could take one to two days to finish, the microwave technique can digest the samples in merely 1 h. Many analytical methods had been proposed and used as routine analysis for cocoa and cocoa products either using dry ashing or microwave digestion technique (Aikpokpodion, Atewolara-Odule, Osobamiro, Oduwole, & Ademola, 2013;Arévalo-Gardini, Arévalo-Hernández, Baligar, & He, 2017;Assa, Noor, Yunus, Misnawi, & Djide, 2018;Barraza et al., 2017;Bertoldi, Barbero, Camin, Caligiani, & Larcher, 2016;Chavez et al., 2015;Dahiya, Karpe, Hegde, & Sharma, 2005;Lewis, Lennon, Eudoxie, & Umaharan, 2018;Ramtahal et al., 2015;Salama, 2018;Shittu & Badmus, 2009;Vītola & Ciproviča, 2016;Yanus et al., 2014). However, the information related to method validation is very limited (Kruszewski, Obiedziński, & Kowalska, 2018;Lo Dico et al., 2018). ...
Article
In this article, an easy and quick method based on microwave assisted acid digestion technique prior to quantification using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the analysis of heavy metals in cocoa beans, cocoa powder and chocolate was established and validated for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and antimony (Sb). Limit of quantification for all elements were product dependent and varies from 7.84 to 194.52 µg/kg. The recoveries of the heavy metals at 250 and 1000 µg/kg spiking levels were ranged between 96.27-108.75%, 90.43-101.97% and 89.72-106.26% for cocoa beans, cocoa powder, and chocolate, respectively. Relative standard deviation values obtained were all below 20% and the expanded uncertainty measurements for the elements were less than 25%. The analysis of real samples found that the concentration level is far from the national alarming level except for cadmium in cocoa beans.
... However 26% of samples had anomalously high levels of Pb compared to values reported by Dosumu et al. (2003) for Amanranthus hybridus and Cochorus olitorius manni. Exposure to lead has been associated with reduced IQ, learning disabilities, slow growth, hyperactive, anti social behaviors and impaired hearing, Lead is known to damage the kidney, liver and reproductive system, basic cellular processes and brain function (USEPA 1984, Dahiya et al., 2005. A provisional tolerable weekly intake has been established at 25 µg/g body weight (FOA/WHO, 1993). ...
Article
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Analytical results are presented for the determination of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Fe and Zn contents in some species of fresh vegetables and spices (Aframomum melegueta and Allium sativum) collected from markets in Warri and its environs (Nigeria) between February to May, 2007. The mean concentrations of these elements in vegetables and spices ranged from 0.01-11.5 mg.kg-1 for Pb; 0.01-0.2 mgkg-1 for Cu; 0.17-4.2 mg.kg-1 for Cd, 0.01 mg.kg-1 for Cr; 0.01-16.8 mg.kg-1 for Ni; 30-44.02 mg.kg-1 for Zn; 4.08-310.66 mg.kg-1 for Fe. The results indicate that some of the vegetables and spices were contaminated with Cd and Pb and Ni. More than 80% of the examined samples had concentrations of these metals below statutory safe limits.
... Generally, the contamination of confectionery products by heavy metals can originate from raw material, technological process (wearing of process equipment), and packaging material (paper or metal; Göldaş, Dagdelen, & Biricik, 2008;Leggli, Bohrer, do Nascimento, de Carvalho, & Gobo, 2011;Rehman & Husnain, 2012). Cadmium, lead, and copper in confectionery products usually originate from cocoa beans of different geographical origins (Mounicou, Szpunar, Andrey, Blake, & Lobinski, 2003), while nickel originates from hydrogenated vegetable oil (Dahiya, Karpe, Hegde, & Sharma, 2005). These elements have been determined is chewing gums and some candies as well, where the analyzed elements were highest in the cocoa-based samples followed by sugar-based and fruit-based samples (Duran, Tuzen, & Soylak, 2009). ...
Article
Waffles, cookies, and crackers are considered to be one of the most often consumed confectionery products. Their complex composition in terms of raw materials used for their production often implies more than one source of heavy metals that end up in the final product. Therefore, the analysis of the heavy metals in these types of products is necessary. The present study deals with the determination of the correlations between the content of essential metals with potential toxic effects (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and cobalt) determined by inductively coupled plasma‐atomic emission spectrometry in waffles, cookies, and crackers collected from the market in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia. The concentrations determined were in the following ranges: Cu (0.299–0.5015 mg/kg d.w.), Fe (3.301–65.35 mg/kg d.w.), Zn (1.962–15.58 mg/kg d.w.), Mn (1.406–27.7 mg/kg d.w.), and Co (0.01–0.26 mg/kg d.w.). The mutual dependence of their concentrations was determined by chemometric linear and nonlinear regression methods which showed to be useful in the fast and easy determination of iron, manganese, zinc, and cobalt concentrations in the studied groups of confectionery products. The practical application of the established chemometric models is reflected in the possibility of predicting the concentration of one metal in waffles, cookies, and crackers based on the concentration of the other one. In this way, the additional experiments can be avoided and the concentration of particular metal can be precisely determined, which is confirmed by the internal and external statistical validation procedures of the established chemometric models.
... The Ni content in chocolate varied from 883 µg kg −1 to 8457 µg kg −1 (FW). The wide concentration range covers the value of 1090 µg kg −1 reported by Kohiyama et al. (1992), 1173 µg kg −1 reported by Dohnalova et al. (2017), 1600 µg kg −1 reported by Rehman and Husnain (2012) and 2763 µg kg −1 reported by Dahiya et al. (2005). The Ni content was checked for correlation with the minimum cacao content that is indicated on the product package ( Figure 3). ...
Article
Nickel can occur in plant-based, animal-based foods and drinks. It can either naturally occur in plants or it could originate from contamination. The natural occurrence of nickel arises from the fact that the element plays an essential role in the functioning of enzymes involved in the nitrogen fixation process. Besides, contamination can occur at any stage of the production, processing or packing of the foods. More specifically, nickel can leach from contact materials to foods or drinks before their consumption by humans. In recent years, the European Food Safety Authority expressed concern regarding the chronic and acute exposure of the European population to nickel. This study aimed to screen foods available on the Belgian market for their nickel content and to identify potential sources of the contamination. In total, 708 samples were collected from three different main categories of foods, including plant-based products, animal-based products and drinks. Elevated nickel concentrations were found in plant-based products such as chocolate, legumes, nuts, figs, peanut butter, chocolate spreads and breakfast cereals. The nickel concentrations in the animal-based products and drinks were significantly lower compared to the plant-based products. In the beer samples, no correlation between the alcohol percentage and nickel concentration was found. Higher nickel concentrations were found in the tea drinks in comparison to other drinks. Furthermore, the effect of packaging, e.g. storage in cans, on the final nickel concentration of the foods was investigated. No effect of the packaging was found, demonstrating that leaching of nickel from packaging materials is not significantly contributing to the nickel content in foods. The results demonstrate high concentrations of nickel in some plant-based food products and further exposure assessment studies are needed to evaluate the risk due to intake of nickel-enriched food products.
... The concentrations of Al, Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in baby cereals from Ghanaian market, suggesting constant monitoring and reduction in levels of nonessential elements 7 . In one of the studies, Ni, Pb and Cd contents were determined in chocolates and candies 8 . The concentrations of all analysed elements were highest in cocoa-based chocolates followed by milk based and sugar and fruit flavour-based chocolates which was attributed to their higher contents in the raw material such as cocoa beans, cocoa solids and cocoa butter. ...
... A number of studies have examined Cd and Pb levels in cocoa powder and chocolate products purchased internationally (e.g. Brazil, Ecuador, Ghana, India, Israel, Ivory Coast, Korea, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Turkey, Venezuela) ( Lee and Low 1985;Mounicou et al. 2003;Dahiya et al. 2005;Rankin et al. 2005;Kim et al. 2008;Duran et al. 2009;Jalbani et al. 2009;Iwegbue 2011;Villa et al. 2014;Yanus et al. 2014;Takrama et al. 2015;Devi et al. 2016). The data in this paper provide information on Cd and Pb concentrations in cocoa and chocolate products sold in the US and provide additional support for the relationship reported in the scientific literature between Cd and Pb levels and percent cocoa content and cocoa bean origin. ...
Article
Cocoa powder and chocolate products are known to sometimes contain cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) from environmental origins. A convenience sample of cocoa powder, dark chocolate, milk chocolate, and cocoa nib products was purchased at retail in the U.S. and analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry to assess Cd and Pb concentrations. Cd and Pb were evaluated in relation to the percent cocoa solids and to the reported origin of the cocoa powder and chocolate products. Cd ranged from 0.004-3.15 mg/kg and Pb ranged from <LOD-0.38 mg/kg. Cd and Pb were significantly correlated with percent cocoa, with correlations varying by product type and geographic origin. Geographic variation was observed for Cd, with higher Cd concentrations found in products reported as originating from Latin America than from Africa. The influence of percent cocoa solids and cocoa origin on Cd levels are relevant to international standards for Cd in chocolate products.
... Miarą jakości czekolady jest zawartość miazgi kakaowej -im jest większa, tym czekolada uznawana jest za zdrowszą. W czekoladach, poza głównym składnikiem, jakim jest miazga kakaowa, znajdują się również tłuszcze roślinne, emulgatory, środki buforujące, stabilizatory oraz śladowe ilości metali ciężkich (nikiel, kadm i ołów) [4], które nie stanowią istotnego ryzyka zdrowotnego dla osób dorosłych. Natomiast dla dzieci, które są zaliczane do grupy szczególnego ryzyka, ze względu na fakt, iż czekolady i wyroby czekoladopodobne stanowią istotny składnik ich diety, mogą niekorzystnie wpłynąć na ich zdrowie [19]. ...
... The levels of heavy metals, particularly Cd in cacao beans, have been of concern for many years (BCCCA, 1996). Concentrations of Cd in cocoa powders and liquors made from cacao beans and used in chocolate production are gaining public significance (Mounicou et al., 2002(Mounicou et al., , 2003Dahiya et al., 2005;Jalbani et al., 2009). International legislative bodies, as well as chocolate manufacturing countries have introduced new Cd regulations for the protection of the health of their consumers (FSA, 2009;Ducos et al., 2010;ICCO, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
Currently, increasing emphasis is being placed on the contamination of cacao beans by heavy metals, particularly cadmium (Cd). Since the primary source of Cd contamination in cacao has been attributed to metal-contaminated soils, it is becoming crucial to develop strategies to minimize its uptake. Recent studies have shown that mycorrhiza could contribute to the immobilization of Cd in soils, thereby decreasing Cd toxicity to plants. A preliminary pot trial study was designed to determine whether mycorrhizal fungi in the form of bio-fertilizers could be used as a method of soil remediation, to inhibit Cd uptake by cacao plants. Roots of cuttings of a single variety and age of cacao were grown with and without a commercial bio-fertilizer, in a Cd-spiked, sterilized soil in pots, in randomized blocks in a greenhouse. The experiment was conducted over a period of four months, with replicates of plants being sacrificed and analyzed monthly, to determine the Cd contents of leaf and stem samples. Microscopic examinations were also done to detect mycorrhizal infection of roots of bio-fertilizer treated and control plants. Paired data analysis demonstrated that cacao plants treated with the mycorrhizal bio-fertilizer accumulated significantly higher (p<0.05) levels of Cd in both leaves and stems than non-mycorrhizal-treated plants for the period of the study. The higher Cd concentrations found for the mycorrhizal treatment may have resulted from an increase of Cd absorption into the plants by soil mycelia, known to spread several centimeters around the plant roots. This investigation, while preliminary, indicates that the variety of cacao plant used with the commercial mycorrhiza used accumulates significantly higher levels of Cd in their leaves and stems than non-mycorrhizal plants.
... Metal and metal-like ions are among the environmental pollutants that provide industrial human activity such as mining, smelting of metals, servers of internal combustion machines, oil production, dyes and their residues, agricultural applications (fertilizers and pesticides), sanitation, waste disposal and others [4,5].The problem lies in the fact that the ions of these heavy elements (metals and semi-metals) when available in high concentrations are toxic to humans and other organisms, and if some of them are necessary to survive with small concentrations, and when the concentration of these elements is high in the soil solution, they may leak into surface and ground water or be absorbed by the plant and from then it enters the food web in a direct or indirect way that can be absorbed by humans or animals. It can be said that pollution with these heavy elements is one of the biggest problems at the moment for soil and water sources Therefore, many studies have been devoted to developing appropriate methods for determining food contamination with these elements and their suitability for human use [6,7]. And specifying the minimum or critical concentration permitted by these elements. ...
Article
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The present study aims to determine and calculate the concentration of some heavy elements (Pb, Hg, Cu, Ni, Fe, Cr, Co and Cd) in addition to the elements (Mg, Na, Ca, CL, K, C, S and SI), which are Possible sources of soil pollution in downtown (Baquba, Canaan, Muhammad Sakran, and Al-Mamal area), Diyala Governorate in Iraq. To achieve this goal, 5 samples of Diyala soil were collected. Soil samples included areas (industrial, residential, agricultural) with an average sample rate for each region with a depth (0-10 cm). After collecting the samples, they were sorted and compressed to prepare them for measurement by dispersive spectroscopy of X-ray energy (EDX) After obtaining the results, they are compared with the global determinants (WHO), and through these results we find that most of the heavy elements of the areas studied are recorded a significant rise for the element (pb), while the rise of (Cd) was recorded in the regions of Baquba and the Al-mameail region area also recorded an increase ( Cr) in the Canaan region, as well as the rise of some elements in the study area because they are residential and industrial areas and the use of fuels will be significant, while others found the lowest concentrations in agricultural areas with good vegetation knowing (Fe) was the lowest concentration in the study area.
... colorings and flavorings. Hence, food has become an immense vehicle of synthetic chemicals consumed by adults and children [3][4][5]. Emerging concern that some food additives were not safe for consumption was stated upon the fact they are not approved by any of the food regulating agencies including the Food and Drug Administration, the European Legislations through the European Food Safety Authority, or the GRAS list. Therefore, a number of food additives may pose a real threat to the consumers mainly by possessing mutagenic characteristics [6]. ...
Article
Screening of Mutagenicity of Some Food Snacks Retailed on the Lebanese Market Usage of food additives has become more and more frequent. Possible incorporation of genotoxic chemicals in dietary products, especially in food snacks, urges the need for their assessment. A total of 127 samples of food snacks, retailed on the Lebanese market, were screened for mutagenic activity towards Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 using Muta-ChromoPlate assay. The food items fall into two separate categories: the first category abides by high standards internationally approved; the second category is of a lower cost and a general poor quality. The first category was found to show no mutagenic activity even after exogenous S9- mix activation. However, 35.8% of the second category samples exhibited mutagenicity at 99% of significance, although without metabolic activation. These alarming results imply that drastic measures should be undertaken in order to protect the Lebanese consumers from being exposed to a potential risk of mutagenicity induced by such a dietary source.
... Moreover, calcium and phosphorus are involved in bone structure formation, while iron is the essential microelement located in the center of heme (Kruszewski & Obiedziński, 2018). In addition to macro-and microelements, cocoa and cocoa products may also contain heavy metals, including lead, cadmium, nickel, and chromium, that could adversely impact consumer health, especially infants (Dahiya, Karpe, Hegde, et al., 2005;Yanus, Sela, Borojovich, et al., 2014). Cocoa bean shell, a by-product of cocoa processing, is reported to include arsenic, bismuth, and lead. ...
... The concentration in some of the products according to the review exceeded the SON and WHO acceptable limits. Cocoa-based Chocolate were also observed to accumulated more Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cd than Milo, Bournvita beverages, and Candies in a separate study conducted by Dahiya et al., (2005). ...
... Moreover, cocoa butter is another essential ingredient that may contain high concentrations of Ni. While trace amounts of Ni act as an activator of some enzymes, it may cause bronchial bleeding and accumulate in the lungs at high levels of Ni [23]. ...
... Cadmium, arsenic and lead have serious health effects, among the other dietary food consumption of fish with high content of these metals as reported by several authors [5]- [7]. Typical health effects of cadmium in human are reported as effect on the respiratory system, hepatic toxicity, bone disease etc. Cd is seen to accumulate in the kidney over a relatively longer period of time from 20 to 30 years [8]. At Mahesh Kumar Farejiya is with the Department of Environmental Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India (e-mail: farejiya@gmail.com). ...
Article
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The toxic metal contamination and their biomagnification in marine fishes is a serious public health concern specially, in the coastal areas and the small islands. In the present study, concentration of toxic heavy metals like zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) were determined in the tissues of tunas (T. albacores) caught from the area near to Lakshdweep Islands. The heavy metals are one of the indicators for the marine water pollution. Geochemical weathering, industrialization, agriculture run off, fishing, shipping and oil spills are the major pollutants. The presence of heavy toxic metals in the near coastal water fishes at both western coast and eastern coast of India has been well established. The present study was conducted assuming that the distant island will not have the metals presence in a way it is at the near main land coast. However, our study shows that there is a significant amount of the toxic metals present in the tissues of tuna samples. The gill, lever and flash samples were collected in waters around Lakshdweep Islands. They were analyzed using ICP-AES for the toxic metals after microwave digestion. The concentrations of the toxic metals were found in all fish samples and the general trend of presence was in decreasing order as Zn > Al > Cd > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg. The amount of metals was found to higher in fish having more weight.
... Children are the future of the society and wasting our strength in such indulgent food is not acceptable by any nation. (Dahiya S. et al, 2005). ...
Article
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This article explains possible risks of consumption of cocoa based products containing heavy metals like cadmium. Cadmium exposure is responsible for many detrimental effects on human organs.
... Cadmium and Pb as very toxic elements even at extremely low levels can cause injuries to the kidnies, and may result in poor reproductive capacity, hepatic dysfunctioning, hypertension and tumors [19,24]. Moreover, learning disabilities, hyperactivity, slow growth, impaired hearing, antisocial behaviors and reduction in children's IQ are the main effects of exposure to Pb [16]. ...
Article
Purpose: In this study, rates of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc contents in agricultural soils from Eghlid County, south of Iran, were determined to assess the soil pollution and potential ecological risk index (PERI) and also spatial distribution of such elements. Method: A total of 100 topsoil specimens were collected from 100 sampling stations. In the laboratory, after acid digestion the element contents in soil samples were determined using ICP-OES. Then, the soil contamination and also ecological risk of the soil were assessed using various indices especially Igeo, PI, IPI, PLI and PERI. Also, the spatial distribution maps of the studied elements in soil specimens were made using the kriging interpolation technique by ArcGIS software (10.4). Results: Based on the results, the mean contents (mg/kg) of the elements in specimens were 1.85, 2.80, 19.04, 19.35, 7.17 and 38.77 for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively. Arsenic and Cu contents were comparable to background values, while Cd contents were higher than their corresponding background values. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that Cd had anthropogenic sources; while, other elements originated from natural sources. Pollution index (PI) values of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn varied in the range of 0.45-1.49, 0.52-32.09, 0.096-0.33, 0.36-1.35, 0.18-0.32 and 0.23-1.59, with mean values of 0.92, 12.17, 0.21, 0.68, 0.21 and 0.96, respectively. The integrated pollution load index (PLI) values of the specimens with an average value of 0.84, indicated that 65% and 35% of soil samples were moderately and low contaminated, respectively. The mean value of PERI with 380.32 implied that the agricultural soils of the study area could be classified of high ecological risk. The spatial distribution of content of the elements showed that Cd had high spatial variability. Conclusions: Although in the short run, the contents of the elements found in the agricultural soil samples may not be alarming for agricultural production and consequently human health, signals it can be observed especially for Cd in the long term due to the impact of anthropogenic activities that lead to the discharge of this element to the environment and can result in its accumulation in agricultural soils. In conclusion, as it is expected that the metal inputs increase in the future, it is recommended that plant analyses be included in the future studies for determining the impact of the amount of bioavailable metals.
... Liver and renal failure, reduced reproductive capacity, impaired organ functioning, disorders in brain functions and tumors are the most adverse effects of Pb on human health. Meanwhile, exposure to this element has been associated with learning disabilities, reduced IQ, slow growth, antisocial behaviors, hyperactivity and impaired hearing [13]. ...
Article
PurposeThis study was designed to evaluate the possible effects of some chelating agents on phytoremediation efficiency and plant growth parameters of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Tagetes patula L. in soils contaminated with lead.Method The plant species were grown in pots and treated with lead nitrate and in combination with 2.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mmol/kg of EDTA, SA and CA, respectively.ResultsThe results showed that the highest accumulations of Pb (mg/kg) with 0.74 and 0.13 were found in the roots and stems of A. caudatus exposed to 400 mg/kg Pb containing EDTA and SA, respectively. Moreover, the highest accumulation of Pb in the roots and stems of T. patula with 0.87 and 1.5 mg/kg were observed in 400 mg/kg Pb- contaminated soil containing SA.Conclusions Although the results obtained showed that T. patula would have a better phytoextraction potential than A. caudatus, it should be noted that due to the Pb behavior in the soil and/or leaching of Pb from the soil columns during the irrigation period the low amounts of Pb absorption by the root and aerial parts of the plants compared to the added doses of Pb(NO3)2 solution to the soil samples, imply the studied plants haven’t the adequate potential for phytoextraction of Pb from contaminated soils.
... Meanwhile, as a non-essential element in biological metabolism, lead (Pb) can cause toxic or even lethal effects even in small amounts of Pb in organisms [15]. Pb can accumulate in different organs of the body, leading to serious diseases and even death [16,17]. The PTWI values of As and Pb are 120 µg/d and 24 µg/d, respectively. ...
Article
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In this paper, the effects of green wheat (Zhengmai No. 7698 and Bainong No. 207) on the concentration, bioaccessibilities and health risk assessment of toxic metals [cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and lead (Pb)] in green wheat during processing and cooking was studied. Meanwhile, a new in vitro simulated digestion method which is closer to the human digestive system was used. Washing and cooking significantly reduced the concentration of Cd, As and Pb. Cooking also significantly reduced the bioaccessibilities of these elements. However, washing would generally increase bioaccessibilities slightly, except for Pb. By processing, the contents of Cd, As, and Pb in both Zhengmai No. 7698 and Bainong No. 207 decreased by 49.38%, 21.64%; 43.14%, 24.54%; and 51.80%, 59.45%, respectively. Although normal cooked and high-pressure cooked green wheat had different bioaccessibilities, no significant difference was observed (P > 0.05). Interestingly, the bioaccessibilities of As and Pb in the gastrointestinal stage were higher than that in the gastric stage, while Cd was the opposite. Moreover, the bioaccessibilities of Cd, As, and Pb in Bainong No. 207 was generally higher than that of Zhengmai No. 7698. Average daily dose (ADD) values are greatly reduced during processing. In addition, the target hazard quotient (THQ) and life time cancer risk (LCR) values of As were greater than 1 and 1 × 10− 4, respectively. High concentrations and bioaccessibilities led to non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks for adults and children. The risk of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health can be reduced by improving treatment or changing varieties of green wheat.
... Chocolate is a product of the industrial processing of Theobroma cacao. Additional ingredients are hydrogenated vegetable oil, vegetable fats, solids from malt extract, salts, emulsifiers, glucose, buffering agents, sodium bicarbonate, wheat flour, starch, flavourings, milk, sugar, and others (Dahiya et al. 2005;Afoakwaa et al. 2007;Ieggli et al. 2011a). ...
Article
Chocolate, one of the most popular sweets in the world, is consumed by people of all ages. Available data point to significant increases in consumption and production. However, successful determination of elements in chocolate is still difficult because of the characteristics of the matrix which contains a high content of organic compounds, like hydrogenated vegetable oil, vegetable fats, solids from malt extract, salts, emulsifiers, etc., causing problems with appropriate decomposition or digestion of sample. In this study, chocolate samples were prepared according to two procedures: water bath and microwave-assisted mineralisation. The use of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) allowed us to determine the elemental composition of dark, milk, and white chocolate bars available on the Polish market as well as a cacao sample (100% cocoa powder). The elements assessed were Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S, Sr, and Zn. The obtained results were used to compare the effectiveness of sample pre-treatment methods and to assess the correlation between the concentrations of specific elements and type of chocolate by the application of chemometric and statistical tools. The research showed that levels of analysed macro- and microelements are directly connected with the type of chocolate, characterised by the variable contents of cocoa paste and added milk. Data for all samples after mineralisation shown that among macroelements P was the most abundant, followed by Mg, Ca, Na, K, and S. The major essential element with the highest level was Fe, followed by Zn and Cu. In the group of toxic metals the highest content was obtained for Ba, then Al and Sr, but none exceeded permissible values prepared by health benefit organisations.
... Exposure to Pb has been associated with slow growth, reduced IQ, learning disabilities, impaired hearing, and antisocial behaviors. Exposure of Pb to pregnant women can cause under-development of central nervous system in the fetus and/or the newborn babies (Dahiya et al. 2005). Arsenic (As) is extremely carcinogen for humans even when consumed in very low levels. ...
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The quality of natural honey depends upon many factors with significant contribution of environmental factors. In this study, environmental impact on the quality of honey was assessed by determining concentrations of 11 essential and 17 toxic elements in 24 different honey samples of northern and southern regions of Pakistan and Turkey using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis showed higher variance in the concentrations of Cu, P, and Mo (essential), and Ga, Rb, Cs, Ba, and Pb (toxic) among all the honey samples (coefficient of variance > 100). Multivariate comparison based on botanical flora, honey bee species, and geographic regions revealed that the honeys of different botanical flora exhibited statistically nonsignificant difference in elemental composition, whereas, species wise, honeys of Apis dorsata contained significantly higher concentration of P than honeys of Apis mellifera and Apis flora (p < 0.01). Geographical regions wise, the honeys showed statistically significant difference in concentrations of six essential elements (K (p < 0.01), Mn (p < 0.001), Fe (p < 0.001), Cu (p < 0.05), P (p < 0.001), and Mo (p < 0.01)), and two toxic elements (V (p < 0.01) and As (p < 0.05)). Principal component analysis (PCA) using the essential elements contents clustered uni-floral honeys together separating out 3 multi-floral honeys including the artificial one, whereas PCA using concentrations of toxic elements showed mixed clustering of all honey samples, representing their independence of floral type. Taken together, our analyses show that the environmental factors of the geographical regions, apart from the honeybee species and the botanical flora, have profound impact on the elemental composition in the natural honeys affecting their quality. Although the concentrations of the toxic elements in the honey samples were not exceeding the permissible limit of FAO/ WHO, yet we suggest regular surveillance on toxic elements in the honeys to avoid their harmful effects on human health.
... Exposure and ingestion of lead nitrate can cause a myriad of physiological and neurological problems in both plants and animals and, ultimately deleterious effects in humans and other higher consumers. For instance, exposure to lead has been associated with reduced IQ, learning dissabilities, slow growth, hyper-activity, antisocial behaviours and impaired hearing [18] . Although Pb is a naturally occurring substance, its environmental concentrations are significantly increased by anthropogenic sources which include base metal mining, battery manufacturing, Pb-based paints and leaded gasoline [19] . ...
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Acute toxicity assessment of lead nitrate ((PbNO3)2) on post juvenile Clarias gariepinus under laboratory conditions were investigated. A total of 150 samples of the fish were acclimatized for two week. 6 aquaria tanks were setup for determination of the 96hours LC50 with 6 samples of fish per tank. The lethal concentration values of lead nitrate used were 240mg/L, 260mg/L, 290mg/L, 320mg/L and 34mg/L with replicate in each case. The control setup was without the toxicant. The fish samples exhibited varying behavioural and physical changes which ranged from erratic swimming, poor feeding habit, frequent gasping for air at the surface of the tank, lacerations of the skin and secretion of mucus, and eventually death. The vigour and severity of these features were time and concentration dependent. The results showed that 96hours LC50 of Clarias gariepinus was 284.189mg/L. This indicated that greater quantity of the toxicant is needed to cause mortality in the fish and less deleterious at lower concentrations.
... Several studies have been developed worldwide to identify the presence of heavy metals in cocoa beans and cocoa products (Dahiya et al., 2005;Aikpopodion et al., 2013;Yanus et al., 2014;Chavez et al., 2015;Vitola and Ciprovica, 2016;Argüello et al., 2019), whose levels in food have been a concern to the FAO -Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations -according to the health risks posed when consumed by animals and humans. Since once absorbed by the root system, heavy metals can be transported to the tissues of the aerial part, contaminating edible parts and becoming bioaccumulative in the organism (Schreck et al., 2012). ...
Article
Cadmium (Cd) is a trace metal without essential biological function due to its high toxicity to plants, animals and humans, even at low concentrations. On the other hand, Zn is an essential nutrient and plays important metabolic functions in plants. The study of the interaction between essential and a nonessential element may be important for understanding, analyzing and improving the defense strategies adapted by plants. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the mitigation of Cd toxicity by Zn in young plants of the CCN 51 cocoa genotype, grown in soil with different concentrations of Zn, Cd and Zn + Cd, through physiological, biochemical, molecular and micro-morphological responses. It was verified that high concentrations of Zn, Cd and Zn + Cd in the soil promoted alterations in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative metabolism and expression of genes. This was demonstrated by increase in the activity of antioxidative enzymes, proline content and reduction in lipid peroxidation. Leaf gas exchange was affected at the highest soil Cd concentrations (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mmol Cd kg⁻¹ soil) combined with different soil Zn concentrations (0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 mmol kg⁻¹ soil), resulting in a decrease in CO2 fixation. The higher concentration of soil Cd (0.8 mmol kg⁻¹ soil), together with the intermediate concentrations of soil Zn + Cd (0.8 + 0.4 and 0.4 + 0.6 mmol kg⁻¹ soil), promoted reduction of the thickness of the leaf mesophyll and, consequently, led to decrease of the leaf gas exchange. It was observed a hormesis effect due to high photosynthetic activity in low Cd concentration. The increase in Cd concentration in the soil altered the uptake of Cd and Zn by the roots of the CCN 51 cocoa genotype. The increase of Zn concentration in the soil promoted the decrease of the Cd uptake by the root system of the plants and thereby reduced the transport of Cd to the leaves. Part of Cd uptake by the plant's root system was immobilized in roots tissues, as a tolerance strategy, preventing that it was transported to the aerial part. The increase of Zn + Cd concentration in the soil did not influence the accumulation of Zn in the leaves of the young plants of the CCN 51 cocoa genotype.
... But, due to the addition of various ingredients and complex formulations, risk of heavy metal contamination increases in candies and chocolates. Dahiya et al. (2005), Rankin et al. (2005) and Skrbic et al.(2013) found considerable concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Ni in candies and chocolates. Further, if these chocolates are local (unbranded) there is high chances of even more contamination that can leads to serious health consequences. ...
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Proper qualitative and quantitative nutrition is very crucial for both physical and mental development of children. School going children need special attention with respect to their nutrition need as, poor and unhygienic nutrition not only have serious effects on physical and mental growth, but also compromises cognitive behavior. Some developed countries have formulated special lunch food programs for school children and is under strict control. However, in developing countries there is no such policy. This review article focuses on the food items mostly served and their possible consequences in the schools of Pakistan especially in district Lower Dir.
Article
The presence of cadmium was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively in a dark chocolate with 65% cocoa produced in Colombia, and foreign chocolates with different percentages of cocoa. 0.5 grams were taken for the preparation of the samples, and an acid digestion with concentrated nitric acid (HNO3 65%) was performed. The metal determination was carried out by the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry Technique (FAAS). The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification (LOQ) of the method was determined, obtaining values of 0.0309 mg/L and 0.0670 mg/L respectively. The average concentration of cadmium in the national chocolate was 4.0477 mg/kg, exceeding the limits established by the Codex Alimentarius (2,0 mg/kg) and the European Union (0,8 mg/kg).
Article
In the study, a sim­ple and green vor­tex as­sisted-ionic liq­uid based dis­per­sive liq­uid liq­uid mi­croex­trac­tion (VA-IL-DLLM) com­bined with flame atomic ab­sorp­tion spec­trom­e­try (FAAS) was de­vel­oped for the ex­trac­tion and de­ter­mi­na­tion of nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) in choco­late-based sam­ples. An ul­tra-hy­dropho­bic ionic liq­uid (IL), 1-hexyl-3-methylim­i­da­zolium tris(penta­flu­o­roethyl)tri­flu­o­rophos­phate, [C6mim][FAP], was cho­sen as ex­trac­tion sol­vent. The method is se­lec­tively based on chelate for­ma­tion be­tween Ni(II)/ Co(II) ions and nin­hy­drin (2,2-di­hy­drox­yin­dane-1,3-dione) at pH 9.0, and then si­mul­ta­ne­ous ex­trac­tion of the formed com­plexes into the mi­cro-drops of IL, [C6mim] [FAP]. Ex­trac­tion pa­ra­me­ters (pH, the IL amount, chelat­ing lig­and con­cen­tra­tion, vor­tex time, vol­ume of dis­per­sive sol­vent, and ef­fect of in­ter­fer­ence ions) were eval­u­ated and op­ti­mized. Un­der op­ti­mized con­di­tions, the method was as fol­lows; lin­ear work­ing ranges were within the 1.0–350 μg L−1 and 0.7–400 μg L−1 for Ni and Co, re­spec­tively. The lim­its of de­tec­tions (3 × sblank/m, n:10) were 0.3 μg L−1 for Ni(II) and 0.2 μg L−1 for Co(II) with rel­a­tive stan­dard de­vi­a­tion <3.1% for real sam­ples. The method was val­i­dated by analy­sis of two stan­dard ref­er­ence ma­te­ri­als (SRMs), and re­cov­ery tests based on spik­ing at two lev­els. Lastly, the method was re­li­ably ap­plied for the de­ter­mi­na­tion of trace Ni and Co in choco­late-based sam­ples, with amounts in range of 1.5–192.7 μg L−1 and in range of 3.8–152 μg L−1, re­spec­tively.
Article
Commercially available single origin chocolates (n=139) were analysed by ICP-MS to identify the potential of elemental fingerprinting for tracing cacao origin in chocolate and to compare chocolate composition relative to trace metal limits. Cadmium (Cd) concentrations exceeded the EU limit of 0.80 mg kg−1 in 16 samples, all produced with cacao from South or Central America. Six samples contained lead (Pb) concentrations > 0.10 mg kg−1, the limit of the Codex Alimentarius for edible fats. Increasing cacao content was associated with increased element concentrations for most elements, indicating cacao as the main source of minerals and trace elements. Significant differences in elemental composition between origins (P value ≤ 0.05) were found for Ba, Cd, Mo and Sr. Classification and regression tree analysis (CART) resulted in a decision tree that could effectively classify chocolate samples by cacao origin continent (overall misclassification rate 23%) based on the concentrations of five elements (Ba, Cd, Mo, Sr and Zn). Samples of South America were classified based on their Cd concentration, indicating the geogenic origin of Cd.
Article
California’s Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 (Proposition 65) was designed to protect the state's populace from exposures to toxic levels of chemicals in consumer products, including foods, by requiring businesses to warn the public about any of those hazards. There is, however, one qualification in the legislation, which is that warnings are not required if the source of that contamination is natural – as opposed to industrial. That qualification is especially problematic for lead because “natural” and “industrial” lead have a common origin, behave the same in the environment, and industrial lead contamination has been pandemic for millennia. As a result of that historic and on-going contamination, ambient lead levels in the biosphere may be orders of magnitude above natural levels, limiting comparisons of “natural” v. “industrial” lead concentrations in products. Further complicating those comparisons are reports of erroneously high measurements of lead concentrations in the biosphere due to sample contamination during collection, storage, and analysis. Some of those problems may be addressed with measurements of lead concentrations using rigorous trace metal clean techniques. These techniques often yield lead concentrations that are below the Act’s maximum exposure in foods and non-foods of 0.5 µg/day, eliminating the need for a public alert. Those techniques have also been used to derive natural lead concentrations in a few organisms (marine fish, humans, rats, and dandelions), which range from 2-fold to 100-fold below ambient levels. But extrapolating from those few determinations to establish natural lead levels in other organisms is complicated and often inappropriate. Complementary stable lead isotopic composition measurements have also been used to estimate the percent of natural and industrial lead in some consumer products, including foods, wine and dietary supplements. These measurements, however, require the isotopic compositions of both the “natural” and “industrial” lead end-members, which may be poorly defined. In addition, the global market has further complicated identification of the “industrial” lead end-member, because lead contamination of foods can occur during production, harvesting, storage, shipping, processing, and packaging – which can happen in different locales within a country, different countries, and even different continents.
Article
Simpleand validated ultrasound-assisted dispersive microsolid-phase extraction (UA-DMSPE) approach for separation, and preconcentration of trace cobalt (Co(II)) and nickel (Ni(II)) ions in various water, juice, food and tobacco samples prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination (FAAS) was developed. The proposed method based on using oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (ox-MWCNTs) as adsorbent and 3-(2-hydroxy-5-acetylphen-1-ylazo)-1,2,4-triazole (HAPAT) as complexing agent at pH 7.0. The effect of different parameters has been investigated and optimised. The calibration curves were linear in the ranges of 1.0–300 and 2.0–400 μg L⁻¹ and the limits of detection were 0.30 and 0.60 μg L⁻¹ for Co(II) and Ni(II) ions, respectively, under the optimum conditions.The preconcentration factor was 200. Co(II) and Ni(II) havemaximum sorption capacities of around 300 and 370 mg g–1, respectively. The recovery rates of the analytes ranged from 96.0 to 101%. Furthermore, relative standard deviation (RSD%) for intra-day (1.40 and 1.90%) and inter-day (1.70 and 2.10%) as repeatability for Co(II) and Ni(II), respectively. Certified reference materials (SRM 1570A spinach leaves and TMDA-52.3 fortified water) were used to verify the accuracy of the proposed preconcentration protocol. The proposed method was successfully used to determine the content of Co(II) and Ni(II) ions in a variety of real water, juice, food and tobacco samples yielding satisfactory results.
Article
Throughout this article we first attempted to analyse water quality research in the Andhra Pradesh district of Guntur. A thorough study of the consistency of groundwater was undertaken. 31 water samples of various physiochemical parameters, e.g. temperature, pH , electrical conductivity, totally dissolved solids , ammonium nitrates, total hardness, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sulphate, total alkalinity, potassium, total nitrogen, sodium , total phosphorus and dissolved oxygen have been collected and tested. The correlation analysis was also conducted as it is an outstanding method to estimate fair precision of parameter values. This research proposes a new methodological approach in conjunction with an ensemble model for data mining, through the use of the evidence-based confidence function and boosting the BRT regression tree GIS knowledge for groundwater quality visualization in Guntur. Spring areas for training and validation in individual and ensemble methods can be established and subdivided into two groups. Modeling results are drawn up to create potential maps for spring (groundwater). In order to evaluate groundwater content by taking different samples in various towns and cleanly synthesising water parameters that have been applied the diverse Data mining techniques.
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The scientific literature is rich in investigations on the presence of various contaminants in biscuits, and of articles aimed at proposing innovative solutions for their control and prevention. However, the relevant information remains fragmented. Therefore, the objective of this work was to review the current state of the scientific literature on the possible contaminants of biscuits, considering physical, chemical, and biological hazards, and making a critical analysis of the solutions to reduce such contaminations. The raw materials are primary contributors of a wide series of contaminants. The successive processing steps and machinery must be monitored as well, because if they cannot improve the initial safety condition, they could worsen it. The most effective mitigation strategies involve product reformulation, and the use of alternative baking technologies to minimize the thermal load. Low oxygen permeable packaging materials (avoiding direct contact with recycled ones), and reformulation are effective for limiting the increase of contaminations during biscuit storage. Continuous monitoring of raw materials, intermediates, finished products, and processing conditions are therefore essential not only to meet current regulatory restrictions but also to achieve the aim of banning dietary contaminants and coping with related diseases.
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In this study, we present the development and validation of an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) method for the determination of Ag, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in different candies. Various wet digestion protocols were examined in order to ensure minimum consumption of chemicals and sample preparation time. Under optimized conditions, less than 10 min were required for complete sample decomposition. The ICP-AES method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs). The relative recoveries for the proposed method ranged between 80.0% and 119.0%, while the relative standard deviation values were lower than 9.0%, indicating good method accuracy and precision, respectively. The LODs for the examined analytes were 0.04–2.25 mg kg−1. Finally, the proposed method was successfully employed for the analysis of hard candies, jellies and lollipops that are sold in the Greek market, which are highly likely to be consumed by children.
Article
Cocoa powder and chocolate products can contain cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) from natural and anthropogenic sources. This perspective provides background on the origin, occurrence, and factors affecting Cd and Pb levels in chocolate products as well as ongoing international efforts to mitigate Cd and Pb in these popular foods, particularly the higher Cd levels observed in some cocoa and chocolate products originating from parts of Latin America. Information on factors contributing to higher Cd levels in Latin America, including elevated soil Cd, is increasing, but more work is needed to identify successful mitigation methods.
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The nickel and vanadium contents of nine institutional diets were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with background correction. The following values were obtained for nickel: mean concentration, 0.27 +/- 0.02 microgram/g (dry weight); range, 0.19 and 0.41 microgram/g; mean intake, 165 +/- 11 microgram/day or 75 +/- 10 microgram/1000 cal. The respective values for vanadium were: 0.032 +/- 0.004 microgram/g (dry weight); 0.019 to 0.050 microgram/g; 20.4 +/- 2.3 microgram/day or 8.9 +/- 1.0 microgram/1000 cal. Thus, vanadium is present at approximately one order of magnitude less than nickel.
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The content of cadmium, lead, nickel, mercury and selenium in 83 foods was monitored from 1993 to 1997. In comparison with similar results from 1988 to 1992, a general decrease in lead levels had occurred, whereas the contents of cadmium, nickel, mercury and selenium were stable or declined only slightly. The distribution in dietary intake of the five trace elements was estimated by combining the mean trace element concentrations with food consumption data from 1837 Danes aged 15-80 years. The lead intake for 1993-97 showed a decrease in comparison with similar estimates from the previous monitoring cycles: 1983-87 and 1988-92. The intake of cadmium and mercury decreased to a lesser extent, whereas the intake of selenium and nickel remained unchanged in the same period. The dietary intake of trace elements was compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The 95th percentile of the distribution in cadmium intake amounts to 34% of PTWI, which is relatively high, and therefore calls for a more detailed future risk assessment. The intakes of lead and mercury were 11% of PTWI and, like the intake of nickel, did not cause any health concern in the adult population. The Danes ingest close to 100% of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendation for selenium at 50 microg day(-1), and no individuals had an intake less than the lower limit of 20 microg day(-1).
Article
Fifty canned orange juice samples representing five brands and three types of container were analyzed for heavy metals. The containers were tin cans, paperboard boxes and laminate pouches. Tin, lead, iron, zinc and copper were determined in the orange juice without prior preparation using plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry. The tin-canned orange juice was found to have higher heavy metal contents that juice kept in a paperboard box or laminate pouch. Except for one canned sample, all other samples showed heavy metal contents below the recommended limits of the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission. The heavy metal content of all orange juice samples accorded with those limits adopted by the Egyptian Standards of Specifications (ESS).
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Most human subjects dying from hypertensive complications showed in their kidneys either increased concentrations of cadmium or increased ratios of cadmium to zinc, compared to subjects dying of a variety of other major diseases. Within the limits of 358 kidneys analyzed, this alteration occurred in both the United States and in foreign countries around the world.
Article
The uptake of Al, Cu and Pb from aqueous solution by duckweed has been observed at pH 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The results showed that the uptake of Pb was much faster than Al and Cu. The uptake of Cu was suppressed by the presence of Pb and Al.The proportion of metal uptake (PMUT) by duckweed was dependent on the metal concentration in the solution when only one kind of metal ion was present. It was decreased by increasing concentrations of other metals in mixtures of solutions. The metal uptake by the duckweed was always less than the loss of metal content 1n the relevant solution. This fact implied that the process of the uptake of metal ions by the duckweed may involve two stages. In the first, the metal is absorbed but then later 1t 1s adsorbed by the duckweed.The aluminum ion was found to be more toxic than the copper ion at lower pH and higher concentration, but the situation is reversed at higher pH. A possible explanation of toxicit of Cu and Al is that the Mg in chlorophyll was replaced by the Cu or Al. This may lead the chlorophyll to lose its normal activity and kill the duckweed.
Article
Our foods contain trace amounts of a wide range of heavy metals: some of these have a biochemical function, others are contaminants. Trace metals can contaminate foods through agricultural technology, industrial pollution, geological sources and food processing. Some results from recent Canadian monitoring surveys are given with particular emphasis on data from lead and cadmium analyses. Consideration is given to the criteria that can be used to determine the priorities in the design of a monitoring program for trace metals in foods.
Article
Food has been found to be the main source of nickel intake by man. Nickel was fairly evenly distributed throughout the various food groups examined but highest concentrations of nickel were found in the canned vegetables, sugars and preserves, and bread and cereals food groups, suggesting a contribution from food processing equipment and, possibly, food cans. Mean dietary nickel intakes in the UK (1981-4) were between 0.14 and 0.15 mg/day. The contribution made to dietary nickel intakes by nickel from food utensils and cookware is discussed.
Article
Rats receiving small amounts of cadmium in drinking water exhibited systolic hypertension, the incidence being greater in females than in males. In males the disorder appeared later in life. Cadmium-free rats seldom became hypertensive. Rats also exposed to a choice of 1% NaCl solution when young and when old appeared to show more hypertension than those not exposed; females took 65% more cadmium. The hypertension was usually associated with increased mortality and renal vascular changes.
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