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The happy personality: Mediational role of trait emotional intelligence

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Abstract

This study examined the relationship between the Big Five personality traits (Gosling et al., 2003), trait emotional intelligence (EI) (Petrides & Furnham, 2001) and happiness (Argyle et al., 1989) in a sample of 112 (61 female) student and non-student participants. Strong dispositional determinants of happiness were identified. In line with previous findings, four of the Big Five, namely stability, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness, were positively correlated with both happiness and trait EI, which explained 18% of unique variance (over and above age and the Big Five) in happiness. Furthermore, a significant amount of shared variance between happiness and the Big Five was explained by trait EI, which partly mediated the paths from stability and conscientiousness to happiness, and fully mediated the link between agreeableness and happiness. Limitations and implications are discussed.

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... People who are emotionally intelligent are better able to understand beliefs and rules concerning the meaning of emotion as well as evaluate situations and express their feelings adeptly (Matthews et al. 2007). EI is positively associated with an individual's general well-being, success in life, life satisfaction, self-acceptance, self-esteem, positive affect and happiness (Austin et al. 2005;Carmeli et al. 2009;Chamorro-Premuzic et al. 2007;Dulewicz et al. 2003;Furnham and Christoforou 2007;Gallagher and Vella-Brodrick 2008). More specifically, Furnham and Christoforou (2007) found individuals who were high on trait EI also tended to be more satisfied with their lives than individuals with low trait EI. ...
... Although little is known regarding EI in foster care populations, measures of emotional intelligence may identify foster children who are likely to be more successful, happy, and satisfied with life during and after foster care (Chamorro-Premuzic et al. 2007;Dulewicz et al. 2003). EI measures may aid in identifying foster care children who are at risk of becoming depressed and distressed, having behavioral troubles in school, and having increased difficulties as they "age out" of the foster care system (Austin et al. 2005;Kunnanatt 2004;Petrides et al. 2004). ...
... EI research suggests the importance of the EI construct and the implications it may have when promoted within the population of at-risk children. Although there has been limited exploration of EI in foster care populations, higher EI may be associated with foster children who tend to be more satisfied with life during and after foster care (Chamorro-Premuzic et al. 2007;Dulewicz et al. 2003). In addition, EI measures may aid in identifying foster care children who are at-risk of becoming depressed and distressed, having behavioral troubles in school, and having increased difficulties as they "age out" of the foster care system (Austin et al. 2005;Kunnanatt 2004;Petrides et al. 2004). ...
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Objective The most common reason for foster care placement is child maltreatment. Sadly, once in the foster care system over 17% of children in the United States continue to experience multiple forms of maltreatment. After they “age out”, these alumni are particularly vulnerable to a host of adverse situations, such as low educational success and homelessness. The primary aim of this study was to explore individual characteristics that could predict the quality of life and level of distress of foster care alumni. Specifically, we were interested in the predictive ability of emotional intelligence (EI) and general intelligence (IQ) on quality of life and distress. Method Two multiple regression models were evaluated for the primary analyses. Both models included general intelligence and emotional intelligence as predictors, with one model containing quality of life and the other model level of distress as the criterion variables. Results The analyses demonstrated that general intelligence was not a significant predictor of quality of life or level of distress when controlling for emotional intelligence. In contrast, emotional intelligence was a significant predictor of improved quality of life and decreased level of distress when controlling for general intelligence. Conclusions Emotional intelligence appears to be a characteristic that is amenable to change and a predictor of positive outcome among foster care alumni. Moreover, emotional intelligence may bolster resiliency against the higher levels of instability and stress experienced by foster care children.
... Diferentes estudios han subrayado la importancia de la inteligencia emocional para explicar la felicidad de las personas debido a su capacidad para potenciar el manejo adecuado de las emociones tanto propias como ajenas (Chamorro-Premuzic, Bennett & Furnham, 2007;Fernández-Berrocal y Extremera, 2009). En este sentido, la felicidad puede definirse como la combinación de tres componentes o elementos relacionados entre sí (Diener, Suh, Lucas & Smith, 1999): afecto negativo poco frecuente, casos frecuentes de afecto positivo y un elevado nivel de satisfacción con la vida. ...
... Teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones de la TMMS anteriormente indicadas, la claridad y la reparación emocional son aquellas que más intensamente se han relacionado con la satisfacción con la vida (Extremera, Du- rán y Rey, 2007;Rey, Extremera & Pena, 2011;Thompson, Waltz, Croyle & Pepper, 2007) y con la felicidad subjetiva (Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2007;Ferragut y Fierro, 2012;Rey y Extremera, 2012) en preadolescentes y adolescentes españoles. En el contexto de Trabajo Social, Esteban (2014) observó una relación positiva entre claridad emocional, reparación emocional e ilusión por el trabajo o engagement. ...
... La especial trascendencia positiva de la capacidad para reparar emociones sobre los niveles de felicidad manifestada ha sido apoyada en investigaciones previas con estudiantes en el ámbito universitario (Thompson et al., 2007). Según Chamorro-Premuzic et al. (2007), la IE en términos de reparación ocupa un lugar destacado para explicar la felicidad de estudiantes. En este sentido, niveles altos de claridad emocional y de capacidad para reparar las propias emociones favorecen la reducción del malestar subjetivo y el mantenimiento de estados de ánimo positivos (Extremera et al., 2005). ...
Article
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Introducción. Se presenta un instrumento que recoge diferentes posturas relacionales, habilidades y actitudes relacionadas con las prácticas colaborativas, que los/las trabajadores/as sociales pueden poner en práctica en el proceso de intervención con familias en situación de especial dificultad. Metodología. A partir del nivel de importancia otorgado a cada criterio del inventario (muestra de 121 trabajadores/as sociales), se realiza un análisis factorial exploratorio. Resultados. El análisis factorial de componentes principales de seis factores explica el 46.88% de la varianza total acumulada. Se obtiene la consistencia interna mediante el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. Discusión. El inventario contiene criterios de intervención que han demostrado su eficacia en otras investigaciones, y los análisis demuestran la confiabilidad y validez del instrumento presentado. Conclusiones. Los resultados muestran que este instrumento puede ser una opción para medir el nivel de valoración que otorgan los/as profesionales al enfoque colaborativo con familias en situación de especial dificultad.
... Diferentes estudios han subrayado la importancia de la inteligencia emocional para explicar la felicidad de las personas debido a su capacidad para potenciar el manejo adecuado de las emociones tanto propias como ajenas (Chamorro-Premuzic, Bennett & Furnham, 2007;Fernández-Berrocal y Extremera, 2009). En este sentido, la felicidad puede definirse como la combinación de tres componentes o elementos relacionados entre sí (Diener, Suh, Lucas & Smith, 1999): afecto negativo poco frecuente, casos frecuentes de afecto positivo y un elevado nivel de satisfacción con la vida. ...
... Teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones de la TMMS anteriormente indicadas, la claridad y la reparación emocional son aquellas que más intensamente se han relacionado con la satisfacción con la vida (Extremera, Du-Inteligencia emocional y felicidad subjetiva en estudiantes de Trabajo Social Alternativas. Cuadernos de Trabajo Social, 27, 2020, 1-16 -ISSN: 1133-0473 DOI: 10.14198/ALTERN2020.27.06 rán y Rey, 2007;Rey, Extremera & Pena, 2011;Thompson, Waltz, Croyle & Pepper, 2007) y con la felicidad subjetiva (Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2007;Ferragut y Fierro, 2012;Rey y Extremera, 2012) en preadolescentes y adolescentes españoles. En el contexto de Trabajo Social, Esteban (2014) observó una relación positiva entre claridad emocional, reparación emocional e ilusión por el trabajo o engagement. ...
... La especial trascendencia positiva de la capacidad para reparar emociones sobre los niveles de felicidad manifestada ha sido apoyada en investigaciones previas con estudiantes en el ámbito universitario (Thompson et al., 2007). Según Chamorro-Premuzic et al. (2007), la IE en términos de reparación ocupa un lugar destacado para explicar la felicidad de estudiantes. En este sentido, niveles altos de claridad emocional y de capacidad para reparar las propias emociones favorecen la reducción del malestar subjetivo y el mantenimiento de estados de ánimo positivos (Extremera et al., 2005). ...
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La felicidad subjetiva es uno de los indicadores de la calidad de vida laboral más importantes en Trabajo Social, que depende del desarrollo de la inteligencia emocional. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la relación entre inteligencia emocional (atención, claridad y reparación emocional) y felicidad subjetiva en una muestra de 187 estudiantes de Trabajo Social del sur de España (Edad media= 20.38 años,89.30% mujeres), usando un diseño transversal y mediante el uso de cuestionarios. Mayores niveles de felicidad subjetiva se asociaron positiva y significativamente con mayores puntuaciones en claridad y reparación emocional, pero no con atención. La formación debería otorgar mayor peso a la inteligencia emocional. El desarrollo de la inteligencia emocional por medio de cursos implementados en facultades y en centros de servicios sociales posibilitaría a estudiantes y profesionales de Trabajo Social adquirir mecanismos de afrontamiento más eficaces y, por tanto, aumentar su felicidad y calidad de vida.
... A meta-study of publications between 1970 and 1998 by DeNeve and Cooper (1998) gave evidence that emotional stability was an important predictor of happiness. Prior literature demonstrates strong relationship between emotional stability and happiness (Costa and McCrae 1980;Hills and Argyle 2001;Chamorro-Premuzic et al. 2007). Moreover, few early Buddhist texts have also emphasized on attaining greater emotional stability as an important component of well-being or happiness ("NiramisaSutta" 2010). ...
... The results of the current study are in line with prior research which indicates that mindfulness is positively related with emotional stability (Latzman and Masuda 2013;Tucker et al. 2016) and also with self-esteem (Pepping et al. 2013). Furthermore, the association of emotional stability with happiness (Chamorro-Premuzic et al. 2007;Hills and Argyle 2001) and self-esteem with happiness are also in line with previous research (Baumeister et al. 2003;Mann et al. 2004). Consistent with prior research, results of the analysis have confirmed the relationship of mindfulness with happiness (Campos et al. 2016;Schultz and Ryan 2015). ...
Article
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The present research tested a mediation model where mindfulness is indirectly related to happiness through emotional stability and self-esteem. 302 undergraduate students from a university in India participated in the study. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires of mindfulness, emotional stability, self-esteem, and happiness. Structural Equation Modeling results showed that mindfulness was associated with happiness through the mediation of emotional stability and self-esteem. Emotional stability and self-esteem fully mediated the relationship of mindfulness with happiness. In addition, emotional stability partially mediated the relationship of mindfulness with self-esteem. The results of the study shed light on how emotional stability and self-esteem are associated with the process of mindfulness-happiness relationship. Based on the findings, implications and avenues for future research are discussed.
... Actualmente las explicaciones disposicionales de la felicidad enfatizan la importancia de la inteligencia emocional, y se señala que esta puede predecir la felicidad más allá de la influencia de los cinco grandes rasgos de personalidad (apertura a la experiencia, responsabilidad, extroversión, amabilidad e inestabilidad emocional o neuroticismo) (Callea, De Rosa, Ferri, Lipari y Costanzi, 2019;Chamorro-Premuzic, Bennett y Furnham, 2007). Así, se ha identificado la inteligencia emocional como predictora del bienestar y de la felicidad subjetiva de estudiantes universitarios (Extremera & Rey, 2016; Ruiz-Aranda, Extremera, & Pineda-Galán, 2014;Ye et al., 2019). ...
... En la presente investigación las tres dimensiones de inteligencia emocional se mostraron como predictoras significativas de la felicidad subjetiva, apoyando estudios previos que han señalado que la inteligencia emocional predice la felicidad, incluso controlando el efecto de los cinco grandes rasgos de la personalidad (Callea et al., 2019;Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2007). Los hallazgos de este trabajo corroboran las investigaciones con estudiantes universitarios en donde la inteligencia emocional se mostró como predictora del bienestar y la felicidad subjetiva (Extremera y Rey, 2016; Ruiz-Aranda et al., 2014;Sánchez-Álvarez et al., 2016;Ye et al., 2019). ...
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Los trabajadores sociales tienen unas elevadas exigencias laborales como consecuencia, entre otros factores, de la excesiva burocratización de las organizaciones de servicios sociales. Ante esta realidad, durante su proceso formativo, los estudiantes de trabajo social deben desarrollar competencias emocionales para hacer frente a estas demandas profesionales que pueden afectar a su bienestar y rendimiento laboral. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y correlacional de corte transversal del que participaron 187 estudiantes del primer y segundo curso (n = 105 y n = 82, respectivamente) de Trabajo Social de la Universidad de Málaga (España). El 89.30 % eran mujeres y la edad promedio fue de 20.38 años (DT = 3.35). Se desarrolló un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple para evaluar el papel predictor de la inteligencia emocional (atención emocional, claridad emocional y reparación de las emociones) sobre la felicidad subjetiva percibida en estudiantes de trabajo social. La claridad emocional y la reparación de las emociones fueron predictores significativos positivos de la felicidad subjetiva, mientras que la atención emocional fue un predictor significativo negativo. Los estudiantes y futuros trabajadores sociales tienen que entender y manejar sus estados emocionales, de tal manera que les permita tanto afrontar sus propias frustraciones como constituirse en referentes de los usuarios para imponerse a sus dificultades. Se corrobora la necesidad de fomentar la inteligencia emocional entre los estudiantes y futuros trabajadores sociales, ya que esto constituye un factor de protección que puede aumentar su bienestar y concretamente, su felicidad subjetiva. Las experiencias de afecto negativas que sufren los trabajadores sociales demandan planes de estudio en los que se fomente la inteligencia emocional.
... They learn to distinguish between socially appropriate and inappropriate behavior and acquire important skills such as persistence, endurance, and the ability to solve social problems individually . Prior literature highlights the strong association between happiness and emotional competence, with the emphasis on attaining greater emotional stability through happiness (Bajaj et al., 2019, Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2007Hills & Argyle, 2001;Niramisa Sutta: Unworldly, 2010). Happiness and social-emotional competence are closely interrelated (Denham et al., 2003). ...
... This happiness intervention has been designed in a way that develops the capability of preschool students to establish positive interactions with peers, participate in interpersonal relationships, develop long-lasting friendships, and become members of social groups, thus making them socially competent (Kennedy, 2018;Lobo & Winsler, 2006). Simultaneously, this happiness intervention is an initiative to help the children in understanding and managing their emotions and enhancing a positive attitude in them, making them emotionally competent (Bajaj et al., 2019;Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2007;Hills & Argyle, 2001). Finally, this article discussed the role of preschool teachers in implementing the framework using play-based innovative teaching practices. ...
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The primary objective of this article is to create a conceptual Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) happiness framework for preschool children in India. Although happiness is regarded as one of the key elements that influence early childhood development, an effective happiness framework does not exist for preschools in rural and socio-economically disadvantaged areas in the state of Punjab in India. Therefore, based on research gaps and existing literature, a conceptual framework has been developed to promote social and emotional competence among preschool children through the happiness intervention. The article also discusses (a) the concepts of happiness, and social and emotional competence; (b) the importance of happiness in preschool; (c) the association between happiness and social-emotional competence of preschool children; and (d) the role of preschool teachers in implementing the framework. Future implementation of this framework in the preschools of India will help overcome the limitation that exists in regard to its validation.
... On the other hand, Kumar and Muniandy (2012) stated that EI rises with age up to 50 years and tends to decline as the subjects grow beyond 50 years. Some other previous studies have also identified that age is a factor affecting EI positively (Schuttle et al. 2007;Bennett et al. 2007;Bissessar, 2011). ...
... Since prior research reports that, age is one of the most investigated personal factors that affects EI positively (Bennett et al. 2007Bissessar, 2011Farisalli et al. 2006;Schuttle et al. 2007). By exploring if employees' age in service sector in the U.S has an impact on their EI levels, this study would provide a distinct perspective to EI research. ...
Article
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This study explores the impact of some personal factors (i.e., gender, age, education, marital status) on employees’ emotional intelligence levels in service sector in the U.S. Using a questionnaire survey, pertinent data is gathered from a group of 98 employees who works in different companies and industries in New York and New Jersey. Employees’ EI is measured using Wong and Low Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS). The data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. First, descriptive statistics were obtained. Then, t-tests ANOVA and Mann Whitney- U tests were conducted. Also, the differences obtained through ANOVA among the means are further compared through Tukey Post-hoc Tests. The results of the study show that education is a factor affecting emotional intelligence of employees positively in the U.S.
... Though some circumstances are undoubtedly beyond the control of the individual, there is evidence that people who exhibit a more emotional coping style experience NA more often, when compared to the more pragmatic, problem-focused coping style associated with PA (Tugade, Fredrickson and Barrett, 2004). Frequent experience of PA is associated with higher degrees of Extroversion which may also explain individual differences when developing coping mechanisms (Caspi, et al., 2005;Smith, 2006) though Chamorro-Premuzic, Bennett and Furnham (2007) go as far as to suggest the existence of a "happy personality" mediated by links between Agreeableness, Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Low levels of trait Agreeableness are associated with negative self-perception and negative attitudes to illness and disease, whereas higher levels of Conscientiousness positively correlate with adherence to healthcare regimens, affirming positive perceptions of QOL and increasing resilience and longevity (Hill and Roberts, 2011). ...
... High levels of Conscientiousness may be related to adherence to healthcare regimens (Hall, Rubin, Hungin and Dougall, 2007;Hill and Roberts, 2011) which is pertinent, given the number of participants in this sample who had had surgery for CD, were taking medication (see Table 1) and living with co-morbid conditions (Table 2). Whilst the results of personality measures for this sample may not be representative of the general population, they may be generalisable to other health related samples, as the relationship between happiness and Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and Extraversion scores may in part, explain the relatively high happiness scores seen in this sample (Caspi et al., 2005;Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2007). ...
Research
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Happiness is one of the most desired of all human emotional states (Lyubomirsky, Sheldon and Schkade, 2005) which research suggests is attained by experiencing greater pleasure than pain and living a purposeful and meaningful life (Keyes and Annas, 2009). Historically the focus for psychological research has been on correcting negative behaviours, rather than emulating positive behaviours which lead to increased happiness, such as the experience of gratitude and frequent positive affect (Fredrickson, 2001). However, since the relatively recent development of Positive Psychology, studies increasingly support an acceptance of the benefits of positive behavioural interventions, particularly when applied to Health Psychology (Seligman, 2000). Utilising a self-selecting sample of 160 participants over the age of 18, with a confirmed diagnosis of Crohn's Disease, a remitting and relapsing chronic illness categorised under the heading of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, this study controlled for multiple factors previously considered influential to happiness, proposing that despite living with chronic illness, gratitude and positive affect would be the strongest predictors of happiness in Crohn's patients. Participants responded via online links and forums, to a survey incorporating seven previously published measures, with additional questions regarding socioeconomic status and Crohn's related health history. Results confirmed that gratitude and positive affect were the strongest predictors of subjective happiness scores, suggesting a need for further research into interventions and mechanisms supporting the expansion of Gratitude and PA to promote happiness in Crohn's patients.
... 47). Chamorro-Premuzic, Bennett, & Furnham, (2007) stress that, "personality traits are arguably the most robust predictors of happiness, if not the major determinant" (p. 1634). ...
... Furthermore, Conscientiousness is a particularly important predictor of health-related behaviors (Bogg & Roberts, 2004, 2013; for example, life expectancy/longevity shows a substantial positive relationship to Conscientiousness (Bogg & Roberts 2004;Friedman et al., 1993). Overall, there is substantial empirical evidence indicating that low Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness, and high Neuroticism are reliable markers of psychological adversity (Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Recent research has identified regional variation of personality traits within countries but we know little about the underlying drivers of this variation. We propose that the Industrial Revolution, as a key era in the history of industrialized nations, has led to a persistent clustering of well-being outcomes and personality traits associated with psychological adversity via processes of selective migration and socialization. Analyzing data from England and Wales, we examine relationships between the historical employment share in large-scale coal-based industries (coal mining and steam-powered manufacturing industries that used this coal as fuel for their steam engines) and today’s regional variation in personality and well-being. Even after controlling for possible historical confounds (historical energy supply, education, wealth, geology, climate, population density), we find that the historical local dominance of large-scale coal-based industries predicts today’s markers of psychological adversity (lower Conscientiousness [and order facet scores], higher Neuroticism [and anxiety and depression facet scores], lower activity [an Extraversion facet], and lower life satisfaction and life expectancy). An instrumental variable analysis, using the historical location of coalfields, supports the causal assumption behind these effects (with the exception of life satisfaction). Further analyses focusing on mechanisms hint at the roles of selective migration and persisting economic hardship. Finally, a robustness check in the U.S. replicates the effect of the historical concentration of large-scale industries on today’s levels of psychological adversity. Taken together, the results show how today’s regional patterns of personality and well-being may have their roots in major societal changes underway decades or centuries earlier.
... Additionally, EI scores were negatively associated with problematic Internet and smartphone use and suicidal ideation [52]. Concerning personality traits, several studies have found positive EI relationships with extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and negative relationships with neuroticism or emotional instability [53][54][55][56]. Regarding the relationships between EI and self-concept, the study of Guerrero-Barona et al. [15] also confirmed that adolescents with low IEI had a lower physical and social self-concept. ...
... These results confirm those obtained in studies, finding positive relationships between EI and the personality traits of extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness [53][54][55][56]. In addition, the results also confirm studies finding that high EI is positively related to empathy [18,27,28], and constructive conflict resolution [20,23,[29][30][31][32][33][34], and negatively related to hostility and feelings of anger [40,41], expressions of anger in annoying situations [18], physical and verbal aggression [27,40,42,43], aggressive and antisocial behaviors [18,37,44], and self-reported bullying behaviors [46]. ...
Article
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This study explores Intrapersonal Emotional Intelligence (IEI) with the objectives of: (1) analyzing possible differences due to sex and age, and the request for psychological assistance for behavioral and emotional problems; (2) finding evidence of personality traits, social behaviors, and parental socialization styles that are characteristic of adolescents with low IEI; and (3) identifying variables that predict high IEI. The sample comprised 2283 participants aged 12–17 years from the Basque Country (northern Spain). Results: (1) Females had greater emotional attention capacity but there were no sex differences in emotional comprehension and emotion regulation; (2) adolescents aged 12–14 showed higher scores in comprehension and emotion regulation than those aged 15–17; (3) adolescents who consulted a psychologist for problems (anxiety, depression, violence, etc.) had lower emotion regulation; (4) adolescents with low IEI had less empathy, self-esteem, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and responsibility, and lower use of cooperative and passive conflict-resolution strategies, and their parents had a low level of acceptance-affection towards their children. They also engaged in more bullying/cyberbullying and antisocial behaviors. (5) High IEI predictor variables were: using cooperative conflict-resolution strategies; traits such as extroversion, responsibility, openness, and empathy; and a high level of maternal acceptance-affection. The work identifies relevant variables for designing intervention programs and shows the importance of promoting IEI and interpersonal emotional intelligence as a factor in the development and prevention of bullying/cyberbullying.
... More specifically, studies made from mixed models note that the trait emotional intelligence is a constellation of capacities and self-perceived attitudes related with emotion [48]. In this regard, different studies note the existence of a positive correlation between emotional intelligence as a trait and perceived happiness [49,50]. On the other hand, from the ability model, research based on Spanish adolescent subjects shows that the abilities of clarity and repair are positively correlated with life satisfaction whereas attention correlates negatively in adolescents [51]. ...
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The present study aimed to analyze the association between of the dimensions of emotional intelligence (attention, clarity, and repair) and different levels of perceived happiness (low, medium, and high) in adolescents. The sample consists of 646 students in the first, second, third, and fourth years of Secondary Education, 47.5% females and 52.5% males, between 12 and 17 years of age. The instruments used were the Spanish version of the Trait Meta Mood Scale-24 Questionnaire to measure perceived emotional intelligence and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed. The results suggest that as the capacity of understanding and regulation of emotional intelligence increases, happiness also increases. Adolescence is seen as an ideal time in life to encourage the development of emotional capacities that contribute to the greater happiness of individuals. In this way, the present study stresses the need to carry out practices leading to improvements in the adolescents’ emotional intelligence and therefore increase their happiness and emotional well-being.
... Ayrıca Khani, Etebarian ve Abzari (2011) grup etkinliklerinin işlevsel hale gelmesinde yine kültürel zekâ düzeyinin önemli olduğunu belirtmektedirler. Premuzic ve Furnham (2008) ise duygusal zekâ oluşumunda beş faktör kişilik özelliklerinin önemli olduğunu tespit etmişlerdir. Tatlılıoğlu (2014) üniversite öğrencilerinin sahip olduğu kişilik özelliklerinin demografik değişkenlerle arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemiş, cinsiyet-duygusal dengesizlik, sınıf düzeyi-dışadönüklük, sınıf düzeyi-gelişime açıklık, gelir-öz disiplin, aile yapısı-dışa dönüklük ve öz disiplin boyutları arasında anlamlı farklılıkların olduğunu tespit etmiştir. ...
... Though there are controversies on the objective and subjective measurement of happiness as well as on the distortions that could happen when subjects are asked to rate their happiness (Veenhoven, 1991), a large number of scales have been developed to measure happiness. Of the various measures, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) is the most widely used questionnaire in the study of happiness and well-being (Chamorro-Premuzic, Bennett & Furnham, 2007). Argyle, Martin and Crossland (1989) developed the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI) along the lines of the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Hock & Erbaugh, 1961) with 32 items that encompass positive affect, negative affect, and subjective well-being. ...
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This study examines the factor structure of the Hindi version of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) (Hills & Argyle, 2002) in a sample of 1000 Indian university students. OHQ is a widely used in positive psychology research. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA)has resulted in six factors. Another study has been carried to test the results of EFA and other reported models with a sample of 800 students. Confirmatory factor analysis has resulted in the six-factor model showing a better fit against the other tested models. The study results support the multi-dimensional structure of OHQ. The factor structure of OHQ in India has some common factors and many differences when compared to the Euro-American studies.
... [53][54][55] It has been found that emotional intelligence negatively and significantly correlates with neuroticism, and positively and significantly associates with extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. 47,[56][57][58][59][60][61] In many of these studies, 58,62,63 it has been documented that while neuroticism and extraversion were the strongest personality determinants of emotional intelligence, agreeableness and openness were similarly weak. In turn, Van der Zee et al 64 The second crucial bond in the mediatory association is the tie between emotional intelligence and gratitude. ...
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Background: Among many possible variables that can be associated with gratitude, researchers list personality traits. Considering that these relationships are not always consistent, the first purpose of the present study was to verify how the Big Five factors connect to dispositional gratitude in a sample of Polish participants. The second purpose was to assess the unique contribution of personality traits on gratitude with multiple regression analyses. Moreover, because much remains to be learned about whether these associations are indirectly influenced by different personal or social variables, the third goal was to explore the role of emotional intelligence as a potential mediational mechanism implicated in the relationship between personality traits and gratitude. Participants methods and data collection: The sample consisted of 712 Polish respondents who were aged between 17 and 88. Most of them were women (64.3%). They answered questionnaires concerning their personality traits, emotional intelligence, and gratitude. The research was conducted using the paper-and-pencil method through convenience sampling. Results: The results showed that both gratitude and emotional intelligence correlated positively and significantly with extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Gratitude and emotional intelligence correlated negatively and significantly with neuroticism. The personality predictor of gratitude with the highest and positive standardized regression value was agreeableness, followed by openness to experience and extraversion. Neuroticism had a negative impact on gratitude. Conscientiousness was the only statistically insignificant predictor in the tested multiple regression model. Moreover, emotional intelligence mediated the relationship between four dimensions of personality (extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and gratitude and acted as a suppressor between neuroticism and gratitude. Conclusion: The current study broadens our comprehension of the interaction among personality traits, emotional intelligence, and a grateful disposition. Moreover, it imparts a noteworthy foundation not only for the mediatory role of emotional intelligence between four dimensions of personality and gratitude but also for its suppressor effect between neuroticism and being grateful.
... The TIPI, which is much less time-consuming to implement than many other "Five Factor" scales, has been developed specifically to enable personality traits to be measured under severe time-constraints. Although it poses limits on finer and more detailed aspects of the individual's personality, the approach has been validated in numerous studies (see e.g., Chamorro-Premuzic, Bennett and Furnham, 2007;Heller, Komar and Lee, 2007;Westmaas, Moeller and Woicik, 2007). We asked participants carrying out three separate stated preference discrete choice experiments concerned with prospective changes in coastal and marine water quality conducted in Estonia (two studies) and Latvia to complete the TIPI after they had responded to a series of choice tasks. ...
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There is substantial variation in individual preferences for public goods, yet much of that variation remains poorly understood. However, simple measures of personality can help to explain economic values and choices in a systematic way. In this paper, we examine the effects of personality on individual economic choices over public environmental goods. Based on three datasets from three separate stated preference studies, we use a hybrid choice econometric framework to examine the effects of personality on preferences for the status quo, changes in environmental quality, and costs of investing in environmental improvements. We find effects that are consistent across all datasets. Personality, a stable feature of an individual's character that is simple to measure, enriches explanations of why the demand for environmental goods varies across people, provides an indication of how different people are likely to react to the introduction of environmental policies, and explains substantial differences in Willingness to Pay.
... Prior literature suggests that subjective well-being measures, for example happiness, general life satisfaction, or satisfaction with health, can be affected by an individual's personality (e.g., Chamorro-Premuzic, Bennett, & Furnham, 2007;DeNeve & Copper, 1998;Hayes & Joseph, 2003). Pessimistic characters, for instance, are more likely to report lower levels of general life satisfaction, Table 6 Assessing the channels of the effect of consumer fraud victimization on financial well-being. ...
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Using US household panel data, we provide evidence of a strong negative association between consumer fraud victimization and individuals’ perception of their financial well-being. We show that this effect is homogenous among the population and mainly stems from victimization through misrepresentation of information as well as misusage of money by third parties. We disentangle two potential channels through which victimization might reduce perceived financial well-being: psychological consequences (loss of confidence in financial matters) and economic consequences (decrease in net wealth). Our results show that fraud is more negatively associated with a loss in individuals’ confidence in financial matters than with declines in their net worth. Our findings suggest that people tend to doubt their abilities to handle financial matters after having fallen prey to fraud, which in turn carries major implications for subsequent financial decision making.
... This can be explained by kindness being a behavior that unites us with other human beings and promotes the development of social support derived from reciprocity [12]. This finding reinforces what has been reported in other studies [58] [59]. Improvements were even evident by requesting few acts of kindness in the week, even when it is known that if these are grouped in a single day the effect will be greater [60] [61]. ...
... Why are personality traits so influential? At the individual level, it is wellestablished that a person's personality traits shape a wide range of central life outcomes such as psychological well-being (e.g., happiness -Chamorro-Premuzic, Bennett and Furnham 2007;Steel and Ones 2002;Steel, Schmidt and Shultz 2008), health (Bogg and Roberts 2004;Friedman 2000), as well as motivations, achievements and performance in the occupational career (Barrick and Mount 1991;Judge and Ilies 2002). Personality researchers thus often emphasize "the power of personality" as a major determinant of a person's life outcomes (Roberts et al. 2007 (Allport 1923), the field of geographical psychology (Rentfrow 2020;Oishi 2014) has begun studying regional differences in personality traits-the 'personality of regions' as a whole (Florida 2010). ...
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We investigate whether the Roman presence in the southern part of Germany nearly 2,000 years ago had a deep imprinting effect with long run consequences on a broad spectrum of measures ranging from present-day personality profiles to a number of socioeconomic outcomes and why. Today's populations living in the former Roman part of Germany score indeed higher on certain personality traits, have higher life and health satisfaction, longer life expectancy, generate more inventions and behave in a more entrepreneurial way. These findings help explain that regions under Roman rule have higher present-day levels of economic development in terms of GDP per capita. The effects hold when controlling for other potential historical influences. When addressing potential channels of a long term effect of Roman rule the data indicates that the Roman road network plays an important role as a mechanism in the imprinting that is still perceptible today.
... For example, people who are stable and conscientious evaluate their own job performance more positively [17]. This is consistent with the broader finding that personality accounts for a substantial amount of inter-individual variability in subjective wellbeing and happiness [18]. And when employees are senior leaders, such as executives, their personality shapes the culture of their organizations, impacting a large number of employees to determine their own career success [19]. ...
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Personality and intelligence have a long history in applied psychology, with research dating back more than 100 years. In line, early developments in industrial-organizational psychology were largely founded on the predictive power of personality and intelligence measures vis-à-vis career-related outcomes. However, despite a wealth of evidence in support of their utility, the concepts, theories, and measures of personality and intelligence are still widely underutilized in organizations, even when these express a commitment to making data-driven decisions about employees and leaders. This paper discusses the value of personality and intelligence to understand individual differences in career potential, and how to increase the adoption of theories and tools for evaluating personality and intelligence in real-world organizational contexts. Although personality and intelligence are distinct constructs, the assessment of career potential is incomplete without both.
... This scale has good reliability, with a: 0.92 (Hills & Argyle, 2002). Previous studies have shown that this questionnaire has good validity and reliability (Chamorro-Premuzic, Bennett, & Furnham, 2007;Pourjali & Zarnaghash, 2010). In the current study, the findings confirmed the construct validity (0.54) and the composite reliability (0.71) for this scale. ...
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Happiness plays a key role in influencing adolescent performance in a variety of contexts. The present study was designed to investigate the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and happiness and to test the moderating role of emotional intelligence in the relationship between perfectionism and happiness among Malaysian adolescents. The participants were 412 Malaysian high-school students from Selangor, all of whom completed self-report questionnaires. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine whether students with high levels of personal standards perfectionism, low levels of evaluative concerns perfectionism, and high levels of emotional intelligence reported higher levels of happiness. Multigroup analyses showed that emotional intelligence emerged as a significant moderator in the link between evaluative concerns perfectionism and happiness. These findings highlight the importance of emotional intelligence in mitigating the devastating effects of evaluative concerns perfectionism on happiness.
... Some researchers have argued that extraversion appears to mediate happiness through assertiveness social behaviours rather than any inherent bias towards happiness (Argyle et al., 1989;DeNeve & Cooper, 1998). Emotional stability and extraversion are linked with temperamental differences in positive and negative affect that are rooted in the biological basis of happiness (Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2007). It has been posited that different personality traits predispose individuals to choose the situations that fulfil specific personality trait needs (Furnham, 1981). ...
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Extraverts have been reported to be happier than introverts. The study explored the mechanisms behind differences in the perceived happiness of the introverts and extraverts. The verbatim transcriptions of semi-structured interviews were analyzed through the thematic analysis. Five themes were generated: dissimilar conceptualizations of happiness, differences in the inclination towards happiness, dissimilar loci of happiness and differences in the sources of happiness. The extraverts were more inclined towards short-lived and dynamic nature of happiness whereas permanency, meaningfulness, and stability pervaded in the meaning of happiness by the introverts. The introverts valued internal and achieved sources whereas external and ascribed sources of happiness find expressions in extraverts. Thus, both introverts and extraverts reported perceived happiness that suggested dissimilar sources and mechanisms. Further studies may help a better understanding of the positive life outcomes of personality using qualitative methods and live experiences. Psychological interventions may be developed keeping these findings in mind. Keywords: extraversion; happiness; introversion; thematic analysis; personality.
... Research accumulated evidences about the existing relationship between EI and SWB (Abdollahi et al. 2015(Abdollahi et al. , 2019Chamorro-Premuzic et al. 2007;Gascó et al. 2018), which is defined by a cognitive component (i.e., life satisfaction) and an affective component (i.e., happiness) (Tomlinson et al. 2017). Studies investigating happiness and its relationship with EI to promote greater psychological development are considered valuable, especially during adolescence (Abdollahi et al. 2019). ...
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Emotional intelligence (EI) plays a key role in the adjustment of adolescents during this transitional life period. The accumulated evidences suggest that EI is associated with happiness, considered the affective component of subjective well-being and optimism and pessimism, considered cognitive mechanisms to expect either a brighter or darker future. In spite of the relevance of the relationship between EI, happiness, optimism, and pessimism, the majority of the research falls behind findings with adult samples, accumulating little knowledge in the context of adolescence. Furthermore, the measurement of EI has been recently challenged by the introduction of the bifactor model into the study of EI. The goal of the current study was to explore the association of EI with happiness, optimism, and pessimism in adolescence by introducing the bifactor EI model. The participants were 493 Spanish high-school students ranging from 14 to 18 years old (52.7% females) who completed self-report questionnaires. The results demonstrated that the bifactor EI model with an e-factor (general EI factor) and three emotional dimensions (emotional attention, emotional clarity, and emotional regulation) also represented the best well-fitted structure in adolescence. Most remarkably, results suggested that general EI and emotional regulation predicted positively happiness and optimism, while emotional attention predicted positively pessimism and negatively happiness. These results highlight the importance of the measurement of EI in the study of associated outcomes that are considered relevant during the period of adolescence. Hence, the specific role of the EI dimensions are important when explaining the relationship of EI with happiness, optimism, and pessimism.
... It is one of the significant human qualities that needs to be nurtured very importantly during early years of life (Paavola, 2017). For school children having a great deal of emotional intelligence also positively affects their school adaptation (Mavroveli et al., 2007), engagement, pro-social behaviour and peer competence (Mavroveli et al., 2009), scholastic achievement (Di Fabio & Palazzeschi, 2009), happiness (Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2007), emotion regulation (Mikolajczak et al., 2008), affective decision-making (Sevdalis et al., 2007) and many other qualities that the society expects from them to learn. The present study tried to observe emotional intelligence among children of four Christian Missionary Schools in the Kolkata metropolitan area and found adequacy of emotional intelligence among them. ...
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The present study seeks to observe emotional intelligence (EI) among children of four Christian Missionary Schools in the Kolkata metropolitan area and stipulates the need to cultivate EI from the preparatory years of the children. 316 children were studied using a cross-sectional survey design and found the presence of a reasonably good amount of emotional intelligence where gender was associated with a statistically significant variation in EI scores. It also showed no association between parental education, choice of hobby, presence of sibling, family structure and locality of residence to one's own emotional intelligence. The results of the study recapitulate the effectiveness of the faith-oriented learning environment at missionary school settings in promotion of emotional intelligence among the children by developing self-control, empathy and values-based decision making.
... If the adolescent breaks the rules, the response of the parents should be as calm and natural as possible, the punishment should be used only rarely. Teens with ADHD frequently have trouble controlling their impulsivity and may have strong fits of anger, sometimes a brief "time out" can calm them (National Institute of Mental Health) down (Furnham et al., 1999;Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2007). ...
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This research is considered in the field of cooperative and social learning for a better development of interpersonal relationships in tasks that are carried out together, considering the level of understanding and understanding of each of the people who make up the team. It focuses on adolescents with attention deficit cases, considered in all types of work, whether individual or group, without being discriminated against for suffering from this type of disorder. Different techniques have been implemented that seek to involve both children and adolescents in teamwork, where each of them, despite their personal problems or inconveniences, must carry out their assigned task and carry out productive work. Those who suffer from hyperactivity, attention deficit and other types of disorders, must have the support of the society to which they are exposed, where they must find a way to fit in and be understood by family, friends, colleagues, etc., they also play a game. fundamental role in the treatment of personality. It seeks to provide options such as cooperative learning in educational institutions, they must implement this type of teaching in order to facilitate the learning of students with personality problems.
... With the use of this questionnaire, several studies showed that the trait EI model has good discriminant validity in relation to personality by being independently located in both Eysenck's and five factor spaces . In addition, research has consistently demonstrated the incremental validity of trait EI over personality-related traits and constructs in relation to criteria such as happiness (Chamorro-Premuzic, Bennett, & Furnham, 2007;Gardner & Qualter, 2010), well-being (Singh & Woods, 2008), life satisfaction (Freudenthaler et al., 2008), or sensitivity to stress induction and mood changes (Mikolajczak, Nelis, Hansenne, & Quoidbach, 2008). Moreover, behavioral-genetic research has provided further evidence for the conceptualization of trait EI as an independent personality trait. ...
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Creative potential is a set of multidimensional resources concerning the latent ability to produce original and adaptive work. Confluent theoretical models, in particular, stated that, in order to express creative potential in an effective way, resources should converge and interact efficiently. Within such a confluent framework, the present study explored whether the increase in specific cognitive resources defining creative potential during childhood, as induced through a newly developed training intervention based on the creation of fairy tales, could be affected by another constitutional dimension, that is, children’s emotional resources and, in particular, their trait emotional intelligence (EI). A total of 410 children from 3rd to 5th grade of primary school was involved in the study, equally divided in a training group and in a control group. Results showed that the fairy tale–based training protocol was effective in increasing children’s creative potential. More importantly, results showed that the training intervention was particularly effective in increasing the ability to generate original contents in children with low‐to‐medium trait EI levels. These findings showed that emotional intelligence is a central factor to be considered when exploring the efficacy of a training intervention aimed at increasing children’s creative potential.
... The linkage is not significant among those with low emotional intelligence and vice versa. Chamorro-Premuzic et al. (2007) found that emotional intelligence plays a crucial mediating role in personality and happiness relationship. Codier et al. (2008) reported that emotional intelligence is a significant mediator in nurses' work environment and performance association. ...
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This study aims to assess the job characteristics and work engagement relationship. This study also investigated emotional intelligence as a moderator in the relationship mentioned above. The respondents were 200 nurses working in public hospitals in the northern states of Peninsular Malaysia. A Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS‐SEM) technique via Smart PLS 3.0 was used for data analyses. The findings indicated that task significance, autonomy, and feedback were significantly associated with work engagement. However, emotional intelligence failed to moderate the purported relationships. The results contribute to the job demand resources model and job characteristics theory by gauging job characteristics as the predictors of work engagement. The theoretical framework managed to substantiate partial support of the theory. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and recommendations for future studies are also presented.
... Mayer et al. [19] posited that individuals with higher trait EI are better at regulating their emotions and, thus, better at managing stresses that are crucial to happiness [20]. Emotional intelligence explains over half of the total variance in happiness [21], and empirical evidence suggests that those higher in trait EI are happier than vice versa [22,23]. Since happiness is related to hopefulness and optimism [24], those with greater trait EI thrive better due to their better competence in managing relationships and events. ...
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Perfectionism or a tendency to aim for an unrealistic standard can impair happiness. However, the potential mechanisms of perfectionism to explain the association between trait emotional intelligence (EI) and happiness are still understudied. This study explores the mediating role of perfectionism in the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) and happiness among young adults. A cross-sectional sample of 259 young adults aged between 18 to 35 years old was recruited. All analyses were conducted using SPSS and AMOS Structural Equation Modeling. High trait EI was linked to low perfectionism and high happiness levels. Furthermore, perfectionism mediated the relationship between trait EI and happiness. Although high trait EI lowered maladaptive perfectionism, the negative impact of maladaptive perfectionism remained and subsequently led to decreasing happiness levels of young adults. This study offers an enhanced understanding of the role of perfectionism in explaining the happiness state of young adults. Moreover, it provides practical implications for using trait EI and managing perfectionism tendency to manage the happiness and wellbeing of the young adult population.
... Furthermore, certain investigations have revealed that both variables are most likely intertwined [33,42,43]. EI has been found to have a negative and substantial relationship with neuroticism, as well as a positive and significant relationship with extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness [39,[44][45][46][47]. According to these studies, whereas neuroticism and extraversion were the main personality predictors of EI, agreeableness and openness were relatively weak. ...
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Background: Medicine is an incredibly demanding career that appears to leave many medical students at risk of fatigue, anxiety, depression and burnout. Since adaptation and lifestyle changes are important, quality of life (QOL) of students during medical school could be impaired. Personality traits and emotional intelligence (EI) facets may be both linked to medical student's QOL. To our knowledge, no studies have been done on the concurrent and prospective relationship between QOL-related personality traits and EI in Lebanese medical students. This study aimed to investigate the role of EI as a mediator between personality traits and QOL among a sample of Lebanese medical students. Methods: This research is a descriptive cross-sectional survey study involving 293 Lebanese medical students recruited from all 7 Faculties of Medicine in Lebanon (June-December 2019). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed using SPSS AMOS v.24 to examine the structural relationship between each personality trait taken as independent variables, QOL as the dependent variable, and emotional intelligence as the mediator, among university students. The relative Chi-square (χ2/df), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) statistic, Tucker Lewis Index (TFI) and the comparative fit index (CFI) were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the model. Results: Higher conscientiousness was significantly associated with more EI (Beta = 0.38; p < 0.001) and lower QOL (Beta = - 0.14; p = 0.025). The indirect relationships between conscientiousness, EI and QOL showed that EI mediated the association between conscientiousness and QOL (Beta = 0.17; 95% CI - 0.73 to - 0.004; p = 0.037). The fit indices of this model were adequate for χ2/df, RMSEA and CFI but not TLI. Higher openness to experience was significantly associated with more EI (Beta = 0.48; p < 0.001) and lower QOL (Beta = - 0.38; p < 0.001). The indirect relationships between openness to experience, EI and QOL showed that EI mediated the association between openness to experience and QOL (Beta = 0.30; 95% CI - 1.11 to - 0.03; p = 0.04). The fit indices were adequate for χ2/df and CFI but not RMSEA and TLI. EI did not mediate the association between the other three personality traits (extroversion, agreeableness and neuroticism) and QOL. Conclusion: This current research has shed considerable light on the nexus of associations between EI, personality traits and well-being, nonetheless, led to the creation of more puzzling questions. On the whole, it seems that EI and its components can be used as an evaluation instrument in relates with Lebanese medical students' personality profile as a means of future training to improve quality of life during medical education.
... The other traits: agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience and modesty -honesty also correlate with happiness, to a greater or lesser extent. Chamorro-Premuzic, Bennett, and Furnham (2007) proved that extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness are predictors of happiness. At the same time, the traits influence how the positive mood persists and the negative one is replaced by a positive one. ...
Chapter
The main goal of this national HBSC study was to analyse the frequency of first sexual experience being male-female or same-sex in Portuguese adolescents, and to verify if there are differences between first sexual experience regarding well-being and emotional support. The sample consisted of 5695 adolescents, with an average age of 15 years old. The measures included having had a loving relationship, SI, first sexual experience, issues related to well-being, family and friends ’ support, discrimination based on gender and on sexual orientation, self-harm behaviours, involvement in fights, consumption of alcohol, school performance and physical and psychological symptoms. The results showed that 23% of the adolescents mentioned having already had SI, and among these, the majority reported that their first sexual experience was a male-female one (90.5%). When the factors associated with first sexual experience being a same-sex experience one were analysed, it was found higher frequency among adolescents who are younger, never had a loving relationship, had higher frequency of self-harm behaviour, poorer satisfaction and quality of life, worse family and friends ’support, had consumed alcohol 20 times or more, and those who had reported physical and psychological symptoms. These results have significant implications for the promotion of health.
... The first feature is agreeableness, which is equivalent to altruism, affection, kindness, and selflessness for others (Costa & McCrae, 1985). It is positively associated with happiness (Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2007). In fact, agreeable people are better at identifying people that they love than those they hate (Aumer et al., 2015) which explains the negative relationship between agreeableness and narcissistic individuals . ...
... In spite of the operational boundaries of this report, the current outcomes deliver beneficial material for a forthcoming hierarchical addition of the dissimilar dispositional elements of gladness and highlight the independent involvement of the somewhat under-developed concept of feature EI in the expectation of cheerfulness. While additional repetition, altering for bandwidth reliability and including conditional variables, is required for an additional examination of the incremental rationality of feature EI over personality and other individual difference factors, feature EI seems to be an imperative determining factor of cheerfulness (Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2007). Based on the results, it is again ascertained that EI and Emotional Self Efficacy are not overlapping constructs, they are somewhat distinct and have separate utility from trait EI and ability EI (Kirk et al., 2011). ...
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The research was conducted for inspecting the bond among Perceived Leadership and Employee Workplace Outcomes as well as the moderating role of Emotional Intelligence on the connection between perceived leadership and Employee Workplace Outcomes. The survey was conducted through 260 employees of high schools of Quetta Pakistan, perceiving their managers as leaders including teaching and non-teaching staff. The results of 232 employees analyzed statistically by SPSS (v. 25.0), Add on Process by Andrew Hayes and AMOS 24. Study findings showed that acting strategies of perceived leadership relate positively to employees workplace outcomes, which increases or decreases with increased or decreased relation between them. The performance results show significant moderating effects of emotional intelligence, i.e. increases employee workplace performance, by upgrading the relationship between leaders and employees. These findings contribute to the literature on perceived leadership and the impact of intelligence level of employees, which may promote the education quality in high schools by improving intelligence level and offering some directions to HR practitioners for some possibly advantageous exercises and recruitment procedures and promoting human empowerment. This study was focused on high schools only, future studies may be conducted on other sectors of the education department and remote areas other than cities.
... Previous research has shown that EI is associated with both kinds of evaluations. For example, EI correlates with higher happiness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, optimism, and positive affect (e.g., Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2007;Extremera & Rey, 2016;Gallagher & Vella-Brodrick, 2008;Petrides et al., 2007;Schutte et al., 2002). Importantly, Sánchez-Álvarez et al., (2016), in a meta-analysis of 25 studies with 77 effect sizes and a combined sample of 8,520 participants, showed that high-EI individuals who can perceive, express, understand, and regulate their emotions possess greater subjective well-being, especially for cognitive components and if EI was measured using self-report mixed rather ability instruments. ...
Chapter
Emotional intelligence (EI) is a recently developed construct defined as the ability to process significant information in emotional terms. After Salovey and Mayer’s (1990) formal presentation of the concept of EI, its role as a factor in appropriate personal and social functioning has become the subject of examination in a significant and growing body of research across a variety of fields. However, though multiple empirical investigations have examined its pivotal role in organizational and educational spheres, relatively less attention has been paid to the predictive value of EI in the context of intimate relationships and its salutary effects. Because romantic relationships are characterized as the most interdependent type of interpersonal relationship, in which emotional experiences are very frequent as partners coordinate a life together, it is essential to analyze the role that emotional skills might play in establishing effective, stable, healthy, and happy relationships. In this chapter, we attempt to shed light on this issue, reviewing the impact of EI to facilitate adaptive interactions and outcomes in intimate settings when people do have each other’s interest at heart. First, we analyze EI—and its components—as a factor that contributes to the quality and stability of romantic relationships. Second, we specifically examine how EI promotes constructive behaviors (e.g., adaptive coping) and buffers destructive behaviors (e.g., aggression and violence) from a dyadic perspective, thereby analyzing how people adjust their responses based on their own emotional abilities and those of their partners. Finally, we address whether the utility of emotional abilities might differ among men and women. Implications of the information reviewed are simultaneously discussed.
... Previous research has shown that EI is associated with both kinds of evaluations. For example, EI correlates with higher happiness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, optimism, and positive affect (e.g., Chamorro- Premuzic et al., 2007;Extremera & Rey, 2016;Gallagher & Vella-Brodrick, 2008;Petrides et al., 2007;Schutte et al., 2002). Importantly, Sánchez-Álvarez et al., (2016), in a meta-analysis of 25 studies with 77 effect sizes and a combined sample of 8,520 participants, showed that high-EI individuals who can perceive, express, understand, and regulate their emotions possess greater subjective well-being, especially for cognitive components and if EI was measured using self-report mixed rather ability instruments. ...
... Hence, trait emotional intelligence was selected for analysis in this study. A study with samples of UK adolescents and adults showed that trait emotional intelligence is an important factor influencing people's happiness, but the study had a relatively small sample size (Chamorro-Premuzic et al. 2007). Twentyfive studies, with a total of 8520 participants (mean age 21), were integrated in a meta-analysis that showed that emotional intelligence, particularly its cognitive component (Sánchez-Álvarez et al. 2016), is positively associated with psychological well-being components, including self-esteem, life satisfaction, and self-acceptance, which are closely related to happiness (Carmeli et al. 2009). ...
Article
Subjective happiness has been considered a key indicator of adolescents’ healthy development. The present study aimed at identifying the impact of childhood emotional abuse on adolescents’ subjective happiness and the possible role of emotional intelligence as a mediating variable. Using convenience sampling, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with 9 secondary schools in Hong Kong, China. Participants included a total of 1710 grade 8 to grade 9 secondary school students. The mean age was 13.6, and 61.2% were boys. Measures included child abuse and trauma, emotional intelligence, and subjective happiness. The results showed that childhood emotional abuse in adolescents’ childhood is a significant risk factor for subjective happiness. Emotional intelligence has a partial mediation effect on the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and subjective happiness. It is noteworthy that parenting practices in childhood have a significant impact on children’s happiness even after a period of time. It is suggested that students’ emotional intelligence be enhanced to increase their subjective happiness. Although the conventional parenting style may be rooted in Chinese culture, a paradigm shift in parenting seems to be needed for Chinese parents. Efforts should be made to promote appropriate parenting methods and emotional intelligence in Chinese societies. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research are also discussed.
... Kumar and Muniandy (2012) stated that EI rises with age up to 50 years and tends to decline as the subjects grow beyond 50 years. Some other previous studies have also identified that age is a factor affecting EI positively (Schutte, Malouff, Thorsteinsson, Bhullar, & Rooke, 2007;Bennett, Chamorro-Premuzic, & Furnham, 2007;Bissessar, 2011). While an American study involving 405 participants aged between 22 and 70 years found that EI increased slightly with age (Farisalli et al., 2006), the findings of Gurol, Ozercan, & Yalcın (2010)'s study suggest that there is no significant relationship between age and EI. ...
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Emotions and feelings have come to play a crucial role in people's performance and success at work. Success in business life is not based solely on intellectual quotient (IQ) anymore. Human resources (HR) professionals can make a greater impact in the workplace and add value to HR services they provide through emotional intelligence (EI).This study explores the impact of some demographic factors (i.e., gender, age, work experience) on HR managers' emotional intelligence levels. Using a questionnaire survey, pertinent data were gathered from 140 HR managers who are the members of People Management Association of Turkey (PERYÖN). HR managers' EI was measured using Wong and Low's Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS). The data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. Descriptive statistics were presented. T-tests and ANOVA were conducted to estimate the differences in-group means. Means were further compared using Tukey post-hoc tests. The results of the study show that age is a factor affecting EI of HR managers negatively and most HR managers in Turkey are young (under 41 years old) female professionals who have less than 10 years of work experience.
... The researchers adopted Ten Items Personality Inventory (TIPI) derived from personality measure. TIPI is replicated by a number of researchers (Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2007;Haug, 2008). Students were asked to rate their responses at 7-point Likert scale about the pair of traits, i.e. extrovert and enthusiastic, critical and quarrelsome, dependable, selfdisciplined, anxious and easily upset, open to new experiences and complex, reserved and quiet, sympathetic and warm, disorganized and careless, calm and emotionally stable, and conventional and uncreative. ...
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The present study aims to find out the predictors of students' perceptions of emigration to foreign countries for higher education. The probabilities of emigration are calculated on the basis of students' perceptions of their global networking, personality types, and push and pull factors of emigration. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the students who were enrolled in University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. The respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to calculate adjusted odd ratios (aOR). The study found that the socio-demographic variables, global networking, personality attributes , and push and pull factors significantly affected the decision of students to migrate for educational purposes. The findings of the present study furthermore indicated that the emigration for educational purposes was not a unidirectional phenomenon thus it is recommended to develop a holistic approach to further investigate the migratory perceptions of educated youth for higher education.
... Higher levels of trait emotional intelligence have been determined to be related to indices of subjective well-being such as life satisfaction (Schutte & Malouff, 2011). People who possess trait emotional intelligence characteristics such as adaptability and self-motivation, assertiveness, emotional management and social awareness experience greater subjective well-being and higher inclination towards satisfaction with their lives (Chamorro-Premuzic et al., 2007). Given the existence of intrapersonal aspects of trait emotional intelligence related to emotion regulation and interpersonal aspects like having positive relations with others (Austin et al., 2005), it seems reasonable to assume that high trait emotional intelligence would be associated with high satisfaction with life and in turn, result in lower levels of depression. ...
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Exploring the individual characteristics of Generation Z becomes crucial with this generation's increasing number and significance in business life. This study investigates the mediating role of life satisfaction on emotional intelligence and depression linkage. It examines whether the mediating role is contingent upon Generation Z’s majors (STEM/non-STEM) and gender. The universe was Generation Z university senior students. Data were gathered via an online survey (emotional intelligence, life satisfaction, depression scales) from 844 university students. Findings reveal that emotional intelligence decreases depression via life satisfaction. Gender moderated this relationship so that the mediating role of life satisfaction was more pronounced in female Generation Z.
Article
The primary objective of this paper is to design the framework for enhancing the emotional competence of preschool children by examining the perspective of parents’ involvement with children staying at home. The paper also discusses (1) the concept of social-emotional competence and its importance for preschool children; (2) the concept of emotional competence, happiness, home learning, and sharing among children; and (3) the role of parents in promoting emotional competence in preschool children. The paper examined the impact of home learning, happiness, and sharing habits on the emotional competence of preschool children by using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) 2.0. The respondents included 358 randomly selected parents in two districts of Punjab state of India who have children aged 3 to 6 years. The results showed that happiness and home learning had a significant positive impact on the emotional competence of preschool children. However, sharing habits did not impact emotional competence to a significant extent in the current study.
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Abstract: The Office for National Statistics find that productivity in the UK remains sluggish. They describe this as a productivity puzzle. One reason many be associated with the accidental manager. These are people who are appointed to leadership positions with little or no leadership/ management skills and can drain productivity. This suggests that, not withstanding the development of leadership/ management theories, there continues to be a problem that needs to be addressed. This journal article, begins by comparing and contrasting the terms leadership and management and reflects upon a few of the main theories. The findings propose that there is no one right approach to leadership. However, the leader needs to have the requisite skills to adapt and adopt the appropriate leadership style for the situation. This requires the leader to make decisions that involve cognition, intuition and emotion. Therefore, the leader of the twenty first century needs to be able to influence and collaborate with others while recognizing that “words can hurt” and that some people can be more sensitive than others. It is, therefore important that leaders develop their emotional intelligence skills. The leader of the twenty first century also recognizes the damaging impact that passion killers and pathocratic influence can have on the organization. These factors can help build a high performing, passionate and healthy workplace in which people feel valued. In summing up, the role of leader and follower is increasingly blurred. It acknowledges the significance of allowing followers to take responsibility while recognizing leadership is a process not a position.
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This study aims to investigate negative consumer‐brand relationships by developing a “Brand Hate” concept. A hierarchical Brand Hate model is theoretically discussed in light of the psychology and consumer behavior literatures. In Study‐I the Brand Hate concept was tested with two different types of consumer brand haters, true haters, and regular haters. The study found that in the study's proposed multidimensional Brand Hate hierarchy true haters display “Boiling Brand Hate” while regular haters reveal “Seething Brand Hate.” Two additional studies were developed to examine the relationship between consumer personality traits and Brand Hate, exploring which types of consumers are more prone to feel hatred toward targeted brands. Study‐II's findings revealed a relationship between consumers who are high in personality traits of “conscientiousness” and those who Brand Hate. Study‐III's findings indicated that “self‐confident” and “competitive” consumers might also be more prone to feel hatred toward those brands that perform poorly and unethically.
Chapter
Fortschritte in der Psychometrie, insbesondere die Anwendung von maschinellem Lernen, ermöglichen die Entwicklung neuartiger Assessment-Modalitäten. Spiel- und Video-Assessments bieten nicht nur eine verbesserte Erfahrung für die TeilnehmerInnen und kürzere Testzeiten gegenüber traditionellen Fragebögen, sie kommunizieren auch ein positives Arbeitgeberimage. Dies ist bei Assessments von Führungskräften besonders relevant. Dieser Beitrag erläutert die theoretischen Hintergründe von neuartigen Assessments und zeigt deren psychometrischen Qualitäten anhand von Hirevue Spiel und Video-Assessments. Validität und Fairness werden beschrieben, um interessierten Anwendern Anhaltspunkte für die Evaluation neuartiger Assessments zu bieten.
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Disturbances in emotion are associated with the most of the diagnostic criteria of the personality disorders, though the role of emotional intelligence in the diagnosis of personality disorders has been the subject of limited research. The present study was designed to investigate the relationships between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and personality disorder symptomatology in an undergraduate student sample. One hundred and twenty university students (28.3% male and 71.7 % female; M of age = 19.23, SD=2.45) were administered with (1) Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) (Petrides, 2009), along with (2) The Personality Disorder Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4) (Hyler E. Steven, 1994). A multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect for group with individuals without any personality disorder symptomatology scoring significantly higher than individuals with some personality accentuations on most TEIQue facets. The results suggest that different components of emotional intelligence contribute to the development of different personality disorder symptomatology, but more research is required to replicate the results with the clinical population. Key words: emotional intelligence, personality disorders.
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It is essential to consider the study of emotions in institutionalized elderly people and how they affect their adaptation and quality of life. The objective was to analyze the relationship between adaptation, quality and enjoyment of life and emotional intelligence in institutionalized elderly people. Participants were 27 elderly people (15 men) from an institutionalized center of the Region of Murcia, aged between 67 and 92 years. The instruments used were: The Brief Inventory of Emotional Intelligence for Senior Citizens (EQ-I-M20); The Beliefs about Enjoying Life Questionnaire; And the Quality of Life Assessment Questionnaire in Residential Context (CECAVIR). The results showed the existence of relationships between the fact of the moment and the emotional intelligence as well as the quality of life. The study determines the need to evaluate and promote Emotional Intelligence in the early elderly because of the relevant role in the enjoyment of life and quality of life.
Article
Mythodrama group psychotherapy approach of resolving conflict and bullying has been successful as an intervention in a school setting. This study aimed to provide further evaluation of Mythodrama group approach. A total of 97 Georgian adolescents (Mean of age = 14.65, SD = 1.76) participated in the controlled experimental study. Participants of the experimental group received a Mythodrama group intervention during a period of three months. Analyses revealed a significant increase in emotional intelligence, prosocial behavior and adaptive coping strategies in the intervention group. No significant changes were observed in the control group. The findings suggest that adolescents’ behavior, trait emotional intelligence and coping strategies can be improved using Mythodrama intervention. Follow-up research is required to reveal the persistence and replicability of the result.
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Ett av de mest robusta fynden inom personlighets- och välbefinnandeforskning är det starka sambandet mellan personlighetsdraget extraversion och positiva emotioner, lycka samt subjektivt och psykologiskt välbefinnande. Vad som kunde förklara varför extraverta är lyckligare har i årtionden ingående undersökts, om än osystematiskt och från skilda utgångspunkter. Detta har även noterats på fältet, och för att underlätta fortsatt forskning belyser denna litteraturöversikt hur frågeställningen undersökts till dags dato. Utifrån McCraes och Costas (1991) ursprungliga uppdelning i instrumentella och temperamentella modeller samt Hampsons (2012) indelning av medierande och modererande personlighetsprocesser identifieras, systematiseras och presenteras de huvudsakliga förklaringarna som förekommer i litteraturen för sambandet mellan extraversion och lycka. Resultatet består av ett konceptuellt diagram (se Figur 1 s. 20–21) med två övergripande förklaringsmodeller, sex distinkta mekanismer, tio personlighetsprocesser och tretton hypoteser som redovisas med tillhörande forskningslitteratur. Förutom en historisk överblick över tillvägagångssätt i forskningen presenteras även aktuell metodik för personlighetsprocesser. Vidare behandlas även hur resultaten är symptomatiska för den rådande problematiken kring konceptualisering, operationalisering samt metodologi inom personlighets- och lyckoforskning, samt resultatens och socialpsykologins relevans för fortsatt forskning och befrämjande av lycka och välbefinnande. [One of the most robust findings in personality and well-being research is the strong relationship between the personality trait extraversion and positive emotions, happiness, and subjective and psychological well-being. The factors explaining why extraverts are happier has been investigated in depth for decades, albeit unsystematically and from different points of view. This has also been noted in the field, and to facilitate further research, this literature review highlights how the issue has been investigated to date. Based on the original division into instrumental and temperamental models by McCrae and Costa (1991), and the division of mediating and moderating personality processes by Hampson (2012), the main explanations that appear in the literature for the relationship between extraversion and happiness are identified, systematized, and presented. The result consists of a conceptual diagram (see Figure 1, pp. 20–21) with two overall explanatory models, six distinct mechanisms, ten personality processes, and thirteen hypotheses, which are reported with associated research literature. In addition to a historical overview of research approaches, current methodology for personality processes is also presented. Furthermore, the issue of how the results are symptomatic of the prevailing problems around conceptualization, operationalization, and methodology in personality and happiness research is also discussed, as well as the relevance of the results and social psychology for continued research and the promotion of happiness and well-being.]
Article
The theory of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) is summarized with illustrative applications from the domains of clinical, educational, and organizational psychology. Key limitations of the conceptualization of EI as a cognitive ability are also briefly discussed. Trait EI is offered as a preferred alternative and its relationship to other EI-related models utilizing self-report measures, but lacking an underlying theoretical rationale, is explained. The various forms of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) and the children’s sampling domain of the construct are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of theoretical extensions of trait EI theory.
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The goal of the present research was to investigate predictive relationships of forgiveness and mindfulness with happiness. The sample was composed of 246 university students studying at a state university in Turkey. The data was collected by using personal information form, Oxford Happiness Scale-Short Form, Heartland Forgiveness Scale, and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Before the analysis, data was analyzed for normal distribution. Then, correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationships among happiness, forgiveness and mindfulness. Hierarchical regression analysis was carried out to specify predictive relationships of forgiveness, and mindfulness with happiness. The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship among happiness, mindfulness and forgiveness subscales. Moreover, hierarchical regression analysis showed that forgiveness of situations and mindfulness predicted happiness. The results were discussed in light of the literature.
Article
Purpose – This study aims to extend the body of knowledge on brand hate and further examine its significant antecedents and consequences to investigate how brand hate affects consumers’ behavioral responses. Design/methodology/approach – This study used a questionnaire to collect data from 403 consumers of Pakistan’s mobile telecommunication industry. Smart PLS was then used to analyze the data. Findings – This study provides insights into the conception of brand hate in the context of Pakistani consumers. This study’s findings indicate that “neuroticism” as a consumer-related antecedent and “perceived price unfairness “poor product/service quality,” and “post-purchase service failures” as company-controlled determinants have significant impacts on brand hate. This, in turn, leads to brand avoidance and brand retaliation. Managerial implications and avenues for future research are also discussed. This study provides insights into the conception of brand hate in the context of Pakistani consumers. Originality/value – The original findings of this work can thus provide meaningful guidance for companies to mitigate the spread of brand hate among consumers.
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This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the criterion and incremental validity of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy), which is defined as a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies (Petrides & Furnham, 200155. Petrides , K. V. and Furnham , A. 2001. Trait emotional intelligence: Psychometric investigation with reference to established trait taxonomies. European Journal of Personality, 15: 425–448. [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references). In Studies 1 and 2 (N=166 and 354, respectively) trait EI is shown to be related to measures of rumination, life satisfaction, depression, dysfunctional attitudes, and coping. Most relationships remained statistically significant even after controlling for Big Five variance. In Study 3 (N=212) trait EI is shown to be related to depression and nine distinct personality disorders. Most relationships remained significant, even after controlling for positive and negative affectivity (mood). It is concluded that trait EI has a role to play in personality, clinical, and social psychology, often with effects that are incremental over the basic dimensions of personality and mood.
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This series of studies describes the development of a measure of emotional intelligence based on the model of emotional intelligence developed by Salovey and Mayer [Salovey, P. & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185–211.]. A pool of 62 items represented the different dimensions of the model. A factor analysis of the responses of 346 participants suggested the creation of a 33-item scale. Additional studies showed the 33-item measure to have good internal consistency and testretest reliability. Validation studies showed that scores on the 33-item measure 1.(a) correlated with eight of nine theoretically related constructs, including alexithymia, attention to feelings, clarity of feelings, mood repair, optimism and impulse control;2.(b) predicted first-year college grades;3.(c) were significantly higher for therapists than for therapy clients or for prisoners;4.(d) were significantly higher for females than males, consistent with prior findings in studies of emotional skills;5.(e) were not related to cognitive ability and6.(f) were associated with the openness to experience trait of the big five personality dimensions.
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Participants completed measures of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI), happiness, personality, and cognitive ability. Neuroticism was negatively related to happiness, whereas Extraversion and Openness to Experience were positively related to it. Cognitive ability was not related either to happiness or to trait EI. A three-step hierarchical regression showed that trait EI explained over 50% of the total variance in happiness. The positive relationship between trait EI and happiness persisted in the presence of the Big Five. In contrast, the Big Five did not account for a significant amount of happiness variance when trait EI was partialled out.
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This meta-analysis used 9 literature search strategies to examine 137 distinct personality constructs as correlates of subjective well-being (SWB). Personality was found to be equally predictive of life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect, but significantly less predictive of negative affect. The traits most closely associated with SWB were repressive-defensiveness, trust, emotional stability, locus of control-chance, desire for control, hardiness, positive affectivity, private collective self-esteem, and tension. When personality traits were grouped according to the Big Five factors, Neuroticism was the strongest predictor of life satisfaction, happiness, and negative affect. Positive affect was predicted equally well by Extraversion and Agreeableness. The relative importance of personality for predicting SWB, how personality might influence SWB, and limitations of the present review are discussed.
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A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.
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This article presents a framework for emotional intelligence, a set of skills hypothesized to contribute to the accurate appraisal and expression of emotion in oneself and in others, the effective regulation of emotion in self and others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan, and achieve in one's life. We start by reviewing the debate about the adaptive versus maladaptive qualities of emotion. We then explore the literature on intelligence, and especially social intelligence, to examine the place of emotion in traditional intelligence conceptions. A framework for integrating the research on emotion-related skills is then described. Next, we review the components of emotional intelligence. To conclude the review, the role of emotional intelligence in mental health is discussed and avenues for further investigation are suggested.
Article
Emotional intelligence is a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking and actions (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). We discuss (a) whether intelligence is an appropriate metaphor for the construct, and (b) the abilities and mechanisms that may underlie emotional intelligence. © 1993.
Book
What is happiness? Why are some people happier than others? This new edition of The Psychology of Happiness provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of research into the nature of happiness. Major research developments have occurred since publication of the first edition in 1987 - here they are brought together for the first time, often with surprising conclusions. Drawing on research from the disciplines of sociology, physiology and economics as well as psychology, Michael Argyle explores the nature of positive and negative emotions, and the psychological and cognitive processes involved in their generation. Accessible and wide-ranging coverage is provided on key issues such as: the measurements and study of happiness, mental and physical health; the effect of friendship, marriage and other relationships on positive moods; happiness, mental and physical health; the effects of work, employment and leisure; and the effects of money, class and education. The importance of individual personality traits such as optimism, purpose in life, internal control and having the right kind of goals is also analysed. New to this edition is additional material on national differences, the role of humour, and the effect of religion. Are some countries happier than others? This is just one of the controversial issues addressed by the author along the way. Finally the book discusses the practical application of research in this area, such as how happiness can be enhanced, and the effects of happiness on health, altruism and sociability. This definitive and thought-provoking work will be compulsive reading for students, researchers and the interested general reader
Chapter
Self-regulatory models of personality emphasize the system of goals that make up the self, the relationships among goals at different levels of abstraction, and the processes by which people try to move toward goals and away from threats. Our view is that actions are managed by one set of feedback processes, and that feelings arise from a different set of feedback processes. Another element in this view is that when people encounter obstacles to goal attainment, their expectancies of success help determine whether they continue to try, or disengage from further effort. Disengaging can create problems for people, but giving up the unattainable is an important part of life. The view discussed here also assumes that people's aspirations tend to recalibrate over experience, such that successes tend to promote higher goals and failures tend to promote lowering of goals. Sometimes goals conflict, so that trying to attain one means suppressing another. This effort sometimes backfires, though, bringing the suppressed desire even more into awareness. Efforts to suppress also sometimes fail, producing a loss of self-control. Finally, the self-regulatory models discussed here continue to grow. One direction for growth is provided by ideas in recently emerging bodies of thought known as dynamic systems theory and connectionism. Keywords: attractors; connectionism; disengagement; dynamic systems; expectancies; feedback; goals; self-regulation
Article
This paper examines the role of trait emotional intelligence ('trait EI') in academic performance and in deviant behavior at school on a sample of 650 pupils in British secondary education (mean age %16.5 years). Trait EI moderated the relationship between cognitive ability and academic performance. In addi-tion, pupils with high trait EI scores were less likely to have had unauthorized absences and less likely to have been excluded from school. Most trait EI effects persisted even after controlling for personality var-iance. It is concluded that the constellation of emotion-related self-perceived abilities and dispositions that the construct of trait EI encompasses is implicated in academic performance and deviant behavior, with effects that are particularly relevant to vulnerable or disadvantaged adolescents.
Article
This paper presents two experiments concerning trait emotional intelligence (‘trait EI’). In study 1, ten high and ten low trait EI individuals were selected from a sample of 85 persons to participate in a computerized experiment involving the recognition of morphed emotional expressions. As hypothesized, high trait EI participants were faster at identifying the expressions than their low trait EI counterparts. In study 2, trait EI scores from 102 persons were residualized on the Big Five and subsequently 15 high and 15 low trait EI individuals were selected to participate in a mood induction experiment. As hypothesized, high trait EI participants exhibited greater sensitivity to the mood induction procedure than their low trait EI counterparts. The findings are discussed in terms of the construct validity of trait EI, with particular emphasis on the issue of incremental validity vis-à-vis broad personality traits. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This paper sets out the theoretical foundation of emotional intelligence (EI) as a constellation of traits and self-perceived abilities. The discriminant validity of trait EI is explored in two studies. In study 1 (N = 227), the psychometric properties of the BarOn Emotional Quotient inventory were scrutinized through confirmatory factor analysis and the measure was found to be unifactorial. When the EQ-i was examined concurrently with the Eysenck Personality Profiler, a clear trait EI factor emerged in Eysenckian factor space. In study 2 (N = 166), a modified version of the EQ-i was examined concurrently with the NEO PI-R and a truncated trait EI factor was isolated within the Five-Factor Model. Results are discussed with explicit reference to established personality models and it is concluded that trait EI can be conceptualized as a distinct composite construct at the primary level of hierarchical trait structures. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chapter
This chapter presents an introduction to the theory and psychometric properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). We discuss the necessity of conceptualizing the increasing number of faux intelligences as personality traits, rather than as cognitive abilities, and give a detailed description of the TEIQue as the operationalization vehicle for trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy). The inventory shows adequate reliability and temporal stability at the global, factor (4), and facet (15) levels. It has a clear and replicable factor structure comprising four distinct, but interrelated, dimensions: Emotionality, Self-control, Sociability, and Well-being. Self-other TEIQue correlations are substantial and similar to those observed for the Big Five. Preliminary data are presented for the new adolescent form of the TEIQue (TEIQue-AFF), which also shows satisfactory psychometric characteristics.
Article
One hundred and eleven individuals completed the NEO Five Factor Inventory along with three measures of subjective well-being, the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Depression–Happiness Scale, and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Regression analysis showed that although Extraversion and Neuroticism best predicted scores on the Oxford Happiness Inventory, it was Neuroticism and Conscientiousness that best predicted scores on the Satisfaction with Life Scale. These results provide further evidence that Neuroticism and Extraversion are dimensions of personality related to subjective well-being. However, the results also suggest that Conscientiousness is an additional dimension of personality relevant to understanding subjective well-being.
Article
A short self-report emotional intelligence (EI) measure was completed by a sample of 354 students, who also completed a range of affective and personality measures. A subset of the group also completed an intelligence measure. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the EI scale suggested a hierarchical factor structure with a super-ordinate EI factor and four lower-level factors. EI was found to be negatively and significantly correlated with Neuroticism, and positively and significantly correlated with Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Correlations of EI with the other measures were in accordance with theoretical expectations; for example, positive with life satisfaction and negative with depression-proneness. Most of these correlations remained significant when the effects of personality were controlled for. These results and regression modelling show that EI accounts for variance in these measures not accounted for by personality. EI was found not to be significantly correlated with cognitive ability. The relationship between EI and alexithymia was investigated using structural equation modelling and factor analysis. The results indicated that the two constructs are distinct, although strongly correlated.
Article
When time is limited, researchers may be faced with the choice of using an extremely brief measure of the Big-Five personality dimensions or using no measure at all. To meet the need for a very brief measure, 5 and 10-item inventories were developed and evaluated. Although somewhat inferior to standard multi-item instruments, the instruments reached adequate levels in terms of: (a) convergence with widely used Big-Five measures in self, observer, and peer reports, (b) test–retest reliability, (c) patterns of predicted external correlates, and (d) convergence between self and observer ratings. On the basis of these tests, a 10-item measure of the Big-Five dimensions is offered for situations where very short measures are needed, personality is not the primary topic of interest, or researchers can tolerate the somewhat diminished psychometric properties associated with very brief measures.
Article
The convergence on the Big Five in personality theory has produced a demand for efficient yet psychometrically sound measures. Therefore, five single‐item measures, using bipolar response scales, were constructed to measure the Big Five and evaluated in terms of their convergent and off‐diagonal divergent properties, their pattern of criterion correlations and their reliability when compared with four longer Big Five measures. In a combined sample (N = 791) the Single‐Item Measures of Personality (SIMP) demonstrated a mean convergence of r = 0.61 with the longer scales. The SIMP also demonstrated acceptable reliability, self–other accuracy, and divergent correlations, and a closely similar pattern of criterion correlations when compared with the longer scales. It is concluded that the SIMP offer a reasonable alternative to longer scales, balancing the demands of brevity versus reliability and validity. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The relation between individual differences in personality and differences in developmental maturity was studied by relating observations of personality by multiple, independent judges to level of ego development. The personality characteristics of longitudinally followed Ss (104 at age 14; 98 at age 23) were evaluated by the California Adult Q-Set (CAQ); ego level was evaluated by the Washington University Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development (SCT). A priori personality dimensions--consisting of CAQ items for which a common developmental pathway was expected--were constructed and related to the SCT: (a) Ego-resiliency and interpersonal integrity were associated with increasing ego development, (b) conformity was associated with the Conformist level and, unexpectedly, to the Conscientious level, (c) need regulation was associated with the Conscientious level, and (d) self-ease and expressiveness-playfulness were not associated with ego level.
Article
Over 100 subjects completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Inventory. The results showed a predicted positive correlation between happiness and extraversion (r = 0.55, P < 0.001) and negative correlation between happiness and neuroticism (r = 0.43, P < 0.001). The results provide confirmatory evidence of previous research as well as validation for the happiness inventory.
Article
One area of positive psychology analyzes subjective well-being (SWB), people's cognitive and affective evaluations of their lives. Progress has been made in understanding the components of SWB, the importance of adaptation and goals to feelings of well-being, the temperament underpinnings of SWB, and the cultural influences on well-being. Representative selection of respondents, naturalistic experience sampling measures, and other methodological refinements are now used to study SWB and could be used to produce national indicators of happiness.
I do: your guide to a happy marriage
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Eysenck, H. J. (1983). I do: your guide to a happy marriage. London: Century.
Personality and individual differences
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Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, M. W. (1985). Personality and individual differences. New York: Plenum. Furnham, A., & Cheng, H. (1997). Personality and happiness. Psychological Reports, 80, 761-762.