Article

Differential influence of two acanthocephalan parasites on the antipredator behavior of their common intermediate host

University of Burgundy, Dijon, Bourgogne, France
Animal Behaviour (Impact Factor: 3.14). 11/2007; 74(5):1311-1317. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.02.027

ABSTRACT

Fish acanthocephalans can modify the antipredator behaviour of their intermediate hosts in response to cues from fish predators. However, it is still unclear whether such behavioural changes are adaptive, or are just the consequence of infection. We addressed this question through studying two acanthocephalans, Pomphorhynchus laevis and Polymorphus minutus, and their intermediate host, the amphipod Gammarus pulex. Pomphorhynchus laevis completes its cycle in a freshwater fish, whereas P. minutus exploits waterbirds as final hosts. We first assessed vulnerability of infected and uninfected gammarids to predation by bullheads, Cottus gobio. Pomphorhynchus laevis-infected gammarids were more susceptible to predation than uninfected ones when a refuge was available, whereas no selective predation on P. minutus-infected individuals was recorded, independently of refuge availability. We then quantified refuge use when a bullhead was present in an enclosure or when the enclosure was empty. Individuals of each group significantly increased refuge use in the presence of a bullhead. However, a larger proportion of P. laevis-infected gammarids remained out of the refuge in the presence of a predator, compared with uninfected controls, whereas no such effect was observed in P. minutus-infected ones. Finally, we assessed reaction to bullhead olfactory cues, using a Y-maze apparatus. Pomphorhynchus laevis-infected gammarids spent significantly more time in the predator-scented arm, whereas the reverse was observed in uninfected ones. Polymorphus minutus-infected individuals, however, did not differ from uninfected controls. We discuss our results in relation with the adaptiveness of host manipulation by parasites.

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    • "In addition to promoting parasite transmission, certain phenotypic changes can also limit the risk of maladaptive host death (Levri, 1998; Kullmann et al., 2008; Parker et al., 2009; Dianne et al., 2011). For example, in the presence of non-host predators, gammarids Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli, respectively parasitised by Pomphorhynchus laevis and Polymorphus minutus, were shown to increase their refuge use (Kaldonski et al., 2007; Médoc and Beisel, 2009) and/or have enhanced escape performance (increased swimming speed; Medoc and Beisel, 2008). Although multidimensionality in host manipulation has been increasingly addressed (Cézilly and Perrot-Minnot, 2005, 2010; Thomas et al., 2010), little is known regarding its extent and how it evolves, even among the most studied models (Thomas et al., 2010). "
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    Full-text · Dataset · Oct 2015
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    • "In addition to promoting parasite transmission, certain phenotypic changes can also limit the risk of maladaptive host death (Levri, 1998; Kullmann et al., 2008; Parker et al., 2009; Dianne et al., 2011). For example, in the presence of non-host predators, gammarids Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli, respectively parasitised by Pomphorhynchus laevis and Polymorphus minutus, were shown to increase their refuge use (Kaldonski et al., 2007; Médoc and Beisel, 2009) and/or have enhanced escape performance (increased swimming speed; Medoc and Beisel, 2008). Although multidimensionality in host manipulation has been increasingly addressed (Cézilly and Perrot-Minnot, 2005, 2010; Thomas et al., 2010), little is known regarding its extent and how it evolves, even among the most studied models (Thomas et al., 2010). "
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    Full-text · Dataset · Oct 2015
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    • "Apart from effects on hosts' communities, the configuration of hosts' habitats, especially in rivers, can directly impact parasite manipulation or its outcome. For instance, G. pulex individuals manipulated by the acanthocephalan P. laevis were found to be significantly more predated than uninfected individuals only when S. Labaude et al. / International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife xxx (2015) 1e10 6 Please cite this article in press as: Labaude, S., et al., Host manipulation in the face of environmental changes: Ecological consequences, International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2015.08.001 refuges were available (Kaldonski et al., 2007). One of the consequences of environmental changes could be a modification in the availability of refuges, notably due to modifications of water levels due to global warming. "
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    ABSTRACT: Several parasite species, particularly those having complex life-cycles, are known to induce phenotypic alterations in their hosts. Most often, such alterations appear to increase the fitness of the parasites at the expense of that of their hosts, a phenomenon known as “host manipulation”. Host manipulation can have important consequences, ranging from host population dynamics to ecosystem engineering. So far, the importance of environmental changes for host manipulation has received little attention. However, because manipulative parasites are embedded in complex systems, with many interacting components, changes in the environment are likely to affect those systems in various ways. Here, after reviewing the ecological importance of manipulative parasites, we consider potential causes and consequences of changes in host manipulation by parasites driven by environmental modifications. We show that such consequences can extend to trophic networks and population dynamics within communities, and alter the ecological role of manipulative parasites such as their ecosystem engineering. We suggest that taking them into account could improve the accuracy of predictions regarding the effects of global change. We also propose several directions for future studies.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife
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