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Affective outcomes in superficial and intimate interactions: Roles of social anxiety and curiosity

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Abstract

We examined the roles of trait curiosity and social anxiety (and the contributions of the behavioral inhibition and activation systems; BIS, BAS) in predicting positive and negative affect (PA; NA) during social interactions. In Study 1, individuals interacted with same-sex confederates on topics that gradually escalated in emotional self-disclosure. In Study 2, cross-sex pairs of students were randomly assigned to a closeness-generating or small-talk interaction. There were several consistent findings across studies. Higher curiosity uniquely predicted greater interpersonally generated PA. Higher social anxiety uniquely predicted greater interpersonally generated NA in Study 1, and in Study 2, this relationship varied by social context. Specifically, high compared to low socially anxious individuals reported greater NA during small-talk, with no differences during intimate interactions. Furthermore, Study 2 demonstrated that individuals with stronger BAS’s experienced greater PA in the intimate compared to small-talk condition. There appear to be important traits that differentially contribute to appetitive and aversive interpersonal experiences.

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... Campbell -Sills et al. (2004 for example, conducted a study with a sample of 1825 mood and anxiety-disorder outpatients, and found that each of the BAS subscales were generally not related to various anxiety disorders. These results have been relatively consistent across the anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder (Kashdan & Roberts, 2006;Kimbrel, Cobb, Mitchell, Hundt, & Nelson-Gray, 2008;Vervoot et al., 2010), obsessive compulsive disorder (Fullana et al., 2004), and other anxiety disorders (Johnson et al., 2003). ...
... GAD severity levels also positively correlated with trait anxiety and neuroticism, and negatively with extraversion. Social anxiety particularly has been found to consistently correlate negatively with positive affectivity (Brown et al., 1998;Watson et al., 2005) and extraversion (Bienvenu et al., 2001;Trull & Sher, 1994) but not with BAS (Kashdan & Roberts, 2006;Kimbrel et al., 2008;Vervoot et al., 2010). ...
... Many personality traits have been found to be associated with social anxiety (Bienvenu & Stein, 2003;Coles & Horng, 2006). Following on from discussions in Chapters 1 and 2 , social anxiety has been found to correlate positively with many traits characterised by avoidance behaviour (as discussed in Chapter 1), including harm avoidance (Bienvenu & Stein, 2003;Chatterjee, Sunitha, Velayudhan, & Khanna, 1997;Faytout et al., 2007;Hofmann & Loh, 2006;Mortberg et al., 2007;Pelissolo, André, Pujol, & Yao, 2002), shyness (Beidel & Turner, 2007;Chavira, Stein & Malcarne, 2002), neuroticism (Bienvenu et al., 2001;Trull & Sher, 1994), negative affectivity (Watson et al., 1988a) behavioural inhibition (Beiderman, 1990;Mick & Telch, 1998;Schwartz, Snidman, & Kagan, 1999) and the BIS (Coplan et al., 2006;Kashdan & Roberts, 2006;Kimbrel et al., 2008;Vervoot et al., 2010). ...
... They are also more emotional and socially related. In fact, individuals who are curious or with a strong need for cognition have less difficulty in identifying and communicating feelings, perceiving social issues as personally relevant or involving, and responding with positive behaviours (Kashdan and Roberts 2006;Cacioppo et al. 1996). ...
... Research on personality traits seems to offer an answer by showing a close association with one of the so-called Big Five personality traits, i.e. Openness to experience, although this trait is a rather broader construct (McCrae and Sutin 2009; Kashdan and Roberts 2006). However, according to most recent studies surveyed by the Nobel prize-winner James Heckman and his co-authors, personality traits are not invariant, but change over the individual's life-cycle, especially during the early years (Borghans et al. 2008). ...
... Similarly, it seems that psychological autonomy accumulates with age (Sheldon et al. 2006), and this appears to complement a self-reinforcing vitality and motivation (Ryan et al. 2008). Also the virtuous circle comprising social interaction, interesting activities and well-being has received some empirical confirmation (Thoman et al. 2005;Kashdan and Roberts 2006;Neziek 2008). ...
Article
History of Economic Thought and Policy, 2012, n.2, 35-56 Scitovsky laid the foundations for a new theory of people’s well-being in his 1976 book The Joyless Economy. This paper, after a reconstruction of Scitovsky’s analysis throughout the book and his related writings, shows that supporting evidence can be found in recent economic and psychology literature. Secondly, the paper shows how Scitovsky’s theory helps understand the partial nature of economic welfare with respect to human welfare, and the widening gap between the two, which is also recently known in the version given by Easterlin. Thirdly, the paper proposes reconciliation, based on Scitovsky’s theory, between the hedonic and eudaimonic approach to happiness, recently taken up, respectively, by Kahneman and Sen.
... The behavioral activation is also related to activity in the prefrontal cortex as explained earlier and thus curiosity and behavioral activation might also share similar neurobiological constructs. Kashdan and Roberts (2006) found that curiosity predicted greater positive affect during social interactions than behavioral approach motivation (measured through the total behavioral activation scale of the behavioral inhibition/behavioral activation system) when both were entered as variables in a regression analysis, suggesting that curiosity's drive to seek out unfamiliar, challenging, or novel information may affect emotionality differently than general approach motivation. Curiosity entails a drive to approach new experiences and perceive novelty and uncertainty as rewarding rather than aversive, curiosity has been construed as a specific manifestation of the behavioral activation system (Kashdan & Roberts, 2006). ...
... Kashdan and Roberts (2006) found that curiosity predicted greater positive affect during social interactions than behavioral approach motivation (measured through the total behavioral activation scale of the behavioral inhibition/behavioral activation system) when both were entered as variables in a regression analysis, suggesting that curiosity's drive to seek out unfamiliar, challenging, or novel information may affect emotionality differently than general approach motivation. Curiosity entails a drive to approach new experiences and perceive novelty and uncertainty as rewarding rather than aversive, curiosity has been construed as a specific manifestation of the behavioral activation system (Kashdan & Roberts, 2006). Lauriola et al. (2015) stated that epistemic curiosity is correlated positively with behavioral activation especially fun seeking, but however, epistemic curiosity is correlated insignificantly with behavioral inhibition. ...
... Curious individuals are also more likely to persist in tasks until their goals are met, suggesting a relationship with the drive subscale and reward responsiveness subscale of behavioral activation system , Kashdan & Silvia, 2009). According to Kashdan & Roberts (2006) curiosity entails a drive to approach new experiences and perceive novelty and uncertainty as rewarding rather than aversive, curiosity has been construed as a specific manifestation of the behavioral activation system. Lauriola et al. (2015) stated that epistemic curiosity is correlated positively with behavioral activation system especially fun seeking, but however, epistemic curiosity is correlated insignificantly with behavioral inhibition system. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was aimed at discerning the relationship between curiosity & exploration and behavioural inhibition or activation among young males. For the purpose, a sample of 30 males belonging to the age group of 18-25 years was taken. Each group was assessed for their curiosity & exploration index and behavioral inhibition or activation assessed quantitatively with the help of curiosity and exploration inventory by Kashdan, Rose and Fincham (2004) and behavioral inhibition or activation scale by Carver and White (2013). The results of the study indicated that there was a significant level of correlation between curiosity & exploration and behavioral activation (r=.441, p<.05). However, there was no significant correlation found between curiosity & exploration and behavioral inhibition (r =.143). This indicates that curiosity and exploration is related to activation of behavior, however no inferences regarding inhibition of behavior could be made on the basis of curiosity and exploration indices. Also, there was a significant level of correlation found between exploration and behavioral activation system (r=.436, p<.05), and a significant correlation between absorption and behavioral inhibition system (r=.475, p<.01). This is indicative that exploratory behavior is related to activation of behavior, and being absorbed in activities inhibits one's behavior.
... The behavioral activation is also related to activity in the prefrontal cortex as explained earlier and thus curiosity and behavioral activation might also share similar neurobiological constructs. Kashdan and Roberts (2006) found that curiosity predicted greater positive affect during social interactions than behavioral approach motivation (measured through the total behavioral activation scale of the behavioral inhibition/behavioral activation system) when both were entered as variables in a regression analysis, suggesting that curiosity's drive to seek out unfamiliar, challenging, or novel information may affect emotionality differently than general approach motivation. Curiosity entails a drive to approach new experiences and perceive novelty and uncertainty as rewarding rather than aversive, curiosity has been construed as a specific manifestation of the behavioral activation system (Kashdan & Roberts, 2006). ...
... Kashdan and Roberts (2006) found that curiosity predicted greater positive affect during social interactions than behavioral approach motivation (measured through the total behavioral activation scale of the behavioral inhibition/behavioral activation system) when both were entered as variables in a regression analysis, suggesting that curiosity's drive to seek out unfamiliar, challenging, or novel information may affect emotionality differently than general approach motivation. Curiosity entails a drive to approach new experiences and perceive novelty and uncertainty as rewarding rather than aversive, curiosity has been construed as a specific manifestation of the behavioral activation system (Kashdan & Roberts, 2006). Lauriola et al. (2015) stated that epistemic curiosity is correlated positively with behavioral activation especially fun seeking, but however, epistemic curiosity is correlated insignificantly with behavioral inhibition. ...
... Curious individuals are also more likely to persist in tasks until their goals are met, suggesting a relationship with the drive subscale and reward responsiveness subscale of behavioral activation system , Kashdan & Silvia, 2009). According to Kashdan & Roberts (2006) curiosity entails a drive to approach new experiences and perceive novelty and uncertainty as rewarding rather than aversive, curiosity has been construed as a specific manifestation of the behavioral activation system. Lauriola et al. (2015) stated that epistemic curiosity is correlated positively with behavioral activation system especially fun seeking, but however, epistemic curiosity is correlated insignificantly with behavioral inhibition system. ...
Article
The present study was aimed at discerning the relationship between curiosity & exploration and behavioural inhibition or activation among young males. For the purpose, a sample of 30 males belonging to the age group of 18-25 years was taken. Each group was assessed for their curiosity & exploration index and behavioral inhibition or activation assessed quantitatively with the help of curiosity and exploration inventory by Kashdan, Rose and Fincham (2004) and behavioral inhibition or activation scale by Carver and White (2013). The results of the study indicated that there was a significant level of correlation between curiosity & exploration and behavioral activation (r=.441, p<.05). However, there was no significant correlation found between curiosity & exploration and behavioral inhibition (r =.143). This indicates that curiosity and exploration is related to activation of behavior, however no inferences regarding inhibition of behavior could be made on the basis of curiosity and exploration indices. Also, there was a significant level of correlation found between exploration and behavioral activation system (r=.436, p<.05), and a significant correlation between absorption and behavioral inhibition system (r=.475, p<.01). This is indicative that exploratory behavior is related to activation of behavior, and being absorbed in activities inhibits one’s behavior. Key Words: Curiosity, Exploration, Male, Behavioral inhibition and Behavioral
... Consequently, individuals high on BIS and FFFS sensitivity are predicted to experience heightened levels of anxiety and fear in response to social stimuli (e.g., public speaking) and to be more likely to develop social anxiety disorder (Kimbrel, 2008). Consistent with this hypothesis, numerous studies have reported that BIS-FFFS sensitivity is positively associated with social anxiety symptomatology (e.g., Coplan et al., 2006;Kashdan & Roberts, 2006;Kimbrel et al., 2008Kimbrel et al., , 2010Kimbrel et al., , 2012Ly & Gomez, 2014). Kimbrel et al. (2012) further demonstrated that cognitive biases fully mediate the effects of BIS-FFFS sensitivity on state social anxiety in response to a public-speaking task. ...
... Kimbrel's (2008) model of social anxiety builds upon this hypothesis by proposing that low levels of BAS sensitivity facilitate the effects of BIS-FFFS sensitivity on social anxiety such that individuals high on BIS and FFFS sensitivity and low on BAS sensitivity will experience the highest overall levels of social anxiety. While some studies have failed to find the hypothesized negative association between BAS and social anxiety (e.g., Kashdan & Roberts, 2006;Kimbrel et al., 2008;Ly & Gomez, 2014), the majority of studies have observed small, yet statistically significant, negative associations between BAS and social anxiety (e.g., Coplan et al., 2006;Kashdan, 2002;Kimbrel et al., 2010Kimbrel et al., , 2012Booth & Hasking, 2009;Levinson et al., 2011). ...
Article
Objective: The present study tested the hypothesis that low behavioral approach system (BAS) sensitivity is associated with social anxiety in combat veterans. Method: Self-report measures of reinforcement sensitivity, combat exposure, social interaction anxiety, and social observation anxiety were administered to 197 Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans. Results: As expected, combat exposure, behavioral inhibition system (BIS) sensitivity, and fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS) sensitivity were positively associated with both social interaction anxiety and social observation anxiety. In contrast, BAS sensitivity was negatively associated with social interaction anxiety only. An analysis of the BAS subscales revealed that the Reward Responsiveness subscale was the only BAS subscale associated with social interaction anxiety. BAS-Reward Responsiveness was also associated with social observation anxiety. Conclusion: The findings from the present research provide further evidence that low BAS sensitivity may be associated with social anxiety over and above the effects of BIS and FFFS sensitivity.
... There are different kinds of curiosity during the COVID-19, including trait curiosity, perceptual curiosity, epistemic curiosity, and interpersonal curiosity (Huang et al., 2021). Many researchers have studied curiosity alongside anxiety, marking their fundamentally intertwined relationship (Gruber & Ranganath, 2019;Kashdan & Roberts, 2004, 2006Litman, 2010;Litman & Jimerson, 2004;Spielberger & Starr, 1994). For example, previous research have shown that probabilistic electric shock, inducing stress, inhibits the risk behavior of relieving the curiosity (Lau, Ozono, Kuratomi, Komiya, & Murayama, 2020) or exploratory behavior (Brown, Gagnon, & Wagner, 2020). ...
... We found that the correlation between trait curiosity and trait anxiety and the correlation between perceptual curiosity and state anxiety were negative, which were in line with previous studies. The previous studies showed that trait curiosity and state curiosity were both significantly negatively correlated with social anxiety (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004, 2006. Our research found that trait anxiety and social anxiety were both significantly negatively correlated with trait curiosity. ...
Article
With the worldwide implementation of quarantine regulations to suppress the spread of the COVID-19, anxiety, interpersonal distancing and autistic tendency may decrease individuals' desire to seek interpersonal information and thus might have negative effects on their interpersonal curiosity. Through behavioral paradigms and scales, two studies were conducted (Study 1: n = 570; Study 2: n = 501). We explored the predictive effect of anxiety on interpersonal curiosity in situations when mandatory isolation measures have led to dramatic changes in interpersonal distancing and autistic tendency. We found that interpersonal distancing and autistic tendency negatively predicted interpersonal curiosity, and these predictive effects suppressed the positive prediction of state anxiety to interpersonal curiosity. Our research provides insights into the relationships among anxiety, curiosity, interpersonal distancing, and autistic tendency during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... The present research examined racial/ethnic majority-and minority-group roommates' perceptions of their roommates' interest in living together over a 6-week period, and the moderating role of perceived anxiety on accuracy and bias in perceptions of relationship interest. We focused on the moderating role of anxiety given its generally detrimental effects on newly forming friendships (Kashdan & Roberts, 2006), and intergroup relationships in particular (Trawalter & Richeson, 2008). ...
... As such, perceiving a roommate as anxious may be generally detrimental to relationship assessments, across all types of roommate relationships. Moreover, the same ambiguous cues that signal anxiety (e.g., fidgeting, averted gaze) are also those that communicate disinterest (Dovidio & LaFrance, 2013); yet, self-reported anxiety is often not related to actual interest in one's partner or the relationship (Kashdan & Roberts, 2006;Kashdan & Wenzel, 2005;Peters, 1978). These findings suggest that perceiving one's partner as anxious can interfere with forming accurate impressions of one's partner's actual relationship interest. ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research suggests that the perception of anxiety in intergroup interactions can be detrimental to relationship formation. However, the underlying processes through which this occurs remain unclear. The present longitudinal study, which studied same-and different-race/ethnicity roommates over 6 weeks, investigated whether perceived partner anxiety moderates two types of processes previously shown to facilitate relationship development: (a) tracking accuracy, the relationship between perceivers' assessments of their partner's interest in remaining roommates and the partner's stated interest and (b) positive directional bias, representing overestimation of partners' relationship interest. Under high levels of perceived anxiety, both accuracy and directional bias were generally low, independent of the dyad type. In contrast, when perceived anxiety was relatively low, Whites and minorities in cross-race dyads and Whites in same-race dyads showed a positive directional bias in their evaluations; Whites in cross-race relationships also achieved tracking accuracy. Implications of perceived anxiety for perceptual dynamics in cross-group friendships are discussed.
... Self-report (e.g., Kashdan & Roberts, 2006;Kimbrel, Mitchell, & Nelson-Gray, 2010;Ly & Gomez, 2014) and brain imaging studies (e.g., Tillfors, Furmark, Marteinsdottir, & Fredrikson, 2002) consistently suggest that high BIS is positively associated with social anxiety symptoms. The FFFS has historically received the least attention of the three systems, perhaps because most RST measures yield only BAS and BIS scores, with some FFFS (fear) items incorporated in the BIS score (Corr, 2004;Smillie et al., 2006). ...
Article
The present study examined the role of revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (r-RST; Gray & McNaughton, 2000) in discriminating individuals with high and low levels of social anxiety. Participants were solicited online via Amazon's MTurk and completed measures of social anxiety and reinforcement sensitivity theory. Participants were divided into low versus high social anxiety groups based upon recommended cut off scores. A logistic regression analysis using the r-RST subsystems as predictors was able to successfully classify 88.3% of participants into social anxiety groups. More specifically, the Freeze component of the Fight-Flight-Freeze system and the behavior approach system both emerged as significant predictors of group membership. Implications of these results for the understanding of social anxiety in the context of revised reinforcement sensitivity theory are discussed.
... This suggests that curiosity is closely associated with motivation in general. However, higher-order traits like intrinsic motivation include elements, such as a need for competence (Amabile et al. 1994), which operate independently of the construct of curiosity (Kashdan and Roberts 2006). Thus, curiosity can be regarded to be a more specific or 'narrower' phenomenon than intrinsic motivation (Harrison and Dossinger 2017). ...
Article
First, this research investigates the curiosity-evoking potential of different curiosity triggers (information gaps, ambiguity, and novelty) that are both described by the fundamental literature on curiosity and frequently applied in marketing practice. Second, it aims to shed light on affective and cognitive processes that are elicited by curiosity. The authors present two experimental studies and show that not all commonly used triggers stimulate curiosity. Moreover, the results reveal that the effect of curiosity on attitude towards the advertised product is mediated by heightened positive expectations, and under some circumstances, also by increased positive affect. This suggests that a rather uncritical expectation-driven evaluation and a misattribution of process-induced positive emotions are responsible for the positive effect.
... The procedure involves partners taking turns responding to a series of cards, the majority of which require that they answer questions that result in gradually escalating levels of self-disclosure. This procedure has been shown to be effective at producing strong feelings of interpersonal closeness between strangers in as little as 45 minutes, and has been employed in studies investigating a variety of topics including college adjustment among minority students (Mendoza-Denton & Page-Gould, 2008), hormonal effects of closeness (Brown et al., 2009), social anxiety (Kashdan & Roberts, 2006), and interpersonal cooperation (Cohen, Wildschut, & Insko, 2010). ...
... A number of studies have linked positive affect to generalized self-efficacy and non-work domain self-efficacy, and the big 5 personality traits to generalized self-efficacy (Judge & Ilies, 2002), but no studies have explored the relation of workrelated self-efficacy to positive affect. For example, Kashdan and Roberts (2006) explored the relation of positive affect to an individual's self-efficacy within the social domain, finding the correlation to be .52. Another study by Caprara and Steca (2006) explored self-efficacy within the domains of emotional regulation, marriage, and parenting, finding that these variables related moderately to positive affect (r's =.32-.42). ...
... Curiosity is a fundamental component of all openness facets (Kashdan and Roberts, 2006). Audretsch et al. (2008) argued in the process, entrepreneurs commercialize ideas that otherwise would not have been pursued, thus increasing the amount of utilized knowledge. ...
Article
Full-text available
Entrepreneurial curiosity is an entrepreneurial-psychology related construct that measures a level of entrepreneurial curiosity among entrepreneurs. Key research objectives of the study were to empirically test how two independent constructs as openness and company's growth are connected to entrepreneurial curiosity and to develop and empirically test a structural model linking these three constructs. A multi-country survey was made on a sample of entrepreneurs from Slovenia, USA and Serbia. Findings showed that openness is positively related to entrepreneurial curiosity and that entrepreneurial curiosity is positively related to company's growth. Results of this study can be used both for further research and in practice.
... Another goal of the current research was to examine the effects of SA similarity on these friendships. Although some research suggests perceived similarity is associated with positive social outcomes (e.g., Fehr, 2008;Papsdorf & Alden, 1998), most research on SA and interpersonal outcomes either has ignored partner levels of SA (e.g., Beck, Davila, Farrow, & Grant, 2006;Kashdan & Roberts, 2006;Pontari, 2009;Segrin & Kinney, 1995) or used methodologies such as vignettes (e.g., Leary, Kowalski, & Campbell, 1988;Voncken, Alden, & Bögels, 2006) or confederates (e.g., Alden & Bieling, 1998;Curran, Wallander, & Fischetti, 1980;Pilkonis, 1977) in which partner levels of SA were not varied. ...
Article
In studying the interpersonal consequences of social anxiety (SA), researchers generally have neglected to account for partner levels of SA. Therefore, in the current study, we examined how SA similarity would influence interpersonal closeness and uncertainty during the early stages of friendship development. Fifty-six same-sex friend pairs completed measures of SA, closeness, and uncertainty after knowing each other for approximately 1 month and then again 6 weeks later. Although higher levels of SA at Time 1 were related to more uncertainty, similarity had no effect on closeness or uncertainty at Time 1. However, friends matched on SA experienced increased closeness and decreased uncertainty over the 6 weeks, suggesting SA similarity may become increasingly important as friendships develop.
... Following Berlyne's influential theory of curiosity as a drive for knowledge acquisition prompted by conceptual conflict and physiological arousal (Berlyne, 1960), researchers correlated it positively with creativity and negatively with anxiety (Leherissey, 1971;Maddi & Berne, 1964;Spielberger & Starr, 1994). Today, scholars continue to explore curiosity's correlation with openness to experience (Kaufman, 2013), appetitive social interactions (Kashdan & Roberts, 2006), and tolerance for uncertainty (Kashdan, Sherman, Yarbro, & Funder, 2013), all while granting that curiosity requires a modicum of anxiety, as a source of optimal stimulus. Importantly for our purposes, Beswick's cognitive process theory of curiosity provides a protonetwork approach, defining curiosity as the practice of negotiating novel information and cognitive maps or category systems (Beswick, 1971;Beswick 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Human personality is reflected in patterns—or networks —of behavior, either in thought or action. Curiosity is an oft-treasured component of one’s personality, commonly associated with information-seeking proclivities with distinct neurophysiological correlates. The markers of curiosity can differ substantially across people, suggesting the possibility that personality also determines the architectural style of one’s curiosity. Yet progress in defining those styles, and marking their neurophysiological basis, has been hampered by fairly fundamental difficulties in defining curiosity itself. Here, we offer and exercise a definition of the practice of curiosity as knowledge network building, one particular pattern of thought behavior. To unpack this definition and motivate its utility, we begin with a short primer on network science and describe how the mathematical object of a network can be used to map items and relations that are characteristic of bodies of knowledge. Next, we turn to a discussion of how networks grow, how their growth can be modeled, and how the practice of curiosity can be formalized as a process of network growth. We pay particular attention to how individuals may differ in how they build their knowledge networks, and discuss how the sort, manner, and action of building can be modulated by experience. We discuss how this definition of the practice of curiosity motivates new experiments and theory development at the interdisciplinary intersection of network science, personality neuroscience, education, and curiosity studies. We close with a note on the potential of network science to inform studies of other domains of personality, and the patterns of thought– or action–behavior characteristic thereof.
... Galbût ðioje situacijoje nebuvo pakankamai suþadinta tiriamøjø, kuriø vyraujanti siekimo sistema yra motyvacinë, motyvacija, jie neásitraukë á uþduoties sprendimà, o daugiau dëmesio skyrë bendravimui. Tyrimai rodo, kad individai, kuriø vyraujanti yra BAS, jauèia didesná pasitenkinimà tarpasmenine sàveika (Kashdan and Roberts, 2006). Be to, BAS siejama su ekstraversija, kuri taip pat atspindi labiau iðreikðtà bendravimo poreiká ir gebëjimà já geriau patenkinti (Carver and White, 1994;Costa and McCrae, 1990;Eysenck, 1961). ...
... Therefore, following prior research (e.g., Burgio, Merluzzi, & Pryor, 1986;J. Clark & Arkowitz, 1975;Glass et al., 1982;Kashdan & Roberts, 2006), the confederate in this study was always male. Both the new experimenter and confederate were blind to condition. ...
Article
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Does the language people use to refer to the self during introspection influence how they think, feel, and behave under social stress? If so, do these effects extend to socially anxious people who are particularly vulnerable to such stress? Seven studies explored these questions (total N = 585). Studies 1a and 1b were proof-of-principle studies. They demonstrated that using non-first-person pronouns and one's own name (rather than first-person pronouns) during introspection enhances self-distancing. Studies 2 and 3 examined the implications of these different types of self-talk for regulating stress surrounding making good first impressions (Study 2) and public speaking (Study 3). Compared with the first-person group, the non-first-person group performed better according to objective raters in both studies. They also displayed less distress (Studies 2 and 3) and engaged in less maladaptive postevent processing (Study 3). Studies 4 and 5 examined how these different forms of self-talk influence the way people appraise social-anxiety-provoking events. They demonstrated that non-first-person language use (compared with first-person language use) leads people to appraise future stressors in more challenging and less threatening terms. Finally, a meta-analysis (Study 6) indicated that none of these findings were moderated by trait social anxiety, highlighting their translational potential. Together, these findings demonstrate that small shifts in the language people use to refer to the self during introspection consequentially influence their ability to regulate their thoughts, feelings, and behavior under social stress, even for vulnerable individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
... For example, Farmer and Kashdan (2012) used 2 weeks of diary data to demonstrate that individuals with higher levels of social anxiety report significantly less intense positive affect in their daily lives. In the laboratory, individuals with elevated social anxiety have been shown to experience distress in response to normatively rewarding social interactions, such as receiving positive feedback from an unfamiliar but warm and personable confederate (e.g., Kashdan & Roberts, 2006;Wallace & Alden, 1997;Weeks, Heimberg, Rodebaugh, & Norton, 2008). ...
Article
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Understanding how individuals with varying levels of social anxiety respond to daily positive events is important. Psychological processes that increase positive emotions are being widely used as strategies to not only enhance well-being but also reduce the symptoms and impairment tied to negative emotional dispositions and conditions, including excessive social anxiety. At present, it is unclear whether and how levels of social anxiety impact the psychological benefits derived from momentary positive events. We used ecological momentary assessment to examine the impact of trait social anxiety on momentary changes in emotions, sense of belonging, and social approach versus avoidance motivation following positive events in daily life. Over the course of a week, people with elevated social anxiety experienced greater momentary anxiety and social avoidance motivation and lower momentary happiness and sense of belonging on average. Despite these impairments, individuals with elevated social anxiety experienced greater psychological benefits-in the form of reduced anxiety and motivation to avoid social situations, and an increased sense of belonging-following positive events during the past hour that were rated as particularly intense. This pattern of findings was not specific to social anxiety, with evidence of similar effects for other forms of internalizing psychopathology (general anxiety and depression). These observations detail circumstances in which individuals with social anxiety, and other emotional disturbances, can thrive-creating potentially important targets for intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Still, this might depend on relationship closeness too. Kashdan and Roberts (2006) showed that for highly socially anxious individuals, small talk interactions lead to greater NA compared with low socially anxious, whereas no difference was found for interactions in intimate relationships. This suggests that also for gelotophobes, intimacy might foster the mutual understanding of the partners and might help overcoming unusual responses. ...
Article
Full-text available
In a paradigm facilitating smile misattribution, facial responses and ratings to contempt and joy were investigated in individuals with or without gelotophobia (fear of being laughed at). Participants from two independent samples (N1 = 83, N2 = 50) rated the intensity of eight emotions in 16 photos depicting joy, contempt, and different smiles. Facial responses were coded by the Facial Action Coding System in the second study. Compared with non-fearful individuals, gelotophobes rated joy smiles as less joyful and more contemptuous. Moreover, gelotophobes showed less facial joy and more contempt markers. The contempt ratings were comparable between the two groups. Looking at the photos of smiles lifted the positive mood of non-gelotophobes, whereas gelotophobes did not experience an increase. We hypothesize that the interpretation bias of “joyful faces hiding evil minds” (i.e., being also contemptuous) and exhibiting less joy facially may complicate social interactions for gelotophobes and serve as a maintaining factor of gelotophobia.
... In the path analysis, BIS/FFFS significantly and positively predicted both SIAS and SPS; and BAS significantly and negatively predicted both SIAS and SPS. These findings were generally consistent with existing data (Booth & Hasking, 2009;Gomez, et al., submitted;Kashdan & Roberts, 2006;Kimbrel et al., 2016;Kramer & Rodriguez, 2018;Kramer et al., 2015;Ly & Gomez, 2014;O'Connor et al., 2014;Ranđelović & Želeskov-Đorić, 2017). ...
Article
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Background Using Kimbrel’s (2008) mediation model of social anxiety as a theoretical framework, the primary aim of the current study was to use path analysis to examine how biased cognitions for negative and threatening social information mediated the relationships for the personality constructs of the reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) with generalized and specific social anxiety (target mediation model). A secondary aim was to examine reverse mediation testing (RMT) models, in which the social anxiety constructs were viewed as mediating the relations between RST constructs and biased social cognition constructs. Methods A total of 302 (males = 101, females = 201) adults (age ranging from 18 to 65 years) from the general community completed questionnaires measuring the behavioral inhibition system/fight-flight-freeze system (BIS/FFFS), the behavioral approach system (BAS), social comparison (SC), social ineptness (SI), and generalized and specific social anxiety. Results The findings for the target mediation model showed that there was support for indirect effects for the BIS/FFFS and the BAS on generalized and specific social anxiety through SC and SI. For the RMT model, there was support for the indirect effect of the RST constructs with SI through generalized social anxiety. However, specific generalized anxiety did not mediate the relations of the BIS/FFFS and BAS to SC. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of cognitive therapy that targets SC and SI in the treatment of social anxiety, especially among those with high BIS/FFFS and low BAS.
... In a social conversation, curiosity provokes active listening and responding behavior, which represents a premise for pleasant interactions [54,55]. Our study illustrated that people would value their interaction with chatbots that demonstrate interest and involvement into user preoccupations. ...
Preprint
As chatbots are becoming increasingly popular, we often wonder what users perceive as natural and socially accepted manners of interacting with them. While there are many aspects to this overall question, we focused on user expectations of their emotional characteristics. Some researchers maintain that humans should avoid engaging in emotional conversations with chatbots, while others have started building empathetic chatting machines using the latest deep learning techniques. To understand if chatbots should comprehend and display emotions, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 18 participants. Our analysis revealed their overall enthusiasm towards emotionally aware agents. The findings disclosed interesting emotional interaction patterns in daily conversations and the specific application domains where emotionally intelligent technology could improve user experience. Further, we identified key user concerns that may hinder the adoption of these chatbots. Finally, we summarized a few guidelines useful for the development of emotionally intelligent conversational agents and identified further research opportunities.
... A number of studies have linked positive affect to generalized self efficacy and non-work domain selfefficacy (Judge & Ilies, 2004), but no studies have explored the relationship of workrelated self-efficacy to positive affect. For example, Kashdan and Roberts (2006) explored the relation of positive affect to an individual's self-efficacy within the social domain, finding the correlation to be .52. Another study by Caprara and Steca (2006) explored self-efficacy within the domains of emotional regulation, marriage, and parenting, finding that these variables related moderately to positive affect (r's =.32-.42). ...
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High unemployment rates and low job retention rates are challenges still faced by persons with disabilities. Despite empirical evidence showing the positive impact of requesting and using job accommodations on job retention and career development (Ellison, Russinova, MacDonald-Wilson, & Lyass, 2003; McNulty, 2007), the request and use of job accommodations is low among persons with disabilities (Allaire, 2001; Hutton, 2006). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of factors that contributed to decisions for requesting job accommodations. Specifically, the researcher focused on the impact of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and affect (feelings and emotions) on decisions about requesting job accommodations through the framework of Social Cognitive Career Theory using structural equation modeling (SEM). The proposed accommodation model fits the data well in that eight out of nine hypotheses were confirmed. Self-efficacy, outcome expectation, and affect were found to have direct structural relationships with requesting accommodations. Furthermore, self-efficacy mediated the relationship between positive affect and intention to request accommodations; outcome expectation mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and intention to request accommodations. The researcher also explored the extent to which job accommodation-specific variables not associated with the Social Cognitive Career Theory predicted job accommodation over and above the variables in the proposed accommodation request model (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and affect) through a hierarchical regression analysis. The three variables in the proposed model were found to account for 50.2% of the variance in intention to request accommodations; the accommodation-specific variables were found to account for an additional 7.7% of the variance.
... However, evidence regarding the relationship between BAS and social anxiety has been mixed. Some research shows a low to moderate negative link between BAS and social anxiety (Coplan et al., 2006;Kimbrel, 2009;Kimbrel et al., 2012), while other research reports the lack of a relationship between these constructs (Kashdan & Roberts, 2006;Kimbrel et al., 2008;Ranđelović & Želeskov Đorić, 2017). Finally, some studies suggest a negative significant relation between BAS and social interaction anxiety but a lack of relation between BAS and social observation anxiety (Kimbrel, 2012;Kimbrel et al., 2008;Kimbrel et al., 2010). ...
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The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between temperament, ruminative thought style and social anxiety using latent variable modeling. Before examining the integrated model that specifies the relations between the constructs, relevant measurement issues were examined. The study was conducted on a heterogeneous sample from the general population that included 1,029 participants (62.1% female) aged 19 to 79. The findings show that the Behavioural Inhibition System is the most important vulnerability factor for the development of social anxiety, and it has both a direct effect and an indirect one through the ruminative thought style. Also, Freeze has an additional contribution to the increased experience of social anxiety. The Behavioural Approach System has complex effects on social anxiety - with a direct protective effect, and indirectly - with a facilitation of the ruminative thought style. Thus, BAS can also act as a risk factor. The findings support the revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and provide a basis for the extension of the Kimbrel?s Mediation Model of Social Anxiety
... Figure 5(c) shows a descending trend of dropout risk with higher entropy of emojis. A diverse usage of emojis may indicate that a user is in good emotional status (e.g., curiosity [16]) to explore and indicates a lower risk of obsession or burnouts. ...
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Emotions at work have long been identified as critical signals of work motivations, status, and attitudes, and as predictors of various work-related outcomes. For example, harmonious passion increases commitment at work but stress reduces sustainability and leads to burnouts. When more and more employees work remotely, these emotional and mental health signals of workers become harder to observe through daily, face-to-face communications. The use of online platforms to communicate and collaborate at work provides an alternative channel to monitor the emotions of workers. This paper studies how emojis, as non-verbal cues in online communications, can be used for such purposes. In particular, we study how the developers on GitHub use emojis in their work-related activities. We show that developers have diverse patterns of emoji usage, which highly correlate to their working status including activity levels, types of work, types of communications, time management, and other behavioral patterns. Developers who use emojis in their posts are significantly less likely to dropout from the online work platform. Surprisingly, solely using emoji usage as features, standard machine learning models can predict future dropouts of developers at a satisfactory accuracy.
... When considering Communication, we found strong positive correlations with Reward Interest, and the same was found for Friendship. These results are consistent with those from other investigations highlighting that BAS is inversely related to anxiety in social interaction; because of this, people with high BAS activation have a certain preference for social activities and the interaction with others (Kashdan & Roberts, 2006;Kimbrel et al., 2008;Kimbrel et al., 2010). Moreover, Creativity was positively associated with Reward Interest and negatively with FFFS, which was consistent with previous research (Walker & Jackson, 2014). ...
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This study aimed to adapt and validate the Spanish version of the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory–Personality Questionnaire (RST-PQ; Corr & Cooper, 2016) and to demonstrate how RST constructs are associated with a variety of everyday behaviors. To achieve this goal, three studies have been conducted. In Study 1, a direct translation of the items from English to Spanish was pilot-tested in a sample of 139 students and a descriptive analysis of items was conducted. Moreover, a reverse translation and comparison between the two English versions were carried out by the lead author of the original questionnaire and the items were refined accordingly. In Study 2, the questionnaire’s internal structure was assessed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and the predictive validity was assessed using the Criterion Set of Act Clusters in a sample of 1,281 participants. Finally, a study of convergent validity with other measures of personality was performed in Study 3 with 190 participants. The obtained results suggested that the RST-PQ has adequate psychometric properties and the convergent validity results with other personality measures replicate findings from previous research. Having a Spanish language version of the RST-PQ is important, not only to advance RST research but also to demonstrate that this theoretical approach contributes to the prediction and explanation of different behaviors whether they are healthy or pathological ones.
... Measures of BIS have been linked closely to other anxiety-related dispositional correlates, such as neuroticism and trait anxiety (e.g., Knyazev, Slobodskaya, & Wilson, 2002). Not surprisingly, hyperactivation of the BIS has been implicated in (and predictive of) several anxiety disorders, including SP (Coplan, Wilson, Frohlick, & Zelenski, 2006;Gray & McNaughton, 2000;Kashdan & Roberts, 2006;Stemberger, Turner, Beidel, & Calhoun, 1995;van Ameringen, Mancini, & Oakman, 1998). In line with this, Kimbrel (2008) proposed a model of generalised SP suggesting that genetic influences on BIS may result in an individual's initial vulnerability to developing anxiety pathology. ...
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Background: The pervasive tendency to avoid perceived risks has been recently implicated in the maintenance of anxiety pathology, and more specifically, social phobia. Social anxiety symptoms are thus hypothesised to be associated with a global risk-avoidant decision-making bias. Aim: This study investigated: (1) the relationship between risk-avoidance and social anxiety symptoms using both self-report and behavioural measures of risk-taking; and (2) whether risk-avoidance mediates the relationship between a dispositional vulnerability to anxiety (Behavioural Inhibition System [BIS] sensitivity) and social anxiety symptoms. Method: Fifty-five undergraduate students completed self-report measures assessing for social anxiety symptoms, risk-taking across various domains, and BIS sensitivity. Risk-avoidance was also assessed using a behavioural computer task. Results: As hypothesised, risk-avoidance correlated significantly with both social anxiety and BIS. Multiple regression analyses revealed that risk-avoidance served as a partial mediator between BIS and social anxiety. Conclusion: These results confirm the hypothesised relationship between BIS, risk-avoidance, and social anxiety symptoms. Risk-avoidance is one possible mechanism by which personality characteristics may be linked to anxiety pathology.
... In the BIS, "inhibition" refers to disposing of behaviors in which the objective is to move away from undesirable stimuli or events (Fowles, 2000). Previous studies showed that the BIS is positively related to aversive social functioning, such as social avoidance and social anxiety (Coplan, Wilson, Frohlick, & Zelenski, 2006;Hundt, Mitchell, Kimbrel, & Nelson-Gray, 2010;Kashdan & Roberts, 2006). These findings suggest that when the BIS is activated in response to a perceived risk of infection, individuals will be more likely to avoid social contact and maintain social distance because BIS activation stimulates the inhibition of ongoing behavior and the engagement of risk-evaluation processes (Fuentes et al., 2012). ...
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Laboratory studies of Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory have associated sensitivity to punishment (SP) with negative affect and sensitivity to reward (SR) with positive affect. However, few studies have examined the expression of these systems and their response to cues of reward in daily life. The current study employed experience sampling methodology (ESM) to assess the association of SP and SR with affect and perceptions of situations in daily life. SP was positively associated with negative affect and negatively associated with positive affect in daily life, whereas SR was associated with positive affect and one aspect of negative affect, irritability/anger. Furthermore, high SP participants experienced smaller increases in positive affect and smaller decreases in negative affect in some situations that were perceived as positive, in comparison to low SP participants. In contrast, high SR participants experienced greater decreases in negative affect in some situations that were perceived as positive, in comparison to low SR participants.
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In Study 1, 20 incurious worry reduction motive (IWRM) items were administered to 280 participants along with curiosity and worry scales. With factor analysis, two six-item scales were developed: focus on distress (IWRM-FD) and focus on relief (IWRM-FR). IWRM-FD was associated with wanting positive news about threats, whereas IWRM-FR was related to wanting negative news to be free from further worry. Neither the curiosity nor worry scales predicted wanting information. In Study 2, the IWRM scales were administered to 170 participants along with a coping inventory. IWRM-FD correlated with avoidant-coping, whereas IWRM-FR was associated positively with active-coping and advice-seeking. The results suggest that IWRM-FD reflects a desire to minimize distress, whereas IWRM-FR motivates identifying and dealing directly with problems. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The purpose of this article was to fill a gap in the literature regarding the conceptualization and measurement of entrepreneurial curiosity. Although research in other fields suggest that different types of curiosity exist, no conceptualization research has yet been done in the field of entrepreneurial curiosity. This research aimed to develop a construct of entrepreneurial curiosity and tested it on multi-country empirical samples (Slovenia and the United States). Items for the questionnaire were developed after an in-depth literature review and detailed interviews with entrepreneurs and experts in two stages. The data from the survey were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The results of this study showed that entrepreneurial curiosity can be an independent construct dimension in relation to other types of curiosity. Entrepreneurial curiosity can be used as a new concept and measure in research. The construct can be tested on a sample of nonentrepreneurs in a multi-country sample and together with other determinants in a future model. With the measure of entrepreneurial curiosity, society can test individuals and encourage them to become active in entrepreneurship.
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The study examined the unique relationships of Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS), Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS) and Behavioral Approach System (BAS), and Sensitivity to Punishment (SP) and Sensitivity to Reward (SR) with social interaction anxiety and social observation anxiety. A total of 200 adults completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scales, the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire, and questionnaires measuring social interaction anxiety and social observation anxiety. Multiple regression analyses revealed that both forms of social anxiety were associated with SP, BIS-Anxiety and BIS-Fear, and negatively with BAS-FS. The theoretical implications of the findings for reinforcement sensitivity theory are discussed.
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Background Social anxiety has long been related to reduced eye contact, and this feature is seen as a causal and a maintaining factor of social anxiety disorder. The present research adds to the literature by investigating the relationship between social anxiety and visual avoidance of faces in a reciprocal face-to-face conversation, while taking into account two aspects of conversations as potential moderating factors: conversational role and level of intimacy. Method Eighty-five female students (17–25 years) completed the Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale and had a face-to-face getting-acquainted conversation with a female confederate. We alternated conversational role (talking versus listening) and manipulated intimacy of the topics (low versus high). Participants’ gaze behavior was registered with Tobii eye-tracking glasses. Three dependent measures were extracted regarding fixations on the face of the confederate: total duration, proportion of fixations, and mean duration. Results The results revealed that higher levels of social anxiety were associated with reduced face gaze on all three measures. The relation with total fixation duration was stronger for low intimate topics. The relation with mean fixation duration was stronger during listening than during speaking. Conclusion The results highlight the importance of studying gaze behavior in a naturalistic social interaction.
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The main goal of this research paper is to examine the predictive power of personality traits in relation to fear of negative evaluation and social anxiety. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (rRST) postulates the existence of three major personality systems - Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS), Behavioural Activation System (BAS), and Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS). In order to assess the personality traits, the Reinforcement Sensitivity Questionnaire was used (RSQ). Fear of negative evaluation was assessed using the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale - Brief form (FNE-B), while social anxiety evaluation was obtained by Social Anxiety Scale (SA2). The sample consisted of 222 psychology students engaged in 1st and 2nd year of studies at the University of Niš and the University of Novi Sad. In order to respond to the research questions, two separate multiple regression analyses were performed. In both analyses, personality traits were the predictors, while the differences were linked to the criteria variables - Model1 - fear of negative evaluation, and Model2 - social anxiety. Both models were statistically significant. According to the results, Fear of negative evaluation model explains a total of 41% of the criteria variance, while Social anxiety model explains 46% of the criteria variance. In both models, BIS stands out as the statistically significant and the best predictor. When comparing the results of both models, the differences relate to the second significant predictor. Namely, Fight response stands out in the first model, while Freeze response stands out in the second one. The obtained findings are discussed and interpreted in the context of rRST.
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Evidence suggests that the behavior inhibition system (BIS) and fight-flight-freeze system play a role in the individual differences seen in social anxiety disorder; however, findings concerning the role of the behavior approach system (BAS) have been mixed. To date, the role of revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) subsystems underlying social anxiety has been measured with scales designed for the original RST. This study examined how the BIS, BAS, and fight, flight, freeze components of the fight-flight-freeze system uniquely relate to social interaction anxiety and social observation anxiety using both a measure specifically designed for the revised RST and a commonly used original RST measure. Comparison of regression analyses with the Jackson-5 and the commonly used BIS/BAS Scales revealed important differences in the relationships between RST subsystems and social anxiety depending on how RST was assessed. Limitations and future directions for revised RST measurement are discussed.
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Sen’s ‘capability approach’ is especially focused on human development as freedom from deprivations, while Scitovsky’s The Joyless Economy is focused on how people can expand their internal capability endogenously by enjoying learning as a socially embedded process. This paper uses the complementarity between the two authors to build a comprehensive dynamic approach to people’s ‘functionings and capabilities’. Different groups of ‘functionings’ are thus characterised by their different patterns of development in interaction with the resources available and the social context. As a result, Sen’s problems of evaluating ‘functionings’ and measuring ‘capability’ can be alleviated; harmful functionings can be predicted; children’s welfare can be better evaluated; and Sen’s definitions of ‘capability’, ‘agency’ and ‘well-being’ can be refined.
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Social anxiety lies on a continuum, and young adults with elevated symptoms are at risk for developing a range of debilitating psychiatric disorders. Yet, relatively little is known about the factors that govern the momentary expression of social anxiety in daily life, close to clinically significant end-points. Here, we used smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment to intensively sample emotional experience across different social contexts in the daily lives of 228 young adults selectively recruited to represent a broad spectrum of social anxiety symptoms. Leveraging data from over 11,000 assessments, results highlight the vital role of close friends, family members, and romantic partners. Socially anxious individuals report smaller confidant networks and spend significantly less time with their close companions. As a consequence, they are less frequent beneficiaries of close companions’ mood-enhancing effects. Although higher levels of social anxiety are associated with a general reduction in the quality of momentary emotional experience, socially anxious individuals derived significantly larger benefits—lower levels of negative affect, anxiety, and depression—from the company of close companions. Collectively, these findings provide a novel framework for understanding the deleterious consequences of social anxiety and set the stage for developing improved intervention strategies.
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Social anxiety disorder (SAD) often involves difficulty developing relationships. Facial expressions are important in relationship formation, but data are limited regarding facial display production among persons with SAD during social interaction. The current study compared facial displays of individuals diagnosed with SAD (n = 41) to control participants (n = 24) as they interacted with a confederate; confederates and observers then rated their desire for future interaction with participants. Automated software used the Facial Action Coding System to classify displays. During portions of the interaction that involved listening to partners, the SAD group smiled less frequently and less intensely than controls, and less smiling was associated with others’ lower desire for future interaction with participants. Diminished positive facial affect in response to interaction partners may disrupt relationship formation in SAD and may serve as an effective treatment target.
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The present study investigated whether specific trait mindfulness facets indirectly influenced state negative affect (NA), positive affect (PA), and physiological hyperarousal (PH) through state rumination and state experiential avoidance. Participants (n = 360, 68% female) rated trait mindfulness facets, then completed an interview task about life experiences intended to elicit state NA, PA, and PH. After the interview task, participants completed measures of state NA, PA, and PH, and state measures of rumination and experiential avoidance. Indirect effect results indicated that the relationships between Nonjudge, Nonreact, and Describe, and each of the state tripartite components indirectly flowed through state rumination. Further, there was a significant indirect effect of Nonjudge and Actaware on each of the three state tripartite components through experiential avoidance. Overall, strengthening the mindfulness skills of Nonjudge, Nonreact, Describe, and Actaware may have positive downstream effects via reducing reliance on maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as rumination or experiential avoidance.
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Background Social anxiety lies on a continuum, and young adults with elevated symptoms are at risk for developing a range of psychiatric disorders. Yet relatively little is known about the factors that govern the hour-by-hour experience and expression of social anxiety in the real world. Methods Here we used smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to intensively sample emotional experience across different social contexts in the daily lives of 228 young adults selectively recruited to represent a broad spectrum of social anxiety symptoms. Results Leveraging data from over 11 000 real-world assessments, our results highlight the central role of close friends, family members, and romantic partners. The presence of such close companions was associated with enhanced mood, yet socially anxious individuals had fewer confidants and spent less time with the close companions that they do have. Although higher levels of social anxiety were associated with a general worsening of mood, socially anxious individuals appear to derive larger benefits – lower levels of negative affect, anxiety, and depression – from their close companions. In contrast, variation in social anxiety was unrelated to the amount of time spent with strangers, co-workers, and acquaintances; and we uncovered no evidence of emotional hypersensitivity to these less-familiar individuals. Conclusions These findings provide a framework for understanding the deleterious consequences of social anxiety in emerging adulthood and set the stage for developing improved intervention strategies.
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Emotions at work have long been identified as critical signals of work motivations, status, and attitudes, and as predictors of various work-related outcomes. When more and more employees work remotely, these emotional signals of workers become harder to observe through daily, face-to-face communications. The use of online platforms to communicate and collaborate at work provides an alternative channel to monitor the emotions of workers. This paper studies how emojis, as non-verbal cues in online communications, can be used for such purposes and how the emotional signals in emoji usage can be used to predict future behavior of workers. In particular, we present how the developers on GitHub use emojis in their work-related activities. We show that developers have diverse patterns of emoji usage, which can be related to their working status including activity levels, types of work, types of communications, time management, and other behavioral patterns. Developers who use emojis in their posts are significantly less likely to dropout from the online work platform. Surprisingly, solely using emoji usage as features, standard machine learning models can predict future dropouts of developers at a satisfactory accuracy. Features related to the general use and the emotions of emojis appear to be important factors, while they do not rule out paths through other purposes of emoji use.
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Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the openness which cannot be understood as the culture that is acquired through education or good breeding, not as intellect or any other cognitive ability. Openness must be viewed in both structural and motivational terms. Openness is seen in the breadth, depth, and permeability of consciousness and in the recurrent need to enlarge and examine experience. Openness also suggests a passive or uncritical receptivity, which is clearly inappropriate. Open people actively seek out experience and are apt to be particularly reflective and thoughtful about the ideas they encounter. A structural account of openness may be necessary, but it does not seem to be sufficient. Open people are not the passive recipients of a barrage of experiences they are unable to screen out; they actively seek out new and varied experiences. Openness involves motivation, needs for variety cognition sentience, and understanding. The heritability of openness might be explained by the heritability of intelligence. Psychologists have spent more time and effort studying intelligence, than any other trait by adopting the term “Intellect.” Personality psychologists could claim this vast literature as their own. Openness could be construed as intelligence itself or as the reflection of intelligence in the personality sphere.
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Past research has found that trait positive affect as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and extraversion as measured by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) are highly correlated. We examined the relation between these two measures within the context of three social behaviors. Approximately 4 months before graduation, college seniors entering the job market completed the PANAS and the NEO-FFI and reported on their social activities during college. Three months later, these students were contacted again and described their job search strategies and success at obtaining follow-up job interviews. Trait positive affect scores and extraversion scores were highly correlated and both predicted behavior in each of the three areas investigated. Regression analyses indicated that trait positive affect predicted behavior in all three areas after the effects of extraversion were removed. However, extraversion did not add significantly to predicting behavior in any of the three areas after the effects of trait positive affect were removed. The findings have implications for the conceptual relation between extraversion and trait positive affect.
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The Concept of CuriosityA Framework for Factors that Support CuriosityElaborating the Framework for Curiosity Supportive FactorsCuriosity InterventionsConclusion
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This article develops a perspective on interest and interests as aspects of motivation, emotion, and personality. Interest is viewed as a capricious emotion with few, if any, immediate adaptational functions; it serves long-term adaptational goals by cultivating knowledge and diversifying skills and experience. Interests are viewed as idiosyncratic intrinsic motives that promote expertise. Theories of how interests arise are reviewed and organized. A model of how the emotion of interest participates in the development of enduring interests is proposed. The author concludes that apparently frivolous aspects of motivation and personality such as "idle curiosity" and avocations seem to play complex roles in human experience and development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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D. Watson and A. Tellegen (1985) proposed a "consensual" structure of affect based on J. A. Russell's (1980) circumplex. The authors' review of the literature indicates that this 2-factor model captures robust structural properties of self-rated mood. Nevertheless, the evidence also indicates that the circumplex does not fit the data closely and needs to be refined. Most notably, the model's dimensions are not entirely independent; moreover, with the exception of Pleasantness–Unpleasantness, they are not completely bipolar. More generally, the data suggest a model that falls somewhere between classic simple structure and a true circumplex. The authors then examine two of the dimensions imbedded in this structure, which they label Negative Activation (NA) and Positive Activation (PA). The authors argue that PA and NA represent the subjective components of broader biobehavioral systems of approach and withdrawal, respectively. The authors conclude by demonstrating how this framework helps to clarify various affect-related phenomena, including circadian rhythms, sleep, and the mood disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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J. A. Gray (1981, 1982) holds that 2 general motivational systems underlie behavior and affect: a behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and a behavioral activation system (BAS). Self-report scales to assess dispositional BIS and BAS sensitivities were created. Scale development (Study 1) and convergent and discriminant validity in the form of correlations with alternative measures are reported (Study 2). In Study 3, a situation in which Ss anticipated a punishment was created. Controlling for initial nervousness, Ss high in BIS sensitivity (assessed earlier) were more nervous than those low in BIS sensitivity. In Study 4, a situation in which Ss anticipated a reward was created. Controlling for initial happiness, Ss high in BAS sensitivity (Reward Responsiveness and Drive scales) were happier than those low in BAS sensitivity. In each case the new scales predicted better than an alternative measure. Discussion is focused on conceptual implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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The independence of positive and negative affect has been heralded as a major and counterintuitive finding in the psychology of mood and emotion. Still, other findings support the older view that positive and negative fall at opposite ends of a single bipolar continuum. Independence versus bipolarity can be reconciled by considering (a) the activation dimension of affect, (b) random and systematic measurement error, and (c) how items are selected to achieve an appropriate test of bipolarity. In 3 studies of self-reported current affect, random and systematic error were controlled through multiformat measurement and confirmatory factor analysis. Valence was found to be independent of activation, positive affect the bipolar opposite of negative affect, and deactivation the bipolar opposite of activation. The dimensions underlying D. Watson, L. A. Clark, and A. Tellegen's (1988) Positive and Negative Affect schedule were accounted for by the valence and activation dimensions.
Book
Written for clients, this workbook teaches that social anxiety is a normal part of life, but it can sometimes have a negative impact. The important question is not whether someone experiences social anxiety but to what degree and how often. The term social anxiety disorder describes the distress and interference that comes along with severe social anxiety. Information is presented on the nature of social anxiety, empirically supported cognitive–behavioral techniques used to treat it, how to best implement these techniques, and how to deal with the problems that arise during treatment. The attempt is to offer a complete treatment that is informed by individual case conceptualization within an evidence-based practice framework. This third edition includes case examples that represent diverse clients across race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and gender identity.
Article
During the past ten years, psychologists have begun to devote considerable attention to the sequential properties of social interaction. The majority of this research has focused on description of sequential contingencies between the behaviors of interaction partners, inferences concerning the conversational control functions of the observed behaviors, and/or assessment of the degree of mutual influence between the behaviors of interaction partners. For example, the first two strategies are embodied by research designed to examine the turn taking system in dyadic conversation (e.g., Duncan & Fiske, 1977; Jaffe & Feldstein, 1970); and the third by the various research programs investigating such processes as mutual influence between mothers and infants (e.g., Thomas & Malone, 1979; Thomas & Martin, 1976), reciprocity of self-disclosure (e.g., Warner, Kenney, & Stoto, 1979), matching of paralinguistic variables such as vocal pitch and intensity or lengths of utterances and pauses (e.g., Feldstein & Welkowitz, 1978), and synchrony of body movements (e.g., Kendon, 1970; McDowall, 1978) (see Cappella, 1981, for a review of mutual influence processes for a variety of behaviors).
Article
Joint effects of daily events and dispositional sensitivities to cues of reward and punishment on daily positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) were examined in 3 diary studies. Study 1 showed that positive events were strongly related to PA but not NA, whereas negative events were strongly related to NA but not PA. Studies 2 and 3 examined how the dispositional sensitivities of independent appetitive and aversive motivational systems, the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) and the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS), moderated these relationships. Participants in Study 2 with higher BAS sensitivity reported more PA on average; those with more sensitive BIS reported more NA. Also, BIS moderated reactions to negative events, such that higher BIS sensitivity magnified reactions to negative events. Study 3 replicated these findings and showed that BAS predisposed people to experience more positive events. Results demonstrate the value of distinguishing within-person and between-person effects to clarify the functionally independent processes by which dispositional sensitivities influence affect.
Article
Gray (1981, 1982) holds that 2 general motivational systems underlie behavior and affect: a behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and a behavioral activation system (BAS). Self-report scales to assess dispositional BIS and BAS sensitivities were created. Scale development (Study 1) and convergent and discriminant validity in the form of correlations with alternative measures are reported (Study 2). In Study 3, a situation in which Ss anticipated a punishment was created. Controlling for initial nervousness, Ss high in BIS sensitivity (assessed earlier) were more nervous than those low. In Study 4, a situation in which Ss anticipated a reward was created. Controlling for initial happiness, Ss high in BAS sensitivity (Reward Responsiveness and Drive scales) were happier than those low. In each case the new scales predicted better than an alternative measure. Discussion is focused on conceptual implications.
Article
Marital quality is examined as a 2-dimensional construct comprising positive and negative evaluations. Assessments of marital quality, behavior, attributions, and general affect were completed by 123 couples. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the existence of positive and negative marital quality dimensions. These dimensions also explained unique variance in reported behavior and attributions beyond that explained by a conventional marital quality measure and by positive and negative affect. Ambivalent (high-positive and high-negative) and indifferent (low-positive and low-negative) wives differed in reports of behaviors and attributions but did not differ in scores on the conventional marital quality test, The implications of a 2-dimensional analysis of marital quality for theory and research are outlined.
Article
We examined the roles of curiosity, social anxiety, and positive affect (PA) and neg- ative affect (NA) in the development of interpersonal closeness. A reciprocal self-disclosure task was used wherein participants and trained confederates asked and answered questions escalating in personal and emotional depth (mimicking closeness-development). Relationships between curiosity and relationship out- comes were examined using regression analyses. Controlling for trait measures of social anxiety, PA, and NA, trait curiosity predicted greater partner ratings of attrac- tion and closeness. Social anxiety moderated the relationship between trait curios- ity and self-ratings of attraction such that curiosity was associated with greater attraction among those low in social anxiety compared to those high in social anxi- ety. In contrast, trait PA was related to greater self-ratings of attraction but had no relationship with partners' ratings. Trait curiosity predicted positive relationship outcomes as a function of state curiosity generated during the interaction, even after controlling for state PA.
Article
This posthumous fragment of a book that Dr. Berlyne was writing at the time of his death was sent to MOTIVATION AND EMOTION by his colleagues at the University of Toronto. Its appearance in print is by permission of the Berlyne family and with appreciation to F. G. Hare and John Ogilvie of the University of Toronto and Seymour Weingarten of Plenum Publishing corporation, who were instrumental in providing a copy of the manuscript to the editor; to George Rappolt and Pat Monahan, of Clark University, who assisted in compiling the bibliography; and to Dr. Edward L. Walker, who provided some editing and wrote the brief introduction. References to figures (in Chapters 1 and 3) were deleted, as no figures could be found to accompany the manuscript. In any case, it appeared that these would have merely supplemented the text and were neither new nor original, insofar as could be judged. The reader may further note that perhaps a half dozen references are missing, and others may not have been those intended by Dr. Berlyne. While it seems unlikely that the chapters presented here were either complete or in their final draft stage, it was nevertheless felt that publication of even this fragment of Daniel Berlyne's last major work, with only minimal editing, would be of value to fellow students of motivation theory. M.H.A.
Article
A practical methodology is presented for creating closeness in an experimental context. Whether or not an individual is in a relationship, particular pairings of individuals in the relationship, and circumstances of relationship development become manipulated variables. Over a 45-min period subject pairs carry out self-disclosure and relationship-building tasks that gradually escalate in intensity. Study 1 found greater postinteraction closeness with these tasks versus comparable small-talk tasks. Studies 2 and 3 found no significant closeness effects, inspite of adequate power, for (a) whether pairs were matched for nondisagreement on important attitudes, (b) whether pairs were led to expect mutual liking, or (c) whether getting close was made an explicit goal. These studies also illustrated applications for addressing theoretical issues, yielding provocative tentative findings relating to attachment style and introversion/extraversion.
Article
Social phobia has become a focus of increased research since its inclusion in DSM-III. However, assessment of social phobia has remained an underdeveloped area, especially self-report assessment. Clinical researchers have relied on measures that were developed on college populations, and these measures may not provide sufficient coverage of the range of situations feared by social phobic individuals. There is a need for additional instruments that consider differences in the types of situations (social interaction vs. situations involving observation by others) that may be feared by social phobics and between subgroups of social phobic patients. This study provides validational data on two instruments developed by Mattick and Clarke (1989): the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), a measure of anxiety in social interactional situations, and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS), a measure of anxiety in situations involving observation by others. These data support the use of the SIAS and SPS in the assessment of individuals with social phobia.
Article
The development and validation of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) two companion measures for assessing social phobia fears is described. The SPS assesses fears of being scrutinised during routine activities (eating, drinking, writing, etc.), while the SIAS assesses fears of more general social interaction, the scales corresponding to the DSM-III-R descriptions of Social Phobia—Circumscribed and Generalised types, respectively. Both scales were shown to possess high levels of internal consistency and test–retest reliability. They discriminated between social phobia, agoraphobia and simple phobia samples, and between social phobia and normal samples. The scales correlated well with established measures of social anxiety, but were found to have low or non-significant (partial) correlations with established measures of depression, state and trait anxiety, locus of control, and social desirability. The scales were found to change with treatment and to remain stable in the face of no-treatment. It appears that these scales are valid, useful, and easily scored measures for clinical and research applications, and that they represent an improvement over existing measures of social phobia.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Marital quality is examined as a 2-dimensional construct comprising positive and negative evaluations. Assessments of marital quality, behavior, attributions, and general affect were completed by 123 couples. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the existence of positive and negative marital quality dimensions. These dimensions also explained unique variance in reported behavior and attributions beyond that explained by a conventional marital quality measure and by positive and negative affect. Ambivalent (high-positive and high-negative) and indifferent (low positive and low-negative) wives differed in reports of behaviors and attributions but did not differ in scores on the conventional marital quality test. The implications of a 2-dimensional analysis of marital quality for theory and research are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes the development of the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI), which draws on the conceptualization of closeness as high interdependence between two people's activities proposed by Kelley et al. (1983). The current "closest" relationship of individuals ( N = 241) drawn from the college student population served as the basis for RCI development, with the closest relationship found to encompass several relationship types, including romantic, friend, and family relationships. The development and psychometric properties of the three RCI subscales (Frequency, Diversity, Strength), their scoring, and their combination to form an overall index of closeness are described. The RCI's test–retest reliability is reported and the association between RCI score and the longevity of the relationship is discussed. RCI scores for individuals' closest relationships are contrasted to those of not-close relationships, to a subjective closeness index, and to several measures of relationship affect, including Rubin's (1973) Liking and Loving scales. Finally, the ability of the RCI to predict relationship break up is contrasted to that of the Subjective Closeness Index, an index of the emotional tone of the relationship, and to relationship longevity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In 2 studies, the Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) Scale, a single-item, pictorial measure of closeness, demonstrated alternate-form and test–retest reliability; convergent validity with the Relationship Closeness Inventory (E. Berscheid et al, 1989), the R. J. Sternberg (1988) Intimacy Scale, and other measures; discriminant validity; minimal social desirability correlations; and predictive validity for whether romantic relationships were intact 3 mo later. Also identified and cross-validated were (1) a 2-factor closeness model (Feeling Close and Behaving Close) and (2) longevity–closeness correlations that were small for women vs moderately positive for men. Five supplementary studies showed convergent and construct validity with marital satisfaction and commitment and with a reaction-time (RT)-based cognitive measure of closeness in married couples; and with intimacy and attraction measures in stranger dyads following laboratory closeness-generating tasks. In 3 final studies most Ss interpreted IOS Scale diagrams as depicting interconnectedness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
There are 2 broad aims in writing this book. The first is to produce a comprehensive practical text of cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders. In order for a treatment guide to be of most value it should offer a detailed description of not only what to do in treatment but also an account of how to do it. This book does both. The book is illustrated throughout with case examples and examples of therapeutic dialogues. All of the material used is based on actual cases. The second aim of this work is to present a pure approach to cognitive therapy that makes a significant contribution to advancing theory and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
believe that attempts to relate the structure of central nervous system neurobiology and neurochemistry to the structure of personality . . . require a clear conceptual framework / a theoretical strategy is needed to guide selection of the neurobiological and personality variables hypothesized to relate / our theoretical approach to the neurobiology of personality is first explicated / began by broadening our understanding of [personality] structure by assessing the structure of behavioral systems as defined by ethology and psychology / the structure of behavior reflects the existence of neurobehavioral-emotional systems that elicit and motivate certain subjective emotional experiences and overt patterns of behavior to particular classes of stimulus / thus, a particular class of stimulus, the emotional feelings and motivation generated, and the behavior patterns expressed all form integral components of a coherent emotional system analogous structure of neurobehavioral-emotional systems and personality [types and organization of neurobehavioral systems, the structure of a general neurobehavioral-emotional system, the structure of personality and its superfactors] / putative neurobiology of three personality superfactors [positive emotionality, constraint, negative emotionality] / studies of the relationship of DA [dopamine] to positive emotionality and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) to constraint / implications for personality disorders [implications for the development of substance abuse] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined relations between social activity and state and trait measures of Positive and Negative Affect. In Study 1, Ss completed scales relevant to 3-factor models of personality and a weekly mood and social activity questionnaire for 13 wks. In Study 2, Ss completed measures of the 5-factor model of personality and a daily mood and social activity survey for 6–7 wks. In within- and between-Ss analyses, socializing correlated significantly with state measures of Positive Affect and with trait measures of Extraversion/Positive Emotionality. These relations were relatively general across various types of positive affect and social events; however, specific types of social events also were differentially related to affect. In contrast, social activity had no consistent association with measures of Negative Affect or the other personality dimensions. The results support a temperamental view of Extraversion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
daily variations may be understood in terms of the degree to which three basic needs, autonomy, competence, and related-ness, are satisfied in daily activity. Hierarchical linear models were used to examine this hypothesis across 2 weeks of daily activ-ity and well-being reports controlling for trait-level individual differences. Results strongly supported the hypothesis. The authors also examined the social activities that contribute to sat-isfaction of relatedness needs. The best predictors were meaning-ful talk and feeling understood and appreciated by interaction partners. Finally, the authors found systematic day-of-the-week variations in emotional well-being and need satisfaction. These results are discussed in terms of the importance of daily activities and the need to consider both trait and day-level determinants of well-being.
Article
Upon being exposed to a high self-focus, potentially socially threatening situation, excessively socially anxious (SA) individuals were posited to experience amplified negative emotional states, as well as diminished positive emotional, cognitive, and intimacy-related outcomes. Ninety-one college students engaged in a reciprocal self-disclosure task with a trained confederate. Participants and confederates took turns answering (while a camera was directed at them) and asking questions that gradually increased in personal content. The results indicated that high SA individuals experienced more intense negative affect, less intense positive affect, and poorer social self-efficacy compared to low SA individuals in both conditions. However, differences between high and low SA individuals were larger in the social threat/self-focus condition, and self-focused attention partially accounted for these effects. In terms of specificity, nearly all findings remained after statistically controlling for depressive symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety effects were generally absent on measures of observed behavior and intimacy outcomes. These findings implicate the role of social threat and self-focused attention in contributing to affective and cognitive disturbances among SA individuals.
Article
Although decades of research have examined relationships between social anxiety and negative outcomes, this study examined relations with indices of positive psychological functioning. In college students (n = 204), a factor analysis on self-report measures of positive psychological functioning derived 3 conceptually meaningful broad domains: Positive Subjective Experiences, Curiosity, and Appetitive Motivations. Analyses were conducted to test whether social interaction anxiety demonstrated unique relationships with positive psychological domains after controlling for shared variance with social observation anxiety (e.g., eating in public, public speaking) and neuroticism. Social interaction anxiety explained unique variance in all 3 domains after separately controlling for social observation anxiety and neuroticism. In contrast, social observation anxiety demonstrated near-zero relationships with all 3 domains, and neuroticism predicted Positive Subjective Experiences, and to a lesser degree, Curiosity. These data provide evidence for the unique association between social interaction anxiety and positive psychological functioning, with implications for future basic and applied research.
Article
Social phobics, anxious controls and non-patient controls took part in a brief videotaped conversation with a stooge in order to investigate the cognitive model of social phobia. Thoughts, behaviour, and attention during the conversation were assessed. Compared to the control groups, social phobics had more negative self-evaluative thoughts, performed less well, and systematically underestimated their performance. There were no differences in attention between the three groups. Content analysis of thought sampling data from the conversation, and from three hypothetical situations, revealed that few of the negative thoughts reported by social phobics explicitly mentioned evaluation by other people. This suggests that social phobics may not closely monitor other people's responses in social situations and hence that their thoughts are not data driven. The results are discussed in relation to the cognitive model of social phobia and suggestions are made for improvements in the treatment of social phobia.
Article
Following a brief summary of extant research on behavioral inhibition (BI), evidence for its relationship to the anxiety disorders is examined critically. BI is a behavioral syndrome that is identifiable at an early age and, at the extreme, appears to be stable from infancy to at least early childhood. Although there is some evidence to suggest that BI is a characteristic behavioral response style, the available data indicate that it is not immutable, but rather is governed to some extent by environmental factors. Additionally, current data suggest likelihood of a limited relationship between BI and anxiety disorders, in particular to conditions characterized by maladaptive social anxiety. However, the exact nature of this relationship has yet to be elucidated. Several hypotheses are put forth as to how BI might be related to the anxiety disorders.
Article
How does self-efficacy affect interest? The interest-and-interests model assumes that factors that induce interest—novelty, complexity, conflict, and uncertainty—do so non-linearly. Self-efficacy should thus affect interest quadratically, because it reflects uncertainty about an activity’s outcome. When self-efficacy is low, interest is low because the activity’s outcome is certain. When self-efficacy is moderate, the person’s success on the task seems likely, but not inevitable. But as self-efficacy becomes very high, success seems completely certain, and the task is thus uninteresting. Two experiments tested these predictions. Experiment 1 asked people to rate the interestingness of differentially difficult activities; Experiment 2 manipulated self-efficacy regarding a fuzzy dart game. In both experiments, interest was a quadratic function of self-efficacy. Implications for theories of vocational interest development and change are considered.
Article
Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.
Article
This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual's physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed.
Article
Reliability coefficients often take the form of intraclass correlation coefficients. In this article, guidelines are given for choosing among 6 different forms of the intraclass correlation for reliability studies in which n targets are rated by k judges. Relevant to the choice of the coefficient are the appropriate statistical model for the reliability study and the applications to be made of the reliability results. Confidence intervals for each of the forms are reviewed. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).