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Transformational leadership and leader moral orientation: Contrasting an ethic of justice and an ethic of care

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Abstract

Previous research on the moral foundations of transformational leadership has focused on a Kohlbergian (1969, 1976) ethic of justice. However, proposed associations between level of justice reasoning and transformational leadership have received only partial support. We reasoned that an ethic of care would be more consistent with the nature of transformational leadership than would be an ethic of justice. Multilevel regression analyses on data obtained from a sample of leaders (N = 55) and followers (N = 391) at a Canadian university supported our predictions. Specifically, leader propensity toward using an ethic of care was significantly, positively related to follower perceptions of transformational (but not transactional) leadership. Leader propensity toward an ethic of justice was significantly, positively related to follower perceptions of transactional (but not transformational) leadership. Conceptual, research, and practical implications are discussed.

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... Although the foregone studies suggest that teacher leadership behaviours could be influenced by their gender, self-esteem, experience, age and educational level, these findings have also been contested in literature. For example in a study by Simola, Barling, and Turner (2010), the authors posited that gender and age did not predict transactional leadership style. Similarly, Zhu, Sosik, Riggio and Yang (2012) also argued that no relationship between transformational leadership and age as well as transformational leadership and gender. ...
... Groves and LaRocca (2011) documented that there was no relationship between gender and transformational leadership as well as active transactional leadership but found a relationship between gender and passive transactional leadership. However, Simola, Barling, and Turner (2010) found that gender and age does not predict transactional leadership style. Similarly findings in literature regarding experience and leadership behaviours is mixed. ...
... This finding are supported by Gonzalez, Green, Hodgson and Wheeler (2012) who posited that age did significantly influence transformational leadership style. The finding of the study contradicts the finding of Simola, Barling, and Turner (2010) and Zhu et al. (2012) who have revealed no relationship between transformational leadership. ...
Preprint
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The purpose of the study was to investigate how gender, experience, education, age and self-esteem of teachers do influence the type of leadership style they exhibit in ensuring effective learning. A quantitative design was adapted for the study. Primary data was collected using a questionnaire from 403 trained teachers, randomly selected from forty senior high schools across 10 regions in Ghana. Items of the survey questionnaire which were used to assess transactional and transformational leadership were adopted from the multifactor leadership questionnaire. Measures for self-esteem were selected from the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale. The Cronchbach's alpha measure of reliability was estimated for the construct. Data obtained during survey was coded, entered and analysed using SPSS version 21. Inferential techniques employed included the independent t-test and the Spearman correlation analysis. It was found that teachers employed the transformational leadership behaviours more than transaction behaviours. It was also found that self-esteem, experience, age did significantly correlate all transformational behaviours. Significantly differences were found to exist in gender for three transformational leadership behaviours and the contingency reward behaviour of the transactional leadership style. Recommendations were made based on the findings of the study.
... leader is a role model for directing ethical behaviors of Discussion and Conclusion subordinates (Simola et al., 2010). ...
... The first one transformational and burnout and the role of unethical is leader strengthens his subordinates and increases their behavior in this relationship were supported. It was participation aimed at work (Bass, 1999), inspires and determined that transformational relationship has a enables them to reach challenging goals ( (Crossen, 1993;Simola et al., 2010) and level of transformational leader. so establishing ethical behavior. ...
... Journal of Personality ethical behavior of employees and become role models and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173. (Simola et al., 2010), and ethical behavior within the organization can only be achieved by the establishment of Bass, B. M. 1996. A New Paradigm for Leadership: An an ethical system by the senior management, managers Inquiry into Transformational Leadership. ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to examine the effects of both transformational leadership and ethical behavior on burnout. Chosen by the convenience sampling method data were collected from health workers in Turkey. The data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, a multiple regression model and SOBEL Test. Findings revealed that transformational leadership perception has significant and negative effect on both burnout and unethical behavior. Besides, it was determined that unethical behavior has significant and positive effect on burnout. Finally, unethical behavior partially mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and the perception of burnout. The findings have significant implications for the theory and practice of management and leadership.
... The distinction has been applied to the leadership literature to help advance the understanding of leader behaviors. For example, Simola, Barling, and Turner (2010) found that leader justice orientation was positively related to follower perceptions of transactional (but not transformational) leadership, whereas leader care orientation was positively related to follower perceptions of transformational (but not transactional) leadership. ...
... (MMO-2;Liddell & Davis, 1996;Liddell, Halpin, & Halpin, 1992) was used in this study to gauge follower moral orientation. An earlier version of the measure was also used by Simola et al. (2010) to capture both justice and care orientation in a leadership context. The Measure of Moral Orientation has been shown to have good psychometric properties (Liddell & Davis, 1996;Liddell et al., 1992). ...
Article
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Leaders' expression of moral anger is considered important in curbing unethical behaviors and maintaining an ethical environment in organizations, but how it affects follower trust in leaders is unknown. The present research examines how leader anger expression in response to moral transgressions influences follower trust. I propose two paths through which leader moral anger affects follower trust: a character-based path whereby leader moral anger increases follower trust by elevating follower perceived leader integrity, and a relationship-based path whereby leader moral anger decreases follower trust by reducing follower perceived leader benevolence. I further propose that the balance of these mechanisms depends on follower moral orientation (i.e., justice orientation or care orientation). The results from two experimental studies did not provide support for the character-based path, but did provide tentative support for the relationship-based path between leader moral anger and follower affective trust. In addition, the results from the exploratory analyses indicated that leader moral anger had a negative direct effect on follower affective trust but not on follower overall trust. Theoretical and practical contributions are discussed and a revised model is proposed for the future research.
... An effective ethics education is one that encourages students to have skills in ethical decision making (Simola et al. 2010). In the context of the teaching of ethics, behavioral simulation aims to improve the skills, confidence and practice of ethical decision making (Thorne LeClair and Ferrell 2000). ...
... Effective ethics learning is learning that helps students to have the skills needed for making ethical decisions (Simola et al. 2010). Jagger et al. (2016) found that learning ethics using case-based visual simulations was able to build concepts and ethical decision-making skills. ...
Article
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Innovative learning techniques are needed, to match the expectations of the current audience to improve business ethics education for the twenty-first century. One of the innovative technologies which is believed to have a big effect on a bachelor’s degree is augmented reality (AR). Incorporating AR into the modern education system is expected to produce optimal augmentation in the learning and teaching environment. This will have a large impact on increasing students’ moral imagination. This study examines the use of AR-based behavior simulation, as an innovative technique for learning ethics, to improve moral imagination. This study employs a 3 × 2 experiment method, three training modes (AR-based behavioral simulation, paper-based-behavioral simulation, and no training) and two times (time one and time two) between- and within-subject factorial design. The subjects are 147 students on a business ethics course. The result of this study reveals that the use of AR-based behavior simulation can improve moral imagination.
... Charismatic leadership is one of the most frequently used behaviors in corporate America (Takala, 2010). This is because of the short supply of leadership abilities necessary to arrange large-scale transformations (Simola, Barling, & Turner, 2010). ...
... Charismatic leadership is one of the most frequently used behaviors in corporate America (Takala, 2010). This is because of the short supply of leadership abilities necessary to arrange large-scale transformations (Simola et al., 2010). ...
Research
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The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to explore participant perceptions regarding the suitability of charismatic leadership for R&D projects and to understand how top-level management, project managers, and project team members perceive charismatic leadership style for two different R&D departments at a corporation on the West Coast of the United States. Participants included five top-level managers, five project managers, and five project team members. This qualitative study addressed a lack of knowledge of the influence and power of charismatic leadership in project management. The suitability of the charismatic leadership style in the corporate environment, specifically within managing R&D projects, was also explored. The theoretical approach for the dissertation was of a charismatic leadership theory through the lens of social behavior, stemming from a desire to know how top-level management, project managers, and project team members perceive charismatic leadership style. Data were triangulated through pre-interview and demographic questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and a researcher’s log to a converging line of inquiry to explain the phenomenon. The findings showed that project management under the influence of a charismatic leader could provide a positive environment with leadership, loyalty, project management, relationships, and teamwork that inspire the project team’s performance as perceived by 15 participants. The findings add to the existing body of knowledge associated with charismatic leadership style by expanding the subject into the project management field relating to charismatic leadership theory. Keywords: Charismatic Leadership, Loyalty, Project Management, Qualitative Research, R&D Leadership, Relationships, and Teamwork
... Charismatic leadership is one of the most frequently used behaviors in corporate America (Takala, 2010). This is because of the short supply of leadership abilities necessary to arrange large-scale transformations (Simola, Barling, & Turner, 2010). ...
... Charismatic leadership is one of the most frequently used behaviors in corporate America (Takala, 2010). This is because of the short supply of leadership abilities necessary to arrange large-scale transformations (Simola et al., 2010). ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to explore participant perceptions regarding the suitability of charismatic leadership for R&D projects and to understand how top-level management, project managers, and project team members perceive charismatic leadership style for two different R&D departments at a corporation on the West Coast of the United States. Participants included five top-level managers, five project managers, and five project team members. This qualitative study addressed a lack of knowledge of the influence and power of charismatic leadership in project management. The suitability of the charismatic leadership style in the corporate environment, specifically within managing R&D projects, was also explored. The theoretical approach for the dissertation was of a charismatic leadership theory through the lens of social behavior, stemming from a desire to know how top-level management, project managers, and project team members perceive charismatic leadership style. Data were triangulated through pre-interview and demographic questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and a researcher’s log to a converging line of inquiry to explain the phenomenon. The findings showed that project management under the influence of a charismatic leader could provide a positive environment with leadership, loyalty, project management, relationships, and teamwork that inspire the project team’s performance as perceived by 15 participants. The findings add to the existing body of knowledge associated with charismatic leadership style by expanding the subject into the project management field relating to charismatic leadership theory. Keywords: Charismatic Leadership, Loyalty, Project Management, Qualitative Research, R&D Leadership, Relationships, and Teamwork
... "What did we do right?"and thus adopting a transformational type of leadership focusing on an ethic of care (Simola, Barling, and Turner 2010). Ethic of care relates to the interest in demonstrating commitment towards correct organisational practices and a translation of this could be applied to product safety. ...
... This refers to an empathetic approach where employees imagine themselves or members of their family in the user's place to ensure the product has good integrity. Simola, Barling, and Turner (2010) referred to an ethic of care, however it relates only to transformational leadership. While necessary in shaping worker perceptions on the importance of product safety, the concept of product safety ethic also refers to the individuals' own work attitudes (e.g. ...
Article
Do accidents where users are injured or killed by unsafe products reveal underlying weaknesses in the safety culture of the responsible organisations? While manufacturing firms have long been concerned with organizational culture factors that relate to product quality, there has been much less attention to the relationship with consumer safety. Product safety culture can be defined as the attitudes, norms, beliefs and behaviours of staff in manufacturing organisations that affect the integrity of a product in relation to the well-being of its users. There has been limited research into this type of safety culture, with the exception of several studies from the food industry. This exploratory study in one large company adopted a qualitative approach to identify the dimensions of product safety culture in the manufacture of engineered products. Study 1 consisted of phone interviews (8 managers, 2 workforce). Study 2 was on two UK manufacturing sites where interviews and focus groups were conducted (46 participants in total: 7 managers, 39 workforce). The transcriptions were coded using inductive thematic analysis to identify the main components of product safety culture. The findings indicated six principal dimensions: management commitment to product safety, communication, safety systems, trust, understanding of safety systems and product safety ethic. The first five dimensions are well-established components of culture relating to worker and process safety. The last dimension appears to be a distinctive component (compared to other types of safety culture) relating to an employee’s moral and ethical stance toward product safety, where user well-being is considered during product manufacture. This ethical component is a more novel feature which suggests that fostering concern for unknown product users may be an additional facet of product safety culture worth investigating in the effort to reduce the risks to consumers.
... Ethics in the view of Islamic leadership is maintaining ethical behavior and adhering to the principles of humanity and divinity. Ethical and moral principles are matters that must be maintained for every leader to be able to do justice Simola, Barling, and Turner (2010) and AC Ortega (2017). The implementation of leadership in Islam is also obliged to have a responsible attitude. ...
... The archetype of the caring leader has, in my view, received very inadequate attention from scholars; even encyclopaedias and handbooks of leadership research rarely include entries on care (for rare exceptions, see Ciulla, 2009;Simola et al., 2010). Yet, its importance can hardly be exaggerated, whether talking about military leaders like Nelson, political leaders like Mandela, religious leaders like Christ or the Dalai Lama or even business leaders such as paternalistic capitalists in the Cadbury mould. ...
... In this sense, it might be pointed out that ethical management is not only a key factor in reducing the uncontrollable and undesirable output of new products and services, but also the most effective way to generate radical innovations for the hotel. The rationale for this evidence might derive from the difference between transactional and transformational leadership, as far as there is a link between incremental and radical innovation and the former and latter management styles, respectively [97][98][99]. ...
Article
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This paper proposes a model to explain how ethics play a role to produce innovation in hospitality. Literature from social responsibility and ecological management was reviewed in order to state how ethical values induce advances by stimulating teams and breakthroughs. A survey was carried out based on structured questionnaires, filled in by 134 hotel managers in Gran Canaria (Spain). By means of path analysis, it was demonstrated the antecedent role played by ethical management to cause knowledge exchange in employees, as well as innovations in hotels. Nevertheless, breakthroughs cannot be induced if there is an extrinsically motivated environmental management. To be more specific, radical innovation was produced at a higher rate if managers highlighted the importance of ethics over profit, rather than if they placed profitability ahead of ethical considerations, notwithstanding that both approaches tend to provoke disruptive novelties. In addition, incremental innovations are a consequence of knowledge exchange between hotel employees. Finally, knowledge exchange is induced in the context of ethical leadership consisting of general social responsibility. The conclusions drawn from this work are that ethics is a causative part of innovation and that practical implications provide specific and differential measures that help to bring about incremental and radical innovation.
... Elde edilen bulgulardan öğretmenlerin iş doyumu düzeylerinin "memnunum" düzeyinde (Simola, Barling ve Turner, 2010). Öğretmenlerin olumlu öğrenme ortamı oluşturmada bireysel çaba göstermeleri gerektiği gibi okul müdürlerinin de bu çabaları destekleyecek davranışları göstermesi gerekir (Reitzug, 1989) . ...
Article
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Bu araştırmanın amacı ilkokul müdürlerinin dağıtımcı liderlik özellikleri ile öğretmenlerin iş doyumu algıları arasındaki ilişki düzeyini belirlemektir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre öğretmenlerin, okul müdürlerinin liderlik fonksiyonlarına ilişkin algılarının "sık sık" düzeyinde olduğu anlaşılmaktadır, öğretmenlerin liderlik ekibi uyumu alt ölçeğine yönelik algıları ise "katılıyorum" düzeyindedir. Öğretmenlerin iş doyumu "memnunum" düzeyindedir. Okul müdürlerinin dağıtımcı liderlik özellikleri ile öğretmenlerin iş doyumları arasında pozitif yönlü bir ilişki vardır. Öğretmenlerin görüşleri okulun bulunduğu ilçenin sosyoekonomik durumuna göre değişmektedir. Dağıtımcı liderlik algısının okulun bulunduğu sosyoekonomik koşullara göre nasıl değiştiğini içeren ve sosyoekonomik farklılıkların dağıtımcı liderlik algısına etkisini ölçen bilimsel çalışma sonuçları, Türkiye'deki okullarda dağıtımcı liderliğin uygulanmasına rehber olabilir. Anahtar Sözcükler: Liderlik, dağıtılmış liderlik, iş doyumu, öğretmen, ilkokul ABSTRACT The aim of this research is to determine the level of relationship between distributed leadership characteristics of primary school principals and perceptions of teachers' job satisfaction. According to the findings from the research; teachers' perception about school principals' leadership function * Bu makale, Doç. Dr. Figen Ereş danışmanlığında M. İbrahim Akyürek tarafından hazırlanan "İlkokul müdürlerinin dağıtılmış liderlik davranışları ile öğretmenlerin iş doyumu algıları arasındaki ilişki" başlıklı yüksek lisans tezinden üretilmiştir.
... Ethics in the view of Islamic leadership is maintaining ethical behavior and adhering to the principles of humanity and divinity. Ethical and moral principles are matters that must be maintained for every leader to be able to do justice Simola, Barling, and Turner (2010) and AC Ortega (2017). The implementation of leadership in Islam is also obliged to have a responsible attitude. ...
Article
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Purpose – This study aims to analyze the causality relationship between Islamic leadership style on employee engagement through empirical testing and anthropology economics approach. Research design, data, and methodology – The sample of this study 117 respondents who are employees of various levels of management in one of the FCMG industry in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Data collection with surveys. Data analysis through three steps, i.e., Pearson Correlation, The Second order modeling and also regression using SPSS. Results – Islamic leadership style has a positive and significant effect on employee engagement. The Islamic leadership that we developed in this study can be an alternative solution for organizations in today's modern business. Apart from those anthropological elements in the viewpoint of contemporary activity in the example in this study illustrate that to realize employee engagement, the role of organizational atmosphere and leadership, as well as management and team support has a genuine impact on accomplishing the company's goals and sustainability. Conclusions – The Islamic leadership that we developed in this study can be an alternative solution for organizations in today's modern business. The critical elements in embodying employee engagement are mainly in the skills, reliability, and level of trust of a leader in the organization.
... The managers responding to the survey viewed themselves as systematic. Systematic management was well realized and included goal-oriented management which may be seen to be comparable with 'visionary management' (22). However, in a study concerning nurse managers' leadership styles, it was found that over half of the respondents reported that they did not have sufficient skills and knowledge in the visionary leadership style, but their skills got better as they gained more work experience (23). ...
Article
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Background First‐line managers are links between an organizations’ administration and the workforce. They transmit information from higher managers to workers and vice versa. Their management skills and especially their interaction with staff are a key point in successful management. Aim To describe how first‐line managers realized appreciative management in their everyday management practice in health and social care. Method A quantitative descriptive study was conducted by means of an electronic survey among social and healthcare managers in Finland. Results Based on the self‐evaluations of the managers, appreciative management is well realized. The most recognition was given to equality and the least to appreciative know‐how. Connections were seen between appreciative management and gender, education, education level and managers with higher education, and those with fewer work units below them tended to have a better realization of appreciative management. Conclusion The education level of first‐line nurse managers is meaningful when realizing appreciative management in social and healthcare settings. Implications for nursing management More advanced education levels of first‐line managers help to promote appreciative management in social and health care, together with the amount of work units (meaning outpatient and inpatient wards). A first‐line manager is responsible for the needs of their workforce and needs to be critically assessed so that they might have more time for managing in an appreciative way. Appreciative management should be given increased focus when educating nurse managers.
... It has been argued by Burns (1978) that the modern leadership approach and process will proceed in two ways: Transformational and transactional leadership. The most important difference between transformational and transactional leadership can be expressed as following (Simola et al., 2010. p. 180): Transactional leaders set the standards to be followed and can punish those who do not follow these standards. ...
Article
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This study was conducted in order to determine the relationship between organizational managers' transformational leadership and organizations'corporate entrepreneurial behaviours and the effects of both on financial performance. For this purpose, a hierarchical regression analysis was executed on the data collected from 121 managers who work in some manufacturing industry firms operating in Turkey. Results of the hierarchical regression analysis showed that transformational leadership behaviours of the managers have an effect on the corporate entrepreneurship behaviours and financial performance of the organizations. In addition to this, it was found that corporate entrepreneurship behaviours had significant effects on financial performance of organizations. In this context, the relations revealed of theoretical background are generally supported and findings were discussed in the light of the literature.
... It has been argued by Burns (1978) that the modern leadership approach and process will proceed in two ways: Transformational and transactional leadership. The most important difference between transformational and transactional leadership can be expressed as following (Simola et al., 2010. p. 180): Transactional leaders set the standards to be followed and can punish those who do not follow these standards. ...
Article
This study was conducted in order to determine the relationship between organizational managers' transformational leadership and organizations'corporate entrepreneurial behaviours and the effects of both on financial performance. For this purpose, a hierarchical regression analysis was executed on the data collected from 121 managers who work in some manufacturing industry firms operating in Turkey. Results of the hierarchical regression analysis showed that transformational leadership behaviours of the managers have an effect on the corporate entrepreneurship behaviours and financial performance of the organizations. In addition to this, it was found that corporate entrepreneurship behaviours had significant effects on financial performance of organizations. In this context, the relations revealed of theoretical background are generally supported and findings were discussed in the light of the literature.
... The last decade has witnessed a growing interest in the connection between leadership and ethics (Simola, Barling, Turner, 2010). When considering the ethical dimensional through the spectrum of leadership, it can be observed that it aims to enhance employee and organizational behaviour. ...
Conference Paper
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Leadership plays a significant role in the success of any kind of organization and it is now more than ever in critical focus. Understanding how employees perceive leadership effectiveness is one of the crucial factors in organizational behavior and leadership scopes. However, plenty of studies were done in the scope of leadership in Iran; none have done a survey to find any kind of relationships between organizational size and leadership effectiveness. The main objective of the paper is to determine the strength and direction of the relationship of organizational size and leadership effectiveness perception. This study compares employees’ perceptions of leadership effectiveness in different organizations based on their size; through a survey of 81 different organizations and 8981 employees in this country by distributing a questionnaire that include 15 questions. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation which is a measure of the strength of the association between the two variables and the average of points for each category in order to find the correlation between these two variables. The results reveal weak and negative relationships between the size of organization and effectiveness of leadership based on four leadership effectiveness parameters which are mentoring, fairness and justice, empowerment and guidance. Our findings suggest that as number of employees at an organization increase, leaders should consider more different aspects in order to raise leadership effectiveness and subsequently leaders’ must be more sensitive in large organizations than medium and consequently medium more than small ones.
... Good examples of this kind of work are regularly published in both generalist and specialist journals (Price 2017;Simola et al. 2010), and in book form (Sinclair 2016;Wilson 2016). There is no good reason for this absence or neglect of this kind of thinking in this section-it provides the foundation for much of what is presented in at the largest general conferences, such as the US Academy of Management, the European Academy of Management, or the Indian Academy of Management. ...
... It is important to note that a lack of individualized consideration may also misdirect some well-intentioned leaders in negatively influencing followers. Authentic transformational leadership is associated with ethics of care that compels leaders to search for creative ways of simultaneously fulfilling competing personal, social and organizational responsibilities (Simola, Barling, & Turner, 2010). A leader should keep in view the follower's perspective and assess if a particular course of action would simultaneously benefit the person and the organization. ...
... The ethics of care were introduced by one of Kohlberg's graduate students when she noticed that Kohlberg had used only male research subjects but inappropriately generalized his theory to all (Simola, Barling, & Turner, 2010). Gilligan (1982) found that instead of relying on justice and fairness, many women tend to consider interpersonal and situational factors, too, focusing on maintaining relationships and connections among people. ...
Article
Human resource management deployments of social enterprises foster care among their members, encourage caring relationships, and enhance the visibility and impact of the diverse voices of their stakeholders and, ultimately, contribute to the creation of a caring organization. The results of this study emphasize the importance of ethics in social enterprises manifested primarily through human resource management practices. Our analysis confirms that the vast majority of social enterprises are motivated by the ethics of care. Social enterprises offer a unique context to juxtapose the ethics of care and ethics of justice because they are founded and operated by caring people but also have to achieve profitability that reliable decision‐making, objectivity, and impartiality.
... Visionary leadership envisages the future of sustainability and transformational leadership determines the change strategies to embed the concept of sustainability at HEIs. Moreover, transformational leadership can engage the relevant stakeholders for the collective purpose of sustainability (Simola, Barling, & Turner, 2010). Putting in the perspectives of this study, the academic administrators play a leadership role. ...
Article
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The transition of higher education institutions (HEIs) from a traditional role to a modern one has focused on the advancement of the innovative idea of sustainability in their functions. HEIs played their traditional role in promoting the disciplinary nature of teaching and research. The modern role of HEIs makes demands for not only knowledge to be promoted but also for the gap between academia and society to be bridged. This modern role is a fundamental principle of sustainability. Lack of understanding of the concept of sustainability causes hurdles in taking sustainable initiatives. The status of sustainability in Pakistan is in its infancy phase and poorly documented. It is due to the lack of conceptualizing sustainability that is underestimated and unexplored. This study explored how Pakistan Public Universities’ (PPUs) academic administrators conceptualize sustainability, universities’ role in promoting sustainability, and factors supporting or hindering sustainability. A qualitative approach was employed to conduct this study. Data were generated using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. A conceptual framework, comprising the role of universities, barriers and favourable factors to sustainability was used to analyse the data. Interviewees’ responses and documents were meticulously transcribed, read, re-read and coded and findings were presented in thematic form based on the conceptual framework. The study found that academic administrators were aware of the subject of sustainability but faced more constraints than incentives to promote sustainability. The study also found that PPUs are transforming partially into modern role. The findings indicated lack of interest and commitment from top leadership in engaging stakeholders and creating supportive environment to understand sustainability. The findings point out a serious need for concerted efforts from relevant stakeholders to comprehend and embed sustainability in HEIs functions.
... Such individuals are thought to manipulate their followers to internalize their own flawed values. They are considered controlling and while it may appear otherwise, they have little interest or empathy for others (Simola, Barling, & Turner, 2010). ...
Article
An indirect measure of transformational leadership integrity was developed across three studies. In Study 1, the transformational leadership integrity implicit association test (TLI-IAT) was developed and tested with 65 leaders across heterogeneous organizational contexts. Study 2 involved 51 coaches from 18 sports. Results from Studies 1 and 2 supported the construct validity of the instrument, providing evidence of the instrument's convergent and discriminant validity. Study 3 involved 32 coaches and 133 players from six sports. Findings supported the criterion validity of the measure, providing evidence for the instrument's predictive validity. In sum, evidence is presented that supports the TLI-IATs construct and criterion validity. As such, the present research has made significant advancements to the transformational leadership integrity literature and provides researchers with an indirect measure of automatic transformational leadership integrity self-attitudes.
... This ability includes responsibility which is the ability to understand the changes and respond them quickly; competency which is a set of abilities providing the productivity of activities to reach the goals of organizations. This factors encompasses a strategic perspective, proper hardware and software technology, quality of products, efficiency of cost, introduction of new products, management of change, personal knowledge and capability, efficiency and effectiveness of products, internal and external cooperation and integration (Shojaee, 2012). Flexibility includes the ability to produce and represent different products using the same resources and equipment dividing to four areas of product mass, product diversity, organization and individuals. ...
... Dado el extenso catálogo tipológico existente sobre liderazgo, en este trabajo nos centraremos en la contraposición entre liderazgo transaccional y transformacional (Burns, 1978;Bass, 1985) puesto que esta dicotomía, además de ser fructífera, nos permite arribar en el concepto de pseudoliderazgo. De hecho, recientes investigaciones (Simola, Barling y Turner, 2010;Ciulla, 2009) se han interesado por los aspectos éticos del liderazgo y cómo el lado oscuro de los líderes puede degenerar en pseudoliderazgo. ...
Article
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Leadership is one of the main roles of institutions and the lack of integrity of certain leaders affects the decision logic. The corruption of leadership degenerates into a pseudo-leadership which benefits from the principle of hierarchy that exists in all organizations. The lack of integrity of the leaders affects decision making and the structure of the organization. Corrupt dynamics often show regular and organized behavior because they adapt to an institutionalized script and to the existence of interpersonal networks. Corruption cases have stimulated in the last decade the elaboration of a legislative repertoire of codes of good governance in public administrations. Good governance codes are tools that aim to regulate the behavior of politicians. This work addresses the study of the preventive efficacy of good governance codes in the face of corrupt frames created in public institutions and focuses on a case study. El liderazgo es uno de los roles principales de las instituciones y la falta de integridad de ciertos líderes afecta la lógica de decisión. La corrupción del liderazgo degenera en un pseudoliderazgo, que se beneficia del principio de jerarquía que existe en todas las organizaciones. La falta de integridad de los líderes afecta a la toma de decisiones y a la estructura de la organización. Las dinámicas corruptas suelen manifestar un comportamiento regular y organizado porque se adaptan a un guion institucionalizado y a la existencia de redes interpersonales. Los casos de corrupción han estimulado en la última década la elaboración de un repertorio legislativo de códigos de buen gobierno en las administraciones públicas. Los códigos de buen gobierno son herramientas que tienen como objetivo regular el comportamiento de los políticos. Este trabajo aborda el estudio de la eficacia preventiva de los códigos de buen gobierno frente a marcos corruptos creados en instituciones públicas y se centra en un estudio de caso.
... However, Eisenbeiss (2012) points out that it also plays a central role in other religions like Islam and Sikhism. Fairness and justice are recurring topics in research on global leadership (e.g., Stahl et al., 2016), leadership ethics (Ciulla, 2006;Ciulla et al., 2018), theories of ethical leadership (Brown et al., 2005;De Hoog and Den Hartog 2009;Simola et al., 2010), and responsible leadership in evaluating consequences of utilitarian approaches and equity arguments focused on stakeholder inclusion and fairness (e.g. Waldman & Galvin, 2008, pp. ...
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... Transformational leadership discussed how to manage performance in organisations effectively while transactional leadership focuses on two aspects, management by exception and contingent reward. As elaborated in Simola et al., contingent rewards are rewards that are dependent upon actions whereas management by exception contains destructive reinforcement as well a scriticism [9]. ...
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This paper aims to identify and understand the mediating role of leadership styles on the association that exists between recruitment and selection and employee satisfaction. This study was conducted among 203 employees from four telecommunication companies in Yemen, namely Sabafon, MTN and Yemen mobile. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences tool was used and several statistical JIBC August 2019, Vol. 24, No.2-2-methods were involved in the data and statistical analysis including the maximum likelihood estimate. Regression techniques were applied to understand the dimensionality of the variables. The results showed that recruitment and selection has positive relationship on employee satisfaction. In addition, leadership is positively mediating the relationship between recruitment and selection and employee satisfaction. Moreover, the findings showed that appropriate process of recruitment, selection will lead the managers and management to a new dimension with holistic approach in the employee satisfaction arena. Based on the study findings, practical and theoretical implications were discussed.
... In particular, Gilligan's (1982) critique suggests that Kohlberg's model and scale has a male bias, overemphasizing individuality and justice, and failing to account for women's connectedness and caring. Gilligan's care theory of MD has been argued and shown to apply to both genders (Donleavy, 2008;Simola et al., 2010). Her approach to MD is applicable to the current discussion in that spirituality is also grounded in caring or love (Fry, 2003) and does not promote dispassionate detachment when engaging in moral determinations or actions. ...
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Interest in spirituality in the workplace and in leaders’ spirituality has grown in the last two decades, paralleled by the emergence of spiritual leadership theories and research. Despite evidence that spirituality is important to many leaders, the literature fails to adequately address the intersections of spiritual, leader, and moral development. A whole person and integrated approach to these three types of development seems beneficial to individual leaders, businesses, and society. In this article we first review spiritual, moral, and leader development literature. Then, drawing on the theory of being-centered leadership, we present a framework which addresses the parallel and intertwined nature of spiritual, leader, and moral development. Our proposed framework includes markers of the three types of development and is inclusive of multiple spiritual development traditions. Four practices and processes of spiritual development are also explored and related to leader and moral development processes. Implications for theory, research, and practice are presented.
... Meanwhile, transactional leadership is directly associated with the exchange between leader and follower while reaching independent objectives, where "the individual interests of person or groups going their separate ways" (Burns, 1978, p. 435) is the main characteristic of the relativistic ethics position. However, more empirical evidence is needed to prove the existence of these relationships (Ciulla, 1995;Groves & LaRocca, 2011;Simola et al., 2010). According to Nielsen (1989), leaders serve as models for organization subordinates when it comes to ethically appropriate behaviors and the way they respond to ethical dilemmas or problems. ...
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... Transformational leaders act as role models (i.e. idealised influence) by engaging in a prosocial and environmentally responsible attitude (Simola et al., 2010). ...
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Organizational researchers are increasingly interested in model ing the multilevel nature of organizational data. Although most organi zational researchers have chosen to investigate these models using traditional Ordinary Least Squares approaches, hierarchical linear models (i.e., random coefficient models) recently have been receiving increased attention. One of the key questions in using hierarchical linear models is how a researcher chooses to scale the Level-1 indepen dent variables (e.g., raw metric, grand mean centering, group mean centering), because it directly influences the interpretation of both the level-1 and level-2 parameters. Several scaling options are reviewed and discussed in light of four paradigms of multilevellcross-level research in organizational science: incremental (i.e., group variables add incremental prediction to individual level outcomes over and above individual level predictors), mediational (i.e., the influence of group level variables on individual outcomes are mediated by individual perceptions), moderational (i.e., the relationship between two individ ual level variables is moderated by a group level variable), and sepa rate (i.e., separate within group and between group models). The paper concludes with modeling recommendations for each of these paradigms and discusses the importance of matching the paradigm under which one is operating to the appropriate modeling strategy.
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The transactional and transformational theories of leadership developed by Burns (1978) and Bass (1985) are clarified and extended by using a constructive/developmental theory to explain how critical personality differences in leaders lead to either transactional or transformational leadership styles. The distinction between two levels of transactional leadership is expanded, and a three-stage developmental model of leadership is proposed.
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Senior executives are thought to provide the organization’s ethical ‘tone at the top’. We conducted an inductive interview-based study aimed at defining the perceived content domain of executive ethical leadership. We interviewed two types of key informants - corporate ethics officers and senior executives - about executive ethical leadership and then a contrasting category we labeled ‘ethically neutral’ leadership. Systematic analysis of the data identified multiple dimensions of ethical and ethically neutral leadership. The findings suggest that ethical leadership is more than traits such as integrity and more than values-based inspirational leadership. It includes an overlooked transactional component that involves using communication and the reward system to guide ethical behavior. Similarities and differences between ethics officers’ and senior executives’ perceptions also led to insights about the importance of vantage point and social salience in perceptions of executive ethical leadership. In order to be perceived as an ethical leader by those outside the executive suite, the executive must engage in socially salient behaviors that make the executive stand out as an ethical figure against an ethically neutral ground.
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This study looked at the relationship between the four factors of transformational leadership -- charisma, inspirational leadership, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration -- and leader's preference for unethical behavior. Five ethical scenarios -- bribery, endangering the physical environment, lying, personal gain, and favoritism -- were studied using a sample of 100 pairs of managers and subordinates from four multinational organizations in India. Relationships between leader's ethical preferences and three outcomes -- follower's willingness to put in extra effort, perceived effectiveness, and satisfaction -- were also analyzed. Findings indicate that inspirational leadership is negatively related to leader's preference for bribery and favoritism, and intellectual stimulation is negatively related to preference for bribery. Charisma and individualized consideration are not related to leader's ethical preferences. Follower's willingness to put in extra effort is also negatively related to leader's preference for bribery and favoritism. Results also suggest that organizational culture might moderate the relationship between transformational leadership and ethics.
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This study attempts to draw a value profile of a transformational leader – the leader who transforms people and organizations. It compares the terminal and instrumental value systems of leaders who are more transformational with those of leaders who are less transformational, using a sample of 95 pairs of leaders and subordinates of a non-profit organization in the United States. Findings reveal that transformational leaders do have some identifiable patterns in their value systems. They give relatively high priority to “a world at peace” and “responsible”, and relatively low priority to “a world of beauty”, “national security”, “intellectual”, and “cheerful”. Results also suggest that transformational leaders might give greater importance to values pertaining to others than to values concerning only themselves.
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This study was designed to collect reliability and validity evidence for the Measure of Moral Orientation (MMO), an instrument designed to measure the strength of care and justice as moral voices in college students. 381 college students completed the MMO, the World View Questionnaire, the Defining Issues Test (a measure of L. Kohlberg's developmental theory), and a personal data questionnaire. Several procedures were used to establish the validity of the MMO. Initial tests of internal consistency and validity on the MMO were satisfactory, although construct validity studies were limited by the lack of other appropriate instruments that may be related to care and justice as moral voices. Initial examination of demographic variables suggested that differences existed in moral voice. Females scored higher than males on both the care and justice scales, although only the difference in the care score was statistically significant. The findings suggest that the underlying structure is well defined, but the construction of items measuring justice needs careful consideration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Spiritual leadership theory (SLT) is a causal leadership theory for organizational transformation designed to create an intrinsically motivated, learning organization. Spiritual leadership comprises the values, attitudes, and behaviors required to intrinsically motivate one's self and others in order to have a sense of spiritual survival through calling and membership – i.e., they experience meaning in their lives, have a sense of making a difference, and feel understood and appreciated. The effect of spiritual leadership in establishing this sense of leader and follower spiritual well-being is to create value congruence across the strategic, empowered team, and individual levels to, ultimately, foster higher levels of organizational commitment, productivity, and employee well-being. The need to "work better and cost less" has driven efforts toward change at all levels of government. While improvement of neighborhoods, streets, and citizen's concerns have been extensively studied the focus on what public employees in cities think and feel has not been explored. For this purpose, issues within city organizations may be researched through an organizational approach known as "Spiritual Leadership" or Organizational Transformation though Spiritual Leadership Transformation (SLT). Different theories incorporated in Spiritual Leadership are briefly discussed to explain how they apply to SLT, the importance of performance measurements and a detailed six-step action plan. A study done with a Central Texas city and its employees by the authors of this paper is provided as an example of how Organizational Transformation through Spiritual leadership may be done.
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A causal theory of spiritual leadership is developed within an intrinsic motivation model that incorporates vision, hope/faith, and altruistic love, theories of workplace spirituality, and spiritual survival. The purpose of spiritual leadership is to create vision and value congruence across the strategic, empowered team, and individual levels and, ultimately, to foster higher levels of organizational commitment and productivity.I first examine leadership as motivation to change and review motivation-based leadership theories. Second, I note the accelerating call for spirituality in the workplace, describe the universal human need for spiritual survival through calling and membership, and distinguish between religion and spirituality. Next, I introduce a generic definition of God as a higher power with a continuum upon which humanistic, theistic, and pantheistic definitions of God can be placed. I also review religious- and ethics-and-values-based leadership theories and conclude that, to motivate followers, leaders must get in touch with their core values and communicate them to followers through vision and personal actions to create a sense of spiritual survival through calling and membership.I then argue that spiritual leadership theory is not only inclusive of other major extant motivation-based theories of leadership, but that it is also more conceptually distinct, parsimonious, and less conceptually confounded. And, by incorporating calling and membership as two key follower needs for spiritual survival, spiritual leadership theory is inclusive of the religious- and ethics and values-based approaches to leadership. Finally, the process of organizational development and transformation through spiritual leadership is discussed. Suggestions for future research are offered.
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Spiritual leadership theory (SLT) is a causal leadership theory for organizational transformation designed to create an intrinsically motivated, learning organization. Spiritual leadership comprises the values, attitudes, and behaviors required to intrinsically motivate one's self and others in order to have a sense of spiritual survival through calling and membership—i.e., they experience meaning in their lives, have a sense of making a difference, and feel understood and appreciated. The effect of spiritual leadership in establishing this sense of leader and follower spiritual survival is to create value congruence across the strategic, empowered team, and individual levels to, ultimately, foster higher levels of organizational commitment, productivity, and employee well-being.The primary purpose of this research is to test the SLT causal model that hypothesizes positive relationships among the qualities of spiritual leadership, spiritual survival, and organizational productivity and commitment using longitudinal data from a newly formed Apache Longbow helicopter attack squadron at Ft. Hood, Texas. The results provide strong initial support for SLT and its measures. A methodology was developed for establishing a baseline for future organizational development interventions as well as an action agenda for future research on spiritual leadership in general and Army training and development in particular. We conclude that spiritual leadership theory offers promise as a springboard for a new paradigm for leadership theory, research, and practice given that it (1) incorporates and extends transformational and charismatic theories as well as ethics- and values-based theories (e.g., authentic and servant leadership) and (2) avoids the pitfalls of measurement model misspecification.
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Hierarchical structured data cause problems in analysis, because the usual assumptions of independently and identically distributed variables are violated. Muth+®n (1989) described an estimation method for multilevel factor and path analysis with hierarchical data. This article assesses the robustness of the method with unequal groups, small sample sizes at both the individual and the group level, in the presence of a low or a high intraclass correlation (ICC). The within-groups part of the model poses no problems. The most important problem in the between-groups part of the model is the occurrence of inadmissible estimates, especially when group level sample size is small (50) while the intracluster correlation is low. This is partly compensated by using large group sizes. When an admissible solution is reached, the factor loadings are generally accurate. However, the residual variances are underestimated, and the standard errors are generally too small. Having more or larger groups or a higher ICC does not effectively compensate for this. Therefore, although the nominal alpha level is 5%, the operating alpha level is about 8% in all simulated conditions with unbalanced groups. The strongest factor is an inadequate sample size at the group level. Imbalance is only a problem for the overall fit test. For balanced data, the chi-square fit test is accurate. The size of the biases is comparable to the effect of moderate nonnormality in ordinary modeling, and in our view, the approximate solution remains a useful analysis tool, provided the group level sample size is at least 100
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Terms such as moral and ethical leadership are used widely in theory, yet little systematic research has related a sociomoral dimension to leadership in organizations. This study investigated whether managers' moral reasoning (n = 132) was associated with the transformational and transactional leadership behaviors they exhibited as perceived by their subordinates (n = 407). Managers completed the Defining Issues Test (J. R. Rest, 1990), whereas their subordinates completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (B. M. Bass & B. J. Avolio, 1995). Analysis of covariance indicated that managers scoring in the highest group of the moral-reasoning distribution exhibited more transformational leadership behaviors than leaders scoring in the lowest group. As expected, there was no relationship between moral-reasoning group and transactional leadership behaviors. Implications for leadership development are discussed.
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This study provided a comprehensive examination of the full range of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership. Results (based on 626 correlations from 87 sources) revealed an overall validity of .44 for transformational leadership, and this validity generalized over longitudinal and multisource designs. Contingent reward (.39) and laissez-faire (-.37) leadership had the next highest overall relations; management by exception (active and passive) was inconsistently related to the criteria. Surprisingly, there were several criteria for which contingent reward leadership had stronger relations than did transformational leadership. Furthermore, transformational leadership was strongly correlated with contingent reward (.80) and laissez-faire (-.65) leadership. Transformational and contingent reward leadership generally predicted criteria controlling for the other leadership dimensions, although transformational leadership failed to predict leader job performance.
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The authors report results from 2 studies assessing the extent to which narcissism is related to self- and other ratings of leadership, workplace deviance, and task and contextual performance. Study 1 results revealed that narcissism was related to enhanced self-ratings of leadership, even when controlling for the Big Five traits. Study 2 results also revealed that narcissism was related to enhanced leadership self-perceptions; indeed, whereas narcissism was significantly positively correlated with self-ratings of leadership, it was significantly negatively related to other ratings of leadership. Study 2 also revealed that narcissism was related to more favorable self-ratings of workplace deviance and contextual performance compared to other (supervisor) ratings. Finally, as hypothesized, narcissism was more strongly negatively related to contextual performance than to task performance.
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Feminist perspectives offer a revolutionary critical lens for studying families and for challenging traditional understandings of sex, gender, sexualities, conceptualizations of families, and individuals' family roles. Feminist thought considers issues of power on individual, relational, familial, institutional, structural, and global levels, as well as the interplay of power across these levels. Praxis (i.e., applying research to promote social justice), reflexivity (i.e., critical questioning of research practices), and the use of a diversity of feminist approaches are distinctive features of feminist thought in family studies. Feminist perspectives expose essentialist binaries (e.g., men/women); critique restrictive gendered roles in families (e.g., the disproportionate amount of women's family labor); question biological determinism as well as the myth of separate private/public spheres; and challenge other notions, including: (1) that families are unmitigated safe havens; (2) that there is one monolithic family; and (3) that one type of family is optimal.
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This chapter describes the multilevel aspects of varying parameters in structural models. There are two interesting statistical aspects that characterize appropriate multilevel modeling of these types of data. A heterogeneous population is observed. Individuals are observed within different groups, and it is realistic to assume that individuals of different groups obey different response processes and relationships between variables. There is no independence among all the observations. It is realistic to assume that individuals within a group share certain influencing factors and, hence, have correlated observations. These two aspects generally make standard modeling approaches of regression and structural equation modeling inappropriate. To take the heterogeneity feature into account, models with parameters that vary over observational units are necessary.
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In a longitudinal, randomized field experiment, we tested the impact of transformational leadership, enhanced by training, on follower development and performance. Experimental group leaders received transformational leadership training, and control group leaders, eclectic leadership training. The sample included 54 military leaders, their 90 direct followers, and 724 indirect followers. Results indicated the leaders in the experimental group had a more positive impact on direct followers' development and on indirect followers' performance than did the leaders in the control group.
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Popular media, communitarian writings, and recent management literature suggest that communities and organizations are rent by factional mischief: by individuals and groups who pursue their own selfish interests without regard for the common good. An emerging solution to this problem is “transformational” leadership, which seeks to refocus individuals’ attention on higher visions and collective goals. The dangers of such a solution were identified by James Madison at the Constitutional Convention of 1787; and mechanisms to thwart it were designed into the framers’ system of government. This article examines Madison’s objections and the implications of his political theory for the leadership of modern organizations.
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This research explores the proposition of Gilligan's 1982 work that there are two possible moral orientations—justice and caring. She takes issue with the work of Kohlberg because his stage theory proceeds toward a single orientation of justice and autonomy. Both women and non-Western cultures have been accused of failure to achieve Kohlberg's post conventional (justice-oriented) stage of moral reasoning. It was hypothesized that this is because they favor a caring ethic. The World View Questionnaire was administered to groups of American and Chinese students. The results found that women favor a caring orientation. The Chinese population quite significantly favored a justice orientation. This last result may be evidence of patterns of change in Chinese value systems.
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In this paper I argue that a greater understanding of the part of ethics in leadership will improve leadership studies. Debates over the definition of leadership are really debates over what researchers think constitutes good leadership. The ultimate question is not “What is leadership?” but “What is good leadership?” The word good is refers to both ethics and competence. Research into leadership ethics would explore the ethical issues of current leadership research, serve as a critical study of the field, analyze and expand normative theories of leadership, and develop new theories, research questions and ways of thinking about leadership.
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Using university residence staff as our leaders of interest, we explored the association of emotional intelligence and moral reasoning to leadership style and effectiveness. A total of 58 residence staff completed questionnaires assessing their emotional intelligence and moral reasoning. Subordinates (n=232) rated the residence staff’s leadership behaviours and effectiveness. Residence staff’s supervisors (n=12) also provided similar effectiveness ratings. Analysis showed that leaders who reported higher levels of emotional intelligence were perceived by their followers as higher in transformational leadership and more effective. Interestingly, having high emotional intelligence was not related to supervisor’s ratings of effectiveness. Supervisors associated greater job effectiveness with higher moral reasoning. Theoretical implications and practical applications of these findings are discussed.
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This article gives an introduction to some new techniques for multilevel covariance structure modeling with latent variables. Although these techniques only incorporate a subset of models that are relevant to multilevel data, the techniques do provide a large set of new analysis possibilities and have the advantage that they only require conventional structural equation modeling software. The presentation draws on methodology presented in earlier works by the author.
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Organizational researchers are increasingly interested in modeling the multilevel nature of organizational data. Although most organizational researchers have chosen to investigate these models using traditional Ordinary Least Squares approaches, hierarchical linear models (i.e., random coefficient models) recently have been receiving increased attention. One of the key questions in using hierarchical linear models is how a researcher chooses to scale the Level-1 independent variables (e.g., raw metric, grand mean centering, group mean centering), because it directly influences the interpretation of both the level-1 and level-2 parameters. Several scaling options are reviewed and discussed in light of four paradigms of multilevel/cross-level research in organizational science: incremental (i.e., group variables add incremental prediction to individual level outcomes over and above individual level predictors), mediational (i.e., the influence of group level variables on individual outcomes are mediated by individual perceptions), moderational (i.e., the relationship between two individual level variables is moderated by a group level variable), and separate (i.e., separate within group and between group models). The paper concludes with modeling recommendations for each of these paradigms and discusses the importance of matching the paradigm under which one is operating to the appropriate modeling strategy.
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presents a set of principles about how teams—and small groups in general—develop and function effectively / these are principles that have been validated in research on small groups and teams over the past 40 years / awareness of this information can guide the team leader who aims to transform a group composed of members who often differ in education, experience, attitudes, and beliefs, into an effective, cooperative, and high-performing team / present selected research findings and principles derived from these findings / examples also will clarify or illustrate applications of the principles to the full range of leadership (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Developed an objective instrument, the Measure of Moral Orientation (MMO), that measured the ethics of care and justice. The 89-item self-report inventory designed to assess the moral orientation of college students was pilot tested on 64 undergraduates. The MMO demonstrated sufficient internal consistency reliability and discriminant validity. The low correlations between care and the self-description of care and between justice and the self-description of justice suggest the need for revisions. The field test of the MMO with 366 college students also revealed adequate internal consistency reliability. Significant correlations were found to establish convergent validity, and the low correlations between the MMO and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator support the discriminant validity of the MMO. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Les données d'une étude en cours furent rassemblées dans trois conditions d'échantillonnage variées afin d'examiner si des cadres hommes et femmes, observés par leurs évaluateurs directs, avaient le même style de commandement. L'étude en cours se démarque d'une recherche beaucoup plus ancienne sur les différences entre hommes et femmes en leadership, en ceci que nous y avons examiné des différences dans les deux styles de leadership transformationnel et transactionnel, en utilisant le Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Dans les trois échantillons, les cadres féminins furent reconnues par des évaluateurs à la fois féminins et masculins comme manifestant des aspects-clés fondamentaux du leadership transformationnel (p. ex. charisme, considération individualisée) plus fréquemment que les hommes. Bien que la taille des échantillons fut généralement petites, les données de ces études suggèrent que les femmes ne sont pas moins transformationnelles que leurs homologues masculins et pourraient en fait l'être davantage. Le sexe des noteurs n'apparaît pas comme influençant les résultats obtenus.
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The morality of transformational leadership has been sharply questioned, particularly by libertarians, “grass roots” theorists, and organizational development consultants. This paper argues that to be truly transformational, leadership must be grounded in moral foundations. The four components of authentic transformational leadership (idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration) are contrasted with their counterfeits in dissembling pseudo-transformational leadership on the basis of (1) the moral character of the leaders and their concerns for self and others; (2) the ethical values embedded in the leaders' vision, articulation, and program, which followers can embrace or reject; and (3) the morality of the processes of social ethical choices and action in which the leaders and followers engage and collectively pursue.The literature on transformational leadership is linked to the long-standing literature on virtue and moral character, as exemplified by Socratic and Confucian typologies. It is related as well to the major themes of the modern Western ethical agenda: liberty, utility, and distributive justice Deception, sophistry, and pretense are examined alongside issues of transcendence, agency, trust, striving for congruence in values, cooperative action, power, persuasion, and corporate governance to establish the strategic and moral foundations of authentic transformational leadership.
Article
This paper explores the differences between Kohlberg's ethics of justice and Gilligan's ethics of care theories of moral development. Kohlberg models ideal adult moral development as a process of increasing abstraction and autonomy while Gilligan 's ideal moral adults are embedded in complex webs of caring relationships. Kohlberg pursues development of universal abstract moral principles while Gilligan's moral reasoning is contextual and grounded with a goal of taking ethical actions that preserve both the self and relationships with others.Kohlberg's cognitive moral development theory supports principled moral reasoning about short ethical dilemma cases, the method of ethics education commonly promoted in accounting. This approach to ethics education fails to develop complex problem resolution skills or explore societal and institutional causes and solutions to problems. Application of the ethics of care approach promotes satisfactory problem resolution, develops connected knowing skills, and encourages an expanded view of ethical problems.
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Leaders should be a key source of ethical guidance for employees. Yet, little empirical research focuses on an ethical dimension of leadership. We propose social learning theory as a theoretical basis for understanding ethical leadership and offer a constitutive definition of the ethical leadership construct. In seven interlocking studies, we investigate the viability and importance of this construct. We develop and test a new instrument to measure ethical leadership, examine the proposed connections of ethical leadership with other constructs in a nomological network, and demonstrate its predictive validity for important employee outcomes. Specifically, ethical leadership is related to consideration behavior, honesty, trust in the leader, interactional fairness, socialized charismatic leadership (as measured by the idealized influence dimension of transformational leadership), and abusive supervision, but is not subsumed by any of these. Finally, ethical leadership predicts outcomes such as perceived effectiveness of leaders, followers’ job satisfaction and dedication, and their willingness to report problems to management.
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In response to worries about the morality of transformational leadership, Bass and Steidlmeier [Leadersh. Q. 10 (1999) 181] distinguish between authentic transformational leadership and inauthentic or pseudo-transformational leadership. The present article analyzes the conception of authenticity at the core of this normative account of leadership. I argue that the distinction between authentic transformational leadership and pseudo-transformational leadership fails to ground a sufficient response to ethical concerns about transformational leadership. To the extent that this theory holds that altruism suffices for ethical success, it misses the fact that leaders sometimes behave immorally precisely because they are blinded by their own values. In the end, we can expect that this kind of blindness will come to bear importantly on the moral psychology of leadership and, in some cases, encourage transformational leaders to believe that they are justified in making exceptions of themselves on the grounds that their leadership behavior is authentic.
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Common applications of latent variable analysis fail to recognize that data may be obtained from several populations with different sets of parameter values. This article describes the problem and gives an overview of methodology that can address heterogeneity. Artificial examples of mixtures are given, where if the mixture is not recognized, strongly distorted results occur. MIMIC structural modeling is shown to be a useful method for detecting and describing heterogeneity that cannot be handled in regular multiple-group analysis. Other useful methods instead take a random effects approach, describing heterogeneity in terms of random parameter variation across groups. These random effects models connect with emerging methodology for multilevel structural equation modeling of hierarchical data. Examples are drawn from educational achievement testing, psychopathology, and sociology of education. Estimation is carried out by the LISCOMP program.
Article
C. Gilligan's (1982) critique of L. Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning and her assertion that two modes of moral reasoning (justice and care) exist have been the subject of debate within the field of psychology for more than 15 years. This meta-analysis was conducted to review quantitatively the work on gender differences in moral orientation. The meta-analysis revealed small differences in the care orientation favoring females (d = -.28) and small differences in the justice orientation favoring males (d = .19). Together, the moderator variables accounted for 16% of the variance in the effect sizes for care reasoning and 17% of the variance in the effect sizes for justice reasoning. These findings do not offer strong support for the claim that the care orientation is used predominantly by women and that the justice orientation is used predominantly by men.
Article
A meta-analysis of 45 studies of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles found that female leaders were more transformational than male leaders and also engaged in more of the contingent reward behaviors that are a component of transactional leadership. Male leaders were generally more likely to manifest the other aspects of transactional leadership (active and passive management by exception) and laissez-faire leadership. Although these differences between male and female leaders were small, the implications of these findings are encouraging for female leadership because other research has established that all of the aspects of leadership style on which women exceeded men relate positively to leaders' effectiveness whereas all of the aspects on which men exceeded women have negative or null relations to effectiveness.
Article
This study was a meta-analysis of the relationship between personality and ratings of transformational and transactional leadership behaviors. Using the 5-factor model of personality as an organizing framework, the authors accumulated 384 correlations from 26 independent studies. Personality traits were related to 3 dimensions of transformational leadership--idealized influence-inspirational motivation (charisma), intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration--and 3 dimensions of transactional leadership--contingent reward, management by exception-active, and passive leadership. Extraversion was the strongest and most consistent correlate of transformational leadership. Although results provided some support for the dispositional basis of transformational leadership--especially with respect to the charisma dimension--generally, weak associations suggested the importance of future research to focus on both narrower personality traits and nondispositional determinants of transformational and transactional leadership.
James Madison and the ethics of transformational leadership
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Wren, J. T. (1998). James Madison and the ethics of transformational leadership. In J. B. Ciulla (Ed.), Ethics, the heart of leadership (pp. 145−168). London: Quorum Books.
Care, ethics of The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management
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