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Abstract

It had been found that cosmetics do improve female facial attractiveness when judgments were made based on photographs. However, these studies were conducted only on laboratory and field studies are scarce in the literature and none of them have tested the effect of customers’ behavior. An experiment was carried out in restaurant in order to verify if waitresses’ makeup is associated with an increase in patrons’ tipping behavior. Female waitresses with and without makeup were instructed to act in the same way than usual with their patrons. Results showed that the makeup condition was associated with a significant increase in tipping behavior of the male customers.

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... Makeup application may also have corresponding effects on judgments that are important for successful resource competition (i.e., identifying traits related to dominance in others; Mileva, Jones, Russell, & Little, 2016). Complementing work on relationships between attractiveness and earnings (Hammermesh & Biddle, 1993), makeup use is related to tip earnings (Jacob et al., 2009) and, conversely, lack of makeup is associated with thin-slice judgments of having a low-status job (Nash, Fieldman, Hussey, Leveque, & Pineau, 2006). People appear to make implicit associations between makeup and status (Richetin, Croizet, & Huguet, 2004) and, in images of female models, makeup enhances perceptions of competence (Etcoff et al., 2011), complementing other work which suggests potential halo effects ascribed to women with makeup such as 'organized' (Graham & Jouhar, 1981), bright, and assertive (Osborn, 1996). ...
... Our findings develop work by Mileva and colleagues (2016) as our data suggest that their prior work, where women were afforded traits related to dominance when wearing makeup, is likely due to makeup enhancing their perceived effectiveness as a competitor for a male mate (i.e., attractive women; Vaillancourt, 2013) rather than perceptions of their ability to lead others. Although prior work associates makeup with social dominance (see Mileva et al., 2016), positive effects of makeup may be specific to certain roles within an organization, such as in service industry roles where attractiveness to clientele may be more important for eliciting prosocial responses (e.g., from customers via tipping; Jacob et al., 2009). Indeed, prior work suggests that makeup may have negative effects on judgments of performance depending on whether the position under evaluation is a stereotypically female occupation (Cox & Glick, 1986). ...
... Thus, we provide preliminary evidence that a subtle enhancement in facial coloration via makeup may have positive effects on how women are evaluated within the business environment. This factor may account for differences between our data, where makeup weakens perceptions of leadership ability, and prior work, which demonstrates a possible link between makeup and social status, albeit across studies that use different stimuli and methods (Etcoff et al., 2011;Jacob et al., 2009;Nash et al., 2006;Richetin et al., 2004). For example, further work could extend Etcoff et al. (2011), who examined judgments of female models, by altering the intensity of makeup application to test for its effects on judgments of women on other trait dimensions. ...
Article
Cosmetics alter social perceptions, and prior work suggests that cosmetic use may aid female intrasexual competition, making women appear more dominant to other women but more prestigious to other men. It is unclear whether these findings reflect general improvements in perceptions of traits related to women’s dominance or if they are specific to mating contexts only. Here, across two ethnicities, we examined effects of cosmetics used for a social night out on perceptions of women’s leadership ability, a trait that denotes competence/high status outside of mating contexts. Participants of African and Caucasian ethnicity judged faces for leadership ability where half of the trials differed in ethnicity (own- vs. other-ethnicity face pairs) and the subtlety of the color manipulation (50% vs. 100%). Regardless of the participant’s sex or ethnicity, makeup used for a social night out had a negative effect on perceptions of women’s leadership ability. Our findings suggest that, in prior work, women are afforded traits related to dominance, as makeup enhances perceptions of traits that are important for successful female mating competition but not other components of social dominance such as leadership.
... Results showed that when the confederates were wearing cosmetics, the number of solicitations was higher and the latency between the arrival of the confederates at the bar and the first solicitation was shorter. Another study used waitresses as confederates and had them wait on tables either made up or not while their tips were recorded [10]. Results a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 ...
... It is important to note that for both the bar study [9] and the restaurant study [10], confederates who usually wore cosmetics were selected. We believe that this methodological detail is of critical importance to the findings as there is a possibility that the results could, in part, be attributed to a 'cosmetics placebo effect'. ...
... Testing at a bar or a restaurant, in line with the previous studies [9,10], was not possible given the presence of mirrors, which would allow the confederate to notice she was not wearing cosmetics in the placebo condition. We therefore decided to test in an open-air location, where we had our confederate request donations from passersby. ...
Article
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Previous studies have found a positive effect of cosmetics on certain behavioral measures, such as the tip given to waitresses by male patrons. These studies have employed confederates who usually wear cosmetics. We therefore sought to examine whether the positive effect found in these studies could, in part, be explained by a change in behavior. In order to test the possibility of a ‘cosmetics placebo effect’, we employed a confederate to solicit donations from passersby. On some days our confederate would not have any cosmetics applied to her face (i.e., no cosmetics condition), on some days cosmetics were pretended to be applied to her face (i.e., placebo cosmetics condition), and on other days cosmetics were actually applied to her face (i.e., cosmetics condition). In line with previous research, we found that across conditions men donated significantly more than women to our female solicitor, providing support for the ‘showoff hypothesis’, in which male generosity serves as a mating tactic. When investigating men’s donations in more detail, we found that the highest percentage of donations came in the cosmetics condition, followed by the placebo cosmetics condition, and then by no cosmetics condition. The effect of condition on donation rates, however, was not statistically significant. Our study was limited to one solicitor and one dependent variable (i.e., percentage of people approached who donated) and therefore future research would benefit from using more confederates as well as examining other behavioral measures. Given the influence of cosmetics use on so many real-world outcomes, we believe that further exploration into a possible ‘cosmetics placebo effect’ would be valuable.
... and management (Curtis et. al., 2009). When the literature is examined, it is seen that studies generally examined why customers tip (Azar, 2004;Lynn, 2015;2016;Lynn & McCall, 2016;), tipping behavior and factors affecting the amount of tip (tip size) (Parett, 2015;Lynn, Adams & Douglas, 2008;Seiter, 2007;Bujisic, et. al., 2013;Curtis et. al. 2009;Jacob et. al., 2010;Seiter et. al., 2018;Gueguen & Jacob, 2014). These studies investigate the situations in which customers tip and factors affecting their tipping behaviors. There are a limited number of studies that discuss the issue from the viewpoint of employees. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the perception of employees about tipping consi ...
... Studies that examine the tipping behavior and the factors that affect the amount of the tip generally focus on the appearance or the behaviors of the server. In studies discussing whether the appearance enhances the tip or not show that beauty increases the amount of the tip (Parret, 2015), well made-up women get more tips from male customers (Jacob et al, 2010), waitresses wearing red get more tips from male customers based on the determination that red color makes women more attractive to men in the previous studies (Gueguen & Jacob, 2014). Considering the studies investigating whether the employee behaviors affect tipping or not, it has been asserted that compliment (Seiter, 2007), real smile (Bujisic, Wu, Matilla & Bilgihan, 2013), giving the remaining food packaged by the waiter to the customer (Seiter & Weger, 2018) increase the tipping. ...
... Dans l'espèce humaine par exemple, les femmes ont des préférences plus marquées pour les partenaires sexuels signalant une meilleure qualité parentale (Brase, 2006;Waynforth & Dunbar, 1995 , et chez le Lusciniole à moustaches (Acrocephalus melanopogon), les helpers réalisent la plupart de leurs comportements coopératifs en présence de femelles , et le fait que le comportement d'attente des Tisserins helpers soit indépendant de la présence dans l'auditoire du couple reproducteur qu'ils aident , rendent cette hypothèse alternative peu probable. (Lynn & Simons, 2000), et plus particulièrement à celles qui sont maquillées (Jacob et al., 2010). Dans la rue, ils donnent plus d'argent aux mendiants femmes qu'aux mendiants hommes (Goldberg, 1995), et quand ils sont accompagnés d'une femme, les hommes offrent plus d'argent aux mendiants des deux sexes . ...
... Enfin, aucun effet de l'interaction entre le taux de testostérone et la catégorie d'observateurs n'a été observé, que ce soit pour la probabilité de faire un don (χ 2 = 2,65, df = 2, p = 0,26) ( Table 2) ou pour le montant donné (F 2,30 = 0,07, df = 1, p = 0,93) ( Table 3). Globalement, nos résultats sont en accord avec les nombreuses observations indiquant que ce sont les hommes qui amplifient leurs comportements coopératifs en présence de partenaires sexuels potentiels (Goldberg, 1995;Jacob et al., 2010; (Gneezy et al., 2009), ainsi que dans de nombreux pays industrialisés (Gneezy et al., 2003;Niederle & Vesterlund, 2007;Niederle & Vesterlund, 2011), il a été montré dans une société matrilinéaire et matrilocale que ce sont les femmes qui sont les plus compétitives (Gneezy et al., 2009). Une compétition pour la coopérativité pourrait donc être observée chez les femmes de ces sociétés matrilinéaires et matrilocales en présences d'observateurs hommes. ...
Thesis
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Over the past 150 years, the evolution of cooperation has challenged evolutionary biologists. Cooperative behaviour provide a benefit to the recipient and can only be selected for if it also provides direct and/or indirect benefits to the actor that accepted the costs of the cooperative action. Many observations in humans and other animal species suggest that cooperative behaviour could be maintained by sexual selection. However, the hypothesis that sexual selection could be involved in the evolution of cooperation has not received much attention in the recent literature. In order to examine the potential role of sexual selection in cooperative behaviour, two biological models were used: humans and the Mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus). In two human populations (French and Senegalese populations), cooperativeness was quantitatively measured, mainly by an economic game (the public good game). The spontaneous cooperativeness exhibited during collective mound-building for overwintering was assessed in captivity for Mus spicilegus. The results partly support our predictions: (i) individuals cooperativeness increase in the presence of potential sexual partners, (ii) cooperators are preferred as sexual partners, (iii) these preferences lead to assortative mating based on cooperativeness. Moreover, they suggest that physical traits (visual, olfactory, or acoustic) could be used to detect individual cooperativeness. In humans, static facial traits seem to be involved, and some of them appear to be inter-culturally readable. Finally, a potential association between cooperative behaviour and testosterone levels, a sex hormone, was examined. Together, these results suggest that sexual selection could be involved in the evolution and the maintenance of cooperation. Furthers studies are needed, in different human populations and in different social species, to further investigate the role of sexual selection in cooperative behaviour.
... Makeup has also been linked with attractiveness in more ecologically-valid settings. For instance, Jacob, Guéguen, Boulbry, and Ardiccioni (2009) conducted a field study where two waitresses were either made up or not and their tips were recorded. Results showed that the waitresses received significantly higher tips on days when they wore makeup. ...
... In the cosmetics condition, the number of solicitations was higher and the latency between the arrival of the confederate at the bar and the first solicitation was shorter. These studies (Guéguen, 2008;Guéguen & Jacob, 2011;Jacob et al., 2009) suggest that the link between cosmetics and attractiveness found in laboratory studies (Cash et al., 1989;Cox & Glick, 1986;Graham & Jouhar, 1981;Hamid, 1972;Huguet et al., 2004;Jones et al., 2015;Mulhern et al., 2003;Osborn, 1996) translates to overt behaviors. Furthermore, Guéguen (2008) proposed that cosmetics may be associated with courtship behaviors not only because they increase attractiveness, but also because they may serve as a cue to availability. ...
Article
While the positive effect of makeup on attractiveness is well established, there has been less exploration into other possible functions of makeup use. Here we investigated whether one function of makeup is to signal sociosexuality. Using a large, well-controlled set of photographs, we found that faces with makeup were perceived to have more unrestricted sociosexuality than the same faces without makeup. Similarly, women wearing more makeup were perceived to have more unrestricted sociosexuality. The target women who were photographed also completed questionnaires about their makeup habits and the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory. Targets' self-reported sociosexuality was not associated with their makeup habits, with observer ratings of the amount of makeup they wore, or with observer ratings of their sociosexuality when attractiveness was controlled. Thus our study shows that people use makeup as a cue for perceiving sociosexuality but that it is an invalid cue.
... For example, facial makeup was associated with an increase in the number of male drivers who stopped to offer a ride for a hitchhiker, while makeup did not affect the frequency of stopping by female drivers (Guéguen & Lamy, 2013). Another field study indicated that waitresses wearing makeup obtained higher tips from male but not female consumers (Jacob et al., 2010). Thus, gender of the observant could also moderate the effect of makeup. ...
... In the ANOVA nested model we also control the role of gender of participant. Some field studies showed that influence of facial makeup could be stronger among male participants (Jacob et al., 2010). Other studies on perception of women wearing makeup (Bernard et al., 2020) did not report that gender was a moderator. ...
Article
Full-text available
Facial makeup has been associated with ambiguous social perception. Although women wearing makeup were perceived as attractive and warm, other studies indicated that they were also be perceived as dominant and less trustworthy. Makeup has been described as a tactic to attract mates and compete with rivals, which indicates that it may be perceived as a sign of an intention to exert influence. The present studies examined 382 participants to investigate whether the presence or absence of makeup would affect the attribution to women of attractiveness and the tendency to exert influence tactics to get what they want. In the first experiment, with two within-subjects factors design: makeup (no makeup vs. light makeup vs. full makeup) x interpersonal influence tactic, women with light or full makeup were perceived as more likely to use dominant, calculating and cold influence tactics compared to women with no makeup. Higher attractiveness attributed to women led participants to attribute a higher likelihood of dominance tactic to women with light makeup, but also a higher likelihood of warm, ingratiating and gregarious tactics to women with light and full makeup. In the second experimental study, with one between-subjects factor: makeup and one within-subjects factor: influence tactics, the makeup effect was non-significant. Attractiveness attributed to women predicted attribution of higher willingness to use warm but submissive influence tactics to women in no makeup condition, both submissive and dominant warm tactics in light makeup condition, and lower willingness to use cold influence tactics in heavy makeup condition. The results showed that the makeup effect on attribution of influence tactics may be due to attractiveness attributed to women wearing makeup.
... Plenty of studies have documented effects of the color red on perceptual processes of social stimuli across different research areas. According to research investigating the influence of facial makeup on women's attractiveness, red seems to play a fundamental role in the perception of faces (e.g.,1819202122232425). Additional research focused on the influence of the color red and other colors on perceptions of sex and ethnicity [26,27], age282930, identity [31,32], health [33,34], and attractiveness [11,12,15,29,30,35,36]. ...
... These and other factors as well as their effects on contextual variations of motivational goals should also be explored in future research. Nevertheless, red played a central role in our research on ''motivation in context'' as it is a stimulus that naturally occurs and can easily vary on human faces (e.g.,1819202122232425). ...
Article
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Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure) or approach of reward (e.g., mating) depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance) of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers' attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones) - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation.
... For instance, Miller et al.'s (2007) study found that naturally cycling lap dancers had higher tip earnings than those using the contraceptive pill, but part of that difference may be explained by a change in the amount of cosmetics worn by the dancers. Indeed, research has observed that waitresses receive higher tips when they are wearing cosmetics compared to when they are not (Jacob et al., 2009). This suggests it is likely that different makeup use explains part of the differences in attractiveness found between naturally cycling women and women using hormonal contraception. ...
Article
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Hormonal contraception is known to cause subtle but widespread behavioral changes. Here, we investigated whether changes in cosmetic habits are associated with use of the hormonal contraceptive pill. We photographed a sample of women (N = 36) who self-reported whether or not they use the contraceptive pill, as well as their cosmetic habits. A separate sample of participants (N = 143) rated how much makeup these target women appeared to be wearing. We found that women not using the contraceptive pill (i.e., naturally cycling women) reported spending more time applying cosmetics for an outing than did women who use the contraceptive pill. We also found that the faces of these naturally cycling women were rated as wearing more cosmetics than the faces of the women using the contraceptive pill. Thus, we found clear associations between contraceptive pill use and makeup use. This provides evidence consistent with the possibility that cosmetic habits, and grooming behaviors more generally, are affected by hormonal contraception.
... Morphological factors are not the only cues associated with men's judgment. Research studies have indicated that clothing appearance (Abbey, 1987; Abbey et al., 1987; Guéguen, 2011b; Koukounas & Letch, 2001; Shotland & Craig, 1988), clothing color (Guéguen, 2012b; Niesta Kayser et al., 2010), cosmetics (Cash et al., 1989; Jacob, Guéguen, Boulbry, & Ardicioni, 2009), or hair color (Guéguen & Lamy, 2009; Swami & Barrett, 2011) were related to variation in men's approach to and judgment of women. In accordance with these studies, it seems that shoes, more particularly shoe heel height, also act as a factor influencing men's approach to and judgments of women's attractiveness. ...
Article
Research has consistently shown that the appearance of women’s apparel influences men’s behavior and judgment. However, the effect of women’s shoe heels has received little interest. Female confederates wearing black shoes with 0-, 5-, or 9-cm heels walked on the street. In a first experiment, we examined the number of men in the street who smiled at the female confederate. More smiles were addressed to the confederate with high heels. In a second experiment, the confederates asked men and women to respond to a short survey. It was found that high heels increased males’ but not females’ compliance with the request. In a third experiment, the photography of the same woman’s body profile wearing high heels or not was evaluated by men. Results showed that high heels were associated with greater sexiness, overall physical attractiveness, breast attractiveness, beauty, attractiveness to other men, and willingness for a date. All the experiments supported the notion that high heels increase women’s attractiveness to men.
... Moreover, women have also been found to exhibit an awareness of self-presentation by wearing more cosmetics when anticipating meeting an attractive person for the first time ( Regan, 2011). These findings are consistent with other studies that tend to argue that people make judgments on generalized stereotypes (Jacob, Gué gen, Boulbry, & Ardiccioni, 2010;Adams & Huston, 1975). Given these findings, while the Hyperpersonal model offers an explanation for CMC, the TPB offers a model of explanation for behavioral intent via CMC channels. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Hyperpersonal Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior were integrated to explore self-esteem and use of beauty-related content on social media sites. A multiple regression model tested the relationship between beauty related social media use, enjoyment and self-esteem. Results indicate that participants who reported frequent use of beauty-based social media contents had higher self-esteem and greater engagement with online content. Implications and suggestions for research lines are offered.
... Previous research indicates that food servers' appearances and behaviors influence the tips they receive (for a detailed review, see Lynn, 2011). For example, servers earned larger tips when they wore cosmetics (Jacob, Guéguen, Boulbry, & Ardiccioni, 2010), hair ornamentation (Jacob, Guéguen, & Delfosse, 2012), or certain colors (Guéguen & Jacob, 2014) than when they did not. The authors of such studies often mention food servers' attractiveness as an explanatory mechanism for their results. ...
Article
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This study tested the effect of mutual introductions and calling customers by name on tipping behavior in restaurants. We hypothesized that mutual introductions at the beginning of the service encounter would result in larger tips. We also asked whether customer age would moderate the effect of mutual introductions on tipping behavior. Two female food servers waited on 194 customers and either facilitated mutual introductions (i.e., food servers introduced themselves by name and then invited customers to do likewise) or did not. Then, servers either used the customers’ names throughout the service interaction or did not. Finally, servers estimated customers’ ages. Multiple regression analysis indicated that food servers received a 6% increase in tips when they invited introductions and addressed customers by name than when they did not. However, customers’ estimated age was not associated with tipping behavior.
... Waitressing is an occupation where ''looking good'' is important regardless of restaurant type. For example, several studies have found that attractiveness (Lynn & Simons, 2000;May, 1980) and physical attributes associated with attractiveness and sexiness-such as breast size, decreased body size, having blond hair, and wearing facial cosmetics (Guéguen & Jacob, 2013;Jacob, Guéguen, Boulbry, & Ardiccioni, 2010;Lynn, 2009)-are related to receiving higher tips, particularly from male customers. These real financial rewards may increase the likelihood of waitresses engaging in selfobjectifying behaviors. ...
Article
The purpose of our study was to examine the relationships between experiences of working in sexually objectifying environments (SOEs) and psychological and job-related outcomes in a sample of 253 waitresses working in U.S. restaurants. Supporting our hypotheses, results indicated that SOEs were significantly positively correlated with waitresses’ experiences of interpersonal sexual objectification at work, internalization of cultural standards of beauty, and depression as well as negatively correlated with job satisfaction. Contrary to our hypotheses, SOEs were not directly related to self-objectification, body shame, self-esteem, or health habits. Furthermore, our findings revealed support for a theorized five-chain serial mediation model in which SOEs were related to job satisfaction both directly and indirectly via classic objectification theory processes (i.e., interpersonal experiences of sexual objectification in the restaurant environment, self-objectification, body shame, and depression). Finally, a direct positive link was found between interpersonal experiences of sexual objectification and depression. Our findings underscore the need to implement both individual- and system-level interventions to combat the existence of SOEs and the negative effects they may have on women.
... Wynika to jednak ze świadomego sprzeciwu wobec makijaży, ponieważ, jak wykazali RICHETIN i CROIZET (2004) za pomocą testu utajonych skojarzeń, na poziomie nieświadomym umalowane twarze kojarzone są z pięknem i innymi pozytywnymi cechami. Częstość i wysokość napiwków otrzymywanych od mężczyzn (ale nie od kobiet) jest większa, gdy kelnerka ma makijaż niż gdy go nie posiada (JACOB et al. 2010). Obecność makijażu zwiększa również częstość nagabywania kobiet przez mężczyzn w barze nocnym (GUÉGUEN 2008). ...
Research
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A newer version of the Polish text which has been published (in somewhat shortened form) as two English-language papers: "Facial attractiveness: General patterns of facial preferences" and "Facial attractiveness: Variation, adaptiveness and consequences of facial preferences".
... The literature examining the effect of cosmetics on social perceptions has, for the most part, used models with professionally-applied cosmetics in laboratory studies [9,10,17,30,31] as well as field experiments [12,13,44,45]. With our comparison of the effect size of cosmetics under both self-applied and professionally-aaaapplied conditions, it seems possible that some of the effects of cosmetics observed in the literature may be inflated. ...
Article
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Forms of body decoration exist in all human cultures. However, in Western societies, women are more likely to engage in appearance modification, especially through the use of facial cosmetics. How effective are cosmetics at altering attractiveness? Previous research has hinted that the effect is not large, especially when compared to the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals due to differences in identity. In order to build a fuller understanding of how cosmetics and identity affect attractiveness, here we examine how professionally-applied cosmetics alter attractiveness and compare this effect with the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals. In Study 1, 33 YouTube models were rated for attractiveness before and after the application of professionally-applied cosmetics. Cosmetics explained a larger proportion of the variation in attractiveness compared with previous studies, but this effect remained smaller than variation caused by differences in attractiveness between individuals. Study 2 replicated the results of the first study with a sample of 45 supermodels, with the aim of examining the effect of cosmetics in a sample of faces with low variation in attractiveness between individuals. While the effect size of cosmetics was generally large, between-person variability due to identity remained larger. Both studies also found interactions between cosmetics and identity–more attractive models received smaller increases when cosmetics were worn. Overall, we show that professionally-applied cosmetics produce a larger effect than self-applied cosmetics, an important theoretical consideration for the field. However, the effect of individual differences in facial appearance is ultimately more important in perceptions of attractiveness.
... Several empirical studies have instead identified several drivers of tipping behavior that are extraneous to the specific service or meal quality. For example, prior research has documented the relationships between tip amount and weather conditions or even specific characteristics of the servers (such as servers' gender, body shape, hair color, amount of cosmetics, and customer touching behavior) (Guéguen 2012;Jacob et al. 2010;May 1980;Rind and Bordia 1996;Stephen and Zweigenhaft 1986). Although color has not gained much attention as a research topic in this literature stream, a few recent works have tested color as a manipulation stimulus that improves servers' physical attractiveness (e.g., lipstick, clothing, or hair color) (Guéguen 2012;Guéguen andJacob 2012, 2014;Lynn et al. 2016). ...
Article
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This research examines how gold-related color in atmospherics might influence customer tipping behavior at restaurants. A series of five studies shows that the color gold (as opposed to other colors) in a service atmosphere positively influences consumer tipping. First, a field experiment (Study 1) demonstrates that customers presented with a gold-colored (vs. black-colored) service prop (i.e., bill folder) leave larger tips. Study 2 further confirms this effect of the color gold by validating the findings of Study 1 with a different service prop (i.e., tablecloth). Process evidence demonstrates the underlying mechanism of this effect, whereby a gold-colored service prop increases tipping by influencing status perceptions about the restaurant and the self (Study 3). Additional studies further confirm this by ruling out novelty of the color in this mechanism (Study 4) and by highlighting the effect of status on tipping through status priming (Study 5). The findings of this research have implications for strategic use of color in servicescape design and atmospherics in general.
... Cosmetics are used since ancient times and their purpose has been a combination of therapeutic effects with the desire for beauty [1]. In fact, according to literature, besides the positive effect on skin health, cosmetics, in particular make-up, play an important role in social interaction and attractiveness [147,148]. Currently, people are very concerned with their personal image, which gives the opportunity to develop innovative and appealing products [149]. Actually, new and more effective ingredients are one of the main consumers' requests. ...
Article
Delivery systems are extensively used in cosmetic products. This literature review describes some of the delivery systems used in the cosmetic industry, some general considerations about their presence and incorporation in cosmetic formulations, as well as their skin interactions. This review also covers the manufacturing process of a cosmetic cream formulation, including basic ingredients, natural antioxidants in particular. In addition, future perspectives, recent concerns, and further work regarding the cosmetic industry are also described.
... Nevertheless, consistent with the research that in the main supports attractiveness enhancement through cosmetics, both lab and field studies, particularly as conducted by evolutionary psychologists, have shown that women may use cosmetics effectively to enhance their attractiveness. This has been evidenced through more proceptive male behavior in a courtship setting (Guéguen, 2008), increased tipping of waitresses with versus without cosmetics (Guéguen & Jacob, 2011;Jacob et al., 2010), tentative support for increased donations through solicitation from passers-by , and increased focus on cosmetic use, through time spent and quantity used, when near ovulation (Guéguen, 2012). However, though restricted research suggests otherwise (Batres et al., 2018), it is also possible that the increased usage of cosmetics over ovulation, and change in behaviors of others solicited by such use, may be attributable to selfpromotion and advertisement of a less restricted sociosexuality-in other words, cosmetic usage may be perceived by others as an indicator of "availability as a mate" as opposed to "facial attractiveness" (Korichi et al., 2008(Korichi et al., , 2011Wagstaff, 2018). ...
Article
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Given the wealth of literature on appearance manipulation generally, it is, perhaps, surprising that cosmetic usage receives so little empirical attention, and perhaps reflects a patriarchal approach to “appropriate” research areas. Incorporating a postfeminist approach, the current study aims to address, in part, this lacuna by providing a contemporary synopsis of the various and diverse motivations for cosmetic usage. Online, written responses to a semi-structured questionnaire were collected. In response to six broad questions, for example, “Why do you currently use cosmetics?”, respondents were encouraged to write, in as much detail as they liked, on their motivations for using cosmetics. Thematic analysis, using deductive and inductive approaches, revealed four main themes: “Multiple selves”—Conformity, Impression Management, and Judgment; Enhancement and Confidence; Fun, Creativity and Well-being; and Signification and Identity. Whilst some of these themes had been anticipated and, indeed, sign-posted in prior literature, the weight of interest in particular areas was unexpected (e.g., in terms of Fun, Creativity, and Well-being), whilst other areas did not receive the expected attention (e.g., in mate attraction). Additionally, and worthy of future research, entirely new areas also emerged (e.g., cosmetics for fun and creativity).
... Tip is an extra fee paid voluntarily by the customer in consideration of the service provided by the employee for certain jobs. When the literature about tip is examined, it can be seen that studies focus on reasons of tipping (Azar, 2010a;Azar, 2010b;Lynn, 2015;Lynn and McCall, 2016), the characteristics of the occupational groups that are tipped (Lynn, 2016), situations and behaviors that affect the amount of tip (Parett, 2015;Seiter, 2007;Bujisic, Wu, Matilla and Bilgihan, 2013;Jacob, Gueguen, Boulbry and Ardiccioni, 2010;Seiter and Weger, 2018). Tipping behavior is shaped depending on the traditional structure of each country (Shamir, 1984). ...
Conference Paper
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The city of Edirne is located at the crossroads of Asia and Europe, hosting the busy borders with Greece and Bulgaria. The city center is only 7 km from Greece and 17 km from Bulgaria. Edirne has been blessed with not only historical, but also natural and cultural riches. More specifically Edirne, historically known as Hadrianopolis, was founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian, served as the third capital of the Ottoman Empire for almost a century, and houses numerous ancient sites from different civilizations and religions (Islam, Christian, Jewish, and Baha’i). All these factors make Edirne a vibrant and potentially very attractive tourism destination for various types of tourists, including but not limited to history devotees, gastronomy enthusiasts, nature lovers, crossborder visitors/shoppers and so on. Since 1360, Edirne has hosted Kırkpınar Oil Wrestling Tournament, which is now a festival on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List of Humanity. All these and many other attractions/offerings make Edirne important for international and domestic tourism. Moreover, tourism plays a substantial role in Edirne’s economic well-being as a significant direct and indirect revenue generator and source of employment. Before the COVID-19 pandemic hit global tourism and limited the travel industry, Edirne hosted 5.5 million tourists (international and domestic), at its 37 accommodation establishments. However, given the significance of tourism, there is a lack of a unifying tourism master plan for the city. Thus, this paper aims to present a detailed analysis of Edirne’s strengths and weaknesses as a tourism destination and what opportunities and threats it …
... For example, when quality of service was analyzed, customers believed that friendliness and speed were the most important factors that motivated them to tip ( Jewell, 2008). Likewise, different studies proved that server attractiveness was found to be a significant motivational factor for customers' to leave tips ( Jacob and Guéguen, 2012;Jacob, Guéguen, Boulbry, and Ardiccioni, 2010;Lynn, 2009;Koku, 2005;Lynn and Simons, 2000;Hornik, 1992;May, 1980;Stillman and Hensley, 1980). Similarly, server attentiveness to customers' was positively associated with their intention to leave a tip, especially in countries where customers value behaviors that constitutes status display ( Star, 1988;Lynn, 1994Lynn, , 1997Lynn, , 2000Lynn, Zinkhan, Harris, 1993). ...
Article
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Tipping is an important and prominent phenomenon in the Egyptian society especially in restaurants. Despite its importance, the phenomenon of tipping did not receive sufficient attention from researchers in the field of hospitality in Egypt. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were; (1) to determine the different tipping motivators/dimensions for tipping reported in previous researches in the context of the hospitality industry worldwide, (2) to indicate the importance of these motivators/dimensions in the Egyptian hospitality context through a field study conducted on Egyptian restaurants' customers, (3) to understand the relationship among the different motivators/dimensions of tipping, and (4) to investigate the difference in perceiving the importance of these motivators/dimensions among different demographic groups of customers. To achieve the objectives, this study used a quantitative and qualitative data collection approach through reviewing the literature and distributing online questionnaires that were developed based on reliable and validated scales developed by previous researchers. The population of the study included restaurant customers in Egypt. Due to the large population size, it was difficult to use random sampling techniques. Therefore, convenience sample was used and accordingly 663 questionnaires were collected from which 651 were valid for data analysis. Results of the study indicated that rewarding service quality recorded the highest importance among other motivators/dimensions when it comes to explain Egyptian customers' tipping motivations followed by the quality of food and beverages, seeking better service in future visits, assisting service employees, gaining social approval, following social norms and the desire to impress others. Additionally, results indicated that rewarding service quality, gaining social approval, and the desire to impress others are more important tipping motivators/dimensions for male rather than for female customers. On the other hand, helping service employees, seeking better future service, following social norms and quality of food and beverages are more important tipping motivators/dimensions for female rather than for male customers. Finally, results supported the existence of a significant and positive relationship between all the tipping motivators/dimensions. In addition, limitations, future research directions and implications for restaurants' managers were presented in this study.
... Tip is an extra fee paid voluntarily by the customer in consideration of the service provided by the employee for certain jobs. When the literature about tip is examined, it can be seen that studies focus on reasons of tipping (Azar, 2010a;Azar, 2010b;Lynn, 2015;Lynn and McCall, 2016), the characteristics of the occupational groups that are tipped (Lynn, 2016), situations and behaviors that affect the amount of tip (Parett, 2015;Seiter, 2007;Bujisic, Wu, Matilla and Bilgihan, 2013;Jacob, Gueguen, Boulbry and Ardiccioni, 2010;Seiter and Weger, 2018). Tipping behavior is shaped depending on the traditional structure of each country (Shamir, 1984). ...
Conference Paper
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Destination Management Organisations (DMO’s) have gained ultra-importance in marketing especially in the external and the internal destination development activities. (Presenza, Sheehan, & Ritchie, 2005). Pike and Page (2014) in their narrative analysis of literature on destination brands and DMO for forty years highlights the importance of aligned communication with all stakeholders. A thorough literature review of journal articles till 2018 was carried out by (Ruiz- Real, Uribe-Toril, & Gázquez-Abad, 2020), and opportunities and new challenges were discussed. Destination Branding, as a concept started to evolve as early as the 90’s (Oppermann, 2000). Researchers had earlier developed on the concepts of branding of cities and image of destinations (Morgan, Pritchard, & Pride, 2011). Skinner (2008) highlighted the emergence of place marketing research alongside the emergence of services marketing as a distinct subject area within marketing. Later on Park, Cai, and Lehto (2009) developed conceptual models to explain collaborative destination branding. Tasci and Gartner (2009) suggested an integrative marketing communications approach with both qualitative and quantitative methods for assessment of destination brands. (Kumar & Nayak, 2014) insisted on holistic perspectives to measure the destination personality. Pike (2014) also tracked the brand performance of a competitive set of destinations over time. Hence to further investigate the roles and responsibilities of DMO’s we propose a systematic literature review of articles from 2018 to 2021 by searching databases like Scopus, EBSCO, ProQuest-ABI/INFORM, Emerald Insight and Science Direct. Keywords with the term’s destination marketing organisations and destination management organisations and their abbreviations along with the term’s destination branding and destination marketing were used for the search. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol was used to funnel down the selection of articles.
... Nevertheless, consistent with the research that in the main supports attractiveness enhancement through cosmetics, both lab and field studies, particularly as conducted by evolutionary psychologists, have shown that women may use cosmetics effectively to enhance their attractiveness. This has been evidenced through more proceptive male behavior in a courtship setting (Guéguen, 2008), increased tipping of waitresses with versus without cosmetics (Guéguen & Jacob, 2011;Jacob et al., 2010), tentative support for increased donations through solicitation from passers-by , and increased focus on cosmetic use, through time spent and quantity used, when near ovulation (Guéguen, 2012). However, though restricted research suggests otherwise (Batres et al., 2018), it is also possible that the increased usage of cosmetics over ovulation, and change in behaviors of others solicited by such use, may be attributable to selfpromotion and advertisement of a less restricted sociosexuality-in other words, cosmetic usage may be perceived by others as an indicator of "availability as a mate" as opposed to "facial attractiveness" (Korichi et al., 2008(Korichi et al., , 2011Wagstaff, 2018). ...
Article
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Article provides a contemporary synopsis of the various and diverse motivations for cosmetic usage using thematic analysis of written scripts.
... Tip is an extra fee paid voluntarily by the customer in consideration of the service provided by the employee for certain jobs. When the literature about tip is examined, it can be seen that studies focus on reasons of tipping (Azar, 2010a;Azar, 2010b;Lynn, 2015;Lynn and McCall, 2016), the characteristics of the occupational groups that are tipped (Lynn, 2016), situations and behaviors that affect the amount of tip (Parett, 2015;Seiter, 2007;Bujisic, Wu, Matilla and Bilgihan, 2013;Jacob, Gueguen, Boulbry and Ardiccioni, 2010;Seiter and Weger, 2018). Tipping behavior is shaped depending on the traditional structure of each country (Shamir, 1984). ...
... In addition, research suggests that food servers' verbal and nonverbal communication affects customers' tipping behavior (see Lynn, 2011). Past studies, for instance, found that servers' earn higher tips when they compliment customers (Seiter, 2007;Seiter and Weger, 2010), leave messages on customers' checks (Guéguen and Legoherel, 2000;Jacob et al., 2013;Rind and Bordia, 1995;Rind and Strohmetz, 1999;Seiter and Gass, 2005), wear cosmetics and certain colors (Guéguen, 2012;Guéguen, and Jacob, 2012;Jacob et al., 2010), forecast good weather (Rind, 1996), mirror customers' behavior (van Baaren et al., 2003), give free candy (Strohmetz et al., 2002), and tell jokes (Guéguen, 2002). ...
Article
The three experiments presented here examined the effectiveness of restaurant servers who memorize customers’ orders rather than writing orders down. In the experiments, participants viewed videos of simulated server-diner interactions and provided ratings of service quality and expected tip amount. Experiment 1 found no advantage to memorizing orders over writing them down. Experiment 2 found that memorized and correctly delivered entrees resulted in statistically significant increases in customers’ perceptions of service quality and in marginally higher tips. In addition, muddled (versus correct) orders resulted in lower ratings of service quality and dramatically lower anticipated tips. Experiment 3 found that memorizing and muddling complex orders had no effect on perceptions of service quality but led to significantly lower expected tips. The applied and theoretical implications of these results are discussed.
... Tip is an extra fee paid voluntarily by the customer in consideration of the service provided by the employee for certain jobs. When the literature about tip is examined, it can be seen that studies focus on reasons of tipping (Azar, 2010a;Azar, 2010b;Lynn, 2015;Lynn and McCall, 2016), the characteristics of the occupational groups that are tipped (Lynn, 2016), situations and behaviors that affect the amount of tip (Parett, 2015;Seiter, 2007;Bujisic, Wu, Matilla and Bilgihan, 2013;Jacob, Gueguen, Boulbry and Ardiccioni, 2010;Seiter and Weger, 2018). Tipping behavior is shaped depending on the traditional structure of each country (Shamir, 1984). ...
... Hair cosmetic market has been looking for new ingredients and technologies to create formulations for the protection, treatment and adornment of hair. Its role in the protection and thermal regulation of human body, together with is social relevance, makes hair a target for the development of innovative and appealing products (Jacob et al., 2010;Ueno et al., 2014). Fragrances have been extensively used in cosmetic products to an ample variety of consumer products including perfumes, soaps, and personal care products (Ciriminna and Pagliaro, 2013). ...
Article
Hair perfumes are becoming a trend all over the world and new cosmetic formulations have been developed to address this recent need. In the present study, we developed a system for the controlled delivery of perfumes on hair, based on zein, a protein derived from maize, and on keratin. The Keratin:Zein particles, obtained using different strategies and proportions of zein and keratin, presented a high stability along storage, related with the presence of keratin on the particles’ formulation. When applied on hair, the particles formed a film-like structure over the fibers. Fragrance diffusion from the hair-coated particles was dependent on the temperature, the method of particles’ preparation and the fragrances’ physicochemical properties (melting point and vapor pressure). The particles formulations showed also the capacity to improve hair’s mechanical properties and hydration degree. The new system based on Keratin:Zein particles revealed high potential for the development of personalized hair cosmetic products allowing adjustments depending on the personal sensory preferences.
... 6 CLOUD AND PERILLOUX that despite perceptions of prestige and status, female servers wearing makeup receive more and higher tips (Jacob, Guéguen, Boulbry, & Ardiccioni, 2010), suggesting that resource acquisition is another possible function of cosmetic use. Given the variety of motivations potentially underlying women's cosmetic use, research exploring moderating variables, such as relationship or ovulatory status, could help determine whether and how women apply cosmetics differently to achieve specific goals (e.g., mate attraction vs. status competition). ...
... Tip is an extra fee paid voluntarily by the customer in consideration of the service provided by the employee for certain jobs. When the literature about tip is examined, it can be seen that studies focus on reasons of tipping (Azar, 2010a;Azar, 2010b;Lynn, 2015;Lynn and McCall, 2016), the characteristics of the occupational groups that are tipped (Lynn, 2016), situations and behaviors that affect the amount of tip (Parett, 2015;Seiter, 2007;Bujisic, Wu, Matilla and Bilgihan, 2013;Jacob, Gueguen, Boulbry and Ardiccioni, 2010;Seiter and Weger, 2018). Tipping behavior is shaped depending on the traditional structure of each country (Shamir, 1984). ...
... In addition, women who put on makeup are more likely to have good jobs and higher salaries. Those who lack interest in such beauty products are women with low work positions and little earnings (15,16). Nielsen and Kernaleguen add that facial attractiveness provides the applier satisfaction and professional success (2). ...
Article
Synopsis The objective was to assess the variables related to the usage of cosmetic products among a representative sample of the Lebanese population, including self-perception, facial attractiveness satisfaction, body image, and self-esteem. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted between January 2018 and June 2018, which enrolled 2,072 female participants using a proportionate random sample from all Lebanese Mohafazat. The results of a linear regression, taking the customary cosmetic usage score as the dependent variable, showed that an increase in the self-esteem score (β = −0.21) and being of Muslim religion compared with Christianity (β = −1.39) were signifi cantly associated with lower cosmetic usage score. On another hand, an increase in the appearance orientation (AO) score (β = 0.55) and having a high (β = 2.18) and an intermediate (β = 0.99) socioeconomic status compared with a low one were associated with a higher cosmetic usage score respectively. According to our study, the use of cosmetic products by Lebanese women is associated with many factors such as AO, self-esteem, socioeconomic status, religion, and marital status. These results can open a window to other studies that might consider the relationship between personality traits, depression, and anxiety with the frequency of makeup use.
... The effect of physical attractiveness has been a subject of interest in the marketing and service industry. In hospitality, it was shown that tips received by female waitresses from male customers were positively related to service providers wearing makeup [27] and certain colored clothes [22]. Both these studies were conducted in the field, and attractiveness was rated based on physical appearance during the interaction in a restaurant setting. ...
Conference Paper
In the service industry, customers often assess quality of service based on the behavior, perceived personality, and other attributes of the front line service employees they interact with. Interpersonal communication during these interactions is key to determine customer satisfaction and perceived service quality. We present a computational framework to automatically infer perceived performance and skill variables of employees interacting with customers in a hotel reception desk setting using nonverbal behavior, studying a dataset of 169 dyadic interactions involving students from a hospitality management school. We also study the connections between impressions of Big-5 personality traits, attractiveness, and performance of receptionists. In regression tasks, our automatic framework achieves R2 = 0.30 for performance impressions using audio-visual nonverbal cues, compared to 0.35 using personality impressions, while attractiveness impressions had low predictive power. We also study the integration of nonverbal behavior and Big-5 personality impressions towards increasing regression performance (R2 = 0.37).
... Uluslararası literatürde bahşiş konusunda yapılmış birçok çalışma vardır. Hava durumunun (Flynn & Greenberg, 2012), çalınan müzik türünün , servis personelinin makyajının (Jacob, Gueguen, Boulbry & Ardiccioni, 2010), hatta saç renginin bahşiş davranışını nasıl etkilediğine dair (Gueguen, 2012) çalışmalar görülmektedir. Ancak bahşiş, birkaç çalışma dışında, Türkçe literatürde hiç çalışılmamış bir konudur. ...
... Thus, we consider the head scarfed waitress in the study community more visually appealing and more accepted. According to Lynn and Simons (2000), the attractive waitresses gained a larger tip that shows clearly that visual appeal and acceptance are obtained from the head scarf in the Jordanian Muslim society while the appeal in non-Muslim or Western societies is derived from makeup, hair and clothing colour etc. (Jacob, et al., 2010). However, it is a must to conduct more studies in Islamic societies to examine the effect of attraction and acceptance of the waitress with factors other than head scarf (hijab), as well as to expand the study population and sample to make the sample more representative. ...
Article
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The main aim of this hypothetical study was to clarify the impact of the head scarf (Hijab) of a Muslim waitress on tipping behavior in restaurants and the degree of acceptance the waitress gained based on her image when she is wearing the headscarf (Hijab) or when she is not. also The study also explored the impact of gender, job title and age variables relating to women. The study was conducted on a sample of the staff and members of faculty at Yarmouk University in northern Jordan, and the sample comprised 826 people who responded to an online survey. The study concluded that there is a clear influence of the head scarf (Hijab) on tips where the waitress with a head scarf (hijab) tended to receive greater tips than a waitress without one on. Members of the study sample were more accepting to the image of the head scarfed waitress (with hijab). The study also showed that male members of the teaching staff and the older age groups paid more to the head scarfed waitress (with hijab) and they showed more acceptance to the image of the waitress with hijab, thus showing reasonable acceptable cultural bias. The study recommended that females in Jordanian society need to know that their head scarves will not hinder their work in the restaurant sector and that they will likely be more acceptable and will probably gain a larger share of tips, due to the fact that the Jordanian society have shown attention to the waitress with head scarf (hijab) at the expense of the one without a hijab. The study recommends the necessity for conducting more studies on the Arab environment to investigate other behaviors and variables that have other influences on tips and for expanding the scope of the study.
... Nie zauważono jednak tej zależności u klientek. 20 Wnioski Z przeprowadzonego badania nasuwają się 2 wnioski. Makijaż jako zabieg upiększający znacząco poprawia samopoczucie kobiet i są one tego świadome. ...
Article
The paper examines the influence of age and similarity in appearance to other customers on one's attitude to a resort, patronage and interactive intentions. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten resort guests, followed by a factorial between-subjects experiment on 189 young females using written scenarios along with sketches. The data were analysed from a dual-perspective depending on the subjects' preferences for either a burkini or a bikini by means of MANCOVA. The patronage and interactive intentions to other customers among those who preferred bikini swimsuits were found to be influenced by similarity in appearance only when unknown customers were young. The attitude to the resort and patronage intentions among customers who preferred burkini swimsuits were found to be unaffected by differences in appearance. Burkini-wearing females considered similarity in appearance as most important, followed by the age of unknown customers when they formed their interactive intentions toward others.
Article
Research has found that the appearance of women's apparel helps increase their attractiveness as rated by men and that men care more about physical features in potential opposite-sex mates. However, the effect of sartorial appearance has received little interest from scientists. In a series of studies, the length of women's shoe heels was examined. A woman confederate wearing black shoes with 0, 5, or 9 cm heels asked men for help in various circumstances. In Study 1, she asked men to respond to a short survey on gender equality. In Study 2, the confederate asked men and women to participate in a survey on local food habit consumption. In Study 3, men and women in the street were observed while walking in back of the female confederate who dropped a glove apparently unaware of her loss. It was found that men's helping behavior increased as soon as heel length increased. However, heel length had no effect on women's helping behavior. It was also found that men spontaneously approached women more quickly when they wore high-heeled shoes (Study 4). Change in gait, foot-size judgment, and misattribution of sexiness and sexual intent were used as possible explanations.
Article
Recent research conducted with humans demonstrated that red, relative to other achromatic or chromatic colors, led men to view women presented on a photograph as more attractive. The effect of color on behavior was tested in a tipping context. Eleven waitresses in five restaurants were instructed to wear the same tee shirt with different colors (black, white, red, blue, green, or yellow). The effect of color on tipping according to patron's gender was measured. It was found that waitresses wearing red received more tips but only with male patrons. Waitresses color had no effect on female patrons' tipping behavior. The relation between red and sexual attractiveness are used to explain the results. Managerial interests related with clothing appearance were discussed. © 2012 International Council on Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Education.
Article
Previous research has demonstrated that makeup increases perceived women’ attractiveness and femininity for men. However, the effect of lipstick had never been tested.An experiment was carried out in restaurant in order to verify if waitresses’ lips makeup is associated with an increase in patrons’ tipping behavior. Female waitresses with and without lipstick were instructed to act in the same way than usual with their patrons. Results showed that lipstick, and particularly red lipstick, was associated with greater male patrons (but not female patrons) tipping behavior. The increase of attractiveness and femininity of waitresses wearing lipstick and red lips was used to explain the results.
Article
van Baaren et al. (2003) found that a waitress who mimicked their patrons by repeating their order received significantly larger tips. In this study, we tried to replicate these results by testing the effect of repetition after a delay between the customer's initial order and the repetition. A waitress was instructed to mimic or not half of their customers by repeating their order verbatim when she brought the order to the table. Mimicry increased the frequency in tipping and the amount of money left by the customers.
Article
This paper looks at the effect of beauty on earnings using restaurant tipping data. Customers were surveyed as they left a set of five Virginia restaurants about the dining experience, their server, and themselves, including about their tip and their server’s beauty and productivity. I find that attractive servers earn approximately $1,261 more per year in tips than unattractive servers, the primary driver of which is female customers tipping attractive females more than unattractive females. Potential explanations of this earnings gap are drawn from both the labor and experimental economics literatures, the most compelling of which is customer taste-based discrimination.
Article
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Makeup accentuates three youth-related visual features – skin homogeneity, facial contrast, and facial feature size. By manipulating these visual features, makeup should make faces appear younger. We tested this hypothesis in an experiment in which participants estimated the age of carefully controlled photographs of faces with and without makeup. We found that 40- and especially 50-year-old women did appear significantly younger when wearing makeup. Contrary to our hypothesis, 30-year-old women looked no different in age with or without makeup, while 20-year-old women looked older with makeup. Two further studies replicated these results, finding that makeup made middle-aged women look younger, but made young women look older. Seeking to better understand why makeup makes young women look older, we ran a final study and found evidence that people associate makeup use with adulthood. By activating associations with adulthood, makeup may provide an upward bias on age estimations of women who are not clearly adult. We propose that makeup affects social perceptions through bottom-up routes, by modifying visual cues such as facial contrast, facial feature size, and skin homogeneity, and also through top-down routes, by activating social representations and norms associated with makeup use.
Article
With empirical insights gained across a series of studies, the current research examines the technology-facilitated preservice tipping encounter. Drawing on the tip-enhancing literature and the spatial crowding theory, this research reveals the divergent impacts of tip suggestion on consumers’ tipping behaviors and their satisfaction with the digital payment experience. Our findings show that, while effective in elevating tipping amount, the presence of tip suggestion can frustrate consumers and impose a detrimental impact on their satisfaction with the online payment experience. Particularly, this effect is contingent on the design of the digital payment page: The negative effect of tip suggestion on satisfaction with the payment experience is more profound when the digital payment page follows a crowded layout but mitigated when the layout is spacious. Findings from the current research offer timely contributions to theory and practice with an evolving perspective on the technology-facilitated preservice tipping encounter.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the appearances of Chinese restaurant employees, including gender and the style and color of dress, influence the appetites and additional order intentions of customers. Design/methodology/approach This research implemented questionnaire survey. Consumers in Chinese restaurants of international tourist hotels located in Taipei, Taiwan, were targeted as research objects. After deleting questionnaires with incomplete answers, the researchers obtained 818 valid questionnaires for data analysis. Findings The analysis results indicate that the gender, style of dress and degree of color coordination of a waitperson’s clothing can significantly influence consumer perceptions and feelings. Originality/value The analysis of this study implies that restaurant management should stress professional attendant training. By strengthening training and regulating attendant style, a management team can effectively improve upon their customers’ recognition of a business. This research addresses the influence of different dress style and dress color combinations on consumer appetites and additional order intentions.
Article
The effect of employees’ physical appearance on tipping is well documented. The effect of clothing appearance, however, has not been examined. A pizza delivery man wearing a two-piece suit or casual clothes served as confederate. The tip size of 55 customers was measured. It was found that the well-dressed employee received higher tips. These results and their implications are discussed.
Article
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The colour of our skin and clothing affects how others perceive us and how we behave. Human skin colour varies conspicuously with genetic ancestry, but even subtle changes in skin colour due to diet, blood oxygenation and hormone levels influence social perceptions. In this review, we describe the theoretical and empirical frameworks in which human colour is researched. We explore how subtle skin colour differences relate to judgements of health and attractiveness. Also, because humans are one of the few organisms able to manipulate their apparent colour, we review how cosmetics and clothing are implicated in courtship and competition, both inside the laboratory and in the real world. Research on human colour is in its infancy compared with human psychophysics and colour research in non-human animals, and hence we present best-practice guidelines for methods and reporting, which we hope will improve the validity and reproducibility of studies on human coloration. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application’.
Article
Research has demonstrated that women near ovulation change their appearance in order to look more attractive. I hypothesized that, near ovulation, women would use more cosmetics. In a first study, female participants received an LH test in a laboratory setting to determine their fertility risk. Participants estimated the time they had spent putting on makeup, and two female professional makeup artists evaluated the level of makeup use. Results showed that, near ovulation, women spent more time putting on makeup and makeup artists evaluated their level of use to be higher and of better quality. In a second field study, the level of cosmetics use by women in nightclubs and bars on a Saturday night was measured. Near ovulation, the level of cosmetics use was higher.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of service providers’ attractiveness in service jobs and examine the underlying psychological mechanisms that may explain consumers’ different attitudes and potential behavior. Design/methodology/approach – An experimental design was utilized in this paper. Study 1 used a scenario depicting a front-desk agent performing check-in procedures and Study 2 used a scenario depicting a restaurant server. Data were analyzed using Hayes’ (2013) PROCESS macro. Findings – Study 1 demonstrated the mediating effect of perceived interpersonal skills in the relations between front desk agent attractiveness and participant positive word-of-mouth and service satisfaction. Study 2 reaffirmed this finding and showed that the attractiveness of servers positively impacted participants’ perceptions of the servers’ interpersonal skill and participants’ tipping behavior. Furthermore, the relation between attractiveness and interpersonal skills was moderated by servers’ genders and participants’ levels of self-esteem, such that the effect was stronger in response to female servers for participants with relatively low self-esteem. In addition, the effect of the three-way interaction among server gender, server’s level of attractiveness, and participant’s level of self-esteem on tipping was mediated by participant’s perceived interpersonal skills. Originality/value - This article investigated the under-researched constructs of participants’ self-esteem and service providers’ gender and their moderating roles within the service context. These results suggest that responses to service providers can be impacted by the attractiveness and gender of the provider and customers’ self-esteems, despite equivalent objective performance of the provider.
Article
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Women wearing cosmetics have been associated with a higher earning potential and higher status jobs. However, recent literature suggests that status can be accrued through two distinct routes: dominance and prestige. In two experiments, we applied a standardized amount of cosmetics to female faces using computer software. We then asked participants to rate faces with and without cosmetics for various traits including attractiveness, dominance, and prestige. Men and women both rated the faces with cosmetics added as higher in attractiveness. However, only women rated faces with cosmetics as higher in dominance, while only men rated them as higher in prestige. In a follow-up study, we investigated whether these enhanced perceptions of dominance from women were caused by jealousy. We found that women experience more jealousy toward women with cosmetics, and view these women as more attractive to men and more promiscuous. Our findings suggest that cosmetics may function as an extended phenotype and can alter other’s perceptions differently depending on the perceiver’s sex.
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Technology is changing frontline service scripts. Businesses are now using mobile point-of-sale applications (e.g., Square) and mobile technology (e.g., iPad) to prompt customers for tips. Tip requests are occurring more frequently at the start of service transactions, before any service has been provided. This research examines how requesting a tip either before or after service completion affects customers and service providers. We test the effects of preservice versus postservice tip sequence in four studies (a natural experiment in the field and three controlled experiments) across food and beauty service contexts. Findings reveal that requesting a tip before (vs. after) completing a service leads to smaller tips, reduced return intentions, diminished word-of-mouth intentions, and lower online ratings. Inferred manipulative intent is revealed as the psychological mechanism underlying the harmful effects of requesting a tip before service. Findings suggest that emphasizing the benefits of automated point-of-sale systems can reduce, but not eliminate, the negative effects of preservice tip requests. Contrary to norms within the service industry, we find that service providers should avoid requesting tips before serving customers.
Article
Based on the norm of reciprocity, this study hypothesized that food servers would earn higher tips when they boxed customers’ leftovers compared with having customers’ box leftovers themselves. In addition, the effect of writing messages (i.e., the date and/or customer’s name) on boxes of leftovers was explored. Two female food servers waited on 608 diners and boxed or did not box leftovers, and wrote or did not write messages on boxes. The hypothesis was supported. However, writing messages was not associated with tipping behavior.
Article
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Waitresses completed an on-line survey about their physical characteristics, self-perceived attractiveness and sexiness, and average tips. The waitresses' self-rated physical attractiveness increased with their breast sizes and decreased with their ages, waist-to-hip ratios, and body sizes. Similar effects were observed on self-rated sexiness, with the exception of age, which varied with self-rated sexiness in a negative, quadratic relationship rather than a linear one. Moreover, the waitresses' tips varied with age in a negative, quadratic relationship, increased with breast size, increased with having blond hair, and decreased with body size. These findings, which are discussed from an evolutionary perspective, make several contributions to the literature on female physical attractiveness. First, they replicate some previous findings regarding the determinants of female physical attractiveness using a larger, more diverse, and more ecologically valid set of stimuli than has been studied before. Second, they provide needed evidence that some of those determinants of female beauty affect interpersonal behaviors as well as attractiveness ratings. Finally, they indicate that some determinants of female physical attractiveness do not have the same effects on overt interpersonal behavior (such as tipping) that they have on attractiveness ratings. This latter contribution highlights the need for more ecologically valid tests of evolutionary theories about the determinants and consequences of female beauty.
Article
It has been found that cosmetics do improve female facial attractiveness when judgments were made based on photographs. Furthermore, these were laboratory studies and no field study exists in the literature. An experiment carried out in a field context was conducted in order to verify if makeup is associated with higher attractiveness in a courtship context. Female confederates with and without makeup were seated in two bars on Wednesday and Saturday nights in an attractive spot on the West Atlantic coast of France. Each experimental session lasted one hour. The number of men's solicitations and the latency of the first solicitation were used as dependent variables. Results showed that the makeup condition was associated with a higher number of male solicitations and a shorter latency between the arrival of the confederates in the bar and the first courtship solicitation of a male.
Article
Thirty-eight American female college students completed several body-image measures and were photographed while wearing their typical facial cosmetics and following the removal of their makeup, in a counterbalanced within-subject experimental design. Results indicated more positive body-image cognitions and affect in the cosmetics-present than the cosmetics-absent condition. The more makeup typically worn by the subject, the greater the body-image differences between the two cosmetics conditions. Sixteen peer judges rated the attractiveness of the women in either the cosmetics-present or the cosmetics-absent photograph. Male judges were less favorable when the women were cosmetics free; female judges were not differentially affected. Findings are discussed in the context of a dynamic state-trait perspective that physical appearance is not simply a fixed, immutable attribute, but rather is altered by individuals to manage and control their self- and social images.
Article
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of cosmetics use on impression formation. The study was a single factor experiment with three levels of cosmetics (heavy, moderate, none). Eighty-five undergraduate females viewed one of three colored photographs of a professional model wearing either heavy, moderate, or no cosmetics and indicated impressions of her attractiveness, femininity, personal temperament, personality, and morality by checking 7-point Likert-type scales. Analysis of variance revealed no significant difference on impressions of personal temperament or personality traits based on cosmetics use. Cosmetics use did significantly affect impressions of attractiveness, femininity, and morality.
Article
Tested whether smiling could accrue monetary returns. Two degrees of smiling to 96 single adult men and women by a waitress in a cocktail lounge (a college student confederate) were evaluated in terms of number of drinks ordered, size of tip, and whether the customers smiled upon departure. A broad smile reaped more money than a minimal smile and more from the men than from women patrons. Results are discussed in terms of reciprocal altruism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tips represent a substantial portion of restaurant waiters' and waitresses' incomes. We report a study that examines several potential predictors of the differences in servers' average tip earnings. Our results indicate that servers earn larger average sales-adjusted tips if they are attractive females, better service providers, and high self-monitors. However, these effects hold up only for evening tips. None of the variables in this study predicted servers' average lunch tips. The methodological, theoretical, and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
The study explored whether 4 Caucasian women would be evaluated differently on 4 social measures depending on whether they were presented with or without makeup. Participants—152 men and 171 women—were split into 2 groups and were presented with the women's facial photographs either with or without cosmetics. Women presented wearing cosmetics were perceived as healthier and more confident than when presented without. Participants also awarded women wearing makeup with a greater earning potential and with more prestigious jobs than the same women without cosmetics. The results suggest that women can successfully employ cosmetics to manipulate how they are assessed, which may be advantageous in social situations where women may be judged on their appearance, such as job interviews.
Article
Physical appearance is an integral component of self-presentation in all social situations, including that of applying for a job. This project investigated the relationship between employment evaluations of women and one aspect of their appearance under the individual's control—the use of varying degrees of cosmetics. Cosmetics use was found to be positively correlated with perceived attractiveness, femininity, and sexiness. Based on resume evaluations, however, cosmetics use had a negative effect on the expected performance of female applicants for a gender-typed (secretary) position, but no effect on the expected performance of female applicants for a nongender-typed (accountant) position. Makeup thus appears to strengthen sex role stereotypes associated with traditionally feminine jobs.
Article
The study reported here forms part of an investigation of what psychological benefits, if any, exist for the user of cosmetics. A central theme in the work on physical attractiveness is that if one is physically attractive one is assumed to have a more ideal personality than someone of lesser attractiveness. If cosmetics really do make people look more physically attractive, then with the use of cosmetics others should perceive people more favourably in terms of personality characteristics. This study, therefore, attempted to find out whether cosmetics really do improve appearance ratings (by males and females) and in result improve ratings of personality. Colour photographs of four female stimulus persons of average physical attractiveness in each of four modes (neither make-up nor hair care; make-up but no hair care; no make-up but hair care; both make-up and hair care) were evaluated by a judge panel of sixteen males and sixteen females. The amount, extent and style of use of facial make-up and hair care was no more than would be in everyday use. Each judge saw one stimulus person in each mode but no stimulus person in more than one mode in a counter-balanced design, using 7-point rating scales of six appearance and fourteen personality dimensions. Two hypotheses were confirmed: It is not certain from this study whether persons using cosmetics are rated more favourably than without cosmetics because they are seen as more physically attractive and in result acquire more favourable ratings for attributes which are associated with being physically attractive or whether there is a direct effect on perceived personality, independent of enhancement of physical attractiveness, or both. Either explanation is possible, though there is some support for the idea that the use of cosmetics (or at least hair care) may have a direct effect on perceived personality. If this were so, it would suggest the existence of a separate positive cosmetic stereotype which carries its own concept ‘what has been cared for is good’. This stereotype would form an extension of the ‘what is beautiful is good’ stereotype for physical attractiveness. Otherwise, and as a result of the work reported here, the latter might become ‘what has been made beautiful is good’, when cosmetics are used.
Article
This study sought to investigate whether cosmetics do improve female facial attractiveness, and to determine whether the contribution of different cosmetic products are separable, or whether they function synergistically to enhance female beauty. Ten volunteers were made up by a beautician under five cosmetics conditions: (i) no make-up; (ii) foundation only; (iii) eye make-up only; (iv) lip make-up only; and (v) full facial make-up. Male and female participants were asked to view the 10 sets of five photographs, and rank each set from most attractive to least attractive. As predicted, faces with full make-up were judged more attractive than the same faces with no make-up. Sex differences within the results were also apparent. Women judged eye make-up as contributing most to the attractiveness. Men rated eye make-up and foundation as having a significant impact on the attractiveness of a full facial makeover. Surprisingly, lipstick did not appear to contribute to attractiveness independently.
The effects of women's cosmetics on men's courtship behavior
  • Guéguen
Gué guen, N., 2008. The effects of women's cosmetics on men's courtship behavior. North American Journal of Psychology 10, 221–228.