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Effects of shared parent–infant book reading on early language acquisition

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Abstract

This study investigated whether shared parent–infant book reading at 4 and 8 months would be associated with subsequent language abilities at 12 and 16 months. Parents of 87 typically developing middle-class infants reported on the presence or absence of shared reading in the home; infant language abilities were measured through laboratory assessment and parent report. Results indicated that shared reading at 8 months was related to 12-month language abilities (particularly for girls) and 16-month language abilities over and above 12-month language scores. Moreover, there was a statistically significant effect of shared reading on expressive language but not on receptive language. Reading at 4 months was not significantly related to later language. Findings support the efficacy of reading to 8-month-old infants. Furthermore, relationships between shared reading and later language might depend on the genders of the parent and the infant. More research is needed to clarify what parents say and do when reading to pre-verbal infants.

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... Age at the neuroimaging session in infancy constituted a control predictor to account for potential age effects in white matter organization, and standard scores for the language measures were defined as the outcome variables. Socioeconomic status was controlled by minimal variation in the present sample, but key factors characterizing the home literacy environment were included in the model (amount of time spent reading to the child, number of children's books in the home), since shared parent-infant book reading has been linked with language acquisition in infancy (Karrass and Braungart-Rieker, 2005) and prospectively associated with subsequent language abilities (Raikes et al., 2006). Multiple regression models were run for each white matter tract with infant age and home literacy variables as predictors, and each subsequent language outcome at the school age. ...
... One crucial consideration that remains is the respective contributions of biological determinants in the context of environmental factors that shape the developmental trajectory. Prospective associations between white matter in infancy and language skills in kindergarten in the present work are significant while accounting for factors pertaining to the home literacy environment; yet environmental factors related to parent-child interactions in the home have been previously linked with subsequent language skills in early childhood (Karrass and Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Raikes et al., 2006;Schmitt et al., 2011). Our data are to be interpreted in the context of the rich body of evidence to date implicating the important role of the environment in shaping language skills, and the modest prediction estimates of our models likely illuminate additional environmental factors that play an important role, such as the quantity and quality of exposure to language via child-directed speech from caregivers (Rowe, 2012;Weisleder and Fernald, 2013) or access to resources that facilitate education and development (Rowe, 2008). ...
... Another environmental factor measured included the home literacy environment (HLE), in which parents completed a questionnaire at the infant time point characterizing children's exposure to literacy (Powers et al., 2013). Two key variables characterizing HLE were included in the present analysis: (1) the number of children's books in the home, known to be related to children's language and literacy-related skills (van Bergen et al., 2017), and (2) the amount of time a parent spends reading to their child, as shared parent-infant book reading has been linked with language acquisition in infancy (Karrass and Braungart-Rieker, 2005), and has been prospectively associated with subsequent language abilities and school readiness (Raikes et al., 2006). ...
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Language acquisition is of central importance to a child's development. Although the trajectory of acquisition is shaped by input and experience postnatally, the neural basis for language emerges prenatally. Thus a fundamental question remains unexamined: to what extent may the structural foundations for language established in infancy predict long-term language abilities? In this longitudinal neuroimaging investigation of children from infancy to kindergarten, we find that white matter organization in infancy is prospectively associated with subsequent language abilities, specifically between: (i) the left arcuate fasciculus in infancy and subsequent phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge, and (ii) the left corticospinal tract in infancy and phonological awareness and phonological memory in kindergarten. Results are independent of age and home literacy environment. These findings directly link white matter organization in infancy with language abilities after school entry, and suggest that structural organization in infancy sets an important foundation for subsequent language development.
... reading onset was moderately negatively associated with children's expressive and receptive language abilities at age 4 years, such that younger onset resulted in greater skills at age 4. More recently, Karrass and Braungart-Rieker (2005) found that infants whose parents reported reading to them by age 8-months had better expressive language skills at 12-and 16-months, even controlling for infants' earlier language skills. One possible mechanism through which early book reading influences children's language development is the nature of parent-infant communication during early book-reading interactions. ...
... There is ample evidence that the early home literacy environment plays an important role in children's language and literacy development (e.g., Bus, Van Ijzendoorn, & Pellegrini, 1995;DeBaryshe, 1993;DeTemple, 2001;Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Niklas, Cohrssen, & Tayler, 2016;Payne, Whitehurst, & Angell, 1994). The age of onset of shared reading between parent and child is a particularly robust predictor of later language skills. ...
... The age of onset of shared reading between parent and child is a particularly robust predictor of later language skills. Children whose parents begin reading to them at a younger age develop greater expressive and receptive language skills, both within and across socioeconomic groups (DeBaryshe, 1993;Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Niklas et al., 2016;Payne et al., 1994). Shared reading may influence children's language development because of characteristics of the parent-infant interaction. ...
Article
Studies of parent-child book reading tend to focus on parents of toddlers and preschool children, but not infants. This study examined features of parents' shared reading with preverbal infants in relation to children's early language development. Forty-four mothers of diverse socioeconomic status and their 10-month-old infants were observed during shared reading. Their interactions were coded for quantity and qualities of maternal speech and gesture, and for children's interest in the activity. The results indicate that maternal questions and child interest during shared reading at 10-months predicted children's expressive, receptive, and pragmatic language skills at 18-months, controlling for children's earlier skills and maternal education. Few relations were observed between family/child factors (e.g., education, child age) and features of the shared-reading interaction. Encouraging caregivers to question their preverbal infants during reading, and to help keep them engaged in the activity, could promote children's language learning.
... Preliminary evidence suggests that ESR may also support language development for younger children and babies (Bus et al., 1995). Karrass and Braungart-Rieker (2005) investigated the benefits for language development from reading to babies at 4-and 8-months-of-age. Parents who reported that they were reading to their baby as well as parents who indicated that they were not reading to their baby were recruited. ...
... The ''Let's Read'' Programme (Goldfeld et al., 2011;Goldfeld et al, 2012), expanded on the findings from Karrass and Braungart-Rieker (2005), by examining whether providing parents with instructions on how to read with their baby may result in even higher outcomes for language development than providing no instructions and no intervention. Families (n ¼ 552) from less advantaged communities in Melbourne, Australia participated with 365 families randomly selected to receive the intervention and 265 randomly selected for the control group. ...
... The study built upon previous research by first examining whether ESR, in the first year of life, is associated with increases in language and broader social communication development as suggested by Karrass and Braungart-Rieker (2005). Second, it examined the intensity of the ESR intervention workshops as recommended by Goldfeld et al. (2011). ...
Article
Purpose: This study examined the effectiveness of low- and high-intensity early storybook reading (ESR) intervention workshops delivered to parents for promoting their babies language and social communication development. These workshops educated parents on how to provide a stimulating home reading environment and engage in parent–child interactions during ESR. Method: Parent–child dyads (n = 32); child age: 3–12 months, were assigned into two intervention conditions: low and high intensity (LI versus HI) groups. Both groups received the same ESR strategies; however, the HI group received additional intervention time, demonstrations and support. Outcome measures were assessed pre-intervention, one and three months post-intervention and when the child turned 2 years of age. Result: A significant time–group interaction with increased performance in the HI group was observed for language scores immediately post-intervention (p = 0.007) and at 2-years-of-age (p = 0.022). Significantly higher broader social communication scores were associated with the HI group at each of the time points (p = 0.018, p = 0.001 and p = 0.021, respectively). Simple main effect revealed that both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in language, broader social communication and home reading practices scores. Conclusions: ESR intervention workshops may promote language and broader social communication skills. The HI ESR intervention workshop was associated with significantly higher language and broader social communication scores.
... Another environmental factor measured included the home literacy environment (HLE), in which parents completed a questionnaire at the infant time point characterizing children's exposure to literacy (Powers et al., 2013). Two key variables characterizing HLE were included in the present analysis: (1) the number of children's books in the home, known to be related to children's language and literacy-related skills (van Bergen et al., 2017), and (2) the amount of time a parent spends reading to their child, as shared parent-infant book reading has been linked with language acquisition in infancy (Karrass and Braungart-Rieker, 2005), and has been prospectively associated with subsequent language abilities and school readiness (Raikes et al., 2006). Distributed representation of binned responses was provided for each variable (for detailed overview, see Table 1). ...
... Age at the neuroimaging session in infancy constituted a control predictor to account for potential age effects in white matter organization, and language outcome measures were defined as the outcome variables (using standardized performance on each measure to account for age at the time of follow-up assessment). Socioeconomic status was controlled by minimal variation in the present sample, but key factors characterizing the home literacy environment were included in the model (amount of time spent reading to the child, number of children's books in the home), as shared parent-infant book reading has been linked with language acquisition in infancy (Karrass and Braungart-Rieker, 2005) and prospectively associated with subsequent language abilities (Raikes et al., 2006). ...
... Another consideration pertains to additional environmental factors that shape language development. Present associations between white matter in infancy and subsequent language account for aspects of home environment, yet factors involving parent-child interactions have also been linked with subsequent language skills (Karrass and Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Raikes et al., 2006). Findings are to be interpreted in the context of the rich body of evidence implicating the important role of the environment in shaping language skills, and modest prediction estimates in the present models suggest contributions from additional factors, such as the quantity and quality of language input/exposure (Rowe, 2012;Weisleder and Fernald, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Language acquisition is of central importance to child development. Although this developmental trajectory is shaped by experience postnatally, the neural basis for language emerges prenatally. Thus, a fundamental question remains: do structural foundations for language in infancy predict long-term language abilities? Longitudinal investigation of 40 children from infancy to kindergarten reveals that white matter in infancy is prospectively associated with subsequent language abilities, specifically between: (i) left arcuate fasciculus and phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge, (ii) left corticospinal tract and phonological awareness, and bilateral corticospinal tract with phonological memory; controlling for age, cognitive, and environmental factors. Findings link white matter in infancy with school-age language abilities, suggesting that structural organization in infancy sets an important foundation for long-term language development.
... As of the date of this review, their effects on behavioural development have not been found. Some examples of the studies that address the cognitive variable in an intervention with shared or dialogic reading are those of Whitehurst et al. (1988), Karrass &Braungart-Rieker, (2005), Blom-Hoffman, O'Neil-Pirozzi andCutting (2006) and Boit (2013), inter alia. On their part, studies such as those by Riquelme & Munita (2011), Riquelme, Munita, Jara & Montero (2013) and , refer to the advances generated by dialogic reading in emotional competence. ...
... More specifically, it was found that dialogic reading increases cognitive processes such as expressive language and comprehensive language, matching the approaches outlined in research studies conducted by Zevenbergen & Whitehurst (2003), Gest, Freeman, Domitrovich & Welsh (2004), Karrass & Braungart-Rieker (2005) and Landry et al. (2012), inter alia. The underlying concept behind their studies, some of which were conducted in populations with different socioeconomic levels and levels of language development, is that adult-mediated reading practices, in which interactive relationships are necessarily established giving rise to the participation of children, are those that lead to the optimisation of linguistic and cognitive skills at preschool age, and as we have seen, there is ample evidence of their effectiveness. ...
Article
Full-text available
En el presente artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación con primera infancia en la que se estableció la incidencia de la lectura dialógica en los perfiles cognitivos, emocionales y comportamentales de un grupo de niños y niñas entre los cuatro y los cinco años. Se realizó una intervención experimental en el contexto escolar y familiar, en donde padres y maestros entrenados aplicaron las técnicas de lectura dialógica de Whitehurst (1988), utilizando libros álbum. Los padres fueron acompañados con una aplicación móvil llamada FamiLectura, la cual fue construida para esta investigación. El estudio fue cuasiexperimental, con un diseño de preprueba-posprueba y grupo control. Los resultados indicaron incrementos significativos en los dominios de memoria y recuperación, lenguaje comprensivo y expresivo, además de variaciones importantes en las competencias emocionales, como el reconocimiento y expresión de emociones.
... While educational television viewing and reading have been shown to have benefits for young children's vocabulary (e.g., Bus, van IJzendoorn, & Pellegrini, 1995;Rice, Huston, Truglio, & Wright, 1990), only television has been associated with poorer linguistic outcomes (e.g., Linebarger & Walker, 2005;Zimmerman, Christakis, & Meltzoff, 2007). In contrast, storybook reading during the toddler years is generally associated with enhanced language development (Dunst, Simkus, & Hamby, 2012;Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Senechal & LeFevre, 2002). ...
... In addition, storybooks employ techniques, such as repetition and presenting words in different contexts, which are known to facilitate word learning (McMurray, Horst, & Samuelson, 2012). Thus, it is not surprising that early and frequent reading to children is related to long-term benefits for later expressive and productive language skills (Dunst et al., 2012;Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Senechal & LeFevre, 2002). Bus et al.'s (1995) meta-analysis revealed that the positive relationship between early shared book reading with young children and later language skills is quite large (d = 0.67). ...
Article
This study compares parent language directed at their toddlers while coviewing toddler-directed television and while storybook reading. Participants were 15- or 30- month-old children and their parent. A quantitative analysis of parent language revealed that it is more frequent, rich, and complex during reading relative to television viewing regardless of child age; although parents used more complex language and more diverse words with older children. The difference between media held even when the storybook text read aloud was not considered in the analysis. Consistent with the results of earlier research, shared book reading produces more and richer verbal interactions with toddlers than coviewing television and is thus more likely to positively influence early language development.
... As a matter of fact, both the quantity and quality of words spoken to a child in the first years of life shape a child's language and emerging literacy skills more strongly than socioeconomic status, parent level of education, and race/ethnicity (Hoff 2003;Karrass and Braungart-Rieker 2005;Rowe, Raudenbush, and Goldin-Meadow 2012;Zauche et al. 2017). Specifically, the quality of language is a more robust predictor of young children's language outcomes than the quantity of exposure to talking in the home (Dunst, Simkus, and Hamby 2012). ...
... Repeated pictures are particularly helpful in developing vocabulary for allowing the infant to grasp its defining features, and couple their direct experience of the subject with the word used to represent it (Murray and Egan 2014). It is clear that for infants who receive more proper language input, language productivity will differ vastly from infants whose parents show less interest in shared book experiences (Weizman and Snow 2001;Hoff 2003;Karrass and Braungart-Rieker 2005;Gilkerson et al. 2018). Also, in our analyses, we found that infants had more opportunities to respond to questions, and to show or to request something from the book after the intervention. ...
Article
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This study examined implementation of a newly developed shared book reading intervention program, to boost infants’ early skills and provide a solid foundation for continued language learning. A randomised control study was conducted to elevate the effects of Shared Book Reading Intervention with 20 parents (n = 10 experiment, n = 10 control) and their infants/toddlers aged 8–16 months. The program including 12-week parental training, had a powerful alterable influence on infant’s language comprehension, word production, and literacy skills. Additionally, findings provide further evidence that the shared book intervention instructional strategies helped parents learn language domain content. When taken together, the results suggest that parents have the potential to shape their infants’ development in the short-term by initiating reading skill changes in their home environment.
... There is much evidence in previous research that points to a positive association between adult-child shared book reading, and literacy skill development in early childhood (Bracken & Fischel, 2008;Burgess, 1997;Bus et al., 1995;Deckner et al., 2006;Hindman et al., 2014;Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Samuelsson et al., 2007;Sénéchal & LeFevre, 2001;Trivette, Dunst, & Gorman, 2010;Wood, 2002). ...
... In addition to Samuelsson et al. (2007) there is strong international evidence, spanning many decades, that shows that adult-child shared reading is beneficial for young children's learning and development. Past studies have attributed adult-child shared book reading to improvements in young children's: (1) oral language proficiencies and cognitive understandings (Cheng & Tsai, 2014;Duursma, 2014;Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Mol & Bus, 2011;Phillips, Norris, & Anderson, 2008); (2) vocabulary knowledge (Bracken & Fischel, 2008;Hindman et al., 2014;Mol et al., 2008;Read & Quirke, 2018;Sénéchal et al., 2008;Trivette et al., 2010;Wood, 2002); (3) concepts about print, knowledge of story and literary register (Bracken & Fischel, 2008;Duursma, 2014;Flack et al., 2018;Phillips et al., 2008); ...
Thesis
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This study explored mothers’ behaviours when shared reading printed and electronic texts with young children. Specifically, this study used a Vygotskianinformed framework, based primarily upon Vygotsky’s (1987, 2012) theory of concept development, to analyse the verbal and non-verbal communication behaviours of 11 mothers when reading simple and complex narratives with their two-year-old child. Mothers’ views were also sought, as they related to the practice of shared reading with their child. Data was collected using questionnaires and video. Video collected three forms of data: (1) Event One: mother-child shared reading experiences [X4 for each dyad]; (2)Event Two: post-experience interviews immediately following each shared reading experience [X4 for each mother]; and (3) Event Three: a video-stimulated interview during which time mothers viewed the four videos from Event One in full. Findings showed that mothers competed for their child’s attention, working against external distractions when reading printed texts and working against embedded distractions when reading electronic texts. Mothers also displayed a range of behaviours according to the text’s medium (printed or electronic), and complexity of text (whether printed or electronic). This study has shown that the inclusion of mothers’ views, within a Vygotskian framework that acknowledged five forms of mediation (social, spoken, anatomical, instrumental-tool and individual mediation), can facilitate in-depth investigations that explore the what, how and why of adult-child shared reading practices.
... Whether it is a book read before bedtime, during circle time in school, or on a soft rug in the middle of the library, children's picture books are an integral part of growing up for those who are lucky enough to have access to them. Many researchers have suggested, and demonstrated, that picture books are not only central to many of young children's lives but also integral to early learning and development (Farrant & Zubrick, 2012;Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Whitehurst, Arnold, Epstein, Angell, Smith, & Fischel, 1994). The purpose of this project was to examine a potential mechanism by which picture books support early learning. ...
... Picture books have been written about an infinite number of topics (animals, imaginative creatures and places, different cultures to name a bare minimum), many of which a child may not come in direct contact in their everyday life. As Karrass and Braungart-Rieker (2005) pointed out, a child living in an urban region may only ever experience and learn about life on a farm through picture books. ...
Article
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A wealth of research has shown that reading picture books supports several aspects of young children’s learning and development. In this thesis, we explore the hypothesis that the power of picture books is in part due to their referentially transparent nature. To test this possibility, we designed a picture-book version of the Human Simulation Paradigm (HSP), an experimental paradigm previously used to quantify the referential transparency of child-directed speech in parent-child interactions. Adult participants (N = 18) were presented with pages from children’s picture books (with text blocked out) and asked to identify either the nouns or the verbs on that page. Our analyses focused on (1) how referential transparency in picture books compared to that of parent-child conversations, (2) how referential transparency differed across word types (i.e. nouns vs. verbs), and (3) whether referential transparency differed as a function of book age-range (i.e., targeting younger vs. older children). Contrary to our hypotheses, picture books were actually less referentially transparent than child-directed speech. We also found that noun transparency was greater than verb transparency, and that transparency did not vary as a function of target age groups. Ongoing research in our laboratory is using these pilot data to further investigate referential transparency in children’s picture books specifically, and how children’s picture books support learning more generally.
... Reading is a basic cultural skill and important for success in life. Literacy begins as soon as birth (Makin, 2006), and research over the last number of decades suggests that early shared reading experiences benefit child development (Highberger & Brooks, 1973;Snow, 1983;Wade & Moore, 1998;Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Niklas, Cohrsen & Tayler, 2016). ...
Article
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Reading is a basic cultural skill and important for success in life. The first aim of this article is to review research examining the factors that support early shared reading experiences and the developmental benefits of this activity in early childhood, drawing on international research in the first two sections of this paper. While international research provides a rich source of information on early shared reading experiences, there are few studies in Ireland that investigate this practice in infants and young children prior to starting primary school. Therefore, the second aim of this article is to draw together relevant findings from a number of recent Irish studies, in order to build a picture of shared reading practices nationally. Drawing together these findings in one article may provide a useful resource for researchers and policy makers in Ireland. The third and final aim of this article is to consider the implications of the findings for early reading supports for families in Ireland, in the context of national policies and ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Volume 12, An Leanbh Og, OMEP Ireland Journal of Early Childhood Studies
... Children's natural language exposure varies greatly from parent to parent not only in terms of quantity (Gilkerson & Richards, 2008) but also in styles of oral interaction (Suter, 2006) that are positively linked with stronger oral language development in typically developing children (Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005). While certain styles of oral interaction seem to be prevalent in parent-child interaction (e.g., labeling, pointing, directive, and closedended question), these styles of oral interaction are observed more frequently in CwHL. ...
Article
Purpose This systematic review summarizes the evidence for differences in the amount of language input between children with and without hearing loss (HL). Of interest to this review is evaluating the associations between language input and language outcomes (receptive and expressive) in children with HL in order to enhance insight regarding what oral language input is associated with good communication outcomes. Method A systematic review was conducted using keywords in 3 electronic databases: Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Keywords were related to language input, language outcomes, and HL. Titles and abstracts were screened independently, and full-text manuscripts meeting inclusion criteria were extracted. An appraisal checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality of studies as poor, good, or excellent. Results After removing duplicates, 1,545 study results were extracted, with 27 eligible for full-text review. After the appraisal, 8 studies were included in this systematic review. Differences in the amount of language input between children with and without HL were noted. Conversational exchanges, open-ended questions, expansions, recast, and parallel talk were positively associated with stronger receptive and expressive language scores. The quality of evidence was not assessed as excellent for any of the included studies. Conclusions This systematic review reveals low-level evidence from 8 studies that specific language inputs (amount and style) are optimal for oral language outcomes in children with HL. Limitations were identified as sample selection bias, lack of information on control of confounders and assessment protocols, and limited duration of observation/recordings. Future research should address these limitations.
... Moreover, half of the participants reported that they commenced ESR when their children were between 3 and 6 months old. These are positive findings, as studies examining ESR with TH children have provided evidence that parents who commence ESR with their children from a young age (4 months) continue reading as their children grow older (Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005). Furthermore, there is also evidence with TH children that ESR from 3 months can strengthen language and social communication development (Brown, Westerveld, Trembath, & Gillon, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Early storybook reading (ESR) offers a promising opportunity for children to learn language and social communication skills. This preliminary investigation aimed to extend knowledge of ESR with young children with a hearing loss (HL). Twelve parents with young children (birth to 3 years old) with a HL completed a questionnaire examining parents’ perceptions towards ESR and their home reading practices. Ten parents (n = 12) reported engaging in frequent ESR with their children and all of the families provided their children with access to books at home. Parents reported limited visits to the library/ bookstore. Difficulties with selecting age appropriate books and using seating environments known to facilitate parent–child interactions were reported. These preliminary findings indicate that parents with young children with a HL engage in frequent ESR, although may benefit from further education on the importance of ESR, book selection, and using seating environments that support parent–child interactions.
... Book sharing is especially effective in fostering the language development of infants and toddlers (Cates et al., 2013;Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005). Book sharing provides a context for exposing and engaging infants and toddlers in language-rich interactions during a developmental period that is foundational for acquiring advanced language and literacy competencies (Gilkerson et al., 2017;Rodriquez et al., 2009). ...
Chapter
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Using a sample (N = 206) drawn from the Early Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009, we examined African-American and Latino toddlers’ early home environments: family resources (education, income, family structure); parental investments (maternal interactions and literacy activities, father caregiving, and learning materials); and parenting practices (routines, discipline). We also examined how these factors related to toddler’s social and language skills. Regarding potential promotive factors, we found divergence: Latino toddlers live in two-parent families with mothers who reported low levels of spanking, whereas African-American toddlers have mothers with at least a high school education. We also found convergence: children in both groups had fathers who were somewhat engaged in caregiving and a mother who was engaged in literacy activities daily; access to books and toys; and moderate levels of maternal sensitivity. Learning materials and father caregiving were the strongest predictors of Latino and African-American toddlers’ language skills, respectively. Father caregiving significantly predicted children’s African-American toddlers’ social competence at age 3. Results are discussed in light of implications for prevention and intervention work.
... Bornstein, Midgett, & Putnick, 2007;Demir-Lira, Applebaum, Goldin-Meadow, & Levine, 2018;Farrant & Zubrick, 2012;Fletcher & Reese, 2005;Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Payne, Whitehurst, & Angell, 1994;Sénéchal & LeFevre, 2002) and literacy skills (Bus, Van Ijzendoorn, & Pellegrini, 1995;Deckner, Adamson, & Bakeman, 2006;Dickinson & Tabors, 1991;Lonigan, Burgess, & Anthony, 2000;Scarborough, Dobrich, & Hager, 1991;Shahaeian et al., 2018). However, the causal pathway by which reading comes to be associated with positive language and reading outcomes is not well understood. ...
Article
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Reading picture books to pre-literate children is associated with improved language outcomes, but the causal pathways of this relationship are not well understood. The present analyses focus on several syntactic differences between the text of children’s picture books and typical child-directed speech, with the aim of understanding ways in which picture book text may systematically differ from typical child-directed speech. The analyses show that picture books contain more rare and complex sentence types, including passive sentences and sentences containing relative clauses, than does child-directed speech. These differences in the patterns of language contained in picture books and typical child-directed speech suggest that one important means by which picture book reading may come to be associated with improved language outcomes is by providing children with types of complex language that might be otherwise rare in their input.
... Language and literacy development begin early in life (Edwards 2014;Schickedanz and Collins 2013), and many parents read to their child before the age of 2 years (Karrass and Braungart-Rieker 2005;Raikes et al. 2006). Parentinfant book reading can provide infants with a languagerich introduction to books, pictures and written language (Fletcher and Finch 2015;High et al. 2014;Hoff 2010). ...
Article
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Research shows an association between mother-infant shared reading and children’s language and literacy development. Educators in early childhood education and care (ECEC) centres frequently interact with groups of similar-aged infants, yet infant-educator shared reading has received little attention. This naturalistic observational study videorecorded 20 focus infants (children aged under 2 years) from 20 separate ECEC centres as they went about their normal everyday activities. Each focus infant was videorecorded for approximately 3 h each (a total of 60 h of data), as part of a larger project investigating the language environment in ECEC infant rooms. The present study investigated whether the infants engaged in book-focused interactions with their educators, and if so, whether the infants participated verbally. Each infant’s book-focused interactions were identified and transcribed verbatim, and each infant’s room was assessed using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale Revised Edition (ITERS-R) (Listening and Talking Subscale). Nine of the 20 infants did not participate in any shared reading. The extent to which the remaining 11 infants engaged in shared reading ranged from minimal to extensive. In 85% of ECEC rooms, the ITERS-R score for using books was lower than that for helping children understand language and helping children use language. The findings suggest that many educators may be unaware of the importance of reading with infants. Given the benefits of shared reading for infants’ current and future language and literacy development, it is vital that every infant has the opportunity to participate in frequent, sustained, language-rich interactions with their educators.
... Studies have shown that reading book to children helps them to build a sense of story and develop vocabulary and comprehension (National Reading Panel [NRP], 2020). Furthermore, children's home literacy environment and early exposure to literacy activities were found to be highly correlated with emergent reading skills and language development (Strickland, 1989;Bus et al., 1995;Leseman and de Jong, 1998;Sénéchal and LeFevre, 2002;Karrass and Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Weigel et al., 2006;Sénéchal et al., 2008;Sukhram and Hsu, 2012). Despite not being the focus of the current study, we chose to include a short story-time session at the end of each online Reading Camp day to provide some literacy exposure during the camp. ...
Article
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Literacy is an essential skill. Learning to read is a requirement for becoming a self-providing human being. However, while spoken language is acquired naturally with exposure to language without explicit instruction, reading and writing need to be taught explicitly. Decades of research have shown that well-structured teaching of phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and letter-to-sound mapping is crucial in building solid foundations for the acquisition of reading. During the COVID-19 pandemic, children worldwide did not have access to consistent and structured teaching and are, as a consequence, predicted to be behind in the development of their reading skills. Subsequent evidence confirms this prediction. With the best evidence-based practice in mind, we developed an online version of a well-structured early literacy training program (Reading Camp) for 5-year-old children. This 2-week online Reading Camp program is designed for pre-K children. It incorporates critical components of the fundamental skills essential to learning to read and is taught online in an interactive, multi-sensory, and peer-learning environment. We measure the participants’ literacy skills and other related skills before and after participating in the online Reading Camp and compare the results to no-treatment controls. Results show that children who participated in the online Reading Camp improved significantly on all parameters in relation to controls. Our results demonstrate that a well-structured evidence-based reading instruction program, even if online and short-term, benefits 5-year-old children in learning to read. With the potential to scale up this online program, the evidence presented here, alongside previous evidence for the efficacy of the in-person program, indicates that the online Reading Camp program is effective and can be used to tackle a variety of questions regarding structural and functional plasticity in the early stages of reading acquisition.
... Çocuklarla b rl kte k tap okuma, çocukların okumaya karşı olan motvasyonları, d l ed n mler ve d l öğren mler n büyük ölçüde etk lemekted r (Morrow, 1983;Karrass & Braungart-R eker, 2005). Çocuklarla b rl kte h kâye okunurken çocuklara h kâye le lg l konuşma fırsatı ver lmes ve bu esnada ebeveynler n çocuklarla karşılıklı d yalog kurmaları (Lon gan ve Wh tehurst, 1998) çocukların başarılı b rer okuyucu olmalarını sağlamaktadır (Mason & Allen, 1986). ...
Chapter
Children spend most of their time in the family environment from the time they are born. Every individual in the family has an important role in promoting the child's potential and providing an appropriate environment for the self-realization, encouragement, and support of the child. In this context, it can be said that the nature of the relationships that children establish with their parents, the time they spend with their parents, and the quality of the activities the parents perform with their children are also important. One of the activities that children can do with their parents at home is shared book reading. Shared book reading is defined as "reading a book by a person who knows how to read a child who does not read in early childhood years, listening to them and their mutual interactions". Shared book reading activities support children's learning by allowing children and adults to interact verbally, utilization the content of the stories and pictures. In this study, early literacy skills, the home environment in early literacy, reading styles of parents and reading books together will be explained by reviewing the literature supporting the book reading activities between adults and children. Then the basis of dialogic reading and the literature regarding the participation of the families in the dialogic reading activities will be discussed.
... To assess caregiver parenting practices-both positive and negative-we asked the primary caregivers whether or not they had engaged in a number of interactive practices the previous day: told stories to the baby, read books to the baby, sang song to the baby, used toys to play with the baby, and the number of times the caregiver expressed affection to the baby. We also asked them whether or not the household has two or more children's books [52][53][54]. In addition, we asked the primary caregivers how often they engaged in the following negative parenting practices: raise voice or yell at baby, spank the baby, take away toys from the baby, or do not explain to the baby why his or her behavior is inappropriate [55,56]. ...
Article
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Previous research has found that there are high rates of developmental delays among infants and toddlers in rural areas of China. Caregiver mental health problems might be one significant predictor of developmental delays among infants and toddlers, as has been found in other areas of the world. One way that the mental health of caregivers could affect early childhood development is through its effect on parenting practices. In this study, we used data from four major subpopulations of rural China to measure the correlation of caregiver mental health problems with the developmental outcomes of infants and toddlers. To do so, the study used the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (BSID III) to examine the rates of developmental delays among 2514 rural infants/toddlers aged 6–30 months old. The results of the testing demonstrate that 48% of the sample’s infants/toddlers have cognitive delays; 52% have language delays; 53% have social-emotional delays; and 30% have motor delays. The data collection team also assessed caregiver mental health by using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) questionnaire. According to the findings, 39% of caregivers in the sample have symptoms of at least one kind of mental health problem (depression, anxiety, or stress). We also found that most caregivers do not engage in positive parenting practices, while a significant share of caregivers engage in negative parenting practices. The statistical analysis found that showing signs of mental health problems is significantly and negatively associated with infant/toddler developmental outcomes. The study also found that caregivers who show signs of mental health problems are significantly less likely to engage in interactive parenting practices. The study confirms that society needs to pay more attention to caregiver mental health problems in order to improve infant/toddler developmental outcomes in rural China and increase human capital accumulation in China as a whole.
... Como afirma Morais (1998:150-151) "el niño descubre el universo de la lectura por la voz, llena de entonación y de significado, de aquellos en los que tiene confianza y con los que se identifica". Otros estudios defienden la importancia de la lectura en voz alta a niños de edades tempranas (Karrass y Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Nevills y Wolfe, 2009). I S S N : 1 9 8 8 -8430 ...
Article
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Resumen: En la sociedad actual, la lectura es una de las principales herramientas de comunicación y acceso al conocimiento, tanto en la lengua materna como en lenguas extranjeras. Sin embargo, se alerta de forma reiterada sobre la existencia de dificultades lectoras incluso en la población estudiantil más joven. Detectar e incluso prever la aparición de estos problemas es clave durante la educación primaria, antes de que los problemas lectores se agraven y pongan en riesgo el futuro social y laboral del individuo. A la hora de identificar al lector con dificultades en lengua extranjera se han de tener en cuenta múltiples factores. A partir del análisis de variables lingüísticas, cognitivas y sociales, este trabajo intenta establecer perfiles lectores entre estudiantes españoles de educación primaria que aprenden a leer en inglés en un contexto sociocultural desfavorecido. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de relieve el papel de las destrezas decodificadoras y fonológicas, la memoria de trabajo y una serie de factores socioculturales para poder identificar a los lectores con problemas. Abstract: In our current society, reading is one of the main tools of communication and access to knowledge in both the mother tongue and foreign languages. However, reading problems in young learners are repeatedly pointed out. Identifying reading problems even before they occur is key during primary education, as in later stages those problems may risk the social and professional inclusion of individuals. Multiple factors should be considered when diagnosing students that struggle to read in a foreign language. This study tries to establish reading profiles of Spanish primary education students of English living in a socially-disadvantaged area, on the basis of linguistic, cognitive and social variables. Results pinpoint decoding phonological skills, together with working memory and some social aspects as crucial factors when identifying struggling readers.
... Parents can also play the role of teacher. It is also effective to do the shared parent-infant book reading on early language acquisition [5]. ...
... These questions were chosen based on the findings of psychological and biological literature that show these three indicators to be linked with adequate child development. Telling stories, reading, and talking to one's child increase both cognitive and early language development (Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Murray & Egan, 2014;Raikes et al., 2006). Singing to infants has been shown to increase responsiveness (Shenfield, Trehub, & Nakata, 2003), capture attention (Nakata & Trehub, 2004), and elicit positive cognitive behaviour (de l'Etoile, 2006). ...
Article
This study aims to investigate the developmental status of rural Chinese children, the extent of interactive parenting they receive, and the relation between the two. A sample of 448 six to eighteen-month-old children and their caregivers were randomly selected from two rural counties in Hebei and Yunnan provinces. According the third edition of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 48.7% of sample children exhibited cognitive delays, 40.6% language delays, and 35% social-emotional delays. According to responses from caregivers, parenting in rural China is largely passive, lacking in interactive practices like storytelling, singing, and playing. Children-with-siblings, left-behind children, and children with less-educated mothers were even less likely to receive interactive practices. Children of caregivers who did engage in best parenting practices showed better cognitive, language, and social-emotional development; however, the public health system provides no platform for learning about optimal parenting.
... Positive outcomes from ESR interventions have also been reported for toddlers (2-3 years; High, LaGasse, Becker, Ahlgren, & Gardener, 2000;Mendelsohn et al., 2001;Sharif, Reiber, & Ozuah, 2002). There is evidence that ESR can also foster language and social communication skills in typically developing babies (15 months old and younger ;Farrant & Zubrick, 2013;Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005). However, other studies (Goldfeld et al., 2011(Goldfeld et al., , 2012 have reported no significant outcomes for language and social communication skills following an ESR intervention for parents with typically developing babies. ...
Article
Purpose This pilot study explored the effectiveness of an early storybook reading (ESR) intervention for parents with babies with hearing loss (HL) for improving (a) parents' book selection skills, (b) parent–child eye contact, and (c) parent–child turn-taking. Advancing research into ESR, this study examined whether the benefits from an ESR intervention reported for babies without HL were also observed in babies with HL. Method Four mother–baby dyads participated in a multiple baseline single-case experimental design across behaviors. Treatment effects for parents' book selection skills, parent–child eye contact, and parent–child turn-taking were examined using visual analysis and Tau-U analysis. Results Statistically significant increases, with large to very large effect sizes, were observed for all 4 participants for parent–child eye contact and parent–child turn-taking. Limited improvements with ceiling effects were observed for parents' book selection skills. Conclusion The findings provide preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of an ESR intervention for babies with HL for promoting parent–child interactions through eye contact and turn-taking.
... Although most studies examined parent-child book reading in preschool years, shared book reading is an everyday parent-child activity in toddler years as well. The earlier parents engage in book reading with their children, the better their children's language skills are (Debaryshe, 1993;Karrass and Braungart-Rieker, 2005; see Fletcher and Reese, 2005 for a review). Parents' use of questions is an important indicator of highquality parent-child interactions (e.g., Ninio, 1980;Rowe et al., 2017). ...
Article
This study examined the relation between characteristics of parental input, particularly focusing on questions and pointing gestures directed to toddlers during book reading, and toddlers' elicited and spontaneous communicative interactions. A total of 30 Turkish speaking parents and their toddlers (18 girls, Mage = 18.79 SDage = 1.55) were observed during shared book reading. The communicative interactions were coded for parents' questions and pointing, and toddlers' elicited and spontaneous speech and pointing. The results showed that parents' label questions with pointing were positively associated with toddlers' elicited speech. Similarly, parents' label questions without pointing, and parents' description questions with pointing were positively associated with toddlers' elicited pointing. These findings highlight the importance of parental questions accompanied by pointing when eliciting toddler communicative interactions both in the form of speech and pointing, and provides insight for how to best communicate with toddlers during such interactions.
... Shared book reading is one activity that can be particularly supportive of language development. Shared reading with preschoolers is linked with language growth and emergent literacy skills (National Early Literacy Panel, 2008;Sénéchal et al., 2008); and infant-caregiver reading is predictive of vocabulary growth (Debaryshe, 1993;High et al., 2000;Karrass and Braungart-Rieker, 2005). ...
Article
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Little is known about the language and behaviors that typically occur when adults read electronic books with infants and toddlers, and which are supportive of learning. In this study, we report differences in parent and child behavior and language when reading print versus electronic versions of the same books, and investigate links between behavior and vocabulary learning. Parents of 102 toddlers aged 17–26 months were randomly assigned to read two commercially available electronic books or two print format books with identical content with their toddler. After reading, children were asked to identify an animal labeled in one of the books in both two-dimensional (pictures) and three-dimensional (replica objects) formats. Toddlers who were read the electronic books paid more attention, made themselves more available for reading, displayed more positive affect, participated in more page turns, and produced more content-related comments during reading than those who were read the print versions of the books. Toddlers also correctly identified a novel animal labeled in the book more often when they had read the electronic than the traditional print books. Availability for reading and attention to the book acted as mediators in predicting children’s animal choice at test, suggesting that electronic books supported children’s learning by way of increasing their engagement and attention. In contrast to prior studies conducted with older children, there was no difference between conditions in behavioral or off-topic talk for either parents or children. More research is needed to determine the potential hazards and benefits of new media formats for very young children.
... At follow-up, parents in the intervention group were also significantly more likely to read regularly to their infants when compared to the comparison group. Previous research has found that the presence of reading in the home when the infant is 8-months old is linked to enhanced later language development (Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005). The findings of the comparative analysis for the per protocol sample also suggest potential benefits of the group-based early parenting intervention in terms of enriching the home environment. ...
Article
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Background This paper describes the first phase of a community-based, controlled trial conducted to investigate the potential utility of a new, complex group-based early parenting intervention. In total, 106 parent-infant dyads were recruited to an interagency Parent and Infant (PIN) intervention which combines a range of supports, including the Incredible Years Parent and Baby Programme, baby massage, weaning workshops and paediatric first aid training. A ‘services-as-usual’ comparison group was also recruited (n = 84). Methods The primary outcome was parenting self-efficacy (Parenting Sense of Competence Scale). Parent well-being, child development and the home environment were also measured. Assessments were conducted at baseline (when infants were 6–20 weeks old) and at follow-up (when infants were aged approximately 8 months). Parent satisfaction with the intervention was examined, as well as uptake of community-based services and health service utilisation. Results An intention-to-treat analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) examined between-group post-intervention differences, whilst secondary analyses on a ‘per protocol’ sample of participants (who attended at least 50% of the intervention sessions) were also conducted. Satisfaction with the PIN intervention was very high. The intention-to-treat ANCOVA showed no post-intervention between-group differences on measures of parent competency or well-being. At baseline, children in the comparison group were older than those in the intervention group and, at follow-up, fared better than their intervention group counterparts on measures of child development. The per protocol analysis revealed a significant effect for the intervention group on the efficacy subscale of the primary outcome measure (effect size = 0.44, p < 0.05). Intervention group infants attended GP and nursing services on significantly fewer occasions than their comparison group counterparts. Conclusion The findings provide tentative early support for the utility of the PIN intervention in terms of improving parenting efficacy and reducing reliance on primary health care services. Further follow-ups when infants are 16 and 24 months old are underway.
... Observational studies of parent and child behaviors during shared book reading have linked those behaviors to later child language and literacy outcomes. For example, shared book reading onset that occurred during the first year of life was found to be a strong predictor of children's later expressive and receptive language (Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Payne et al., 1994). In another study of 41 toddlers and their mothers, the average age of shared book reading onset was 7 to 8 months. ...
Article
Parents are encouraged to read to their children as early as possible. Multiple studies of parent–child shared book reading with children ages 3 years and older have shown positive outcomes on parent use of language-based strategies and child language development. However, few studies have included children under the age of 3; thus, little is known about interventions for parent–child shared book reading practices with infants and toddlers. In this systematic review, we examined 12 studies of interventions that included practice opportunities to support parent–child shared book reading practices with infants and toddlers between the ages of birth and 3 years. Across the studies, parents were taught to use interactive shared book reading strategies through a variety of teaching functions; however, only six studies included direct measurement of parent strategy use and child behaviors during shared book reading interactions. Directions for future research and the implications of this review are discussed.
... [16][17][18] These include enhanced attachment, more positive parenting and reading attitudes, and reduced stress. 6,[17][18][19][20] Potential mechanisms include emotional nurturing via affection and responsiveness, 21,22 reassuring reading routines, 23 and storysharing practices such as childdirected speech. 24 These are likely reinforced by reciprocal neurobiological signaling pathways involving oxytocin and dopamine (love and pleasure, respectively). ...
Article
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends literacy promotion as well as routine developmental surveillance during well-child visits to improve academic, relational, and health outcomes. In this study, we examined the possible association between shared reading and social-emotional problems among young children. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of longitudinal records for children aged 30 to 66 months presenting for visits to an academic pediatric primary care center between July 1, 2013, and February 1, 2019. The outcome was evidence of social-emotional problems, defined by an Ages and Stages: Social Emotional Questionnaire (ASQ:SE) score above the established cutoff. The predictor was caregiver-reported frequency of shared reading (most = 5–7 days per week, some = 2–4 days per week, rarely = 0–1 days per week) at a previous visit. Generalized linear models with generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association between the longitudinal outcome and predictor, adjusting for child demographics and needs reported on routine social history questionnaires. RESULTS: Analyses included 5693 children who completed at least 1 ASQ:SE (total of 7302 assessments) and had shared reading frequency documented before each ASQ:SE assessment. Children were predominantly Black (75%) and publicly insured (80%). Sixteen percent of ASQ:SE scores were suggestive of social-emotional concerns; 6% of caregivers reported sharing reading rarely. Children with rare shared reading had a higher risk of an ASQ:SE above cutoff compared with those with shared reading on most days (adjusted risk ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.35–1.92). CONCLUSIONS: Less-frequent caregiver-reported shared reading was associated with higher risk of social-emotional problems in young children presenting for primary care. This highlights potential relational and social-emotional benefits of shared reading.
... Previous studies have shown that during this critical period (the first three years), it is important that caregivers provide their babies with stimulating activities to support healthy brain development [1]. In particular, scholars have demonstrated that interactive reading during this critical period supports early childhood cognitive development and can lower levels of cognitive delay in children [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. Compared to more standard reading practices, whereby parents simply read the text aloud or describe pictures or objects for their children, an interactive reading method is collaborative in nature. ...
Article
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Studies have shown that nearly half of rural toddlers in China have cognitive delays due to an absence of stimulating parenting practices, such as early childhood reading, during the critical first three years of life. However, few studies have examined the reasons behind these low levels of stimulating parenting, and no studies have sought to identify the factors that limit caregivers from providing effective early childhood reading practices (EECRP). This mixed-methods study investigates the perceptions, prevalence, and correlates of EECRP in rural China, as well as associations with child cognitive development. We use quantitative survey results from 1748 caregiver–child dyads across 100 rural villages/townships in northwestern China and field observation and interview data with 60 caregivers from these same sites. The quantitative results show significantly low rates of EECRP despite positive perceptions of early reading and positive associations between EECRP and cognitive development. The qualitative results suggest that low rates of EECRP in rural China are not due to the inability to access books, financial or time constraints, or the absence of aspirations. Rather, the low rate of book ownership and absence of reading to young children is driven by the insufficient and inaccurate knowledge of EECRP among caregivers, which leads to their delayed, misinformed reading decisions with their young children, ultimately contributing to developmental delays.
... Despite the importance of book-related activities in early childhood, there is an important gap in the international literature. First, studies of shared book reading practices in early infancy focus primarily on children's interactions with their parents (Snow et al., 1976;Ninio, 1980;Holdaway, 1982;Ortiz et al., 2001;Tsuji, 2002;Yont et al., 2003;Karrass and Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Landry et al., 2012) rather than with teachers (Zucker et al., 2009;Tare et al., 2010). Additionally, classroombased studies are frequently conducted with children over 3 years of age (Martinez and Teale, 1993;Moschovaki et al., 2007;Price et al., 2012;Milburn et al., 2014) while there are few examples of teachers' mediation practices in early infancy. ...
Article
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Fostering communicative skills in young children is essential for their holistic development. Book-reading activities have been shown to be a valuable tool for supporting communicative exchanges between children and adults, but there is limited research on actual educational practices with children under 3 years old. This experimental study explores teaching practices in Chilean early childhood education with children from 4 to 17 months of age. We focused on children's performance of diverse communicative signs, as well as on the effect of the teacher's mediation (signs and strategies) in a triadic shared-reading interaction (teacher-child-book). The study is part of a larger cross-sectional project. We conducted an experimental study following a pre-test-post-test design with 11 children, who were randomly assigned to either the control or the experimental group. In addition, we conducted a 6-week intervention on shared book reading between the pre-and post-test stages. We observed that children used a wide range of communicative signs when engaging in shared interactions with their teacher and different books. In the experimental group, children performed more communicative signs after participating in the intervention than at the beginning of the study. The reading experience that they gained through the intervention could also explain the larger proportion of uses of the books, as compared to their control counterparts. Additionally, children performed different combinations of vocalizations, words, or repetitions within a single use. The conventional use of a book is not evident for an infant, and as such it requires the systematic and semiotically mediated action of an adult to be consolidated. We conclude that offering preschool teachers a diverse selection of books enables them to better adjust to the particularities of each child. In this scenario educators are able to promote efficient spaces for children's participation, increasing the complexity and variety of their communicative repertoire.
... ). L'implication parentale joue un rôle crucial dans le développement précoce des enfants (e.g.Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005;Levine, Suriyakham, Rowe, Huttenlocher, & Gunderson, 2010;Peyre et al., 2016) et dans leur réussite scolaire(Castro et al., 2015;Wilder, 2014). Notre contexte expérimental nous parait donc particulièrement bien adapté à l'évaluation des effets de la pédagogie Montessori en limitant les biais de sélection.De plus, nous avons vu que les parents des participants ont en moyenne un niveau de revenu faible. ...
Thesis
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La pédagogie Montessori est une méthode d’éducation qui a été mise au point au début du siècle dernier par Maria Montessori pour des enfants d’un quartier défavorisé de Rome en Italie. Depuis sa création, elle s’est développée à la marge de l’éducation nationale et se retrouve principalement dans des écoles privées. La pédagogie Montessori devient cependant de plus en plus populaire auprès des enseignants de l’école maternelle publique. Ce récent engouement apparaît fondé à la vue de plusieurs principes de cette méthode. En effet, elle promeut l’autonomie, l’auto-régulation, la coopération entre pairs d’âges variés et l’apprentissage à partir de matériels sensoriels et auto-correctifs. Ces caractéristiques sont plutôt en accord avec les connaissances scientifiques sur l’apprentissage et le développement de l’enfant. Cependant, à ce jour, les preuves expérimentales rigoureuses de son efficacité sont limitées. Dans cette thèse, nous avons mesuré les compétences langagières, mathématiques, exécutives et sociales d’enfants d’une école maternelle, repartis aléatoirement entre des classes appliquant la pédagogie Montessori ou une pédagogie conventionnelle. Nous avons suivi leurs progrès au cours des trois années de l’école maternelle (étude longitudinale) et avons comparé les performances des enfants en fin de Grande Section (étude transversale). Nous avons également élaboré une mesure pour évaluer objectivement la qualité d’implémentation de la pédagogie Montessori dans cette école, situé dans un quartier défavorisé. Nos résultats ne montrent pas de différences entre les groupes dans les domaines des mathématiques, des compétences exécutives et des compétences sociales. Cependant, les enfants issus des classes Montessori avaient de meilleures performances en lecture que les enfants issus des classes conventionnelles en fin de Grande Section. La pédagogie Montessori apparaît donc comme adaptée à l’apprentissage de la lecture chez le jeune enfant
... Such early linguistic abilities are essential to express emotions and to interact adequately in social situations. As both receptive and expressive language skills have shown to be important for the understanding of emotion and for successful interactions with others (Dore, Amendum, Michnick Golinkoff, & Hirsh-Pasek, 2018), shared reading seems to be an useful habit to support both language comprehension and language production skills as well as socioemotional competencies from an early age onwards (Karrass & Braungart-Rieker, 2005). ...
Article
Research findings: Developing adequate socioemotional competencies is of great relevance for later health and academic outcomes. Shared book reading creates valuable social situations that provide opportunities to talk about characters’ emotions and social interactions with children and thus might contribute to children’s socioemotional development. Additionally, shared reading as a key facet of the Home Literacy Environment (HLE) plays a significant role in children‘s language acquisition whereas linguistic abilities, in turn, are an important predictor of children’s socioemotional competencies. Based on a sample of N = 131 children with an average age of M = 37 months (SD = 4.00), this study investigates the association of different facets of the HLE with children’s linguistic and socioemotional competencies. Regression analyses were conducted to predict socioemotional competencies by shared reading habits and a global measure of the HLE while controlling for children’s linguistic abilities and various child and family characteristics. A significant association between families’ shared reading habits and children’s socioemotional competencies mediated by children’s linguistic abilities was found. Practice or policy: Shared reading with children is a beneficial habit that can support children’s linguistic and socioemotional learning. Supporting children’s linguistic abilities may be a beneficial strategy to foster children’s socioemotional competencies.
... Shared book reading is an interactive adult-child experience in which an adult reads a text and engages the child in conversation related to the text (Hindman et al. 2008). This interactive experience facilitates the development of emergent-literacy skills by increasing exposure to new vocabulary, eliciting expressive language, and creating reading routines (Farrant 2012;Farrant and Zubrick 2012;Hoff-Ginsberg 1991;Karrass and Braungart-Rieker 2005;Tomasello and Farrar 1986). Children with high interest in book reading are likely to have better quality and a higher quantity of literacy exposure (e.g., Baker et al. 2001;Durkin 1966;Mandel Morrow 1983) subsequently enhancing emergent-literacy skill development. ...
Article
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Emergent-literacy skills are frequently taught within social interactions in preschool classrooms such as shared book reading. Children with impaired language and/or social engagement may have difficulty accessing these learning opportunities. Therefore, we sought to investigate the relationship between book-reading orientation during a teacher-led shared book reading activity and emergent-literacy skill development across three groups of preschool children; autism (n = 22), developmental language disorder (DLD; n = 23), and typical development (TD; n = 58). The children with autism demonstrated less book-reading orientation than their DLD and TD peers. Book-reading orientation was a significant predictor of residualized gains in print-concept knowledge and phonological awareness. Thus, book-reading orientation appears to play a critical role in preschooler’s emergent-literacy skill development.
... This indicator has been translated and adapted for use in the context of rural China [20,21]. Subsets of FCI measures are commonly used in studies associated with child development [22][23][24][25][26]. ...
Article
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This study examines the prevalence of cognitive delay among infants and toddlers in rural China and its relationship with one of the potential sources of the observed delay: low levels of stimulating parenting practices (SPPs). Data were compiled from five distinct studies, resulting in a pooled sample of 4436 caregivers of 6–29-month-old infants. The sampling sites span five provinces in rural China. According to the data, on average, rates of delay are high—51 percent. The low rates of SPPs among our sample demonstrate that this may be one source of the high prevalence of delays. The results of the multivariate regression analysis reveal that reading books and singing songs are each significantly associated with an increase in infant cognitive score by 1.62 points (p = 0.003) and 2.00 points (p < 0.001), respectively. Telling stories to infants, however, is not significantly associated with infant cognitive scores. Our findings indicate that caregivers with different characteristics engage in various levels of stimulating practices and have infants with different rates of delay. Specifically, infants of better-educated mothers who have greater household assets are in families in which the caregivers provide more SPPs and have infants who score higher on the study’s cognitive abilities scales.
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Using a three-wave longitudinal survey conducted in 815 households in rural Western China, this study aims to examine the association between parental self-perception and early childhood development and the mediation effect of parental investment on the association between parental self-perception and child development when the sample children are at different ages in the early childhood (18–30, 22–36, and 49–65 months). The results demonstrate that parental self-perception are positively and significantly associated with child social-emotional development in all three ages of childhood (from 18 to 65 months). Positive and significant association between parental self-perception and child cognitive development is found in the ages from 22 to 65 months. In addition, findings of this study show that parental investment plays a mediating role in the association between parental self-perception and child cognitive development. The study calls on policymakers to help to strengthen parental self-perception and parental investment related to early childhood development, which should result in better child development in rural China.
Article
It is well-established that participation in shared book reading interactions with caregivers supports children's early language and literacy development. Most of this literature focuses on reading experiences during the preschool period. Less is known about the nature and importance of such practices during infancy. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine literacy practices between parents and infants in a large cohort study, Growing Up in Ireland. Interview, survey, and direct measurements of children's language skills were used to examine whether parent-report of book reading practices when children were 9-months predicted child expressive vocabulary at 36-months (N = 9171). Regression analysis indicated that approximately 80% of 9-month-old Irish children are read to by parents. Characteristics of families who were more likely to report reading with children emerged: those with higher educational attainment, fewer depressive symptoms, and those who report a high-quality home language environment (e.g., reported talking more to children during everyday activities). Furthermore, children who were read to at 9-months had stronger expressive vocabulary skills at 36-months, even after accounting for socio-demographic and home literacy environment covariates measured at both 9- and 36-months. Results are discussed using a bioecological framework to describe how proximal and distal factors in the child's environment converge to impact early childhood literacy development.
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Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, 60-72 aylık çocukların erken okuryazarlık beceri düzeyinin SED, ev okuryazarlık uygulamaları, öğretmen okuryazarlık bilgi düzeyi ve sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamaları açısından incelenmesidir. Araştırmaya, devlet okulları bünyesinde bulunan anasınıflarında eğitim öğretimine devam eden ve tanılı herhangi bir yetersizliği olmayan 60-72 ay yaş aralığındaki 235 çocuk dâhil edilmiştir. Araştırmaya dâhil edilen çocukların erken okuryazarlık beceri düzeylerine ilişkin bilgiler ‘Erken Okuryazarlık Testi (EROT)’, ailelerin sosyo ekonomik düzeylerine ilişkin bilgiler ‘Aile Bilgi Formu’, ev okuryazarlık uygulamalarına ilişkin bilgiler araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilen ‘Ev Okuryazarlık Uygulamaları Ölçeği (EVOKU)’, okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin erken okuryazarlık bilgi düzeyi ve sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamalarına ilişkin bilgiler ‘Öğretmen Görüşme Formu’ ile elde edilmiştir. Çocukların öncelikle EROT alt testlerinden elde ettikleri puanların SED’e ve yaşa göre dağılımları belirlenmiştir. Dağılımların belirlenmesinin ardından EROT alt testlerinden elde edilen puanların SED’e ve sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamalarına göre farklılık gösterip göstermediğimi belirlemek için Kruskall Wallis- H testi, ev okuryazarlık uygulamalarına ve öğretmen bilgi düzeyine göre farklılık gösterip göstermediğini belirlemek için Mann Whitney-U testi kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlara bakıldığında çocukların alıcı dilde sözcük bilgisi, ifade edici dilde sözcük bilgisi ve sesbilgisel farkındalık becerileri alt testlerinden elde ettikleri puanların SED’e göre anlamlı farklılık gösterdiği görülmüştür. Anlamlı farklılığın ise üst SED’den gelen çocuklar ile alt SED’den gelen çocuklar arasında ve üst SED’den gelen çocukların lehine, orta SED’den gelen çocuklar ile alt SED’den gelen çocuklar arasında ve orta SED’den gelen çocukların lehine olduğu gözlemlenmiştir. Ev okuryazarlık uygulamalarının, çocukların alıcı dilde sözcük bilgisi, ifade edici dilde sözcük bilgisi, sesbilgisel farkındalık ve dinlediğini anlama alt testlerinden elde ettikleri puanlar üzerinde anlamlı farklılıklar yarattığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Anlamlı farklığın ise erken okuryazarlık becerileri açısından risk grubunda olmayan çocukların lehine olduğu görülmüştür. Okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin sahip olduğu erken okuryazarlık bilgi düzeyinin, çocukların EROT alt testlerinden elde ettikleri puanlar üzerinde anlamlı farklılık yaratmadığı görülmüştür. Son olarak sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamalarının, çocukların alıcı ve ifade edici dilde sözcük bilgisi alt testlerinden elde ettikleri puanlar üzerinde anlamlı farklılık yarattığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Anlamlı farklılığın ise iyi uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfında bulunan çocuklar ile zayıf uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfında bulunan çocuklar arasında ve iyi uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfındaki çocukların lehine, orta düzey uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfında bulunan çocuklar ile zayıf uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfında bulunan çocuklar arasında ve orta düzey uygulamacı olan öğretmenlerin sınıfındaki çocukların lehine olduğu görülmüştür. Elde edilen bulgular alanyazın temelinde tartışılmış ve hem SED’in hem ev okuryazarlık uygulamalarının hem de sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamalarının erken okuryazarlık becerileri için önemli değişkenler olduğu belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak, çocuğun erken okuryazarlık bilgi ve becerilerinin gelişimi üzerinde etkili olduğu belirlenen tüm değişkenler bütüncül bir bakış açısıyla ele alınmış ve çocuğun içinde bulunduğu SED’in, ev okuryazarlık ve sınıf içi okuryazarlık uygulamalarının niteliğinin ve niceliğinin çocukların erken okuryazarlık bilgi ve becerilerinin gelişimini destekleyen önemli değişkenler olduğu görülmüştür.
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Tato empirická studie popisuje situaci čtení dětem v rodině. Cílem bylo zjistit důvody, proč rodiče dětem čtou, frekvenční parametry čtení a čtenářských praktik rodičů a dětí. Výzkumný soubor tvořilo 240 respondentů – rodičů, jejichž děti navštěvovaly mateřskou školu. Výzkumným nástrojem byl dotazník s 52 položkami agregovanými do 17 proměnných. Zjištěné základní parametry čtení dětem jsou vesměs příznivé. Většina zkoumaných rodičů čte dětem frekventovaně, dostatečně dlouho a číst začala v průměru před druhým rokem věku dítěte. Děti ve velké většině zkoumaných rodin vlastnily 30 nebo více knih. Byly zjištěny silné rozvojové a emocionální důvody pro dítě. Rodiče při čtení facilitují porozumění, podporují uvažování o postavách příběhu a stimulují dítě k vlastní naraci obsahu. Slabší je podpora pregramotných činností, tedy aktivit s písmeny, slovy a čísly. Specifický aspekt této studie spočíval v nahlížení na dítě z hlediska aktérství, tedy dítětem iniciovaného a realizovaného konání. Děti z tohoto výzkumného souboru projevovaly o čtení dosti velký zájem, v dyádě čtení se chovaly proaktivně, produkovaly vlastní verze příběhů a své rodiče při čtení monitorovaly.
Chapter
Engaging and empowering Indigenous families and their young children in quality early learning experiences through increasing parent knowledge and skill is critical to bridging the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous disadvantage. To do this, there must be evidence-based programs and approaches that achieve positive child outcomes and meet the needs of families in a myriad of ways. The systematic implementation of the Abecedarian Approach Australia (3a) within the Families as First Teachers (FaFT) program and other Indigenous contexts aims to do exactly this. This chapter outlines why high-quality evidenced-based approaches are necessary in the context of Indigenous academic and social disadvantage. It will also examine early literacy experiences necessary for school learning, linking these to 3a in the FaFT context. Implementation history will be explored and challenges discussed, demonstrating the complexity of systematically implementing an evidenced-based approach in a remote Indigenous parenting support program in the Northern Territory.
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Objectives: The linguistic interaction between parents and children during book reading is an important factor in the child's language and literacy development. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between cognitively different caregivers' question types and the contributions of vocabulary delayed children. Methods: Participants consisted of 17 children with vocabulary delay (VD group), aged 4 to 6, their mothers, and 17 pairs of age-matched typically developing children (TD group) and their mothers. In order to analyze the relationship between the maternal question and the child's response, the situation of reading and asking questions about two books to the child was recorded. Results: The correct response rate to the different types of questions was higher in the TD group than that of the VD group. The rate of the referential question following by the rate of the child's referential correct response and inferential question rate according to the child's inferential incorrect response were significantly higher in VD group than those of TD group. The ratio of the inferential questions following by child's referential correct responses and the rate of the referential questions to the child's inferential incorrect contributions was fundamentally higher in the TD group than that of the VD group. Conclusion: The caregiver and child may have a linguistic impact on each other during book reading. This is clinically related to various types of caregiver questions. Different cognitive levels of maternal question use, based on the child's age, language, and cognitive level, can be recommended in caregiver book-reading training. © 2018 Korean Academy of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology.
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The shared reading of books is one of the activities that most contributes to the development of young children's language (JUSTICE; SOFKA, 2010; SÉNÉCHAL, 2015; EVANS; SAINT-AUBIN, 2005; SÉNÉCHAL; LEFEVRE, 2002) and has effects in the acquisition of the written language registers (BUS et al., 1995). However, the effects of this contribution depend on how the adult interacts and encourages the child's participation in the discussion and reflection beyond the text. Young children who actively participate in adult-led shared reading of books, which interact with them through questions, word-labeling, and referents, have greater gains in vocabulary than children who passively hear the book reading (SÉNÉCHAL et al., 1995). In addition, the use of questions plays a key role in directing attention and maintaining the child's participation in the activity of shared reading. The purpose of this study is to (1) determine how often preschool teachers ask questions during shared reading of books with their students, and (2) identify the types of questions that teachers asked related to basic vs. complex questions. A total of nine teachers and their students aged 3 to 5 years, from a city in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, participated in the study. Two shared reading sessions of each teacher (n = 18) were recorded on video, transcribed and coded using an adapted version of the Systematic Assessment of Book Reading-Transcript Coding Version 2.1 (ZUCKER et al., 2017). The results show that during the eighteen shared reading sessions, teachers compiled a total of 329 questions, classified into two categories: basic questions and complex questions. From the total, the basic ones had a higher frequency (n = 285) and complex questions were formulated less frequently (n = 44). The results of this research are in line with other studies (PENTIMONTI et al., 2018; BECK; MCKEOWN, 2001; GIROLAMETTO et al., 2000) that show that teachers usually ask basic questions more frequently when compared to complex questions. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of call teachers attention to the value of shared reading, mediated by an interaction that favors the formulation of questions, seeking to expand the proportion of complex questions, given the influence that this type of activity has on the cognitive and linguistic development of children.
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The first three years of a child’s life are marked by rapid development, forming trajectories for ongoing development and learning. In the USA, almost half of the population of children under three experience levels of socioeconomic disadvantage that threaten their development and later success, particularly in the areas of language acquisition. Immigrant children are largely represented in this group. Given the pivotal role of parent–child interactions to children’s language development, early intervention should build upon parents’ cultural strengths and values. This chapter presents an overview of the development and evaluation of Little Talks, an intervention designed for home visiting programs serving low-income infants and toddlers. Little Talks was designed in partnership with low-income, ethnic minority parents and Early Head Start home visiting staff to ensure that it would be culturally meaningful and feasible. The Little Talks intervention is coupled with implementation supports to enable home visitors to tailor it to individual children and their parents. Emerging evidence supports Little Talks’ effectiveness in enhancing parents’ involvement in children’s learning activities and in preventing elevations in maternal depression, especially for Spanish-speaking, newly immigrant parents. Promising impacts on children’s communication and language skills have also been observed.
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Although many studies investigated the effects of the home learning environment (HLE) in the preschool years, the constructs that underlie the HLE in the years before the age of three and its effects on language development are still poorly understood. This study therefore investigated the dimensionality of the HLE at age two, its relation to the attendance of low threshold parent-child-courses, and its importance for children’s vocabulary development between age 2 and 3 years against the background of differing family background characteristics. Using data from 1,013 children and their families of the Newborn Cohort of the German National Educational Panel Study, structural equation modeling analyses showed that (1) quantitative and qualitative aspects of the early HLE, i.e., the frequency of stimulating activities, and the quality of parent-child-interactions should be differentiated; (2) that family background variables are differentially associated with the HLE dimensions and (3) that attendance at parent-child courses enriches both aspects of the HLE which in turn (4) are related to the children’s vocabulary development. Our results highlight the need to differentiate aspects of the early HLE to disentangle which children are at risk in terms of which stimulation at home and the possibility to enrich the HLE through low threshold parent-child courses.
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WE EXAMINED whether storybook exposure and the amount of teaching in reading and writing skills reported by middle class parents were related to the oral-language skills (receptive vocabulary, listening comprehension, and phoneme awareness) and the written-language skills (concepts about book reading, alphabet knowledge, reading CVC words, and invented spelling) of children in kindergarten (n = 110) and Grade 1 (n = 47). Hierarchical regression analyses that controlled for parents' print exposure and children's age and analytic intelligence showed that storybook exposure explained statistically significant unique variance in children's oral-language skills but not in their written-language skills. In contrast, parent teaching explained statistically significant unique variance in children's written-language skills but not in their oral-language skills. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that storybook exposure may enhance children's oral-language skills whereas additional support in the form of teaching may be necessary to enhance written-language skills. At the end of Grade 1, children's oral and written language performance accounted for 20% of the variance in word reading, but storybook exposure and parent teaching did not account for additional statistically significant unique variance. These findings suggest that the association between early home literacy experiences and later reading skills may be mediated through children's oral-and written-language skills.
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The achievement of labelling was investigated in a longitudinal study of one mother–infant dyad, using video-recordings of their free play in a period between 0; 8 and 1; 6. Analysis of joint picture-book reading revealed that this activity had very early on the structure of a dialogue. The child's lexical labels might be regarded as more adult-like substitutes for earlier communicative forms that he had utilized in the dialogue. These were smiling, reaching, pointing and babbling vocalizations, all of which were consistently interpreted by the mother as expressing the child's intention of requesting a label or providing one. Participating in a ritualized dialogue, rather than imitation, was found to be the major mechanism through which labelling was achieved.
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The current review is a quantitative meta-analysis ofthe available empirical evidence related to parent-preschooler reading and several outcome mea- sures. In selecting the studies to be included in this meta-analysis, we focused on studies examining thefrequency ofbook reading to preschoolers. The results support the hypothesis that parent-preschooler reading is related to outcome measures such äs language growth, emergent literacy, and reading achievement. The overall effect size ofd = .59 indicates that book reading explains about 8% of the variance in the outcome measures. The results support the hypothesis that book reading, in particular, ajfects acqui- sition of the written language register. The effect of parent-presch ooler reading is not dependent on the socioeconomic Status of the families or on several methodological differences between the studies. However, the effect seems to become smaller äs soon äs children become conventional readers and are able to read on their own.
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Parent–child play behavior of 33 preschool children (18 boys, 29 European-American, middle- and upper-middle-class families) was videotaped in separate pretend and physical play sessions. Children's play behavior with a same-sex peer also was observed. Analyses focus on contextual differences in parent–child play behavior, as well as associations between parent–child play and child–peer play. During the pretense play session parent–daughter dyads, particularly mother–daughter dyads, engaged in more pretense play than did parent–son dyads. During the physical play session father–son dyads engaged in more physical play than did father–daughter dyads. These data suggest that context may play an important role in gender differentiated patterns of parent–child play behavior. As for children's peer play behavior, consistent with previous evidence, girls were more likely than boys to engage peers in pretend play and boys were more likely than girls to play physically with peers. Children whose parents engaged in more pretense play engaged in more pretense play with a peer, whereas children's whose parents engaged in more physical play engaged in more physical play with a peer. These findings suggest that parents may contribute to children's gender-typed play behaviors with peers.
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The relationships between parents' age, education, literacy activities and shared reading with the child and children's language skills and early interest in books were examined in a longitudinal study of 108 children. Parents reported on their children's lexical and grammatical development by using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (the CDIs) at the ages of 14 and 24 months. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered to the children in a laboratory setting at 24 months. Information on parental background variables was obtained through a questionnaire before the children's birth. Book reading habits were inquired when the children were 2 years of age. Mothers' education, literacy activities and shared reading with the child were shown to be more strongly associated with the 2-year-olds' lexical and grammatical skills than were those of fathers. A corresponding association to parental background variables emerged regardless of whether parental report data or scores on the structured test were employed as the child language measure Shared reading with the father was found to be linked to children's early interest in books. The children who exhibited greater interest in books were likely to be read to by mothers and fathers more frequently than other children. These children also had larger vocabularies than did children with low interest in books. The role of endogenous and exogenous variables in explaining children's language skills and early book reading interest are discussed.
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Infants' representations of the sound patterns of words were explored by examining the effects of talker variability on the recognition of words in fluent speech. Infants were familiarized with isolated words (e.g., cup and dog) from 1 talker and then heard 4 passages produced by another talker, 2 of which included the familiarized words. At 7.5 months of age, infants attended longer to passages with the familiar words for materials produced by 2 female talkers or 2 male talkers but not for materials by a male and a female talker. These findings suggest a strong role for talker-voice similarity in infants' ability to generalize word tokens. By 10.5 months, infants could generalize different instances of the same word across talkers of the opposite sex. One implication of the present results is that infants' initial representations of the sound structure of words not only include phonetic information but also indexical properties relating to the vocal characteristics of particular talkers.
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This study examined the degree to which parental contextual factors and infant characteristics predicted whether parents read aloud to their 8-month-old infants. Discriminant function analysis revealed that mothers with higher family incomes and those who reported less parenting stress and fewer general hassles were more likely to read to their infants. Gender and temperament of the infant did not significantly predict whether mothers would engage in shared reading. Furthermore, there was no evidence that mothers who reported reading aloud to their infants display more enriching parenting practices in the laboratory. Paternal contextual factors did not discriminate readers from nonreaders, but infant temperament did. Fathers who read aloud had infants who were less soothable and who displayed longer durations of orienting. The possibility that book reading could serve as 1 mediator of the temperament-cognition relationship is discussed.
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This study investigated vocabulary acquisition in the context of joint picture-book reading in mother-infant dyads belonging to 2 social classes. 20 middle-class and 20 lower-class dyads were observed, the infants ranging in age between 17 and 22 months. In both groups interaction focused on the eliciting or the provision of labeling information. The most frequent formats consisted of cycles headed by "What's that?" questions, by "Where is X?" questions, and by labeling statements emitted by the mother. Cluster analysis revealed that these formats and other measures of input language fell into 3 groups, each apparently representing a different dyadic interaction style. In the high-SES group, each style was associated with the size of a different vocabulary in the infant: productive, comprehension, and imitative vocabularies. In the low-SES group, the proportion of maternal "what" questions was correlated with the infant's level, whereas "where" questions and labeling statements were not adjusted to the infant's level. Low-SES mothers talked less and provided less varied labels for actions and attributes. They asked less "what" questions and more "where" questions. High-SES infants had a bigger productive vocabulary, and low-SES infants had a bigger imitative vocabulary. The rate of development was slower in the low-SES group, as evidenced by lower correlations with the age of the infant.
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Reviewed research from 1960 to 1993 pertaining to the hypothesized influence of parent–preschooler reading experiences on the development of language and literacy skills. The literature provides evidence for this association, although the magnitudes of the observed effects have been quite variable within and between samples and, on average, have been unexpectedly modest. Demographic, attitudinal, and skill differences among preschoolers all apparently made stronger direct contributions to prediction in investigations that permitted such comparisons. These findings are discussed with respect to theory and research on literacy acquisition, educational practice, and parental guidance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Sex differences in the association between environmental risk and language development were examined in a longitudinal study of 54 high-social-risk families. Measures of the environment included information about family stress and coping, opportunities for cognitive and linguistic stimulation, the nature of learning experiences, and the affective quality of the infant–mother relationship. Despite apparently similar family conditions and early experiences, there were significant sex differences favoring girls on observational measures of spontaneous language production at 20 and 30 mo of age. For the group as a whole, sex differences on standardized tests at 24 and 36 mo of age were nonsignificant. In addition, relations between aspects of the learning environment and children's language performance differed for boys and girls, supporting a moderator interpretation of the findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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chapter is written from the point of view that temperament concepts are tools, not real entities / centered in the motive to understand social process, especially process involved in the development of behavior problems definitions of temperament / measurement of temperament / empirical studies / direct validation / role of temperament in socially relevant processes / subjective factors in perceptions of temperament (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Fathers' and mothers' speech to infants was obtained during face-to-face interaction in a laboratory setting. Thirty-two father-infant pairs and 40 mother-infant pairs participated. Infants were divided equally by sex and among two age groups with mean ages of 3 and 9 months. Parental utterances were transcribed from videotapes. The utterances were analyzed in terms of their structure and content. There were many similarities in the structure of fathers' and mothers' speech. The speech of both parents was highly repetitive and contained many questions. There were also similarities in the content of fathers' and mothers' speech. Their belief in the infants' ability to think, feel, and act like persons was evident in their speech to the infants. The age of the infant was a significant factor in the analysis of many of the content categories. The sex of the infant and the sex of the parent were also significant factors in several of the analyses.
Article
Specific predictive relations between mothers' responsiveness to their 5-month-olds' nondistress activities and vocal distress and infants' attention span, symbolic play, and language comprehension at 13 months were examined in 36 dyads in a short-term prospective longitudinal study. Maternal responsiveness to infant nondistress activities at 5 months, but not responsiveness to infant distress, uniquely predicted infant attention span and symbolic play, but not infant language comprehension. Mothers' responsiveness at 13 months was positively and consistently, but not significantly, associated with all three infant abilities. The results support a view that the effects of maternal responsiveness on infant mental development are specific and indirect rather than generic and direct and recommend further differentiation of infant activity, maternal responsiveness, and child outcome in studies of children's early mental development.
Article
Parent—infant toy play was studied in 24 families of first-born 8-month-olds. Videotapes of dyadic parent—infant play in a laboratory were coded for predominant forms of play and the sequencing and timing of beahviors. With the exception of high amount of father physical play, there were few parental sex differences in measures of behavior duration. However, father and mother behavior was differential with respect to sequence, particularly in their responses to infant attentional cues, with mothers showing greater responsiveness than fathers to changes in infant-looking behavior.
Article
These observations indicate how the organization of book reading events differs when middle- to upper-class suburban parents read picture books to preverbal and verbal infants. Twelve parent-infant dyads for each group of 9-, 17-, and 27-month-old infants were videotaped in their homes. On each of three visits, two different books were read. The books either contained sentences describing the illustrations or did not contain any sentences. The quality of parent verbalizations changed with the age of the infant; parents reading to younger infants used more attention-recruiting verbalizations and more elaborations, whereas parents reading to older infants used more questions and more feedback. Analyses of sequential dependencies between categories of behaviors suggest that, across these age groups, parents monitor and attempt to maximize their infants' attention to the book. Parents' verbalizations expand from labeling comments, to sequences of labeling questions, to dialogues that exercise the growing linguistic competencies of the infant. Finally, interactions with books containing no sentences led to more verbal behaviors by the parent and more vocalizations by the infant.
Article
Eighty-two mothers with their 44–63-week-old infants were videotaped in the context of picturebook reading. The Strange Situation procedure was applied to assess infant-mother attachment security. The observations of mother and infant behavior support the view of early literacy skills as the outcome of a fundamentally social process. The study shows that the infants' responses gain significance as denotative symbols through responding at books together with the mother, and eventually as the infants' responses grow more mature, through evoking responses and pointing by the mother. These learning/instruction processes depend on the affective dimension of the infant-mother relationship. Attachment security appeared to be related to the distraction/disciplining dimension of sharing a picturebook. The discussion goes into some consequences of learning to read as a social process.
Article
To investigate infants’ affective expressivity and maternal attuned responsiveness to infant expressivity in relation to early language achievement, 77 dyads were visited in their homes at 9 and 13 months, and mothers were interviewed about their children’s language between 9 and 21 months. Maternal responses that were attuned to infant affect, by selectively matching either the gradient features or the valence of infants’ affective expressions, were more predictive of children’s language achievement than maternal nonmatching responses; and maternal matching responses at 9 months were more predictive of children’s language achievements than maternal responses at 13 months. Moreover, maternal matching responses at 9 months predicted second-year language achievements over and above infant affect expressivity at 9 and 13 months, and over and above maternal matching responses at 13 months. Infants’ affective expressivity per se was not predictive.
Article
The relations between home literacy environment and child language ability were examined for 323 4-year-olds attending Head Start and their mothers or primary caregivers. Overall frequency of shared picture book reading, age of onset of picture book reading, duration of shared picture book reading during one recent day, number of picture books in the home, frequency of child's requests to engage in shared picture book reading, frequency of child's private play with books, frequency of shared trips to the library, frequency of caregiver's private reading, and caregiver's enjoyment of private reading constituted the literacy environment, and were measured using a questionnaire completed by each child's primary caregiver. Using a primary subsample of 236 children, a composite literacy environment score was derived from the literacy environment measures and was correlated with a composite child language measure, derived from two standardized tests of language skills. Depending on the form of regression analysis employed and depending on whether primary caregiver IQ and education were entered into the prediction equations, from 12% to 18.5% of the variance in child language scores was accounted for by home literacy environment. These analyses were cross-validated on a secondary subsample of 87 children with similar results. The strength of the relations between home literacy environment and child language are stronger in this study than in previous research, due to the use of statistically derived aggregate measures of literacy environment. The presence of substantial variability in home literacy environments in low-income families, and the substantial relations between these environments and child language outcomes has important implications for intervention.
Article
Twenty toddlers with expressive specific language impairment (SLI-E) and 20 toddlers with normal language development were compared in their symbolic play development. The groups did not differ in amount of engagement with the toys or in functional conventional play behaviors. However, the children with SLI-E displayed less decentered play (use of play schemes with a doll or another person), less well-developed sequential play, and fewer occurrences of symbolic play transformations (use of a neutral object or an absent object to carry out pretending). The provision of structure in the form of thematically related toy sets, instructions, and modeling did not reduce the discrepancy between demonstrated play behaviors of toddlers with SLI-E and their normally developing peers. Three possible explanations for this discrepancy are considered: a "stylistic" difference in play, a developmental lag in symbol use, or a deficit in retrieval of stored symbolic representation.
Article
30 working-class and 33 upper-middle-class mothers were videotaped in dyadic interaction with their 18-29-month-old children in 4 settings--mealtime, dressing, book reading, and toy play. Samples of the mothers' adult-directed speech also were collected. There were significant social class differences in the mothers' child-directed speech and some parallel social class differences in the mothers' adult-directed speech. These findings suggested that some social class differences in child-directed speech may be instances of more general class differences in language use. There also were main effects of communicative setting on mothers' child-directed speech and interaction effects in which setting moderated the size of the class differences in maternal speech. These findings suggested that the amount of time mothers spend interacting with their children in different contexts may be at least as important an influence on children's linguistic experience as are average characteristics of their mothers' speech.
Article
Motor activity level, or customary energy expenditure through movement, is a cornerstone dimension of temperament. In this article we address the unresolved question of sex differences in activity level (AL) by quantitatively integrating results from 90 citations encompassing 127 independent sex difference contrasts. Males are generally more active than females, d = .49, although the magnitude of the difference is associated with other features of the research investigation, such as participant age and situational characteristics. This AL result is judged a large effect within the context of established behavioral sex differences, and implications are discussed.
Article
This paper reports 2 studies that explore the role of joint attentional processes in the child's acquisition of language. In the first study, 24 children were videotaped at 15 and 21 months of age in naturalistic interaction with their mothers. Episodes of joint attentional focus between mother and child--for example, joint play with an object--were identified. Inside, as opposed to outside, these episodes both mothers and children produced more utterances, mothers used shorter sentences and more comments, and dyads engaged in longer conversations. Inside joint episodes maternal references to objects that were already the child's focus of attention were positively correlated with the child's vocabulary at 21 months, while object references that attempted to redirect the child's attention were negatively correlated. No measures from outside these episodes related to child language. In an experimental study, an adult attempted to teach novel words to 10 17-month-old children. Words referring to objects on which the child's attention was already focused were learned better than words presented in an attempt to redirect the child's attentional focus.
Article
The sex-differentiated socialization emphases of parents and other representatives of societal institutions are considered as they influence the personality development and behavioral orientations of males and females. Specifically, sex-differentiated socialization emphases, "shaping" behaviors, and teaching styles are evaluated with regard to the nature of the "meta-messages" conveyed to boys and girls during their early, formative years. These messages are assumed to differentially influence the self-concepts evolved, ego structures, personal goals, and the cognitive-adaptational heuristics of boys and of girls. Differences in the socialization environments experienced by the 2 sexes can be seen as related to gender differences in personality characteristics. To integrate the empirical findings surrounding gender differences in personality and socialization experience, some conjectures are offered regarding the different self- and world views our current culture may be creating and fostering in males and in females. The potential and even likely influence of biological factors conjoined with the bidirectional effects of child and parent interaction are recognized as confounded with an interpretation in terms of differential socialization. But also, it is noted that until the effects of differential socialization are specifically evaluated by cultural, subcultural, or individual family changes, the role of biological and bidirectional factors cannot be assessed.
Article
A series of four experiments examined infants' capacities to detect repeated words in fluent speech. In Experiment 1, 7 1/2-month old American infants were familiarized with two different monosyllabic words and subsequently were presented with passages which either included or did not include the familiar target words embedded in sentences. The infants listened significantly longer to the passages containing the familiar target words than to passages containing unfamiliar words. A comparable experiment with 6-month-olds provided no indication that infants at this age detected the target words in the passages. In Experiment 3, a group of 7 1/2-month-olds was familiarized with two different non-word targets which differed in their initial phonetic segment by only one or two phonetic features from words presented in two of the passages. These infants showed no tendency to listen significantly longer to the passages with the similar sounding words, suggesting that the infants may be matching rather detailed information about the items in the familiarization period to words in the test passages. Finally, Experiment 4 demonstrated that even when the 7 1/2-month-olds were initially familiarized with target words in sentential contexts rather than in isolation, they still showed reliable evidence of recognizing these words during the test phase. Taken together, the results of these studies suggest that some ability to detect words in fluent speech contexts is present by 7 1/2 months of age.
Article
Data from parent reports on 1,803 children--derived from a normative study of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs)--are used to describe the typical course and the extent of variability in major features of communicative development between 8 and 30 months of age. The two instruments, one designed for 8-16-month-old infants, the other for 16-30-month-old toddlers, are both reliable and valid, confirming the value of parent reports that are based on contemporary behavior and a recognition format. Growth trends are described for children scoring at the 10th-, 25th-, 50th-, 75th-, and 90th-percentile levels on receptive and expressive vocabulary, actions and gestures, and a number of aspects of morphology and syntax. Extensive variability exists in the rate of lexical, gestural, and grammatical development. The wide variability across children in the time of onset and course of acquisition of these skills challenges the meaningfulness of the concept of the modal child. At the same time, moderate to high intercorrelations are found among the different skills both concurrently and predictively (across a 6-month period). Sex differences consistently favor females; however, these are very small, typically accounting for 1%-2% of the variance. The effects of SES and birth order are even smaller within this age range. The inventories offer objective criteria for defining typicality and exceptionality, and their cost effectiveness facilitates the aggregation of large data sets needed to address many issues of contemporary theoretical interest. The present data also offer unusually detailed information on the course of development of individual lexical, gestural, and grammatical items and features. Adaptations of the CDIs to other languages have opened new possibilities for cross-linguistic explorations of sequence, rate, and variability of communicative development.
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore the relation between joint picture-book-reading experiences provided in the home and children's early oral language skills. Subjects were 41 two-year-old children and their mothers. Measures included maternal report of the age at which she began to read to the child, the frequency of home reading sessions, the number of stories read per week, and the frequency of visits by the child to the local library. Measures of language skill used were the child's receptive and expressive scores on the revised Reynell Developmental Language Scales. Multiple regression analyses indicated that picture-book reading exposure was more strongly related to receptive than to expressive language. Age of onset of home reading routines was the most important predictor of oral language skills. Directions of effect, the importance of parental beliefs as determinants of home reading practices, and the possible existence of a threshold level for reading frequency are discussed.
Article
Infants' long-term retention of the sound patterns of words was explored by exposing them to recordings of three children's stories for 10 days during a 2-week period when they were 8 months old. After an interval of 2 weeks, the infants heard lists of words that either occurred frequently or did not occur in the stories. The infants listened significantly longer to the lists of story words. By comparison, a control group of infants who had not been exposed to the stories showed no such preference. The findings suggest that 8-month-olds are beginning to engage in long-term storage of words that occur frequently in speech, which is an important prerequisite for learning language.
Article
This longitudinal study including 87 infant-mother dyads examined the relation between infant temperamental attention, maternal encouragement of attention, language, and the effects of gender. At ages 0;4, 0;8, and 1;0, global attention was assessed from Rothbart's (1981) IBQ; manipulative exploration was assessed with the Bayley (1969) IBR; and maternal verbal, visual and physical encouragement of attention were coded from 5 minutes of mother-infant free-play. At 1;0, language was measured using language items from the Bayley Mental Scale and parent-report items from Hendrick, Prather & Tobin's (1984) SICD-Revised. Multiple regressions indicated that gender, infants' manipulative exploration and maternal physical encouragement of attention at 0;4, and maternal verbal encouragement of attention at 1;0, were all positively related to language at 1;0. Interactions indicated that girls high in 0;8 or 1;0 manipulative exploration had more advanced language skills than girls low in manipulative exploration or than boys, regardless of their attention level. Additionally, maternal verbal encouragement of attention appears to be particularly salient in the development of language for boys.
Article
Underpowered studies persist in the psychological literature. This article examines reasons for their persistence and the effects on efforts to create a cumulative science. The "curse of multiplicities" plays a central role in the presentation. Most psychologists realize that testing multiple hypotheses in a single study affects the Type I error rate, but corresponding implications for power have largely been ignored. The presence of multiple hypothesis tests leads to 3 different conceptualizations of power. Implications of these 3 conceptualizations are discussed from the perspective of the individual researcher and from the perspective of developing a coherent literature. Supplementing significance tests with effect size measures and confidence intervals is shown to address some but not necessarily all problems associated with multiple testing.
Infant care and activity sheet Sequenced inventory of communication development—revised edition Mother–child conversation in different social classes and communicative settings
  • M C Goeke-Morey
  • D L Hendrick
  • E M Prather
  • A R Tobin
Goeke-Morey, M. C. (1995). Infant care and activity sheet. Unpublished questionnaire, University of Notre Dame, Indiana. Hendrick, D. L., Prather, E. M., & Tobin, A. R. (1984). Sequenced inventory of communication development—revised edition. Seattle7 University of Washington Press. Hoff-Ginsberg, E. (1991). Mother–child conversation in different social classes and communicative settings. Child Development, 62, 782 – 796.
Child's talk: Learning to use language. New York7 Norton Mothers reading to their three-year-olds: The role of mother–child attachment
  • J Bruner
Bruner, J. (1985). Child's talk: Learning to use language. New York7 Norton. Bus, A. G., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (1995). Mothers reading to their three-year-olds: The role of mother–child attachment
Infant care and activity sheet
  • M C Goeke-Morey
Goeke-Morey, M. C. (1995). Infant care and activity sheet. Unpublished questionnaire, University of Notre Dame, Indiana.
Predictors of shared parent–child book reading in infancy
  • Karrass
Joint book reading makes for success in learning to read: A meta-analysis on intergenerational transmission of literacy
  • Bus