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An examination of self-compassion in relation to positive psychological functioning and personality traits

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Abstract

This study examined the relation of self-compassion to positive psychological health and the five factor model of personality. Self-compassion entails being kind toward oneself in instances of pain or failure; perceiving one’s experiences as part of the larger human experience; and holding painful thoughts and feelings in balanced awareness. Participants were 177 undergraduates (68% female, 32% male). Using a correlational design, the study found that self-compassion had a significant positive association with self-reported measures of happiness, optimism, positive affect, wisdom, personal initiative, curiosity and exploration, agreeableness, extroversion, and conscientiousness. It also had a significant negative association with negative affect and neuroticism. Self-compassion predicted significant variance in positive psychological health beyond that attributable to personality.
0092-6566/$ - see front matter © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2006.08.002
Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) 908–916
www.elsevier.com/locate/jrp
Brief Report
An examination of self-compassion in relation
to positive psychological functioning
and personality traits
Kristin D. NeVa,¤, Stephanie S. Rude a, Kristin L. Kirkpatrick b
a Educational Psychology Department, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, D5800,
Austin, TX, 78712, USA
b Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY, 40475, USA
Available online 2 October 2006
Abstract
This study examined the relation of self-compassion to positive psychological health and the Wve
factor model of personality. Self-compassion entails being kind toward oneself in instances of pain or
failure; perceiving one’s experiences as part of the larger human experience; and holding painful
thoughts and feelings in balanced awareness. Participants were 177 undergraduates (68% female,
32% male). Using a correlational design, the study found that self-compassion had a signiWcant posi-
tive association with self-reported measures of happiness, optimism, positive aVect, wisdom, personal
initiative, curiosity and exploration, agreeableness, extroversion, and conscientiousness. It also had a
signiWcant negative association with negative aVect and neuroticism. Self-compassion predicted sig-
niWcant variance in positive psychological health beyond that attributable to personality.
© 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Self-compassion; Self-attitudes; Self-criticism; Self-acceptance; Positive psychology; Big Wve
1. Introduction
NeV (2003a, 2003b) has recently proposed the construct of self-compassion as a healthy
form of self-acceptance. Self-compassion represents a warm and accepting stance towards
those aspects of oneself and one’s life that are disliked, and entails three main components
*Corresponding author. Fax: +1 512 471 1288.
E-mail address: kristin.neV@mail.utexas.edu (K.D. NeV).
K.D. NeV et al. / Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) 908–916 909
(NeV, 2003b). First, it involves being kind and understanding to oneself in instances of
suVering or perceived inadequacy. It also involves a sense of common humanity, recogniz-
ing that pain and failure are unavoidable aspects of the shared human experience. Finally,
self-compassion entails balanced awareness of one’s emotions—the ability to face (rather
than avoid) painful thoughts and feelings, but without exaggeration, drama or self-pity.
Several studies have found that self-compassion is a powerful predictor of mental
health. For example, self-compassion is negatively associated with self-criticism, depres-
sion, anxiety, rumination, thought suppression, and neurotic perfectionism, while being
positively associated with life satisfaction and social connectedness (NeV, 2003a). Increased
self-compassion has been found to predict enhanced psychological health over time (Gil-
bert & Proctor, in press; NeV, Kirkpatrick, & Rude, in press), and to explain lessened stress
following participation in a widely implemented stress-reduction program (Mindfulness-
Based Stress Reduction; Shapiro, Astin, Bishop, & Cordova, 2005). Self-compassion
appears to have academic beneWts as well. NeV, Hseih, and Dejitthirat (2005) found that
self-compassion was linked to intrinsic interest in learning and healthier coping strategies
after failing an exam.
Research has shown that self-compassion can be empirically diVerentiated from self-
esteem. Although self-esteem and self-compassion are moderately correlated, self-compas-
sion is a stronger unique (negative) predictor of social comparison, anger, need for closure,
public self-consciousness, self-rumination, contingent self-worth and unstable self-worth
(NeV, 2005). Moreover, self-esteem is signiWcantly correlated with narcissism whereas self-
compassion is not (NeV, 2003a, 2005). NeV et al. (in press) found that self-compassion was
associated with reduced anxiety after considering one’s greatest weakness, but that self-
esteem did not provide such a buVer. In a series of controlled experiments, Leary, Tate,
Adams, and Allen (2006) demonstrated that self-compassion was associated with more
emotional balance than self-esteem when participants encountered potentially humiliating
situations, received unXattering inter-personal feedback, or remembered past negative life
events.
While this body of research is promising, there is more to be learned about self-compas-
sion if it is to gain widespread acceptance as a psychologically adaptive mindset. For
instance, most of the research conducted on self-compassion so far has focused on its neg-
ative association with psychopathology. The positive psychology movement has argued
that it is necessary to consider well-being not only in terms of the absence of psychopathol-
ogy, but also in terms of human strengths and potentials (Seligman & Csikzentmihalyi,
2000). We feel that self-compassion is an important human strength as it invokes qualities
of kindness, equanimity, and feelings of inter-connectedness, helping individuals to Wnd
hope and meaning when faced with the diYculties of life. Thus, the current study looked at
the association of self-compassion with positive aspects of well-being identiWed as potential
beneWts of a self-compassionate stance—happiness, optimism, positive aVect, wisdom, per-
sonal initiative, and curiosity and exploration.
In addition, self-compassion has not yet been examined in relation to the Wve-factor
model of personality, a needed undertaking so that self-compassion can be viewed from
the perspective of this well-known personality framework. We expected there to be overlap
between self-compassion and the big Wve, particularly neuroticism, given that feelings of
self-judgment, isolation, and rumination inherent in the lack of self-compassion are similar
to those described by the neuroticism construct. However, we expected that self-compas-
sion would also predict well-being after accounting for shared variance with personality
910 K.D. NeV et al. / Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) 908–916
traits. For instance, we thought that self-compassion would account for unique variance in
reXective wisdom, happiness and optimism due to the increased perspective, resilience, and
warmth associated with self-compassion—strengths that are captured less well by the Wve
personality dimensions.
2. Method
Participants included 177 undergraduate students (57 men; 120 women; M age 20.02
years; SD D2.25) who were randomly assigned from an educational-psychology subject
pool at a large Southwestern university. The ethnic breakdown of the sample was 56%
Caucasian, 25% Asian, 14% Hispanic, 5% Mixed Ethnicity, and 1% Other. While meeting
in groups of no more than 30, participants Wlled out a self-report questionnaire containing
all study measures.
2.1. Measures
2.1.1. Self-compassion
Participants were given the 26-item Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; NeV, 2003a), which
assesses six diVerent aspects of self-compassion (negative aspects are reverse coded): Self-
Kindness (e.g., “I try to be understanding and patient toward aspects of my personality I
don’t like”), Self-Judgment (e.g., “I’m disapproving and judgmental about my own Xaws
and inadequacies”), Common Humanity (e.g., “I try to see my failings as part of the human
condition”), Isolation (e.g., “When I think about my inadequacies it tends to make me feel
more separate and cut oV from the rest of the world”), Mindfulness (e.g., “When something
painful happens I try to take a balanced view of the situation”), and Over-IdentiWcation
(e.g., “When I’m feeling down I tend to obsess and Wxate on everything that’s wrong.”).
Responses are given on a Wve-point scale from “Almost Never” to “Almost Always.”
Research indicates the SCS has an appropriate factor structure and demonstrates concur-
rent validity (e.g., correlates with social connectedness), convergent validity (e.g., correlates
with therapist ratings), discriminate validity (e.g., no correlation with social desirability or
narcissism), and test–retest reliability (D.93; NeV, 2003a, 2005). All scale reliabilities can
be found in Table 1.
2.1.2. Wisdom
Participants completed the 39-item Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS; Ardelt,
2003), which measures three aspects of wisdom: cognitive (e.g., “In this complicated world of
ours the only way we can know what’s going on is to rely on leaders or experts who can be
trusted”), reXective (e.g., “I always try to look at all sides of a problem”), and aVective (e.g., “I
can be comfortable with all kinds of people”). Ardelt (2003) has demonstrated that the scale
has content validity (as assessed by three independent judges), convergent validity (high
scores on the scale were linked to peer nominations of wisdom), discriminant validity (e.g., no
signiWcant relation to income or social desirability) and test–retest reliability (D.85).
2.1.3. Personal initiative
The 9-item Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS; Robitschek, 1998) assesses an
individual’s active involvement in changing and developing as a person (e.g., “If I want
to change something in my life, I initiate the transition process”). Robitschek (1998)
K.D. NeV et al. / Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) 908–916 911
reports evidence for the scale’s concurrent validity (e.g., moderate positive correlations
with assertiveness, instrumentality, and internal locus of control), discriminant validity
(e.g., no correlations with SAT scores or social desirability) and test–retest reliability
(D.74).
2.1.4. Curiosity and exploration
Participants completed the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI; Kashdan, Rose,
& Fincham, 2004). The 4-item curiosity and exploration subscale measures strivings for
novel information and experiences with items such as “Everywhere I go, I am out looking
for new things or experiences.” The CEI has been shown to demonstrate convergent valid-
ity (e.g., signiWcant correlations with conWdent ratings), discriminant validity (e.g., no corre-
lation with social desirability, independence from positive aVect) and test–retest reliability
(D.80) in prior research (Kashdan et al., 2004).
2.1.5. Happiness
Participants’ happiness was assessed with the 4-item Subjective Happiness Scale
(SHS; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999). On this measure, two items ask respondents how
happy they are using absolute and relative ratings, while two items describe happy and
unhappy individuals and ask respondents the extent to which the statements describe
them.
2.1.6. Optimism
The well-known 6-item Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R; Scheier, Carver, &
Bridges, 1994) was used to measure optimism. It includes items such as “I’m always opti-
mistic about my future.”
T
a
bl
e
1
Reliability for study measures (Cronbach’s Alpha) and inter-correlations between variables
Note. SCS, Self-Compassion Scale; W-C, cognitive wisdom; W-R, reXective wisdom; W-A, aVective wisdom; PI,
personal initiative; CE, curiosity and exploration; HAP, happiness; OPT, optimism; PA, positive aVect; NA, neg-
ative aVect; N, neuroticism; E, extroversion; O, openness to experience; A, agreeableness; C, conscientiousness.
¤p6.05.
Measures SCS HAP OPT PA NA W-C W-R W-A PI CE N E O A C
.91 .88 .78 .89 .85 .68 .67 .72 .88 .70 .84 .79 .74 .80 .81
Happiness .57¤
Optimism .62¤.58¤
Pos. aVect .34¤.42¤.37¤
Neg. aVect ¡.36¤¡.30¤¡.38 .04 —
Wis.-cognitive .11 .13 .19¤¡.03 ¡.14 —
Wis.-reXective .61¤.47¤.59¤.22¤¡.39¤.44¤
Wis.-aVfective .26¤.35¤.27¤.10 ¡.22¤.43¤.47¤
Pers. initiative .45¤.58¤.52¤.47¤¡.25¤.09 .38¤.15 —
Curiosity/explor. .28¤.33¤.34¤.37¤¡.08 .34¤.37¤.18¤.44¤
Neuroticism ¡.65¤¡.55¤¡.60¤¡.28 .52¤¡.23¤¡.56¤¡.22¤¡.44¤¡.27¤
Extroversion .32¤.60¤.39¤.19¤¡.15¤.16¤.28¤.44¤.34¤.24¤¡.34¤
Openness to exp. ¡.05 .02 .03 ¡.05 .01 .52¤.18¤.19¤.04 .40¤.07 .15 —
Agreeableness .35¤.30¤.38¤.06 ¡.30¤.22¤.44¤.56¤.16¤.08 ¡.29 .40¤.01 —
Conscientious. .42¤.47¤.45¤.40¤¡.28¤.22¤.50¤.32¤.69¤.29¤¡.45¤.28¤¡.05 .34¤
912 K.D. NeV et al. / Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) 908–916
2.1.7. Positive and negative aVect
This study employed the widely used Positive and Negative AVect Schedule (PANAS;
Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). The 10-item negative aVect subscale assesses the degree
to which participants are experiencing moods such as “upset” or “nervous”; the 10-item
positive aVect subscale assesses moods like “excited,” and “proud.”
2.1.8. Personality characteristics
Major broad-band personality traits were measured with the standard 60-item NEO
Five-Factor Inventory, Form S (NEO-FFI S; Costa & McCrae, 1992).
3. Results and discussion
First, we used a one-way ANOVA to check for sex or ethnic diVerences in self-compas-
sion, and none were found. Results were therefore collapsed by gender and ethnicity for
subsequent analyses. (All of the following results were also checked to ensure they did not
interact with gender or ethnicity). Zero-order correlations between the SCS and other vari-
ables examined in this study are presented in Table 1. Note that self-compassion was sig-
niWcantly correlated with all of the positive health constructs examined.
Happiness and optimism—two important features of positive mental health—were
strongly associated with self-compassion. Greater happiness may stem from (and also
facilitate) the feelings of warmth, inter-relatedness, and equilibrium that people experience
when they are self-compassionate. Research has also shown that happy people are less
likely than unhappy people to ruminate on negative life events (Lyubomirsky, 2001)—as
are self-compassionate individuals (NeV, 2003a). The contented mindset of self-compas-
sion and its associated adaptive coping skills (NeV et al., 2005) may also help to maintain
optimistic expectations about the future (Scheier et al., 1994). In fact, feelings of compas-
sion for self and others have been linked to higher levels of brain activation in the left pre-
frontal cortex, a region associated with joy and optimism (Lutz, Greischar, Rawlings,
Ricard, & Davidson, 2004).
Results indicated that self-compassionate individuals experienced signiWcantly more
positive and less negative mood generally. However, we do not interpret this to mean that
self-compassion is merely a “Pollyanish” form of positive thinking. Although self-compas-
sion is associated with positive aVect, it stems from the ability to hold diYcult negative
emotions in non-judgmental awareness without denial or suppression (NeV et al., in press).
Results indicate that self-compassion was strongly related to reXective wisdom, mod-
estly related to aVective wisdom, and positively but non-signiWcantly related to cognitive
wisdom. According to Ardelt’s (2003) formulation, reXective wisdom refers to the ability to
see reality as it is and to develop self-awareness and insight. It is likely that self-compassion
and reXective wisdom overlap in a variety of ways, resulting in the strong association
between the two constructs. Research shows that self-compassionate individuals make
more accurate self-appraisals (i.e., without self-enhancement or self-deprecation) than
those lacking the trait (Leary et al., 2006), suggesting that self-compassion may enhance
wisdom because it provides the emotional safety needed to see the self clearly. AVective
wisdom assesses constructive emotions towards others, such as feelings of kindness and
sympathy. The positive link between self-compassion and aVective wisdom suggests that
concern for the self and others are related. While self-compassion is considered to be part
of a more general compassionate stance, the reason a stronger association was not
K.D. NeV et al. / Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) 908–916 913
obtained may be because individuals who lack self-compassion tend to say they are kinder
to others than to themselves (NeV, 2003a), so that being uncaring towards oneself does not
necessarily translate into a lack of other-focused concern. Self-compassion was not signiW-
cantly related to cognitive wisdom, which assesses the ability to understand people and the
real world. This type of “street smarts” does not appear to require self-compassion.
Self-compassion was signiWcantly related to personal initiative, deWned by Robitschek
(1998) as being actively involved in making changes needed for a more productive and ful-
Wlling life. Because self-compassionate individuals are not harshly self-critical, they may be
more able to acknowledge areas of weakness that need changing. This is important because
people are sometimes reluctant to be self-compassionate out of fear of self-indulgence
(NeV, 2003b). While focusing exclusively on pleasure for oneself might lead to self-indul-
gence, compassion involves desiring health and well-being for the self rather than pleasure
per se (Brach, 2003). In many instances, giving the self pleasure actually harms well-being
(e.g., taking drugs, over-eating, watching too much television), while promoting one’s
health often involves a certain amount of displeasure (e.g., exercising, dieting, reading a
diYcult but rewarding novel). Thus, the desire for well-being inherent in self-compassion is
likely to engender productive, positive change.
Results indicate that self-compassion was also signiWcantly related to curiosity and
exploration, a process that involves giving attention to and pursuing novel and challenging
experiences (Kashdan et al., 2004). This suggests that having an open and accepting stance
towards oneself is related to being open to the world in general. Self-compassionate indi-
viduals may be more curious about life because they tend to be intrinsically motivated and
have less fear of failure when faced with diYcult challenges (NeV et al., 2005). Conversely,
this curiosity may facilitate the willingness to hold one’s pain in compassionate awareness.
In terms of the Wve personality traits of the NEO-FFI, self-compassion had the stron-
gest association with neuroticism, with greater self-compassion leading to signiWcantly
lower levels of neuroticism. This supports past Wndings of a signiWcant negative relation-
ship between self-compassion and markers of maladjustment such as depression, anxiety,
and rumination (NeV, 2003b). Self-compassion also demonstrated a signiWcant positive
correlation with agreeableness, suggesting that the kind, connected, and emotionally bal-
anced stance of self-compassion is associated with a greater ability to get along with others
(note that self-compassion has also been linked to greater social connectedness in past
research; NeV, 2003a). Self-compassionate individuals were signiWcantly more likely to be
extroverted—perhaps because they are less likely to worry about the impression they make
on others, a concern that can lead to shy and withdrawn behavior. Extroversion scores
may also be a reXection of feelings of social inter-connectedness that are part of self-com-
passion. A signiWcant link was also found between self-compassion and conscientiousness.
This suggests that the emotional stability provided by self-compassion may help engender
(and be engendered by) more responsible behavior, and further underlines the distinction
between self-compassion and self-indulgence.
The one trait that was not signiWcantly associated with the SCS was openness to experi-
ence. This Wnding was surprising, given the receptive, non-judgmental nature of self-com-
passion. However, openness to experience measures the characteristics of having an active
imagination, aesthetic sensitivity, and preference for variety in addition to open-minded-
ness (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and it may be these dimensions of the trait that are unrelated
to self-compassion. This interpretation is supported by the fact that self-compassion was
signiWcantly linked to curiosity and exploration. Future research should examine this issue
914 K.D. NeV et al. / Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) 908–916
by employing the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, which measures separate facets of
each personality trait.
To demonstrate that self-compassion was not redundant with personality dimensions,
we conducted regression analyses to determine whether self-compassion predicts unique
variance in positive functioning over and above the big Wve. First, we created a composite
of all the relevant outcome variables: happiness, optimism, positive aVect, negative aVect
(reverse coded), wisdom (cognitive, reXective, and aVective), personal initiative, and curios-
ity and exploration. (Most of these variables were signiWcantly inter-correlated, and explor-
atory factor analysis indicated that a single factor could explain 40% of their shared
variance, with all variables displaying factor loadings that were above .40. Thus, use of a
composite variable to represent positive functioning was considered appropriate.) As indi-
cated in Table 2, self-compassion predicted signiWcant variance in positive functioning
beyond that predicted by personality traits. Results suggest that self-compassion is not
redundant with established personality constructs in terms of predicting optimal function-
ing, and that self-compassion taps into certain aspects of positive well-being not fully cap-
tured by the Wve-factor model of personality.
4. Conclusion
Overall, study Wndings provided strong support for the contention that self-compassion
does more than ameliorate psychopathology—it also predicts positive psychological
strengths. Approaching painful feelings with self-compassion is linked to a happier, more
optimistic mindset, and appears to facilitate the ability to grow, explore, and wisely under-
stand oneself and others. The current research was conducted using self-report scales, of
course, so common method variance may have impacted results (PodsakoV, MacKenzie,
Lee, & PodsakoV, 2003). Though other research has found links between self-compassion
and well-being using more varied methods (e.g., behavioral tasks, experience sampling,
mood inductions; Leary et al., 2006; NeV et al., in press), current results should be inter-
preted with caution until conWrmed using other methodologies. Another limitation of the
correlational analyses employed in this study is that they cannot determine if self-compas-
sion causes or is caused by positive psychological traits or personality. It is likely that both
Table 2
Standardized regression coeYcients for personality traits and self-compassion predicting positive functioning
Note. The outcome variable of positive functioning represents a composite of happiness, optimism, positive
aVect, negative aVect (reverse coded), wisdom (cognitive, reXective, and aVective), personal initiative, and curios-
ity and exploration.
¤p< .001.
Predictor Model 1 Model 2
Neuroticism ¡.40¤¡.25¤
Extroversion .21¤.20¤
Openness to experience .21¤.21¤
Agreeableness .06 .02
Conscientiousness .39¤.36¤
Self-compassion — .27¤
R2—.04
¤
F68.65¤22.99¤
Total adjusted R2.67 .71
K.D. NeV et al. / Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) 908–916 915
inXuences are operating simultaneously. For instance, neurotic individuals may be more
likely to lack self-compassion due to their anxious and pessimistic mindset, but increased
self-compassion may also reduce neurotic tendencies (and/or reduce their harmful eVects
given that disliked personal traits are not compounded by harsh self-judgment). It is
unlikely that self-compassion is merely the end result of positive psychological states or
traits, however, because self-compassion occurs precisely when negative personal traits or
life events are encountered and acknowledged. Moreover, well-controlled research using a
self-compassion mood induction (Leary et al., 2006) has found that engendering a self-
compassionate mindset directly enhances emotional well-being.
Although self-compassion is new on the scene of Western psychology, it is actually a
central tenet of Buddhist thought (e.g., Brach, 2003), one of the world’s oldest wisdom tra-
ditions. Another Buddhist construct currently having an impact in the West is mindful-
ness—a state of non-judgmental awareness that involves the clear seeing and acceptance of
mental and emotional phenomena as they arise in the present moment (Baer, 2003). In fact,
a contributing factor to the success and popularity of mindfulness-based therapeutic tech-
niques may be that these approaches tend to include an explicit focus on self-compassion
(Shapiro et al., 2005). Gilbert and Proctor (in press) have developed a compassion-based
therapeutic approach to treating habitually self-critical individuals called Compassionate
Mind Training that appears highly promising. There are also reasons to believe that it is
easier to enhance self-compassion than self-esteem (Swann, 1996). For these reasons, future
research eVorts should be aimed at understanding how to increase self-compassion among
clinical and non-clinical populations, and should examine the impact of self-compassion
on physiological as well as mental health.
Acknowledgments
Thanks are due to Sam Gosling, Jamie Pennebaker and Phil Shaver for their helpful
advice on earlier versions of this manuscript.
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... (Neff, 2003a;Neff et al.,2005;Leary, 2007;Neff, 2007a;Neff & Pittman, 2010;Potter et al., 2014;Gill et al., 2018 (Harris,2000;Mann & Robinson,2009;Daschmann, et al.,2011 (Neff,2003a;Neff,2003b;Crocker & Canevello, 2008;Neff et al.,2007b;Neef, & Costigan, 2014) ‫؛‬ ) ، ‫اﻟﻌﺎﺳ‬ ٢٠١٤ ( ‫؛‬ ) ‫وﺧﻴﺎط‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﻮ‬ ) 2019 ( ، ) ‫أﺣﻤﺪ،‬ (Neff, 2003a;Neff, et al., 2005;Neff et al., 2007b;Leary, 2007;Gill et al., 2018;Hohls et al.,) ‫ﺸﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻓﻖ‬ ) ( 1 ( ‫ﺟﺔ،‬ ‫د‬ ‫ر‬ ) ‫ﻣﻮاﻓﻖ‬ ) ( 2 ( ‫ﺟ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﺘﺎن،‬ ) ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ) ( 3 ( ‫ﺟﺎت،‬ ‫د‬ ‫ر‬ ) ‫ﻣﻮاﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻏ‬ ) ( 4 ( ‫ﺟﺎت،‬ ‫د‬ ‫ر‬ ) ‫ﺸﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻏ‬ ( ) 5 ( ‫ﺟﺎت‬ Neff,2003a;Neff, et al.,2005;Neff et al.,2007b;Leary,2007;Van Dam, 2011;landgrave,2013;Beaumont et al., 2016 Hohls et al., ...
... (Neff, 2003a;Neff et al.,2005;Leary, 2007;Neff, 2007a;Neff & Pittman, 2010;Potter et al., 2014;Gill et al., 2018 (Harris,2000;Mann & Robinson,2009;Daschmann, et al.,2011 (Neff,2003a;Neff,2003b;Crocker & Canevello, 2008;Neff et al.,2007b;Neef, & Costigan, 2014) ‫؛‬ ) ، ‫اﻟﻌﺎﺳ‬ ٢٠١٤ ( ‫؛‬ ) ‫وﺧﻴﺎط‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﻮ‬ ) 2019 ( ، ) ‫أﺣﻤﺪ،‬ (Neff, 2003a;Neff, et al., 2005;Neff et al., 2007b;Leary, 2007;Gill et al., 2018;Hohls et al.,) ‫ﺸﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻓﻖ‬ ) ( 1 ( ‫ﺟﺔ،‬ ‫د‬ ‫ر‬ ) ‫ﻣﻮاﻓﻖ‬ ) ( 2 ( ‫ﺟ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﺘﺎن،‬ ) ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ) ( 3 ( ‫ﺟﺎت،‬ ‫د‬ ‫ر‬ ) ‫ﻣﻮاﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻏ‬ ) ( 4 ( ‫ﺟﺎت،‬ ‫د‬ ‫ر‬ ) ‫ﺸﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻏ‬ ( ) 5 ( ‫ﺟﺎت‬ Neff,2003a;Neff, et al.,2005;Neff et al.,2007b;Leary,2007;Van Dam, 2011;landgrave,2013;Beaumont et al., 2016 Hohls et al., ...
... (Neff, 2003a;Neff et al.,2005;Leary, 2007;Neff, 2007a;Neff & Pittman, 2010;Potter et al., 2014;Gill et al., 2018 (Harris,2000;Mann & Robinson,2009;Daschmann, et al.,2011 (Neff,2003a;Neff,2003b;Crocker & Canevello, 2008;Neff et al.,2007b;Neef, & Costigan, 2014) ‫؛‬ ) ، ‫اﻟﻌﺎﺳ‬ ٢٠١٤ ( ‫؛‬ ) ‫وﺧﻴﺎط‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﻮ‬ ) 2019 ( ، ) ‫أﺣﻤﺪ،‬ (Neff, 2003a;Neff, et al., 2005;Neff et al., 2007b;Leary, 2007;Gill et al., 2018;Hohls et al.,) ‫ﺸﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻓﻖ‬ ) ( 1 ( ‫ﺟﺔ،‬ ‫د‬ ‫ر‬ ) ‫ﻣﻮاﻓﻖ‬ ) ( 2 ( ‫ﺟ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﺘﺎن،‬ ) ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ) ( 3 ( ‫ﺟﺎت،‬ ‫د‬ ‫ر‬ ) ‫ﻣﻮاﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻏ‬ ) ( 4 ( ‫ﺟﺎت،‬ ‫د‬ ‫ر‬ ) ‫ﺸﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻏ‬ ( ) 5 ( ‫ﺟﺎت‬ Neff,2003a;Neff, et al.,2005;Neff et al.,2007b;Leary,2007;Van Dam, 2011;landgrave,2013;Beaumont et al., 2016 Hohls et al., ...
... Several studies have found the negative association between self-compassion and negative affect, and also the positive correlation between self-compassion and positive affect [28,29], induced by imagined and remembered events [30]. Nevertheless, a lack of self-compassion is related to increased vulnerability to indicators of psychopathology. ...
... The results show that adopting an increased self-compassionate perspective during the quarantine allowed a reduction of negative emotions and, as a result, these individuals were at lesser risk of feeling depressed, anxious, and/or stressed out. This finding was in agreement with antecedent studies, confirming a protective role of self-compassion by increasing positive automatic thoughts, approaching the situation with mindfulness, promoting positive mindsets, as positive affect [29,43,58], and in line with Gilbert´s theoretical model [59] that posits that self-compassion may activate parasympathetic activity and down-regulate sympathetic activity, reducing negative mind states, such as negative affect. Consequently, this path decreases the risk for symptoms of anxiety, stress, and depression [26,60]. ...
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Self-compassion has been associated with less distress, particularly when people face stressful and negative events. This study analyzed the mediation role of coping and affect in the relation between self-compassion and negative emotional symptoms during the quarantine decreed by Portuguese Health Authorities in the first phase of the coronavirus outbreak. A total of 428 Portuguese adults (75% women; Mage = 40.8, SD = 11.6) completed an online survey comprised by the Self-Compassion Scale (predictor); Short Version of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (outcomes); The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; and Brief-COPE. These instruments were adapted to COVID 19’s epidemic. Parallel mediation analyses demonstrated that self-compassionate participants were at less risk of suffering from symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress during the quarantine. Plus, the relation between self-compassion and depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms were mediated by negative affect and dysfunctional coping style, but only for symptoms of depression. The findings support coping strategies and affect as links between self-compassion and distress but also the importance of separately analyzing the role of self-compassion, negative affect, and coping on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress. Low self-compassion might increase negative affect, maintaining stress responses to face demanding events during the COVID-19 epidemic. Results were discussed in the context of the pandemic outbreak.
... Snyder's theory of hope emphasizes agency and pathways dimension as favorable channels of thinking for one's self. Based on this view, people's hope for their goals in the life are the ones who are more positive in their internal self-talk and also less judgmental of their self when encountered with a difficulty, challenge and throwback (Neff, Rude & Kirkpatrick, 2007). Supportively, Neff and Faso (2014) indicated an empirical demonstration that self-compassion has positive relations with trait hope in parents of children with autism defending that self-compassionate parents are more hopeful for their future. ...
... Snyder'ın umut kuramı, umudun alt boyutu olan ajanlar ve yolları kişinin kendine uygun düşünme kanalları olarak vurgulamaktadır. Bu görüşe dayanarak, insanların yaşamdaki hedeflerine yönelik umutları, iç konuşmalarında daha olumlu olan ve bir zorluk ve gerileme ile karşılaştıklarında kendilerine karşı daha az yargılayıcı olan taraflardır (Neff, Rude & Kirkpatrick, 2007). Benzer biçimde, Neff ve Faso (2014), öz-şefkatin umut ile pozitif ilişkileri olduğuna yönelik ampirik bulgular sunmuş ve öz-şefkat düzeyi yüksek olan otizmli çocukların ebeveynlerinin gelecekten daha umutlu olduğunu belirtmiştir. ...
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DOI: 10.14812/cufej.749645 The purpose of this study was to explore hope as a mediator in the relationship between self-compassion and resilience in parents of children with special needs. Participants of the study were 120 parents (95 females, 25 males). The preliminary results showed that resilience scores of the participants don't vary as a function of gender, income, education level and age. The results of the path analysis yielded that the model fit indices of the proposed model are perfect (χ 2 /df=.03, p.001; RMSEA= .00; CFI=1 .00; TLI= 1.00; GFI=.99). Examination of the relationships between the variables yielded that there are significantly positive connections between self-compassion and hope and also between hope and resilience. The model was found to explain a 5% variance in hope scores and 16% variance in resilience scores of parents of children with special needs. These results were discussed in line with the relevant literature as well as possible interventions for cultivation of resilience in these parents. Bu çalışmanın amacı, özel gereksinimli çocukların ebeveynlerinde öz-şefkat ve psikolojik sağlamlık arasındaki ilişkide umudun aracı rolünü incelemektir. Çalışmanın katılımcıları 120 ebeveynden (95 kadın, 25 erkek) oluşmaktadır. Yapılan ön analizler psikolojik sağlamlığın cinsiyet, gelir, eğitim düzeyi ve yaşa göre anlamlı düzeyde farklılaşmadığını ortaya koymuştur. Yol analizi sonuçları, önerilen modelin model uyum indekslerinin mükemmel olduğunu göstermiştir (χ 2 / df = .03, p .001; RMSEA = .00; CFI = 1.00; TLI = 1.00; GFI = .99). Değişkenler arasındaki ilişkilerin incelenmesi sonucunda, öz-şefkat ve umut arasında ve umut ile psikolojik sağlamlık arasında anlamlı derecede pozitif yönde ilişkiler olduğu bulunmuştur. Modelin özel gereksinimli çocukların ebeveynlerinin umut puanlarında %5 ve psikolojik sağlamlık puanlarında %16 düzeyinde bir varyans açıkladığı bulunmuştur. Bu sonuçlar, ilgili literatür ve bu ebeveynlerde psikolojik sağlamlığı geliştirmeye yönelik olası müdahaleler doğrultusunda tartışılmıştır.
... Consistent with Gilbert's (2009) conceptualization of self-directed compassion, it may reflect taking action to mitigate one's own suffering. Associations have been reported between self-compassion and action-oriented coping (e.g., Neff, Rude, & Kirkpatrick, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Self-compassion research has relied heavily on self-report measures; less is known about its role in self-directed thoughts during challenging or stressful situations. A vignette measure portraying difficult hypothetical situations was developed to examine emerging adults’ self-directed thoughts, with a focus on identifying compassionate and uncompassionate thoughts of different kinds. An MTurk sample (N = 103) was used for the development of the vignette measure, and an undergraduate sample (N = 478) was used to assess its application. Participant responses were coded based on perceived function, resulting in 29 categories. Overall, thoughts that conveyed a lack of compassion were more common than compassionate thoughts. Factor analysis yielded six- and five-factor solutions for failure- and rejection-based vignettes, respectively. Three factors were common to both contexts: (1) Strong Negative responses included self-judgment and alienation; (2) Positive responses included self-encouragement, self-care, social reasoning and problem-solving; and (3) Externalizing responses involved blaming or devaluing people or activities. Component scores for the first two factors generally were associated with self-reported shame, self-criticism, self-esteem and self-compassion in the expected directions. In contrast, Externalization was inversely associated with guilt. Observation and conceptual categorization of self-compassionate and uncompassionate thoughts complements and informs questionnaire-based research.
... Research findings show that self-compassion might be a key indicator of psychological well-being (Neff 2011). It was reported that self-compassion is associated with happiness, life satisfaction, and optimism (Neff, Rude, and Kirkpatrick 2007). ...
Article
Yoga, judo and aikido are popular exercises expected to promote physical and mental health. This study examined four characteristics rooted in Eastern philosophy and religious practice, i.e. spirituality, mindfulness, body awareness, and self-compassion in healthy individuals regularly practicing these movements and a control group (n = 341). The results revealed that practitioners of the exercises of Eastern origin reported greater spirituality than control participants, with practitioners of yoga reporting the highest values. Yoga practitioners also scored higher on mindfulness compared to controls but did not differ from aikidokas and judokas. Practitioners of the Eastern exercises did not differ from each other with respect to body awareness, but they all scored higher than the controls. Finally, yoga practitioners scored higher than all other groups on self-compassion. Results suggest that the regular practice of movement forms of Eastern origin has additional psychological benefits compared to pure physical activity.
... Self-compassion is a stronger predictor of coping than selfesteem or optimism (Sbarra, Smith, & Mehl, 2012). Thus, self-compassion correlates positively with mental health and negatively with a variety of mental disorders (Neff, Rude, & Kirkpatrick, 2007). This suggests that we should advocate for opportunities for people with mental illness to learn the skill of self-compassion as protection against the ecological forces that might otherwise engender self-criticism. ...
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Background: According to the World Health Organization, mental health advocacy is comprised of a range of actions designed to change aspects of attitudes and structures that impede the achievement of positive mental health in populations. Methods: According to the World Health Organization, mental health advocacy is comprised of a range of actions designed to change aspects of attitudes and structures that impede the achievement of positive mental health in populations. Results: We have proposed interventions and advocacy effort for each ecological level. Project UPLIFT, a distance-delivered intervention for mental health is presented as an example of an effort that can affect several levels of the social ecology. Conclusions: Advocacy and interventions that make an effort to encompass the levels of the social-ecological model may contribute to greater progress in improving mental health outcomes.
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Self-compassion is a recently developed construct of positive psychology. Several studies have shed light on their benefits on people’s psychological well-being. Furthermore, studies have focused on examining changes in self-compassion according to gender, in specific age groups, demonstrating inconsistent results. The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between self-compassion and gender, overtime, in a wide age range of adulthood. The sample consisted of 291 participants, age range between 18 and 72 years of age, of the general population. The participants completed online self-report questionnaires of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) (Neff, 2003b). Overall results revealed that self-compassion levels were higher for men than women. In addition, self-compassion was positively correlated with age, while older men, of 50 years and above, demonstrated higher self-compassion levels compared to younger age groups. The findings suggest the prudence of self-compassion on psychological prosperity. It is also proposed that the outcomes could contribute to the design of more informed, structured, and well-established intervention planning, targeting groups according to age and gender, which appear to be the most vulnerable. Finally, probable suggestions for further investigation are considered.
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This study's aim is to put forth whether self-compassion has a mediating role in the effect of psychological capital levels on organizational commitment of employees working at courthouses. The data were obtained via survey forms from total 189 public employees working in Tokat city center and district centers. The data obtained with descriptive research design were subjected to four step mediation analysis in order to test the structural model formed for the purpose of the study. It was concluded that self-compassion had a "partial mediating role" in the effect of psychological capital levels on organizational commitment due to significant relational results among the study variables.
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The literature is replete with evidence that the stress inherent in health care negatively impacts health care professionals, leading to increased depression, decreased job satisfaction, and psychological distress. In an attempt to address this, the current study examined the effects of a short-term stress management program, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), on health care professionals. Results from this prospective randomized controlled pilot study suggest that an 8-week MBSR intervention may be effective for reducing stress and increasing quality of life and self-compassion in health care professionals. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
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This article defines the construct of self-compassion and describes the development of the Self-Compassion Scale. Self-compassion entails being kind and understanding toward oneself in instances of pain or failure rather than being harshly self-critical; perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience rather than seeing them as isolating; and holding painful thoughts and feelings in mindful awareness rather than over-identifying with them. Evidence for the validity and reliability of the scale is presented in a series of studies. Results indicate that self-compassion is significantly correlated with positive mental health outcomes such as less depression and anxiety and greater life satisfaction. Evidence is also provided for the discriminant validity of the scale, including with regard to self-esteem measures.
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Although wisdom is thought to be a strong predictor for many attributes of aging well, the concept of wisdom still lacks a comprehensive, directly testable scale. Quantitative and qualitative interviews with a sample of close-knit social groups of 180 older adults (age 52+) were conducted to develop a three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS) and to test its validity and reliability. Wisdom was operationalized and measured as a latent variable with cognitive, reflective, and affective effect indicators. Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included 114 items from existing scales and 18 newly developed items to assess the three dimensions of wisdom. The final version of the 3D-WS consists of 14 items for the cognitive, 12 for the reflective, and 13 for the affective component of wisdom. Results indicate that the 3D-WS can be considered a reliable and valid instrument and a promising measure of the latent variable wisdom in large, standardized surveys of older populations.
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This manuscript presents the Personal Growth Initiative construct and describes the development and initial validation of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale.
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This article defines and examines the construct of self-compassion. Self-compassion entails three main components: (a) self-kindness—being kind and understanding toward oneself in instances of pain or failure rather than being harshly self-critical, (b) common humanity—perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience rather than seeing them as separating and isolating, and (c) mindfulness—holding painful thoughts and feelings in balanced awareness rather than over-identifying with them. Self-compassion is an emotionally positive self-attitude that should protect against the negative consequences of self-judgment, isolation, and rumination (such as depression). Because of its non-evaluative and interconnected nature, it should also counter the tendencies towards narcissism, self-centeredness, and downward social comparison that have been associated with attempts to maintain self-esteem. The relation of self-compassion to other psychological constructs is examined, its links to psychological functioning are explored, and potential group differences in self-compassion are discussed.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this . . . book, William Swann dissects the mistaken assumptions that underlie current self-esteem programs. Swann proposes the concept of "self-traps" as a new way of understanding both the roots and manifestations of low self-esteem. He investigates behavior that has defied explanation by traditional psychological models, such as the regularity with which people suffering from low self-esteem gravitate to relationships in which they are denigrated or abused. Swann convincingly argues that such behavior is the result of our desire to maintain a stable identity by bringing others to see us as we see ourselves, even when we view ourselves negatively. "Self-Traps" [explores] how self-esteem conflicts develop and are played out in all our relationships, and how the authentic achievement of self-esteem is often undermined by American social norms that tell us how to approach our love relationships and work. Swann shows how these societal influences may compound the inner conflicts that people with low self-esteem have, making their thought patterns and behavior that much more difficult to change. Swann proposes solutions that take into account the multifaceted nature of self-esteem and allow us to perform a delicate balancing act, changing our notions of who we are without irreparably losing our fundamental sense of identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this chapter, I provide an overview of theory and research on a form of self-to-self relating known as self-compassion, in which egoistic self-focus is minimized at the same time that great care and concern are felt toward the self. To understand what is meant by the term self-compassion, it is useful to consider what it means to feel compassion more generally. When one experiences compassion, one notices and is moved by the suffering of others, so that the desire to alleviate their suffering arises. Compassion for the failings and misdeeds of others is also met with understanding instead of harsh condemnation that simplistically reifies people as bad, so that unskilled actions and behaviors are seen in the context of shared human fallibility. Self-compassion involves taking a similar stance toward one's own suffering, so that one is kind and understanding toward oneself when failure, inadequacy, or misfortune is experienced. Self-compassionate individuals recognize that pain and imperfection are an inevitable part of the human experience, something that we all go through instead of an isolated occurrence that happens to "me" alone. Having compassion for oneself also involves taking a balanced perspective on negative self-relevant emotions, so that personal pain is neither suppressed and denied nor exaggerated and dramatized. Most people say they are less nurturing toward and more harsh with themselves than they are with other people. Self-compassionate individuals, however, say they are equally kind to themselves and others. Self-compassion can be thought of as a type of openheartedness in which the boundaries between self and other are softened--all human beings are worthy of compassion, the self included. In this way, self-compassion represents a quiet ego, because one's experience is not strongly filtered through the lens of a separate self. Before I review the research on self-compassion, I think it is useful to consider the more well-known construct of self-esteem, which is a noisy instead of quiet approach that often enshrines the ego in neon lights screaming "Me, me, me!" (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)