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An examination of self-compassion in relation to positive psychological functioning and personality traits



This study examined the relation of self-compassion to positive psychological health and the five factor model of personality. Self-compassion entails being kind toward oneself in instances of pain or failure; perceiving one’s experiences as part of the larger human experience; and holding painful thoughts and feelings in balanced awareness. Participants were 177 undergraduates (68% female, 32% male). Using a correlational design, the study found that self-compassion had a significant positive association with self-reported measures of happiness, optimism, positive affect, wisdom, personal initiative, curiosity and exploration, agreeableness, extroversion, and conscientiousness. It also had a significant negative association with negative affect and neuroticism. Self-compassion predicted significant variance in positive psychological health beyond that attributable to personality.
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Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) 908–916
Brief Report
An examination of self-compassion in relation
to positive psychological functioning
and personality traits
Kristin D. NeVa,¤, Stephanie S. Rude a, Kristin L. Kirkpatrick b
a Educational Psychology Department, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, D5800,
Austin, TX, 78712, USA
b Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY, 40475, USA
Available online 2 October 2006
This study examined the relation of self-compassion to positive psychological health and the Wve
factor model of personality. Self-compassion entails being kind toward oneself in instances of pain or
failure; perceiving one’s experiences as part of the larger human experience; and holding painful
thoughts and feelings in balanced awareness. Participants were 177 undergraduates (68% female,
32% male). Using a correlational design, the study found that self-compassion had a signiWcant posi-
tive association with self-reported measures of happiness, optimism, positive aVect, wisdom, personal
initiative, curiosity and exploration, agreeableness, extroversion, and conscientiousness. It also had a
signiWcant negative association with negative aVect and neuroticism. Self-compassion predicted sig-
niWcant variance in positive psychological health beyond that attributable to personality.
© 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Self-compassion; Self-attitudes; Self-criticism; Self-acceptance; Positive psychology; Big Wve
1. Introduction
NeV (2003a, 2003b) has recently proposed the construct of self-compassion as a healthy
form of self-acceptance. Self-compassion represents a warm and accepting stance towards
those aspects of oneself and one’s life that are disliked, and entails three main components
*Corresponding author. Fax: +1 512 471 1288.
E-mail address: (K.D. NeV).
K.D. NeV et al. / Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) 908–916 909
(NeV, 2003b). First, it involves being kind and understanding to oneself in instances of
suVering or perceived inadequacy. It also involves a sense of common humanity, recogniz-
ing that pain and failure are unavoidable aspects of the shared human experience. Finally,
self-compassion entails balanced awareness of one’s emotions—the ability to face (rather
than avoid) painful thoughts and feelings, but without exaggeration, drama or self-pity.
Several studies have found that self-compassion is a powerful predictor of mental
health. For example, self-compassion is negatively associated with self-criticism, depres-
sion, anxiety, rumination, thought suppression, and neurotic perfectionism, while being
positively associated with life satisfaction and social connectedness (NeV, 2003a). Increased
self-compassion has been found to predict enhanced psychological health over time (Gil-
bert & Proctor, in press; NeV, Kirkpatrick, & Rude, in press), and to explain lessened stress
following participation in a widely implemented stress-reduction program (Mindfulness-
Based Stress Reduction; Shapiro, Astin, Bishop, & Cordova, 2005). Self-compassion
appears to have academic beneWts as well. NeV, Hseih, and Dejitthirat (2005) found that
self-compassion was linked to intrinsic interest in learning and healthier coping strategies
after failing an exam.
Research has shown that self-compassion can be empirically diVerentiated from self-
esteem. Although self-esteem and self-compassion are moderately correlated, self-compas-
sion is a stronger unique (negative) predictor of social comparison, anger, need for closure,
public self-consciousness, self-rumination, contingent self-worth and unstable self-worth
(NeV, 2005). Moreover, self-esteem is signiWcantly correlated with narcissism whereas self-
compassion is not (NeV, 2003a, 2005). NeV et al. (in press) found that self-compassion was
associated with reduced anxiety after considering one’s greatest weakness, but that self-
esteem did not provide such a buVer. In a series of controlled experiments, Leary, Tate,
Adams, and Allen (2006) demonstrated that self-compassion was associated with more
emotional balance than self-esteem when participants encountered potentially humiliating
situations, received unXattering inter-personal feedback, or remembered past negative life
While this body of research is promising, there is more to be learned about self-compas-
sion if it is to gain widespread acceptance as a psychologically adaptive mindset. For
instance, most of the research conducted on self-compassion so far has focused on its neg-
ative association with psychopathology. The positive psychology movement has argued
that it is necessary to consider well-being not only in terms of the absence of psychopathol-
ogy, but also in terms of human strengths and potentials (Seligman & Csikzentmihalyi,
2000). We feel that self-compassion is an important human strength as it invokes qualities
of kindness, equanimity, and feelings of inter-connectedness, helping individuals to Wnd
hope and meaning when faced with the diYculties of life. Thus, the current study looked at
the association of self-compassion with positive aspects of well-being identiWed as potential
beneWts of a self-compassionate stance—happiness, optimism, positive aVect, wisdom, per-
sonal initiative, and curiosity and exploration.
In addition, self-compassion has not yet been examined in relation to the Wve-factor
model of personality, a needed undertaking so that self-compassion can be viewed from
the perspective of this well-known personality framework. We expected there to be overlap
between self-compassion and the big Wve, particularly neuroticism, given that feelings of
self-judgment, isolation, and rumination inherent in the lack of self-compassion are similar
to those described by the neuroticism construct. However, we expected that self-compas-
sion would also predict well-being after accounting for shared variance with personality
910 K.D. NeV et al. / Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) 908–916
traits. For instance, we thought that self-compassion would account for unique variance in
reXective wisdom, happiness and optimism due to the increased perspective, resilience, and
warmth associated with self-compassion—strengths that are captured less well by the Wve
personality dimensions.
2. Method
Participants included 177 undergraduate students (57 men; 120 women; M age 20.02
years; SD D2.25) who were randomly assigned from an educational-psychology subject
pool at a large Southwestern university. The ethnic breakdown of the sample was 56%
Caucasian, 25% Asian, 14% Hispanic, 5% Mixed Ethnicity, and 1% Other. While meeting
in groups of no more than 30, participants Wlled out a self-report questionnaire containing
all study measures.
2.1. Measures
2.1.1. Self-compassion
Participants were given the 26-item Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; NeV, 2003a), which
assesses six diVerent aspects of self-compassion (negative aspects are reverse coded): Self-
Kindness (e.g., “I try to be understanding and patient toward aspects of my personality I
don’t like”), Self-Judgment (e.g., “I’m disapproving and judgmental about my own Xaws
and inadequacies”), Common Humanity (e.g., “I try to see my failings as part of the human
condition”), Isolation (e.g., “When I think about my inadequacies it tends to make me feel
more separate and cut oV from the rest of the world”), Mindfulness (e.g., “When something
painful happens I try to take a balanced view of the situation”), and Over-IdentiWcation
(e.g., “When I’m feeling down I tend to obsess and Wxate on everything that’s wrong.”).
Responses are given on a Wve-point scale from “Almost Never” to “Almost Always.”
Research indicates the SCS has an appropriate factor structure and demonstrates concur-
rent validity (e.g., correlates with social connectedness), convergent validity (e.g., correlates
with therapist ratings), discriminate validity (e.g., no correlation with social desirability or
narcissism), and test–retest reliability (D.93; NeV, 2003a, 2005). All scale reliabilities can
be found in Table 1.
2.1.2. Wisdom
Participants completed the 39-item Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS; Ardelt,
2003), which measures three aspects of wisdom: cognitive (e.g., “In this complicated world of
ours the only way we can know what’s going on is to rely on leaders or experts who can be
trusted”), reXective (e.g., “I always try to look at all sides of a problem”), and aVective (e.g., “I
can be comfortable with all kinds of people”). Ardelt (2003) has demonstrated that the scale
has content validity (as assessed by three independent judges), convergent validity (high
scores on the scale were linked to peer nominations of wisdom), discriminant validity (e.g., no
signiWcant relation to income or social desirability) and test–retest reliability (D.85).
2.1.3. Personal initiative
The 9-item Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS; Robitschek, 1998) assesses an
individual’s active involvement in changing and developing as a person (e.g., “If I want
to change something in my life, I initiate the transition process”). Robitschek (1998)
K.D. NeV et al. / Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) 908–916 911
reports evidence for the scale’s concurrent validity (e.g., moderate positive correlations
with assertiveness, instrumentality, and internal locus of control), discriminant validity
(e.g., no correlations with SAT scores or social desirability) and test–retest reliability
2.1.4. Curiosity and exploration
Participants completed the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI; Kashdan, Rose,
& Fincham, 2004). The 4-item curiosity and exploration subscale measures strivings for
novel information and experiences with items such as “Everywhere I go, I am out looking
for new things or experiences.” The CEI has been shown to demonstrate convergent valid-
ity (e.g., signiWcant correlations with conWdent ratings), discriminant validity (e.g., no corre-
lation with social desirability, independence from positive aVect) and test–retest reliability
(D.80) in prior research (Kashdan et al., 2004).
2.1.5. Happiness
Participants’ happiness was assessed with the 4-item Subjective Happiness Scale
(SHS; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999). On this measure, two items ask respondents how
happy they are using absolute and relative ratings, while two items describe happy and
unhappy individuals and ask respondents the extent to which the statements describe
2.1.6. Optimism
The well-known 6-item Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R; Scheier, Carver, &
Bridges, 1994) was used to measure optimism. It includes items such as “I’m always opti-
mistic about my future.”
Reliability for study measures (Cronbach’s Alpha) and inter-correlations between variables
Note. SCS, Self-Compassion Scale; W-C, cognitive wisdom; W-R, reXective wisdom; W-A, aVective wisdom; PI,
personal initiative; CE, curiosity and exploration; HAP, happiness; OPT, optimism; PA, positive aVect; NA, neg-
ative aVect; N, neuroticism; E, extroversion; O, openness to experience; A, agreeableness; C, conscientiousness.
.91 .88 .78 .89 .85 .68 .67 .72 .88 .70 .84 .79 .74 .80 .81
Happiness .57¤
Optimism .62¤.58¤
Pos. aVect .34¤.42¤.37¤
Neg. aVect ¡.36¤¡.30¤¡.38 .04 —
Wis.-cognitive .11 .13 .19¤¡.03 ¡.14 —
Wis.-reXective .61¤.47¤.59¤.22¤¡.39¤.44¤
Wis.-aVfective .26¤.35¤.27¤.10 ¡.22¤.43¤.47¤
Pers. initiative .45¤.58¤.52¤.47¤¡.25¤.09 .38¤.15 —
Curiosity/explor. .28¤.33¤.34¤.37¤¡.08 .34¤.37¤.18¤.44¤
Neuroticism ¡.65¤¡.55¤¡.60¤¡.28 .52¤¡.23¤¡.56¤¡.22¤¡.44¤¡.27¤
Extroversion .32¤.60¤.39¤.19¤¡.15¤.16¤.28¤.44¤.34¤.24¤¡.34¤
Openness to exp. ¡.05 .02 .03 ¡.05 .01 .52¤.18¤.19¤.04 .40¤.07 .15 —
Agreeableness .35¤.30¤.38¤.06 ¡.30¤.22¤.44¤.56¤.16¤.08 ¡.29 .40¤.01 —
Conscientious. .42¤.47¤.45¤.40¤¡.28¤.22¤.50¤.32¤.69¤.29¤¡.45¤.28¤¡.05 .34¤
912 K.D. NeV et al. / Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) 908–916
2.1.7. Positive and negative aVect
This study employed the widely used Positive and Negative AVect Schedule (PANAS;
Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). The 10-item negative aVect subscale assesses the degree
to which participants are experiencing moods such as “upset” or “nervous”; the 10-item
positive aVect subscale assesses moods like “excited,” and “proud.”
2.1.8. Personality characteristics
Major broad-band personality traits were measured with the standard 60-item NEO
Five-Factor Inventory, Form S (NEO-FFI S; Costa & McCrae, 1992).
3. Results and discussion
First, we used a one-way ANOVA to check for sex or ethnic diVerences in self-compas-
sion, and none were found. Results were therefore collapsed by gender and ethnicity for
subsequent analyses. (All of the following results were also checked to ensure they did not
interact with gender or ethnicity). Zero-order correlations between the SCS and other vari-
ables examined in this study are presented in Table 1. Note that self-compassion was sig-
niWcantly correlated with all of the positive health constructs examined.
Happiness and optimism—two important features of positive mental health—were
strongly associated with self-compassion. Greater happiness may stem from (and also
facilitate) the feelings of warmth, inter-relatedness, and equilibrium that people experience
when they are self-compassionate. Research has also shown that happy people are less
likely than unhappy people to ruminate on negative life events (Lyubomirsky, 2001)—as
are self-compassionate individuals (NeV, 2003a). The contented mindset of self-compas-
sion and its associated adaptive coping skills (NeV et al., 2005) may also help to maintain
optimistic expectations about the future (Scheier et al., 1994). In fact, feelings of compas-
sion for self and others have been linked to higher levels of brain activation in the left pre-
frontal cortex, a region associated with joy and optimism (Lutz, Greischar, Rawlings,
Ricard, & Davidson, 2004).
Results indicated that self-compassionate individuals experienced signiWcantly more
positive and less negative mood generally. However, we do not interpret this to mean that
self-compassion is merely a “Pollyanish” form of positive thinking. Although self-compas-
sion is associated with positive aVect, it stems from the ability to hold diYcult negative
emotions in non-judgmental awareness without denial or suppression (NeV et al., in press).
Results indicate that self-compassion was strongly related to reXective wisdom, mod-
estly related to aVective wisdom, and positively but non-signiWcantly related to cognitive
wisdom. According to Ardelt’s (2003) formulation, reXective wisdom refers to the ability to
see reality as it is and to develop self-awareness and insight. It is likely that self-compassion
and reXective wisdom overlap in a variety of ways, resulting in the strong association
between the two constructs. Research shows that self-compassionate individuals make
more accurate self-appraisals (i.e., without self-enhancement or self-deprecation) than
those lacking the trait (Leary et al., 2006), suggesting that self-compassion may enhance
wisdom because it provides the emotional safety needed to see the self clearly. AVective
wisdom assesses constructive emotions towards others, such as feelings of kindness and
sympathy. The positive link between self-compassion and aVective wisdom suggests that
concern for the self and others are related. While self-compassion is considered to be part
of a more general compassionate stance, the reason a stronger association was not
K.D. NeV et al. / Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) 908–916 913
obtained may be because individuals who lack self-compassion tend to say they are kinder
to others than to themselves (NeV, 2003a), so that being uncaring towards oneself does not
necessarily translate into a lack of other-focused concern. Self-compassion was not signiW-
cantly related to cognitive wisdom, which assesses the ability to understand people and the
real world. This type of “street smarts” does not appear to require self-compassion.
Self-compassion was signiWcantly related to personal initiative, deWned by Robitschek
(1998) as being actively involved in making changes needed for a more productive and ful-
Wlling life. Because self-compassionate individuals are not harshly self-critical, they may be
more able to acknowledge areas of weakness that need changing. This is important because
people are sometimes reluctant to be self-compassionate out of fear of self-indulgence
(NeV, 2003b). While focusing exclusively on pleasure for oneself might lead to self-indul-
gence, compassion involves desiring health and well-being for the self rather than pleasure
per se (Brach, 2003). In many instances, giving the self pleasure actually harms well-being
(e.g., taking drugs, over-eating, watching too much television), while promoting one’s
health often involves a certain amount of displeasure (e.g., exercising, dieting, reading a
diYcult but rewarding novel). Thus, the desire for well-being inherent in self-compassion is
likely to engender productive, positive change.
Results indicate that self-compassion was also signiWcantly related to curiosity and
exploration, a process that involves giving attention to and pursuing novel and challenging
experiences (Kashdan et al., 2004). This suggests that having an open and accepting stance
towards oneself is related to being open to the world in general. Self-compassionate indi-
viduals may be more curious about life because they tend to be intrinsically motivated and
have less fear of failure when faced with diYcult challenges (NeV et al., 2005). Conversely,
this curiosity may facilitate the willingness to hold one’s pain in compassionate awareness.
In terms of the Wve personality traits of the NEO-FFI, self-compassion had the stron-
gest association with neuroticism, with greater self-compassion leading to signiWcantly
lower levels of neuroticism. This supports past Wndings of a signiWcant negative relation-
ship between self-compassion and markers of maladjustment such as depression, anxiety,
and rumination (NeV, 2003b). Self-compassion also demonstrated a signiWcant positive
correlation with agreeableness, suggesting that the kind, connected, and emotionally bal-
anced stance of self-compassion is associated with a greater ability to get along with others
(note that self-compassion has also been linked to greater social connectedness in past
research; NeV, 2003a). Self-compassionate individuals were signiWcantly more likely to be
extroverted—perhaps because they are less likely to worry about the impression they make
on others, a concern that can lead to shy and withdrawn behavior. Extroversion scores
may also be a reXection of feelings of social inter-connectedness that are part of self-com-
passion. A signiWcant link was also found between self-compassion and conscientiousness.
This suggests that the emotional stability provided by self-compassion may help engender
(and be engendered by) more responsible behavior, and further underlines the distinction
between self-compassion and self-indulgence.
The one trait that was not signiWcantly associated with the SCS was openness to experi-
ence. This Wnding was surprising, given the receptive, non-judgmental nature of self-com-
passion. However, openness to experience measures the characteristics of having an active
imagination, aesthetic sensitivity, and preference for variety in addition to open-minded-
ness (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and it may be these dimensions of the trait that are unrelated
to self-compassion. This interpretation is supported by the fact that self-compassion was
signiWcantly linked to curiosity and exploration. Future research should examine this issue
914 K.D. NeV et al. / Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) 908–916
by employing the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, which measures separate facets of
each personality trait.
To demonstrate that self-compassion was not redundant with personality dimensions,
we conducted regression analyses to determine whether self-compassion predicts unique
variance in positive functioning over and above the big Wve. First, we created a composite
of all the relevant outcome variables: happiness, optimism, positive aVect, negative aVect
(reverse coded), wisdom (cognitive, reXective, and aVective), personal initiative, and curios-
ity and exploration. (Most of these variables were signiWcantly inter-correlated, and explor-
atory factor analysis indicated that a single factor could explain 40% of their shared
variance, with all variables displaying factor loadings that were above .40. Thus, use of a
composite variable to represent positive functioning was considered appropriate.) As indi-
cated in Table 2, self-compassion predicted signiWcant variance in positive functioning
beyond that predicted by personality traits. Results suggest that self-compassion is not
redundant with established personality constructs in terms of predicting optimal function-
ing, and that self-compassion taps into certain aspects of positive well-being not fully cap-
tured by the Wve-factor model of personality.
4. Conclusion
Overall, study Wndings provided strong support for the contention that self-compassion
does more than ameliorate psychopathology—it also predicts positive psychological
strengths. Approaching painful feelings with self-compassion is linked to a happier, more
optimistic mindset, and appears to facilitate the ability to grow, explore, and wisely under-
stand oneself and others. The current research was conducted using self-report scales, of
course, so common method variance may have impacted results (PodsakoV, MacKenzie,
Lee, & PodsakoV, 2003). Though other research has found links between self-compassion
and well-being using more varied methods (e.g., behavioral tasks, experience sampling,
mood inductions; Leary et al., 2006; NeV et al., in press), current results should be inter-
preted with caution until conWrmed using other methodologies. Another limitation of the
correlational analyses employed in this study is that they cannot determine if self-compas-
sion causes or is caused by positive psychological traits or personality. It is likely that both
Table 2
Standardized regression coeYcients for personality traits and self-compassion predicting positive functioning
Note. The outcome variable of positive functioning represents a composite of happiness, optimism, positive
aVect, negative aVect (reverse coded), wisdom (cognitive, reXective, and aVective), personal initiative, and curios-
ity and exploration.
¤p< .001.
Predictor Model 1 Model 2
Neuroticism ¡.40¤¡.25¤
Extroversion .21¤.20¤
Openness to experience .21¤.21¤
Agreeableness .06 .02
Conscientiousness .39¤.36¤
Self-compassion — .27¤
Total adjusted R2.67 .71
K.D. NeV et al. / Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) 908–916 915
inXuences are operating simultaneously. For instance, neurotic individuals may be more
likely to lack self-compassion due to their anxious and pessimistic mindset, but increased
self-compassion may also reduce neurotic tendencies (and/or reduce their harmful eVects
given that disliked personal traits are not compounded by harsh self-judgment). It is
unlikely that self-compassion is merely the end result of positive psychological states or
traits, however, because self-compassion occurs precisely when negative personal traits or
life events are encountered and acknowledged. Moreover, well-controlled research using a
self-compassion mood induction (Leary et al., 2006) has found that engendering a self-
compassionate mindset directly enhances emotional well-being.
Although self-compassion is new on the scene of Western psychology, it is actually a
central tenet of Buddhist thought (e.g., Brach, 2003), one of the world’s oldest wisdom tra-
ditions. Another Buddhist construct currently having an impact in the West is mindful-
ness—a state of non-judgmental awareness that involves the clear seeing and acceptance of
mental and emotional phenomena as they arise in the present moment (Baer, 2003). In fact,
a contributing factor to the success and popularity of mindfulness-based therapeutic tech-
niques may be that these approaches tend to include an explicit focus on self-compassion
(Shapiro et al., 2005). Gilbert and Proctor (in press) have developed a compassion-based
therapeutic approach to treating habitually self-critical individuals called Compassionate
Mind Training that appears highly promising. There are also reasons to believe that it is
easier to enhance self-compassion than self-esteem (Swann, 1996). For these reasons, future
research eVorts should be aimed at understanding how to increase self-compassion among
clinical and non-clinical populations, and should examine the impact of self-compassion
on physiological as well as mental health.
Thanks are due to Sam Gosling, Jamie Pennebaker and Phil Shaver for their helpful
advice on earlier versions of this manuscript.
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... This emotional wisdom reflects extension of self-acceptance and compassion to others (Neff et al., 2007a, b;Whitbourne et al., 2009). Thus, self-compassion produces enrichment of emotional states through awareness and nonjudgmental acceptance of difficult emotions (Neff et al., 2007b). From this aspect, Neff's theoretically driven analytical approach with the 6-factor structure of self-compassion was confirmed in younger samples (Neff, 2003a;Raes et al., 2011). ...
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The psychometric properties of the Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF) in the context of Bangladesh are yet to be addressed. Towards this end, the present research examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Bangla SCS-SF in Bangladeshi adults. The study was conducted among a convenience sample of 782 younger and middle-aged adults aged between 20 and 58 years. To examine the factor structure, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and to confirm the factor retention, a parallel analysis was done. To assess and confirm the predefined structures (6-factor, 2-factor, and 1-factor), we conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Cronbach’s alpha and McDonald’s omega were used to determine the reliability statistics. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) was performed to test the measurement invariances. A 2-factor structure was found using EFA, and the same solution was retained through parallel analysis. In CFA, both 6-factor and 2-factor structures fit the data well. Nevertheless, the values of Akaike Information Criterion did not support the 6-factor solution; instead, they showed the 2-factor model as the best fit. According to classical test theory, mean inter-item correlations, corrected item-total correlations, and internal consistency reliabilities were found to be acceptably high. Results of MGCFA revealed invariances based on gender, age, and marital status. An association of SCS-SF with stress and adaptation suggested the concurrent validity of the measure. Altogether, the Bangla SCS-SF has been identified as a valid tool to understand whether a self-compassionate attitude helps individuals to gain insight into the way they relate to themselves. This study is not preregistered.
... Thus, further studies will need to include other positive traits or character strengths, affecting how the individual copes with life stressors and predicting positive life functioning, e.g. dispositional self-compassion, mindfulness, and gratitude [33,34]. Finally, the authors focused only on the personality predictors of resource losses and gains without taking into account environmental conditions that could affect changes in resources. ...
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Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate, through the lens of conservation of resources theory, the predictive role of 2 positive personality traits in the form of core self-evaluations (CSE) and ego-resiliency (ER) in resource losses and gains triggered by the COVID-19 crisis. Material and methods: The 2 personality traits, constituting positive person-related resources, were examined in relation to resource losses and gains in both general and distinct life domains: hedonistic and vital, spiritual, family, economic and political, and finally power and prestige. Results: The findings from a nationwide sample of 1000 working adults (65% women; age M±SD 38.93±10.9 years) indicated that CSE negatively predicted resource losses, whereas ER served as a positive predictor of resource gains. The predictive role of personality traits was demonstrated both for resource losses and gains in general and in different life domains. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight in particular the role of CSE as a protective factor of resource losses, and the role of ER as a promotive factor of resource gains, suggesting that both traits might evoke divergent resilience responses when facing prolonged stressful life events. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2023;36(4).
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Öz-şefkat ile içsel motivasyon çalışanların psikolojik dayanıklıklarını ve iş tatmini düzeylerini arttırmak için kilit bir faktörler olarak kabul edilmektedir. Yüksek motivasyona ve öz-şefkate sahip sahip olan çalışanlar yaptıkları işlerden daha fazla tatmin olacaklar ve psikolojik dayanıklılık hallarini koruyabilirler. Bu çalışmada, temel olarak psikolojik dayanıklılık düzeyi yüksek olan çalışanların, beraberinde gelen öz-şefkat ve içsel motivasyondaki artışların etkisiyle mi iş tatminlerinde artışlar meydana geliyor sorusuna cevap aranacaktır.Dolayısıylabu çalışmanın temel amacı, çalışan yetişkinlerde psikolojik dayanıklılığın iş tatmini üzerindeki etkisinde öz-şefkatin ve içsel motivasyonun aracı rol üstlenip üstlenmediğini belirlemektir. İlgili amaç doğrultusunda araştırma örneklemini kamu ve özel sektör çalışanları oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma kapsamında elektronik ortamda (Google form aracılığıyla) hazırlanan anket formu evrene ulaştırılmış, 454 katılımcıdan geri dönüş sağlanmıştır. Araştırmada örnekleme tekniklerinden kolayda örnekleme tercih edilmiştir. Mevcut araştırmanın tanımlayıcı istatistiklerini, güvenilirliklerini, normallik değerlerini, değişkenlerin birbirleriyle olan ilişkilerini belirlemek için SPSS 22.0 programından faydalanılmıştır. Ölçeklerin yapı geçerlilikleri ve araştırmanın amacı kapsamında oluşturulan modeli test etmek için AMOS 24.0 programı kullanılarak yapısal eşitlik modeli (YEM) ve aracılık rolü (dolaylı etki) analizleri gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yapılan istatistik analizleri neticesinde, psikolojik dayanıklılığın iş tatmini üzerindeki etkisinde öz-şefkatin ve içsel motivasyonun aracı rol üstlendiği saptanmıştır
Lifestyle changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have affected the mental health of college students around the world. We examined the role of self-compassion as a possible attenuating factor for levels of anxiety in college students within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to sociodemographic, occupational, lifestyle and health-related factors. Self-compassion was also analyzed as moderator for the impact of the pandemic on students’ anxiety. A cross sectional design was used with 1,201 Brazilian college students, who answered the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), and Impact of Event Scale (IES). Linear regression models and moderation analysis were conducted. Higher self-compassion was the main variable associated with lower levels of anxiety. Other factors that predicted lower levels of anxiety included being male, using predominantly natural or minimally processed foods daily, quality sleep, not using substances (such as caffeine) to cope with academic activities, and not undergoing psychotherapy. There was no presence of self-compassion moderation in the relationship between the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and anxiety. Investing in clinical and educational strategies aimed at promoting mental health and to develop personal resources such as self-compassion may help college students alleviate the distress caused by the pandemic.
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Background of the study: Basic psychological needs and self-compassion have gained significant attention in the field. Numerous studies have explored these concepts and their correlation with various personal variables due to their importance and their impact on positive personality aspects and mental health outcomes. Aims and scope of paper: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between basic psychological needs and self-compassion, as well as to examine potential differences in the level of basic psychological needs and self-compassion based on gender and college affliction. Methods: The study included a sample of 528 undergraduate students from Hashemite University. Data were collected using the Basic Psychological Needs Scale and Self-Compassion Scale. Result: The results indicated no gender-based differences in the level of basic psychological needs and two dimensions (competence and autonomy) due to gender, while males had higher level of relatedness compared females. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the level of basic psychological needs and two dimensions (competence and relatedness), between students' form scientific and humanities colleges. However, students from scientific colleges exhibited higher level of autonomy. The study also found that females had higher levels of self-compassion compared to males, with no differences based on college affiliation. Furthermore, positive correlations were observed between basic psychological needs and self-compassion, as well as and between psychological needs and self-compassion subscales (self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness). Conversely, a negative correlation was identified between basic psychological needs and self-compassion subscales (self-judgment, isolation, and over-identified). Conclusion: The basic psychological needs are of paramount importance in human development, and they serve as fundamental requirements throughout an individual's growth. The study revealed a positive correlation between basic psychological needs and self-compassion. These findings have valuable implications for the development of training and guidance programs aimed at enhancing basic psychological needs and self-compassion, which can ultimately contribute positively to the learning process.
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In recent decades, attitudes towards appearance comparison, and self-disapproval have rapidly increased, and these are attitudes strongly associated with psychological disorders. The present study aims to investigate the underlying patterns of depression, appearance-based stress, dietary constraints, and social and celebrity appearance comparison among young adults. It also examines the role of self-compassion in moderating the relationship between psychological dysfunctions and appearance comparison as well as the criteria and influences contributing to appearance comparison. Data on BMI, the measures of depression, appearance-based stress, eating restraints, appearance comparison, self-compassion, and predictors of peers and celebrity appearance comparison were collected from 434 college students (Age: Mean = 22; SD = 2.36; Male = Female = 217) in Sialkot, Pakistan. The data was analyzed by using the Hierarchical Regression Model. The results revealed that respondents who compared their appearances to peers and celebrities had increased depression and appearance-based stress while eating constraints didn’t affect the appearance-based comparison, stress, and depression. Moreover, self-compassion significantly moderated the relationship between depression, appearance-based stress, and appearance comparison whereas an insignificant moderation effect is observed between eating restraints and self-compassion. Despite psychological distresses such as depression, appearance-based stress, and eating restraints, appearance comparisons are connected to appearance-based victimization, media appearance pressure, social-cultural appearance pressure, appearance conversation, and self-consciousness.
Objective The aim of this study was to identify predictors of weight regain and continued weight maintenance among individuals already successful at long‐term weight loss in a widely available weight‐management program. Methods Participants were 2843 weight‐loss maintainers in WeightWatchers who had maintained weight loss ≥9.1 kg for ≥1 year (average 25.5 kg for 3.5 years; BMI = 26.7 kg/m ² ). Validated behavioral, psychosocial, and home environmental questionnaires were administered at study entry and 1 year later. Discriminant analysis identified variables that discriminated gainers (≥2.3‐kg gain) from maintainers (±2.3‐kg change). Results Over the 1 year of follow‐up, 43% were gainers (mean [SD], 7.2 [5.4] kg), and 57% were maintainers (0.4 [1.2] kg). Compared with maintainers, gainers were younger and had higher initial weight, more recent weight losses, and larger initial weight losses. Standardized canonical coefficients indicated that the 1‐year changes that most discriminated gainers from maintainers were greater decreases in the ability to accept uncomfortable food cravings, urges, and desires to overeat (0.232); self‐monitoring (0.166); body image (0.363); and body satisfaction (0.194) and greater increases in disinhibition (0.309) and bodily pain (0.147). The canonical correlation was 0.505 ( p < 0.001). Conclusions Future interventions to prevent regain should consider targeting overeating in response to internal and external food cues and declines in self‐monitoring and body image.
In today's fast-paced world of online education, faculty are under immense pressure to achieve high levels of academic success in their classrooms. However, in the pursuit of academic achievement, the psychological well-being of faculty and students is often overlooked. Compassion-focused social-emotional learning (CFSEL) can support online teaching faculty in cultivating and transmitting a compassionate mindset, which can help them create a supportive, relational, and nurturing learning environment. This chapter provides educators with a comprehensive guide to implementing CFSEL strategies in the milieu of online education with a focus on compassion-based practices and strategies. This chapter explores the benefits of CFSEL for students and educators. The chapter provides practical strategies for (a) integrating CFSEL practices into the classroom, (b) creating a more dynamic and relational online learning environment, and (c) addressing common challenges within this medium.
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The literature is replete with evidence that the stress inherent in health care negatively impacts health care professionals, leading to increased depression, decreased job satisfaction, and psychological distress. In an attempt to address this, the current study examined the effects of a short-term stress management program, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), on health care professionals. Results from this prospective randomized controlled pilot study suggest that an 8-week MBSR intervention may be effective for reducing stress and increasing quality of life and self-compassion in health care professionals. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
This article defines the construct of self-compassion and describes the development of the Self-Compassion Scale. Self-compassion entails being kind and understanding toward oneself in instances of pain or failure rather than being harshly self-critical; perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience rather than seeing them as isolating; and holding painful thoughts and feelings in mindful awareness rather than over-identifying with them. Evidence for the validity and reliability of the scale is presented in a series of studies. Results indicate that self-compassion is significantly correlated with positive mental health outcomes such as less depression and anxiety and greater life satisfaction. Evidence is also provided for the discriminant validity of the scale, including with regard to self-esteem measures.
Although wisdom is thought to be a strong predictor for many attributes of aging well, the concept of wisdom still lacks a comprehensive, directly testable scale. Quantitative and qualitative interviews with a sample of close-knit social groups of 180 older adults (age 52+) were conducted to develop a three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS) and to test its validity and reliability. Wisdom was operationalized and measured as a latent variable with cognitive, reflective, and affective effect indicators. Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included 114 items from existing scales and 18 newly developed items to assess the three dimensions of wisdom. The final version of the 3D-WS consists of 14 items for the cognitive, 12 for the reflective, and 13 for the affective component of wisdom. Results indicate that the 3D-WS can be considered a reliable and valid instrument and a promising measure of the latent variable wisdom in large, standardized surveys of older populations.
This manuscript presents the Personal Growth Initiative construct and describes the development and initial validation of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale.
This article defines and examines the construct of self-compassion. Self-compassion entails three main components: (a) self-kindness—being kind and understanding toward oneself in instances of pain or failure rather than being harshly self-critical, (b) common humanity—perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience rather than seeing them as separating and isolating, and (c) mindfulness—holding painful thoughts and feelings in balanced awareness rather than over-identifying with them. Self-compassion is an emotionally positive self-attitude that should protect against the negative consequences of self-judgment, isolation, and rumination (such as depression). Because of its non-evaluative and interconnected nature, it should also counter the tendencies towards narcissism, self-centeredness, and downward social comparison that have been associated with attempts to maintain self-esteem. The relation of self-compassion to other psychological constructs is examined, its links to psychological functioning are explored, and potential group differences in self-compassion are discussed.
In this . . . book, William Swann dissects the mistaken assumptions that underlie current self-esteem programs. Swann proposes the concept of "self-traps" as a new way of understanding both the roots and manifestations of low self-esteem. He investigates behavior that has defied explanation by traditional psychological models, such as the regularity with which people suffering from low self-esteem gravitate to relationships in which they are denigrated or abused. Swann convincingly argues that such behavior is the result of our desire to maintain a stable identity by bringing others to see us as we see ourselves, even when we view ourselves negatively. "Self-Traps" [explores] how self-esteem conflicts develop and are played out in all our relationships, and how the authentic achievement of self-esteem is often undermined by American social norms that tell us how to approach our love relationships and work. Swann shows how these societal influences may compound the inner conflicts that people with low self-esteem have, making their thought patterns and behavior that much more difficult to change. Swann proposes solutions that take into account the multifaceted nature of self-esteem and allow us to perform a delicate balancing act, changing our notions of who we are without irreparably losing our fundamental sense of identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In this chapter, I provide an overview of theory and research on a form of self-to-self relating known as self-compassion, in which egoistic self-focus is minimized at the same time that great care and concern are felt toward the self. To understand what is meant by the term self-compassion, it is useful to consider what it means to feel compassion more generally. When one experiences compassion, one notices and is moved by the suffering of others, so that the desire to alleviate their suffering arises. Compassion for the failings and misdeeds of others is also met with understanding instead of harsh condemnation that simplistically reifies people as bad, so that unskilled actions and behaviors are seen in the context of shared human fallibility. Self-compassion involves taking a similar stance toward one's own suffering, so that one is kind and understanding toward oneself when failure, inadequacy, or misfortune is experienced. Self-compassionate individuals recognize that pain and imperfection are an inevitable part of the human experience, something that we all go through instead of an isolated occurrence that happens to "me" alone. Having compassion for oneself also involves taking a balanced perspective on negative self-relevant emotions, so that personal pain is neither suppressed and denied nor exaggerated and dramatized. Most people say they are less nurturing toward and more harsh with themselves than they are with other people. Self-compassionate individuals, however, say they are equally kind to themselves and others. Self-compassion can be thought of as a type of openheartedness in which the boundaries between self and other are softened--all human beings are worthy of compassion, the self included. In this way, self-compassion represents a quiet ego, because one's experience is not strongly filtered through the lens of a separate self. Before I review the research on self-compassion, I think it is useful to consider the more well-known construct of self-esteem, which is a noisy instead of quiet approach that often enshrines the ego in neon lights screaming "Me, me, me!" (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)