The highly siderophile elements (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd, Re, Au) are key tracers of planetary accretion and differentiation processes due to their affinity for metal relative to silicate. Under low-pressure conditions the HSE are defined by having metal–silicate partition coefficients in excess of 104 (e.g., Kimura et al. 1974; Jones and Drake 1986; O’Neill et al. 1995; Borisov and Palme 1997; Mann et al. 2012). The HSE are geochemically distinct in that, with the exception of Au, they have elevated melting points relative to iron (1665 K), low vapour pressures, and are resistant to corrosion or oxidation. Under solar nebular conditions, Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Pt, along with the moderately siderophile elements (MSE) Mo and W, condense as refractory-metal alloys. Palladium and Au are not as refractory and condense in solid solution with FeNi metal (Palme 2008). Assuming abundances of the HSE in materials that made up the bulk Earth were broadly similar to modern chondrite meteorites, mass balance calculations suggest that >98% of these elements reside in the metallic core (O’Neill and Palme 1998). In practical terms, the resultant low HSE abundance inventories in differentiated silicate crusts and mantles enables the use of these elements in order to effectively track metallic core formation and the subsequent additions of HSE-rich impactors to planets and asteroids (Fig. 1). In detail, the absolute and relative abundances of the HSE in planetary materials are also affected by mantle and crustal processes including melting, metasomatism, fractional crystallization, and crust-mantle remixing, as well as later impact processing, volatility of Re under oxidizing conditions, and low-temperature secondary alteration (cf., Day 2013; Gannoun et al. 2016, this volume). In the absence of metal, the HSE are chalcophile, so these elements are also affected by processes involving growth and breakdown of sulfides. Work over the last several decades has led to a large available database for understanding processes affecting the HSE for planetary bodies. This chapter summarises this progress for rocky Solar System bodies, including the Earth, Moon, Mars and some asteroids, and examines the conceptual framework for interpreting these data. The first section outlines the motivation for measuring the HSE in planetary materials. The second section briefly considers methods for measuring and interpreting HSE abundance and Os isotopic data. The third section provides an outline of natural HSE abundance variations and Os isotope compositions in planetary materials. The fourth section outlines current interpretations of the available data and outstanding issues. The final sections offer some comparative planetology, implications for terrestrial planet formation, synthesis and future directions. This chapter does not consider nucleosynthetic variations, as these are the subject of a review by Yokoyama and Walker (2016, this volume), and does not provide a detailed consideration of experimental work, which is the subject of Brenan et al. (2016, this volume). While comparisons are made with terrestrial HSE compositions, these data are considered in detail elsewhere in this volume, or in Walker et al. (1997), Shirey and Walker (1998), Carlson (2005), Walker (2009), and Day (2013).