Article

Fatty acid composition and rheological behaviour of prickly pear seed oils

Authors:
  • olive tree institute
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Prickly pear fruits constituted valuable foodstuff for humans and animals in arid and semi-arid regions. Two species of prickly pear from Tunisia, Opuntia ficus indica and Opuntia stricta, were investigated for fatty acid composition and physicochemical parameters of the seed oil. No significant difference in either physical or chemical parameters was found between the species. The main fatty acids of prickly pear seed oil were C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2. With an exceptional level of linoleic acid, up to 70%, the content of unsaturated fatty acids was high, at 88.5% and 88.0% for O. ficus indica and O. stricta, respectively.Rheological properties were analysed with changes of temperature and shear stress. Variations of viscosity were measured and the viscoelastic parameters were determined during heating and cooling cycles between 20 and 70 °C. Curves of flow were established with up and down cycles of shear stress at different temperatures. These measures highlighted the presence of large aggregates of crystal fatty acids in both Opuntia crude oils. Shearing and temperature destroyed this structural state and gave birth to an homogeneous stable suspension.The structural state of crude oil was confirmed using a contrast phase microscope, and the particle size distribution was obtained by laser granulometry.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... It can also be designated as "16:0" fatty acid, the first numerals denoting the number of carbon atoms in the aliphatic chain and the second, after the colon, denoting the number of double bonds. All the evennumbered saturated fatty acids from C2 to C30 have been found in nature, but only the C14 to C18 homologues are likely to be encountered in appreciable concentrations in glycerolipids, other than in a restricted range of commercial fats and oils (Ennouri, Bourret, Mondolot, & Attia, 2005). ...
... In turn, these fatty acids are the biosynthetic precursors in animal systems of C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids, with three to six double bonds, via sequential desaturation and chainelongation steps. Those fatty acids derived from linoleic acid, especially arachidonic acid (20:4(n-6)), are important constituents of the membrane phospholipids in mammalian tissues, and are also the precursors of the prostaglandins and other eicosanoids (Ennouri, Bourret, Mondolot, & Attia, 2005). ...
... This effect is generally attributed to the high fiber content of the cladodes, although other active ingredients such as beta-carotenes, vitamin-E and betasitosterol may be involved. Oil from cactus seeds fed to rats (25 g/kg) decreases plasma total cholesterol and LDL (VLDL) cholesterol with no effect on HDL-cholesterol concentrations (Ennouri, Bourret, Mondolot, & Attia, 2005). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) is a member of the succulent plant family Cactaceae. Cactus is a xerophytic plant and an emergent crop, which evolved commercially during the second half of the 20th century. The plant probably originated in Central Mexico, the region presenting the widest germplasm variability as well as the large number of uses. Interests in newer sources of edible oils have recently grown. Plant seeds are important sources of lipids of nutritional, industrial and pharmaceutical importance. Determination of lipid classes, fatty acids, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins, antioxidants, metals, tocopherols and beta-carotene of seeds of cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) was the target of this project. Level of neutral lipids in the Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil was the highest, followed by glycolipids and phospholipids, respectively. Neutral lipids were characterized by higher unsaturation ratios, while saturates were higher levels in polar lipids. From the fatty acids linoleic acid was the dominant fatty acid, followed by palmitic and oleic acids, respectively. Trienes, such as gamma-and alpha-linolenic acids were estimated in higher amounts in pulp oil of the fruit, while alpha-linolenic acid was only detected at low levels in seed oil. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was higher in neutral lipid classes than in the polar lipid fractions. The oil was characterized by a relatively high amount of phytosterols, wherein the sterol marker, beta-sitosterol, accounted for 72% of the total sterol content in Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil. Edible oil from Opuntia ficus-indica seed has focused on its antioxidant capacities due to the increased content of phenols, flavonoids, beta-carotene, anthocyanins, and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. From the mineral groups zinc is the dominant followed by iron which are useful for human health functioning. Tocophorol was also available in the oil extract, and gamma-tocopherol was predominant component in seed oil and delta-tocopherol was scarce in seed oil. Beta-carotene was also confined in seed oil in small amount. Edible oil of cactus fruit seed has an impact in medicinal use, specifically its antidiabetic and antiviral, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antiulcerogenic and healing effect, anti-cancer effect and other positive health effect properties.
... In contrast, the oil yield in Tunisian prickly pear seeds was approximately similar when the variation of the extraction time applied was low, and when the PPSO was extracted with n-hexane using the Soxhlet extractor for 10 h, the yield was reported to be 11.75% [1]. A similar PPSO yield (11%) was reported in another study by [27] of Tunisian PPSO extracted with n-hexane in a Soxhlet extractor for 9 h. However, a different Tunisian PPSO yield was reported between the PPSO extracted from seeds of wild prickly pear (10.32%) compared to cultivated prickly pear (8.91%) [28]. ...
... In this context, the physicochemical characteristics of PPSO extracted with n-hexane in a Soxhlet extractor showed PPSO with a density of 0.903 ± 0.002, the refractive and iodine indices reported as 1.475 ± 0.002 at 20 • C. 101.5 ± 1.0, respectively, while the saponification index (mg of KOH/g oil) was 169.0 ± 0.1 [27]. In addition, the physicochemical characteristics of PPSO extracted by first cold pressing did not differ much from other studies previously mentioned: the PPSO was found to have a greenish-yellow-colored liquid, a density of 0.905 ± 0.001 at 20 • C, an acid index of 1.952 ± 0.034, an iodine index of 108.52 ± 0.250 (g I2/100 g oil), a peroxide index of 2.230 ± 0.061 (meq O 2 /kg oil), a saponification index of 171.40 ± 0.430 (mg KOH/g oil), and a refractive index at 20 • C of 1.475 ± 0.001 [17]. ...
... The phytosterols content of PPSO from Tunisia extracted using a Soxhlet extractor with n-hexane was also reported as 16.06 ± 0.28 g/kg [27]. β-sitosterol was found to count for 72%, and ∆5-avenasterol and ∆5-avenasterol counted for 4.72 and 5.10% of the total sterol content, respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is a member of the Cactaceae family originally grown in South America, and the plant is now distributed to many parts of the world, including the Middle East. The chemical composition and biological activities of different parts of prickly pear, including cladodes, flowers, fruit, seeds and seed oil, were previously investigated. Oil from the seeds has been known for its nutritive value and can be potentially used for health promotion. This review is an effort to cover what is actually known to date about the prickly pear seeds oil extraction, characteristics, chemical composition and potential health benefits to provide inspiration for the need of further investigation and future research. Prickly pear seeds oil has been extracted using different extraction techniques from conventional to advanced. Chemical characterization of the oil has been sufficiently studied, and it is sufficiently understood that the oil is a high linoleic oil. Its composition is influenced by the variety and environment and also by the method of extraction. The health benefits of the prickly pear seed oil were reported by many researchers. For future research, additional studies are warranted on mechanisms of action of the reported biological activities to develop nutraceutical products for the prevention of various chronic human diseases
... In the literature, Ali Alsaad reported lower fruit seed content, 9.5%, in Iraq [22]. Journal of Chemistry ese findings demonstrated clearly that the fresh O. dillenii fruits contain more than 75% of water, which was in good agreement with previous data reported in the literature [29,30]. Furthermore, the juice fruit of Essaouira was less acidic compared to that of the two other localities, pH � 4.8, 3.9, and 3.2 for Essaouira, Oujda, and Nador, respectively. ...
... e saponification values of the studied samples ranging from 210.37 to 252.45 were higher than those of O. stricta and O. ficus-indica reported by Ennouri et al. [29], but they always stayed in the range of Codex Stan 210-1999 and COI standards. is parameter indicates the presence of saturated fatty acids in the studied oil, and a low value points to the predominance of long-chain fatty acids, as suggested by Akintayo and Bayer [34]. ...
... Low indices characterize oils of high quality. e refractive indices of our oils were found to be higher compared to the results of El Mannoubi [33] and Ennouri [29], but in accordance with the norm (Codex Stan 210-1999 and COI standards). e density of the O. dillenii seed oils at 20°C compared favorably with that of O. stricta seed oil but was higher than that of O. ficus-indica seed oil [18]. ...
... Kingdom of Saudi Arabia [11] 36 h Soxhlet Petroleum ether 25 g 6.93% to 7.76% Tunisia [12] 6 h Soxhlet Petroleum ether -5.34% to 7.67% Turkey [13] 6 h Soxhlet Hexane -10.45% Algeria [14] 18 h Soxhlet Hexane -10.90% Tunisia [15] 9 h Soxhlet Hexane 20 g 5.4% to 9.9% Morocco [7] 8 h Soxhlet Hexane 30 g 7.3% to 9.3% Algeria [16] 9 h Soxhlet n-hexane 25 g 5.4% Greece [17] 4-6 h Soxhlet ...
... [35] In another study dealing with cactus seed oil the two species O. ficus-indica and O. stricta showed comparable values for refractive index (1.475 and 1.469, respectively), density (0.903 and 0.919, respectively), saponification value (169.0 and 174 mg KOH/g, respectively) and iodine value (101.5 and 91.6 g I 2 /100 g, respectively). [15] ...
... 15.20% to 21.83% 57.75% to 67.32% - [25,48] 12% 0.73% 3% 18% 63% 0,25% [49] 7.2% --12.8% 74% - [15] 2.46% --16.41% 60.69% - [34] 12% -5.8% 8.8% 73.4% - [11] 11.6% to 12.4% --18.2% to 22.3% 60.2% to 64.6% - [7] Not determined (-); GCPS: green cactus pear seeds; RCPS: red cactus pear seeds. ...
Article
Full-text available
Physicochemical parameters, nutritional composition and therapeutic effect of Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil extracted by different standard extraction techniques were reviewed. Cactus seeds contain between 3.4 and 14.4% oil with linoleic acid and oleic acid as major fatty acids. The most prominent triacylglycerols are trilinolein (LLL), dilinoleic-monoolein (LLO), dilinoleic-monopalmitin (LLP) and dioleinic-monolinolein (OOL). γ-tocopherol amounts to 90% and higher of the total tocopherols. The main phytosterol is β-sitosterol varying from 71.6% to 79.1% of the total content (0.9-16.06 g/ kg). The most dominant volatile compounds are aldehydes. Cactus seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, where vanillin, syringaldehyde, and ferulalde-hyde are the main representatives.
... Recently, research on oils from fig seeds from Morocco (Hssaini et al., 2020), lentisk and skeels from Algeria (Brahmi et al., 2020) as well as milk thistle oil and their functional properties were reported. Cactus pear seed oil has been viewed as an important vegetable oil because of its related quality composition factors, namely high concentrations of important fatty acids, for example, linoleic acid (C18:2c9,12) (C18:2 n-6); vitamin E (100 mg/100g) and sterols (1 g/100g) (Ennouri et al., 2005). In the past, oil quality was estimated based on oil yield and fatty acid composition alone. ...
... and de Wit et al. (2018) (16.19-19.12%) yet higher than those obtained by Ennouri et al. (2005). These fatty acids will influence SFA ratios, since they are the main contributors to SFA. ...
... These results fall within a similar range (1.464 RI) to those reported by Gharby et al. (2011). Previous literature reported a higher RI value of 1.4831 in cactus pear seed oil, 1.473 in rape seed oil, and 1.475 in Opuntia ficus-indica (Ennouri et al., 2005). Other studies reported slightly lower RI values ranging between 1.4658 and 1.4676 (de Wit et al., 2017). ...
Article
Cold-pressed seed oil from twelve commercially produced cactus pear cultivars was assessed for oil yield, fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties, quality and stability. Large differences in oil content, fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties (IV, PV, RI, tocopherols, ORAC, % FFA, OSI and induction time) were observed. Oil content ranged between 2.51% and 5.96% (Meyers and American Giant). The important fatty acids detected were C16:0, C18:0, C18:1c9 and C18:2c9,12, with C18:2c9,12, the dominating fatty acid, ranging from 58.56-65.73%, followed by C18:1c9, ranging between 13.18-16.07%, C16:0, which ranged between 10.97 - 15.07% and C18:0, which ranged between 2.62-3.18%. Other fatty acids such as C14:0, C16:1c9, C17:0, C17:1c10, C20:0, C18:3c9,12,15 and C20:3c8,11,14 were detected in small amounts. The quality parameters of the oils were strongly influenced by oil content, fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties. Oil content, PV, % FFA, RI, IV, tocopherols, ORAC and ρ-anisidine value were negatively correlated with OSI. C18:0; C18:1c9; C18:2c9,12; MUFA; PUFA; n-6 and PUFA/SFA were also negatively correlated with OSI. Among all the cultivars, American Giant was identified as the paramount cultivar with good quality traits (oil content and oxidative stability).
... 15 The mean oil content of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds is 10.90%. 16 Several studies have indicated that cactus seeds are a particularly good source of linolenic, oleic and palmitic acids. 16,17 A high amount of omega-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids has been reported in cactus seed oil (53.5 to 70.29%). ...
... 16 Several studies have indicated that cactus seeds are a particularly good source of linolenic, oleic and palmitic acids. 16,17 A high amount of omega-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids has been reported in cactus seed oil (53.5 to 70.29%). 17 The seeds of Opuntia ficusindica have been shown to contain great amounts of phenolic compounds. ...
... This finding might be due to the fact that the total lipids recovered from the seeds of prickly pears fruits varied from 61 and 117.5 g kg −1 . 9,16,17 In terms of carbohydrate content, there were no significant differences observed among the bread samples, except that bread fortified with 10% RPPS flour significantly showed the lowest level of carbohydrates ( (Table 4). These findings indicate that bread fortified with RPPS flour is a good source of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, protein, ash, dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to investigate the nutritional, antioxidative, and sensory characteristics of bread enriched with roasted prickly pears seed flour (RPPS)flour. Six flour blends were formulated by partial replacement of wheat flour with 0, 2,4,6,8 and10 % of RPPS flour. Proximate composition, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity by DPPH of wheat and RPPS flours were determined. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of bread enriched with different levels of RPPS flour were evaluated. The results showed that the content of total phenolics, flavonoids and radical scavenging activity in RPPS flour were about 4.5 , 4.7 and 4.0 fold ,respectively, higher when compared to wheat flour. Incorporation of different levels of RPPS flour in bread formulation significantly increased dietary fibers, fat, and ash contents and reduced the carbohydrate contents of produced breads. The highest (p ≤ 0.05) phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activities values were found in the bread enriched with 6, 8 and 10% of RPPS flour. Generally, the replacement of wheat flour with RPPS flour caused significant decreases (p ≤ 0.05) of the specific volume, however, no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) was observed between 2% RPPS-enriched flour and control breads. Sensory properties of breads were not affected at low levels up to 6 % supplementation, but with more than 6 % level of with RPPS flour supplementation, the bread became unacceptable.
... In the literature, Ali Alsaad reported lower fruit seed content, 9.5%, in Iraq [22]. Journal of Chemistry ese findings demonstrated clearly that the fresh O. dillenii fruits contain more than 75% of water, which was in good agreement with previous data reported in the literature [29,30]. Furthermore, the juice fruit of Essaouira was less acidic compared to that of the two other localities, pH � 4.8, 3.9, and 3.2 for Essaouira, Oujda, and Nador, respectively. ...
... e saponification values of the studied samples ranging from 210.37 to 252.45 were higher than those of O. stricta and O. ficus-indica reported by Ennouri et al. [29], but they always stayed in the range of Codex Stan 210-1999 and COI standards. is parameter indicates the presence of saturated fatty acids in the studied oil, and a low value points to the predominance of long-chain fatty acids, as suggested by Akintayo and Bayer [34]. ...
... Low indices characterize oils of high quality. e refractive indices of our oils were found to be higher compared to the results of El Mannoubi [33] and Ennouri [29], but in accordance with the norm (Codex Stan 210-1999 and COI standards). e density of the O. dillenii seed oils at 20°C compared favorably with that of O. stricta seed oil but was higher than that of O. ficus-indica seed oil [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of skin, juice, and seeds of Opuntia dillenii fruit collected from three Moroccan regions (Oujda, Nador, and Essaouira) were studied. The study revealed that the seed oil extracts presented the highest yield of 13.12%, followed by the skin fraction (1.77%) and the juice extract (0.49%). The evaluation of fatty acid compositions using GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of linoleic acid as a dominating unsaturated fatty acid with a value of 72.39%, followed by palmitic acid, oleic acid, and stearic acid in all localities. Otherwise, the juice extract of Oujda locality was richer in margaric acid (37.41%), followed by Essaouira skin extract (10.7%) and Oujda seed extract (6.18%). However, the campesterol was detected only in trace in the juice extract. The physicochemical properties of O. dillenii seed oils such as acid value, peroxide value, ester value, pH value, saponification value, density, and refractive index were all found to be in good agreement with the quality criteria for pure and fresh oils. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were implemented to compare the difference in the chemical composition of the different O. dillenii extracts.
... 15 The mean oil content of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds is 10.90%. 16 Several studies have indicated that cactus seeds are a particularly good source of linolenic, oleic and palmitic acids. 16,17 A high amount of omega-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids has been reported in cactus seed oil (53.5 to 70.29%). ...
... 16 Several studies have indicated that cactus seeds are a particularly good source of linolenic, oleic and palmitic acids. 16,17 A high amount of omega-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids has been reported in cactus seed oil (53.5 to 70.29%). 17 The seeds of Opuntia ficusindica have been shown to contain great amounts of phenolic compounds. ...
... This finding might be due to the fact that the total lipids recovered from the seeds of prickly pears fruits varied from 61 and 117.5 g kg −1 . 9,16,17 In terms of carbohydrate content, there were no significant differences observed among the bread samples, except that bread fortified with 10% RPPS flour significantly showed the lowest level of carbohydrates ( (Table 4). These findings indicate that bread fortified with RPPS flour is a good source of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, protein, ash, dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aims to investigate the nutritional, antioxidative, and sensory characteristics of bread enriched with roasted prickly pear seed (RPPS) flour. Six flour blends were formulated by partial replacement of wheat flour with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% RPPS flour. Proximate composition, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity measured using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical of wheat and RPPS flours were determined. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of bread enriched with different levels of RPPS flour were evaluated. The results show that the content of total phenolics, flavonoids and radical scavenging activity in RPPS flour were about 4.5, 4.7 and 4.0 fold higher, respectively, when compared to wheat flour. The incorporation of different levels of RPPS flour in bread formulation significantly increases the dietary fibers, fat, and ash contents and reduces the carbohydrate content of the produced breads. The highest (p ≤ 0.05) phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity values were found in bread enriched with 6, 8 and 10% RPPS flour. Generally, the replacement of wheat flour with RPPS flour results in a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in the specific volume, however, no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) was observed between the 2% RPPS-enriched flour and control breads. The sensory properties of breads were not affected at low levels up to 6% supplementation, but at more than 6% RPPS flour supplementation, the bread became unacceptable.
... The chemical composition study of the seed oils obtained from O. ficus-indica and O. dillenii has shown that these two oils belong to "polyunsaturated" oils [21]. Linoleic acid remains the predominant fatty acid in these seed oils, despite the origin of the plant (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Turkey, Germany, Mexico and China), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid [9,14,[22][23][24][25][26][27][28]. The chemical composition of these Opuntia oils is similar to those of other Opuntia species like O. elatior [29]. ...
... On the other hand, these constituents were absent or present in small quantities in O. dillenii seed oil. Oils from the regions of Berlin (Germany) and Sidi Ifni (Morocco) have the highest γ-tocopherol content in comparison with Opuntia seed oils from other regions in Morocco (Oujda) and Tunisia [9,27]. Also, seed oils from these two countries are characterized by the presence of other tocopherol types, generally α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin K 1 ( fig. 3) [14,28]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Opuntia species belong to semi-arid and arid regions of Mexico and the United States. O. ficus-indica and O. dillenii are commonly used in alternative medicine to treat various diseases. Up to date, several scientific works have been carried out on the different parts of these plants. However, over the last few years, studies have been focusing on the oil obtained from the fruit seeds of these species. For this reason, this study aims to draw the attention of researchers toward the phytochemical and the pharmacological effects of these two Opuntia oils, which would help set up other scientific projects that promote these products. Phytochemical studies have shown that these oils are rich in biologically active molecules, such as unsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols (mainly linoleic acid and β-sitosterol), as well as vitamin E, which is represented only by the γ-tocopherol. Besides, these oils are rich in polyphenols that protect them from photo-oxidation. Moreover , several studies have shown their antioxidant, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammato-ry, hepatoprotective, and gastroprotective activities, as well as their hypolipidemic properties. The beneficial effects of these oils include also their ability to block the weight loss, and what makes them more interesting is their safety, according to the literature.
... The oil makes up approximately 17% of the seed mass [13]. The oil is characterized as a low oil content seed oil, and is principally composed of unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic (61-69%) and oleic acid (12-16%) and is also composed of saturated fatty acids (18%), stearic (11-16%) and palmitic acid (3-4%), which occur at much lower amounts [14][15][16][17][18][19]. The human body is naturally unable to manufacture essential fatty acids such as the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, therefore these fatty acids should be included in the diet. ...
... Cactus pear seed oil has a high level of unsaturation that makes it a potential health oil that must be further explored [14]. Its physical and chemical characteristics show similarities to other fruit/vegetable oils such as grape seed oil (linoleic acid: 68-78%; palmitic acid: 5-11%; stearic acid: 3-6%) and rape seed oil (linoleic acid: 61%; palmitic acid: 4%; stearic acid: 2%) [14,15,19]. Fatty acids such as palmitoleic acid and arachidic acid have been observed in much fewer quantities in cactus pear seed oil [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cactus pears are nutritious, drought-tolerant plants that flourish in hot and arid regions. All its plant parts can be consumed by humans and animals. Fruit seed oil production is an important emerging industry in South Africa. As part of an initiative to promote cactus pears as multi-functional crops, dual-purpose cultivars should be identified, and their production increased. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of nitrogen (N) fertilizer on the seed oil yield and quality of Opuntia ficus-indica. The project encompassed a trial using N fertilization from three N sources (limestone ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, urea) and four N application levels (0, 60, 120, 240 kg ha−1). Oil was quantitatively extracted from the seed using the Folch method; fatty acids were quantified using a Varian 430-GC. Seed oil content significantly increased (p = 0.035) with increased N fertilization rates; the oil yield ranged between 7.96 and 9.54%. The composition of the main fatty acids (oleic, palmitic, cis-vaccenic and stearic acid) was significantly influenced; oleic and stearic acid were significantly increased by higher fertilization levels whereas a reducing trend was observed in palmitic and cis-vaccenic acid levels. The highest content fatty acid, linoleic acid, was not significantly influenced.
... Linoleic acid was established as a major fatty acid in seed oils, followed by oleic and palmitic acids. Myristic, stearic, and arachidonic acids were detected in OFI seed oil in low amounts [8][9][10]. Significant levels of vitamins (tocopherol and vitamin K1) and sterols were also found in this oil. ...
... e contents of the major fatty acids of the studied species are in agreement with those found in previous studies on OFI species [9,29]. Nonetheless, other studies have reported higher levels of palmitic acid (exceeding 16%) and linoleic acid (70%) [10]. e difference in the linoleic acid content found in some studies could be due to the fruit genotype or maturity stage. ...
Article
Full-text available
The prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) is an important plant in the economies of arid and semiarid areas, considering its low agronomic requirements and high water use efficiency. Characterizing the chemical composition of this plant will open new avenues for food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic applications. In this context, this study examined the physical and chemical parameters of fruit seed oils of two prickly pear species from Rhamna area located in the center of Morocco: Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI), represented by the varieties “Safra” and “Aakria,” and Opuntia megacantha (OM), represented by the variety “Derbana.” The evaluated parameters included oil content, free acidity, specific extinction coefficients (K232 and K270), pigment content, fatty acid, and triglyceride composition. The seed oil contents of the three varieties “Safra,” “Aakria,” and “Derbana” were 8.09%, 8.74%, and 8.04%, respectively. OM (“Derbana”) seed oil was the most stable. The three studied varieties had higher contents of α-pheophytin and carotenoids than that of chlorophyll. Oil from the “Aakria” variety was distinguished by having the highest contents of α-pheophytin and chlorophyll. Significant differences in some fatty acid and triglyceride contents were noted. The major fatty acids of the three varieties were linoleic acid (60.55%–63.46%), followed by oleic acid (18.88%–21.81%) and palmitic acid (13.03%–13.75%). Furthermore, the chromatographic profiles of the triglycerides have shown the dominance of trilinolein (LLL, 24.33%–26.49%) and oleoyl-dilinoleoyl-glycerol (OLL, 20.92%–21.92%). Some triglycerides could be considered species markers, especially OLL, dipalmitoyl-linoleoyl-glycerol (PPL), oleoyl-linoleoyl-linolenoyl-glycerol and palmitoyl-oleoyl-dilinoleoyl-glycerol fraction (OLLn + PoLL), and stearoyl-dioleoyl-glycerol (SOO). This study provides a basis for qualitatively evaluating the therapeutic and cosmetic potential of prickly pear derivatives and for establishing quality standards of seed oil derived from the two species studied. 1. Introduction The prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) belongs to the Cactaceae family. Native to Mexico, it was introduced into the Mediterranean region around the end of the 15th century and into North Africa around the end of the 16th century [1]. Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is a spineless and dominant species. It is found in different varieties that differ in color and that are harvested in varying stages of ripeness. Opuntia megacantha (OM) is a thorny species that is mainly used for farm fencing. The seeds are used for oil extraction [2]. Phenology studies of these species have shown that they produce vegetative and floral buds during the spring and undergo long periods of fruit development in the summer [3]. Currently, the prickly pear is of great interest not only for its ecological roles but also for its potential in food, industrial, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic applications. The literature reports promising information concerning the biological activities and chemical composition of different parts of this plant (fruit pulp, cladodes, seeds, and flowers). Pulps, peels, and cladodes are rich in bioactive compounds, especially antioxidants, including vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, flavonoids, glutathione, and pigments [4–6]. The seeds constitute 2–3.8% of the fruit weight [7]. The oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was established as a major fatty acid in seed oils, followed by oleic and palmitic acids. Myristic, stearic, and arachidonic acids were detected in OFI seed oil in low amounts [8–10]. Significant levels of vitamins (tocopherol and vitamin K1) and sterols were also found in this oil. Beta-sitosterol was the sterol marker, accounting for 72% of the total. The major tocopherol is gamma-tocopherol, representing an average of 90% of total tocopherols, compared with delta-tocopherol (9%) and alpha-tocopherol (1.8%) [11]. Furthermore, prickly pear seed oil has a rich aroma because of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, and other compounds, such as 2-propenal, acetic acid, pentanal, 1-pentanol, hexanal, 2-hexenal, heptanal, 2-heptenal (Z), octanal, 2-octenal, nonanal, 2,4-decadienal (E,E), and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal [12]. However, the chemical composition of this oil, particularly its fatty acid and tocopherol composition, changes according to geographic origin [13]. Previous studies have conducted useful chemical investigations to evaluate the therapeutic and cosmetic potential of prickly pear seed oil. However, for other oils sold worldwide, such as olive oil and argan oil, quality standards have been established; such standards for prickly pear seed oil are lacking. Therefore, extensive studies on the purity and quality of prickly pear seed oil and its shelf life are essential to promote the quality and utility of this product on a commercial scale. A recent study focused on the sanitary and commercial quality related to the oxidative stability under different storage conditions and adulteration detection of prickly pear seed oil, especially in OFI species [14]. The present study aims to establish a comparative assessment through the physical and chemical characterizations of prickly pear seed oils of three varieties belonging to two species of the prickly pear (Opuntia spp.): OM species locally called “Derbana” and OFI species represented by the varieties “Safra” and “Aakria” from Rhamna, located in the center of Morocco. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to compare seed oils of these prickly pear species. The results of this investigation will also provide useful information for future studies evaluating the therapeutic and cosmetic potential of prickly pear seed oil. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Plant Material and Oil Extraction Two prickly pear species (Opuntia spp.) collected from the Rhamna region (central Morocco) were studied.(i)Two varieties of OFI: (i) the variety with yellow orange pulp locally called “Safra” or “Mles” and (ii) the variety with carmine red pulp, locally called “Aakria.”(ii)OM: locally called “Derbana” or “El-Hercha” [2]. Homrani Bakali et al. [7] reported that two prickly pear types, spineless and spiny, are represented, respectively, by Opuntia ficus-indica f. ficus-indica (OFI) and Opuntia ficus-indica f. amyclaea, taxonomic synonym (homotypic) of Opuntia megacantha (OM), and nomenclatural synonym (heterotypic) of Opuntia amyclaea. The plant voucher specimens of the two species used in this study were deposited at the Regional Herbarium “MARK” of the Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University (Marrakesh, Morocco). The fruits of both species, OFI and OM, were harvested at the ripe stage in the Skhour Rhamna region, located approximately 100 km north of Marrakesh (Rhamna Province, Morocco). They were hand-peeled, and the pulp was separated from the seeds using a hand crusher and sieve. The seeds were then washed thoroughly with water, dried in an oven at 30°C for 24 h, and crushed using a PULVERISETTE 14 grinder (Fritsch International, Germany). First, 45 g of seed powder was collected for each variety; then, the oils were extracted with hexane using a Soxhlet extraction system for 6 h at 65°C. At the end of the extraction, the organic phase was evaporated using a rotary evaporator under vacuum with minimal heating (40°C). The obtained oil was placed in dark glass vials for protection from light and bubbled with a stream of nitrogen to remove residual traces of hexane. The vials were stored at 4°C until further analysis. The oil content is expressed in g/100 g of seed powder. 2.2. Determination of Oil Physical Quality Parameters The oil-specific extinction coefficients K232 and K270, which are used to evaluate conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes, respectively, were determined according to the IOC standard [15]. For free acidity determination, the method used was described by the standard NF.T 60-204 [16]. Briefly, 1 g of oil was obtained in 20 mL of an equal volume of ether/ethanol (50/50, v/v) and neutralized, and then, free fatty acids were titrated using an ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution in the presence of phenolphthalein. The end product exhibited a slightly pink color. 2.3. Determination of Oil Chemical Parameters 2.3.1. Pigment Content The pigment content of prickly pear seed oil (expressed in ppm) was determined according to the methods described by Wolff [17] for chlorophyll, Psomiadou and Tsimidou [18] for α-pheophytin, and Mosquera-Minguez et al. [19] for carotenoids. The fractions of α-pheophytin and chlorophyll were quantified at wavelengths of 630, 670, and 710 nm, and those of the carotenoids were determined at 470 nm. 2.3.2. Fatty Acid Composition Fatty acid composition was determined by the gas chromatography analysis according to the analytical methods described in the IOC standard [20]. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were prepared by adding 0.2 mL of a methanolic solution of potassium hydroxide (2 N) to the oil solution prepared with 0.1 g of oil and n-heptane (2 mL). Before injection into the chromatograph, the n-heptane solution was shaken vigorously for 15 s and allowed to stand until the upper part became clear (5 min). The fatty acids separation was carried out using gas chromatograph Varian CP 3380, equipped with a capillary column packed with a stationary phase (CP-Wax 50 CB: length L = 25 m; inner diameter Ф = 0.25 mm; Ft = 0.20 μm), using split/splitless injector (split ratio of 1 : 100) equipped with the autosampler Varian CP-8400 and FID detector. The temperatures of the injector, detector, and oven were 220, 230, and 190°C, respectively. Nitrogen was used as the carrier gas at a flow rate of 154.0 mL/min. The injection volume was 1 µL. Fatty acids were identified by the use of control fatty acids and by the recourse to the methods of imprinting. For fatty acid quantification, the total area (TA) was the sum of all the peaks that appeared in the chromatogram, from C16 : 0 to C20 : 1. The percentage of each peak (FAx (%)) was calculated using the following equation:where Ax is the individual peak area of each FAME and AT is the total area of all FAME peaks. Based on fatty acid composition, the iodine value (IV), which measures the level of unsaturation in oils and is expressed in grams of iodine absorbed by 100 g of oil, was calculated from the percentages of fatty acids (FA) according to the following equation proposed by Dıraman and Dibeklioğlu [21]: 2.3.3. Triglyceride Composition The triglyceride composition was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Jasco PU, 2080) with a refractive index detector (RI-930), a type recorder-integrator (FP, 1520), and a stainless steel column (250 mm × 4.5 mm, LiChrosorb, RP 18, Art 50333) filled with silica particles of 5 µm in diameter. The eluent was a mixture of acetone and acetonitrile (50/50, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min at 40°C. A volume of 20 µL of 5% (w/v) oil and acetone solution was injected into the HPLC system. The triglycerides were identified using the official EEC method [22]. The chemical parameters of the studied oils were compared to those of other fruit and seed oils, especially those of argan seeds (Argania spinosa), sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum), black cumin or Nigella seeds (Nigella sativa), olive fruit (Olea europaea), and lentisk seeds (Pistacia lentiscus). Selection of these oils was based on their characteristics, which are well defined and are widely used in various applications, especially in nutraceuticals and cosmetics. 2.4. Statistical Analyses Data are presented in tables and figures as the mean ± standard error of three independent experiments. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) where the varieties constitute the only factor considered. The comparison between the means was carried out with the Student–Newman–Keuls test. The difference between means was significant at . 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. Oil Content The respective seed oil contents of OFI (“Safra” and “Aakria”) and OM (“Derbana”) varieties were 8.09%, 8.74%, and 8.04% (Table 1). The “Aakria” variety had the highest oil content (8.74%). These results are in agreement with those obtained for Algerian OFI varieties by Chougui et al. [29] and Ramadan and Mörsel [9]. However, higher oil content (up to 14.4%) has been reported for a Turkish OFI variety by Matthäus and Özcan [13], who reported that the difference in the oil content of the seeds can be attributed to varietal and environmental effects. The oil content of prickly pear seeds appears to be very low compared to that of other plant species from which oils are derived, including argan seeds (53%) [25], sesame seeds (52%) [26], Nigella seeds (37%) [27], olive fruits (20%–40.73%) [23, 24], and lentisk seeds (7.67%–21.33%) [28]. Parameters Prickly pear species and varieties Nutraceutical and cosmetic fruits or seed oils Opuntia ficus-indica Opuntia megacantha Olive, Olea europaea [23, 24] Argan, Argania spinosa [25] Sesame, Sesamum indicum [26] Black cumin, Nigella sativa [27] Lentisk, Pistacia lentiscus [28] Safra Aakria Derbana Oil content (%) 8.09a ± 0.06 8.74b ± 0.03 8.04a ± 0.03 20–40.73 53.00 52.00 37.00 7.67–21.33 Free acidity (%) 0.71a ± 0.04 0.64a ± 0.04 0.60a ± 0.04 <0.80 0.28 0.92 2.30 — Extinction coefficient K232 2.25b ± 0.03 2.24b ± 0.04 1.82a ± 0.07 <2.50 1.12 1.73 2.21 — Extinction coefficient K270 0.92b ± 0.04 0.95b ± 0.08 0.66a ± 0.04 <0.22 0.21 0.52 2.77 — Means (±standard errors) with the same letter within rows did not differ significantly according to the Student–Newman–Keuls test at .
... The shearing effect interrupt the structural state of fatty acids and since it is not instantly reversible, a marginal hysteresis is observed in the viscosity-strain curve particularly at lower strain rate. The similar behavior is reported by Ennouri et al. (2005) when they studied the rheological behavior of prickly pear seed oil and fatty acid composition. They stated, the shearing, and temperature destroyed the aggregates and stable structural state of fatty acids and had Newtonian flow behavior at high shear strain [29]. ...
... The similar behavior is reported by Ennouri et al. (2005) when they studied the rheological behavior of prickly pear seed oil and fatty acid composition. They stated, the shearing, and temperature destroyed the aggregates and stable structural state of fatty acids and had Newtonian flow behavior at high shear strain [29]. A typical high viscosity non-Newtonian time-dependent fluid follows a different path of return to its original viscosity when shear stress is gradually lifted. ...
Article
Full-text available
To meet the ever-increasing energy demands, significant amount of research is carried out to find environmentally friendly and renewable energy resources. Biodiesel production through animal fats such as chicken fat is considered as a lucrative option due to the presence of high concentration of triglycerides and free fatty acid content. Chicken fats also contain other organic compounds, which could affect the flow properties of biodiesel. Current study is focused on developing a robust model to analyze flow behavior/model of chicken fat oil with in-depth analysis of rheological properties such as shear stress and dynamic viscosity against shear rate and time respectively. The analysis is based on experimental results as well as mathematical model and found a good agreement between the model and the results. It was found that the viscosity of a feedstock is a critical parameter for biodiesel production. If viscosity changes drastically during chemical reaction, it leads to energy losses and ultimately increases the process cost. However, chicken fat results indicate that the viscosity of chicken fat slightly decreased in the application of the shear rate. Still, the change was very small, and viscosity restored to its original value of 0.08 Pa.S, when stressed was removed. This indicate that the chicken fat oil exhibits the time-dependent non-Newtonian thixotropy fluid which leads to its potential for biodiesel production in the transport section
... These values are in agreement with those reported in the literature concerning PL and OFI seed oils, which were 1.468 and 1.476, respectively (Boukeloua et al., 2012) and 1.466 ± 0.02 for PL oil (Djerrou, 2014). Regarding OFI oil, (R'bia et al., 2017) recorded a value of 1.452 ± 0.00 and (Ennouri et al., 2005), a value of 1.473. Values of this index for South African Optuntia varieties varied from 1.4658 to 1.4676 (De Wit et al., 2017). ...
... While its oleic acid content ranged between 15.6 ± 1.23 and 19.3 ± 1.66% (Ramadan and Mörsel, 2003). Furthermore, according to (Ennouri et al., 2005(Ennouri et al., , 2006, the linoleic acid level exceeds 70% and that of oleic acid 12% in the OFI seed oil from Sfax (Tunisia). In addition, linoleic acid was the major component (60. ...
Article
Many parameters can influence the chemical profiles and the biological activities of seed oils. It was therefore of interest to study Algerian seed oils, whose caharacteristics are not well known. So, the physicochemical properties and nutrient profiles (fatty acids, phytosterols, polyphenols) of seed oils from Pistacia lentiscus L. (PL), Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) mill. (OFI), and Argania spinosa L. Skeels (AS) were determined. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the oils were also characterized. The physicochemical parameters of the oils are closely related to the standard values. PL oil is distinguished by its high content of pigments. AS and OFI oils were dominated by linoleic acid, at 39.1 ± 0.5 and 55.8 ± 0.6%, respectively, while the oleic acid (41.2 ± 0.4%) was the major fatty acid in the oil of PL. The analysis of phytosterol levels showed that β-sitosterol was present in high amounts in the three oils, of 387.44 ± 3.04, 87.92 ± 0.72 and 58.79 ± 1.19 mg/100 g of oil in OFI, AS and PL oils, respectively. The characterization of phenolics revealed only the presence of protocatechuic acid in the PL oil and p-coumaric and t-cinnamic acids in AS oil. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by using the phosphomolybdate assay and the scavenger activity of the DPPH• radical. PL and OFI oils showed the highest antioxidant capacity compared with AS. Very weak antibacterial and antifungal effects, evaluated against four bacterial and six fungal strains, were found. Given the chemical characteristics and antioxidant properties of Algerian PL, OFI and AS seed oils, our results highlight the potential benefit of these oils for human health.
... and 5.00-14.4%, respectively [9,[28][29][30], whereas the oil yield in prickly pear seeds of different South African varieties ranged between 2.24-5.69% [13]. ...
... The obtained in vitro antioxidant capacity was 95%, in general agreement, with present results concerning the direct use of PPSO for the estimation of antioxidant activity. Prickly pear seed oil of Sicilian cultivars (Sanguigna and Surfarina) [29] obtained with Soxhlet extraction, showed the highest inhibitory concentration (IC50) against the DPPH free radical, in agreement with present results. In addition, present results are in accordance with those of Ramírez-Moreno et al. [2], who reported a considerable antioxidant activity concerning the seed oil obtained from two Mexican prickly pear cultivars. ...
Article
Full-text available
The chemical composition and properties of seed oils have attracted researchers nowadays. By this meaning, the physicochemical and bioactivity profile of prickly pear seed oil (PPSO) (a product of prickly pear fruits waste) were investigated. Seeds of shelf-grown cactus fruits (Opuntia ficus indica L.) were subjected to analysis. Moisture content (gravimetric analysis), seed content (gravimetric analysis), oil yield (Soxhlet extraction/gravimetric analysis), volatile compounds (HS-SPME/GC-MS), fatty acids profile (GC-FID), in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH assay), and total phenolic content (Folin-Cioacalteu assay) were determined. Results showed that prickly pear seeds had a moisture content of 6.0±0.1 g/100g, whereas the oil yield ranged between 5.4±0.5 g/100g. Furthermore, the PPSO had a rich aroma because of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, and other compounds, with the major volatiles being 2-propenal, acetic acid, pentanal, 1-pentanol, hexanal, 2-hexenal, heptanal, 2-heptenal (Z), octanal, 2-octenal,nonanal, 2,4-decadienal (E,E), and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal. Among the fatty acids, butyric, palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids were the dominant. Finally, the pure PPSO had a high in vitro antioxidant activity (84±0.010%) and total phenolic content (551±0.300 mg of gallic acid equivalents/L). PPSO may be then used as a beneficial by-product, in different food systems as a flavoring, antioxidant, and nutritional agent.
... However, similarly to fruit pulp, Opuntia seeds with different origins showed a quite homogenous FA composition. Indeed, Turkish, Tunisian, and Algerian seeds dried under atmospheric conditions had predominant FAs such as palmitic acid comprised of between 9.23 and 13.4%, oleic acid from 13.0 to 25.52%, and linoleic acid between 49.3 and 63.1% [62,64,73,74]. In particular, such PUFA reached up to 70.3% in seeds from the governorate of Sfax (Tunisia) [73]. ...
... Indeed, Turkish, Tunisian, and Algerian seeds dried under atmospheric conditions had predominant FAs such as palmitic acid comprised of between 9.23 and 13.4%, oleic acid from 13.0 to 25.52%, and linoleic acid between 49.3 and 63.1% [62,64,73,74]. In particular, such PUFA reached up to 70.3% in seeds from the governorate of Sfax (Tunisia) [73]. Overall, the investigated seeds from the Mahdia governorate showed a FA composition comparable to that already described in literature. ...
Article
Full-text available
Various dried (by-)products from the Tunisian O. ficus-indica were elucidated for their proximate composition, fatty acid (FA) composition, inorganic elements, sugars, and polyphenols. Nopal and prickly pear peel and seeds were abundant in fiber (respectively, 28.39, 12.54, and 16.28%). Seeds had also high protein (17.34%) and may be source of an edible oil, due to lipids (9.65%) poor in saturated FAs (14.12%) and rich in linoleic acid (61.11%). Nopal and peel showed the highest levels of Mg (493.57 and 345.19 mg/100 g), K (6949.57 and 1820.83 mg/100 g), Mn (59.73 and 46.86 mg/Kg) and Fe (23.15 and 15.23 mg/Kg), while the fruit pulp predominantly constituted of sugars, glucose and arabinose being predominant (42.57 and 13.56 g/100 g). Total polyphenols widely varied among the Opuntia products (108.36–4785.36 mg GAE/100 g), being mainly represented by hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids, and flavonoids as well. In particular, peel may be revalorized for these valuable bioactives, including 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (484.95 mg/100 g), cinnamic acid (318.95 mg/100 g), rutin (818.94 mg/100 g), quercetin (605.28 mg/100 g), and several isorhamnetin and kaempferol glycosides. Overall, the Tunisian prickly pear cactus could encourage a sustainable production, an effective waste management, and may provide several benefits for human health, in accordance with the model of the Mediterranean diet.
... The cactus seeds are small with a weight between 15 and 20 mg [13] and a low oil content between 5 and 15%, compared to conventionally used oil seeds such as rapeseed (45%) or sunflower seed (20%), but a valuable fatty acid composition with linoleic acid as the main component [14,15]. The oil obtained from the seeds by screw-pressing and filtration for the clean-up is mainly used in cosmetics due to the high price and the time-consuming and laborious process of production resulting from the small kernels. ...
Article
Full-text available
Phenolic compounds extracted from cactus seed oil were identified for the first time by HPLC-ESI-qToF-MS and subsequently quantified by HPLC-DAD. A total of 7 compounds were identified, vanillin, syringaldehyde, and ferulaldehyde were found to be the most abundant ones. The effect of geographical origin and roasting process of cactus seeds was evaluated. Differences between different locations were not found, however the roasting process had a significant effect on the amount of phenolic compounds. The amount of syringaldehyde, p-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid ethyl ester, and ferulaldehyde increased during the roasting process. Nevertheless, the concentration of vanillin was not influenced by roasting. It was demonstrated that the increase of those compounds was due to the thermal degradation of lignin from the seeds during the roasting process of seeds.
... Similar results were reported by Melgar et al., (2017) for Italian and Portuguese fruits. The fatty acid profile reported in the pulp similar to the fatty acid profile reported in O. ficus indica and O. stricta seed oil by Ennouri, Evelyne, Laurence and Hamadi (2005). The fatty acid profile could be affected by the harvesting time (maturity), as reported by Juhaimi et al., (2020) for Opuntia ficusbarbarica A. Berger from Turkey. ...
Chapter
Alimentation is fundamental for human subsistence to satisfy biological needs. Cactus plants have been an important solution for human alimentation in arid and semiarid zones of America. Utilization and consumption of the plants and their fruits date from prehispanic times. The most important cactus fruits by production volume are prickly pear (cactus pear), pitaya (dragon fruit), berrycacti (garambullo), and xoconoxtle. These fruits are flavorsome and present a variety of colors. They aport good quality nutrients for human subsistence, but additionally, they apport bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, betalains, flavonoids, among others, that serve for the prevention and treatment of diseases. Cactus fruits are consumed mostly fresh, but they are used to manufacture products such as processed foods, medicaments, and additives. The cultivation of these crops is emerging as new solutions for human alimentation since this adaptability to arid regions brings a solution to water shortage
... Prickly pear seed oil is particularly characterized by a high content of vitamin E, sterols, and fatty acids. The linoleic acid is a major polyunsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid is the dominant monounsaturated fatty acid, and palmitic acid is the major saturated fatty acid [7,14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Medicinal plants have been used as a source of effective and safe alternative therapeutic agents for various ailments including inflammation. In fact, the aim of this study is to assess the topical anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential effects of Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin), Linum usitatissimum (linseed), and Opuntia ficus indica (prickly pear) oils on acute inflammation using carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The study was conducted on 36 rats splitted in 6 groups: a normal control group and 5 carrageenan-treated groups (1%), each treated with either a normal saline, the reference drug (“Inflocine®” 2 mg/paw), pumpkin, linseed, or prickly pear oils (25 μl/paw). The response to these treatments was mainly assessed by the measuring of edema paw size, hematological and biochemical analysis, oxidative stress testing, and histological study. All the studied seed oils especially prickly pear oil proved to be efficient in treating acute inflammation. The oil-treated groups revealed a significant (p
... 3,4 During the last decade, consumer demand for food with high nutritional value has increased as a result of their high-fat (fatty acids) content, as well as health benefits, which have created a new category known as ʺfunctional foodsʺ. 5,6 Cactus is rich in minerals with inorganic nutrients including calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, copper, and zinc usually required in small amounts (1 to 2500 mg per day). Humans and other vertebrates need large amounts of calcium because it is necessary for bone and for normal function of nerves and muscles. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cactus Opuntia dillenii presents multiple health benefits. The current study aims to investigate the seed composition and content of prickly pear fruits from Iraq. Results obtained showed that Opuntia dillenii contained 9.5% of seeds of the entire fruit while extracted oil presented 6.5% of total seed composition. Fatty acid analysis revealed that the polyunsaturated linoleic acid (72.9%), the saturated palmitic acid (15.12%) and stearic acid (7.51%) presented the main seed fatty acids of Opuntia dilleniid. Other essential oils were detected but at low percentage. Interestingly, stearic acid content in Cactus oil presented 7.51%, which is much higher than soybeans (~3%) that are considered as the largest source of animal protein feed and the second largest source of vegetable oil worldwide. Stearic acid presents neutral effects on the concentration of blood serum LDL cholesterol and does not exhibit cholesterolemic effects on human health. The analysis of cactus seed oil demonstrated a strong antioxidant ability estimated by their capability to reduce oxidation. Treated cake with BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) at concentration of 0.02 mg/100g of butter from cactus seed-oil exhibited lower peroxide values ranging from 0.67 to 1.5 milli-equivalents (meq) peroxide per 1 kg of oil throughout 15 days of storage time at 4 °C. In contrast, treated cake with 0.11 mg/100g of butter from cactus seed-oil presented lower peroxide values ranged from 0.69 to 2.5 meq peroxide per 1 kg of oil among all treatments. Because of its high-saturated fatty acid composition (>22%) and rich linoleic acid (72.9%) composition, Opuntia dillenii present an alternative source with several health benefits by lowering cholesterol risks and for biodiesel production. Key words: fatty acid, cactus, seed-oil, GC-MS, cake, peroxide value.
... A large number of papers have been published on chemical analysis of pulp, skin and seeds of the O. ficus-indica fruits as well as for its use in alcoholic beverage, juice and jam production (Monia et al. 2005;Coskuner and Tekin 2003). However, less work has been devoted to the use of cellulose materials obtained by O. ficus-indica vegetative tissues (Mannai et al. 2016). ...
Article
Cellulosic fibres have been obtained by green procedures from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill., constituting a large agro industrial waste in our territory. The materials have been analysed for its relative composition, applying, IR and TG methodologies and it was characterised by the absence of lignin. The fibrous material allowed the manufacture of a handmade paper obtaining an ecological material suitable for packaging purposes. The authors evidenced that the simple protocol based on hot water treatment was able to decrease the amount of hemicellulose in the final material.
... The SFA content varies slightly between 24.19% (chemical extraction), 25.92% (extraction maceration) and 28.41% (mechanical extraction), while there is a clear predominance of UFA with slightly variable proportions and the dominance of linoleic acid (Table 2) Moreover, according to Ennouri et al (2005;, the rate of linoleic acid overtakes 70% and oleic acid 12% in OFI seed oil of Sfax (Tunisia). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study focuses on yields, chemical quality, composition, and the stability of the fatty acids of the oil extracted from Opuntia ficus indica seeds, collected from the eastern region of Morocco, regardless of the temperature and the extraction method used. The results of this study reveal that prickly pear is a rich source of oil. The obtained oil yields varied from 12.49%±0.09 for the mechanical extraction, 11.46±0.10 for the chemical extraction, and 10.52%±0.09 for the maceration. The main fatty acids found in O. Ficus indica are linoleic acid 75.80%±0.10 (Chemical), 74.07%±0.14 (Maceration) and 71.59%±0.14 (Mechanical), and palmitic acid 17.32%±0.02 (Chemical) 22.419% ±0.06 (Maceration) and 26.58% ±0.00 (Mechanical). So the oil of prickly pear could be classified as a linoleic. Among the Tocopherols founded, a high value of b-tocopherol has been detected in the mechanical extraction with 502.04±0,76 mg/kg followed by the chemical and the maceration extraction with (430.12±0.61mg/kg, 315.47± 0.96 mg/kg) respectively. The findings of the present study reveal that the oil of O. ficus indica could be used in cosmetics and pharmacological products.
... The prickly pear seeds oil owns the potential of high-quality edible oil with potential health benefits. The major fatty acids of the seed oil were linoleic (C18:2), oleic (C18:1), palmitic (C16:0), and stearic (C18:0) acids [22,29,35,[49][50][51][52]. This shows the interest in the prickly pear as a natural source of edible oil containing essential fatty acids [22,53,54]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumer interest in foods with enhanced nutritional quality has increased in recent years. The nutritional and bioactive characterization of fruits and their byproducts, as well as their use in the formulation of new food products, is advisable, contributing to decrease the global concerns related to food waste and food security. Moreover, the compounds present in these raw materials and the study of their biological properties can promote health and help to prevent some chronic diseases. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (prickly pear) is a plant that grows wild in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world, being a food source for ones and a potential for others, but not properly valued. This paper carries out an exhaustive review of the scientific literature on the nutritional composition and bioactive compounds of prickly pear and its constituents, as well as its main biological activities and applications. It is a good source of dietary fiber, vitamins and bioactive compounds. Many of its natural compounds have interesting biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and antimicrobial. The antioxidant power of prickly pear makes it a good candidate as an ingredient of new food products with fascinating properties for health promotion and/or to be used as natural extracts for food, pharmaceutic or cosmetic applications. In addition, it could be a key player in food security in many arid and semi-arid regions of the world, where there are often no more plants.
... Linoleic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds and pulp of the prickly pear oil, followed by palmitic and oleic acids [6]. According to Ennouri et al. [75], the primary fatty acids found in prickly pear seed oil are C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C18:2. The unsaturated fatty acids concentration was 88.5% and 88.0% for Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia stricta, respectively, with an outstanding level of linoleic acid, up to 70%. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prickly pear plant is widely cultivated in arid and semi-arid climates. Its fruits are rich in polyphenols, proteins, vitamin C, minerals, fatty acids, and amino acids. The oil extracted from the seeds also has a significant proportion of linoleic acid (ω6) and might be employed as a therapeutic raw material. The potential of enhancing fruit yield, increasing bioactive compounds of the fruit pulp, and improving the unsaturated fatty acid content of prickly pear oilseed by using the foliar application of brassinolide as a plant growth regulator was the main goal of this study. Prickly pear plants were foliar sprayed with a brassinolide solution at concentrations of 0, 1, 3, and 5 mg L−1 . The plant performance was significantly improved following brassinolide applications, as compared with untreated plants. The plants subjected to 5 mg L−1 application exhibited 183 and 188% stimulation in the fruit yield, and 167 and 172% in the seed yield for the first and second seasons, respectively. The highest concentration of phenolic, flavonoid, protein, vitamin C, and maximum antioxidant activity in the fruit pulp was observed following 5 mg L−1 brassinolide treatment. The oil yield has been increased by 366 and 353% following brassinolide at a 5 mg L−1 level over control plants. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids are the major components in prickly pear seed oil. Brassinolide foliar spraying induced an alternation in the fatty acid profile, as linoleic and oleic acids exhibited 5 and 4% higher following 5 mg L−1 application as compared with untreated plants. In conclusion, the treatment of 5 mg L−1 brassinolide improved the growth and quality of prickly pear plants by boosting fruit and seed yields, increasing active component content in the fruit pulp, improving mineral content, and increasing oil production and linoleic acid proportion.
... They also contribute to improve various health conditions related to obesity, diabetes mellitus, and even some types of cancer [210,211]. After consumption, linoleic acid, or ω-6 fatty acid, is converted into ----- [203,208] precursors of eicosanoids, essentials for vascularization, and for blood coagulation. In addition, beneficial properties for skin were described [212,213]. ...
... Foto: Carmen Saenz.O óleo de semente da palma é comestível; poderia ser outro produto nutritivo e funcional de potencial interesse para a indústria alimentícia, mas talvez não para consumo direto. O óleo é usualmente extraído em pesquisas utilizando solvente orgânico (4,4−14,10%) (SAWAYA;KHAN, 1982; SEPÚLVEDA; SÁENZ, 1988;ENNOURI et ...
... 3,4 During the last decade, consumer demand for food with high nutritional value has increased as a result of their high-fat (fatty acids) content, as well as health benefits, which have created a new category known as ʺfunctional foodsʺ. 5,6 Cactus is rich in minerals with inorganic nutrients including calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, copper, and zinc usually required in small amounts (1 to 2500 mg per day). Humans and other vertebrates need large amounts of calcium because it is necessary for bone and for normal function of nerves and muscles. ...
... β-sitosterol has been reported to be the most important sterol isolated from fruit oil and pulp, peel, and seeds of O. ficus-indica, with contents varying from 6.75 to 21.1 g/kg [190,203]. Campesterol was extracted from fruits, peels, and seeds with ----- [203,208] amounts ranging from 1.66 to 8.76 g/kg. Small amounts of other phytosterols such as lanosterol, stigmasterol, Δ 5 -Avenasterol, Δ 7 -Avenasterol, and ergosterol were also reported (Table 4). ...
... This fact may have favored pitaya seeds because they contain a signifi cant amount of protein when compared to other species. While seeds of Opuntia sp., which belongs to the same family as pitayas, have 50 g of protein per kilogram of seeds (ENNOURI et al., 2005), pitaya seeds contain around 206 g of protein per kilogram of seeds (VILLALOBOS-GUTIÉRREZ et al., 2012). Among the pre-germination treatments tested, gibberellic acid was the one that stood out with respect to the increase of free amino acids, with a result similar to that found in seeds under -0.4 MPa stress (T2) for both species. ...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus and H. costaricensis) is found in the group of exotic fruits and its cultivation in Brazil is expanding, especially in the semi-arid region of the Northeast. In this region, the problems of water quantity and quality usually cause environmental stresses which limit the survival of plants, especially during germination and seedling establishment. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the mitigating action of pre-germination treatments in pitaya seeds under salt stress. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, in a 2 × 6 factorial scheme, corresponding to two species of pitaya (H. undatus and H. costaricensis) and six pre-germination treatments (T1 = 0.0 MPa (control); T2 = salt stress (-0.4 MPa); T3 = hydropriming + salt stress; T4 = gibberellic acid + salt stress; T5 = salicylic acid + salt stress; T6 = thiamethoxam + salt stress). After 20 days of sowing, germination, germination speed index, shoot length, primary root length, total dry mass, total soluble sugars and total free amino acids were analyzed. H. costaricensis was more tolerant to salinity than H. undatus. Salicylic acid stimulated the germination and growth of H. undatus, besides increasing the soluble sugar content in H. costaricensis. Seed hydropriming attenuated salt stress during germination of H. undatus and favored dry mass gain. Gibberellic acid stimulated the germination of H. undatus and the growth of H. undatus and H. costaricensis seedlings, in addition to increasing the levels of soluble sugars in H. undatus.
... Cactus fruit contains important amounts of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, carotenoids, phenols, flavonoids, betaxanthin, betacyanin, and amino acids [42,43], while, in its flowers, many flavonoids are present, such as kaempferol and quercetin [44]. Cactus peel and seeds are rich in palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid [45]. The cactus cladodes contain vitamins, various flavonoids, particularly quercetin 3-methyl ether, narcissin, gallic acid, and coumaric acid [46][47][48]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) belonging to the Cactacea family has many nutritional benefits attributed to a wide variety of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Coumaric acid (COA), ferulic acid (FLA), protocatechuic acid (PRA), and gallic acid (GAA) are the phenolic acids (PhAs) present in nopal. In this study, the role of these PhAs in copper-induced oxidative stress was investigated using the density functional theory (DFT). The PhAs form 5 thermodynamically favorable complexes with Cu(II), their conditional Gibbs free energies of reaction (ΔG’, at pH = 7.4, in kcal/mol) are from −23 kcal/mol to −18 kcal/mol. All of them are bi-dentate complexes. The complexes of PRA and GAA are capable of inhibiting the Cu(II) reduction by both O2•− and Asc−, their reactions with the chelated metal are endergonic having rate constants about ~10−5–102 M−1 s−1, PhAs can prevent the formation of hydroxyl free radicals by chelating the copper ions. Once the hydroxyl radicals are formed by Fenton reactions, the complexes of PhAs with Cu(II) can immediately react with them, thus inhibiting the damage that they can cause to molecules of biological interest. The reactions between PhAs-Cu(II) complexes and hydroxyl free radical were estimated to be diffusion-limited (~108 M−1s−1). Thus, these chelates can reduce the harmful effects caused by the most reactive free radical existent immediately after it is formed by Fenton reactions.
... Moreover, according to Ennouri et al. (2005Ennouri et al. ( , 2006, the rate of linoleic acid overtakes 70% in OFI seed oil of Sfax (Tunisia). Other parameters related to nutritional aspects are the unsaturated/saturated ratio; in fact, OFI oil has an average value of 3.13 due to its high linoleic acid content. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study focuses on the effect of temperature and extraction methods on the yields, chemical quality, fatty acids, and tocopherols of the oil extracted from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica, collected in the eastern region of Morocco. Our results revealed the effect of temperature that when we increase the temperature used, the yields also increase; the results also showed that this high temperature does not affect the physicochemical properties, fatty acids, and tocopherols. Thus, the results of this study revealed that the prickly pear is a rich source of oil; the obtained oil yields varied from 12.49%±0.09 for mechanical extraction, 11.46±0.10 for chemical extraction, and 10.52%±0.09 for maceration. The main fatty acids founded in Opuntia ficus-indica are linoleic acid 75.80%±0.10 (chemical), 74.07%±0.14 (maceration), and 71.59%±0.14 (mechanical) and palmitic acid 17.32%±0.02 (chemical), 22.419%±0.06 (maceration), and 26.58%±0.00 (mechanical); prickly pear oil could be classified as a linoleic acid. The physicochemical properties of Opuntia ficus-indica seed oils such as acid index mgKOH/g oil (4,376±0.10, 5.854±0.03, 5.667±0.07), saponification value mgKOH/g oil (181.12 ±0.18, 183.77±1.23, 179.08±3.45), and peroxide value 20milieq/Kg (5.75±0.08, 6±0.06, 5.97±0.04) for mechanical, chemical, and maceration extraction, respectively, density, and refractive index were all found to be in good accordance with quality criteria for both pure and fresh oils. Among the tocopherols found, a high value of γ-tocopherol was detected in mechanical extraction with 502.04±0.76 mg/kg, followed by chemical extraction and maceration with 430.12±0.61mg/kg and 315.47±0.96 mg/kg, respectively. Graphical abstract
... There was a decreasing trend in the emulsion stabilities of the samples during the storage time, but the trend was much more obvious in the samples containing 75% and 100% olive oil (75OO and 100OO, respectively). This decreasing trend could be due to the sensitivity of saturated fatty acids to shear stress, so their crystalline structure can be damaged more easily [32]. ...
Article
Full-text available
French sauce from different blends of soybean and olive oils was prepared and the oxidative stability of the optimum sauce sample, enriched with various amounts of olive leaf polyphenolic extract (OLE) (obtained via ultrasound-assisted extraction), was investigated over 90 days of storage. The microbiological and sensory properties of the samples containing the optimum amounts of OLE, as a substitution for synthetic preservatives, were studied. According to the results, the addition of olive oil at higher levels (75% and 100%) could affect the physicochemical properties of the sauce as compared to the control sample. It was also found that the addition of olive oil (up to 50%) would not significantly impact the sauce properties. Regarding the OLE enrichment in the samples, it was found that high levels of OLE could improve the oxidative stability of the samples. It was also found that OLE could be used as a preservative instead of commercial ones. Overall, this study suggests the potential use of olive oil and olive leaf extract in the preparation of French sauce to boost its nutritional value and its stability.
... Opuntia dillenii, one of the species of genus Opuntia, is also commonly known as tuna, malrachette, prickly pear and pear bush. Oputia ficus indica and Opuntia dillenii display anti-inflammatory, cholesterol and sugar lowering and analgesic activities (Galati et al., 2003;Park et al., 2001;Perfumi and Tacconi, 1996;Ennouri et al., 2005). (Bruneton, 1995). ...
Article
Full-text available
Keeping in view the numerous useful pharmacological activities of Opuntia plants, we explored in detail the secondary metabolites and metals in different parts, fatty acids composition of seed oil and a detailed anti-inflammatory study of the cladodes along with acute toxicity studies of Opuntia dillenii collected from Pakistan. Carbohydrates, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols were present in both the cladodes and fruit part. Terpenes and sterols were found in the cladode part while alkaloids were only present in the fruit part. Highest quantity of sodium was found in the same quantity (394.00 ppm) cladodes and fruit while potassium was abundantly present in the fruit part (15430.00 ppm). Calcium was present in a very high quantity in the cladodes (11820.00 ppm) and fruit (16419.40 ppm). Linoleic acid, a potent cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, was with highest concentration (59.153 %) among fatty acids. The crude extract displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity (50.88 %) at 300 mg/kg body weight dose after 3h dose injection. Acute toxicity tests confirmed the safety of crude extract to a dose level of up to 1000 mg/kg body weight. The present study provides a base to the natural product chemists to carry out further studies on the isolation of the secondary metabolites from Opuntia dillenii and explore the bio-efficacies of the individual compounds.
Article
The peels of prickly pears represent around half of the fruit and are generally discarded, thus becoming an environmental problem. Due to the high content of bioactive compounds, prickly pear peels could be used as a nutraceutical and functional ingredient in some food preparations, such as bakery products. This study was aimed at assessing the aptitude of prickly pear peel flour to be mixed (10 g, 20 g, and 30 g/100 g) with wheat flour for biscuits preparation through the analysis of the physical and chemical properties of doughs and biscuits and through sensory evaluation. The composition of prickly pear flour showed a significantly higher concentration of fibre (20.70 g/100 g d.w.), ash (14.57 g/100 g d.w.), and phenolic compounds (2776 mg/100 g d.w.) compared to the control wheat flour, thus improving technological properties such as the aptitude to kneading, the flavour retention, and the antioxidant capacity. The acceptance sensory test showed that biscuits prepared with 20 g/100 g and 30 g/100 g of prickly pear flour were more appreciated for smell, taste, colour, and overall acceptability.
Article
Cactus (Opuntia ficus‐indica L.) seed oil, which is extracted from prickly pear fruit seeds, might constitute an alimentary source of substances of nutraceutical value. Physicochemical properties, chemical composition, antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of prickly pear seed oil prepared from unroasted seeds were evaluated and compared with those of oil that was prepared from seeds roasted for different times. Prolonged roasting time had no significant influence on the protein content of the seeds. However, an increase in total phenolic compounds was observed from 225.9 mg GAE/100 g oil to 362.7 mg GAE/100 g oil after 40 min of roasting at 110°C. Consequently, an increase in antioxidant power which will induce a better resistance to oxidation was found by the DPPH method expressed as EC50 value that was reduced from 0.6 mg/mL to 0.1 mg/mL. No significant change was observed in triacylglyceride and fatty acid composition whereas tocopherol (512.8 mg/kg to 542.1 mg/kg after 40 min of roasting) and sterol (8292 mg/kg to 8629 mg/kg after 40 min of roasting) levels increased. Oxidative stability increased remarkably from 3.1 h to 7.6 h after 40 min of roasting with the increase in roasting time. The current study revealed that prickly pear seeds and the resulting oil have excellent nutritional qualities that were significantly elevated after roasting.
Chapter
Several species of Non-Conventional Food Plants are still under-exploited and can be an alternative source of food and income, especially in family agriculture. Currently, vegetables of this category are not commercially produced. These plants can be included in diversification of agricultural production mainly by low-income groups, since they present reduced hydric and agricultural inputs requirements, contributing to generation of healthier foods. In recent years, cacti of genus Pereskia have attracted increasing interest from food and pharmaceutical industries, mainly due to their high protein content with high digestibility, mucilage type fibers, and calcium and iron minerals. The Cactaceae family is composed by three subfamilies: Cereoideae, Opuntioideae and Pereskioideae, latter being considered less evolved. Ora-pro-nobis, the popular name of Pereskia aculeata Miller and Pereskia grandifolia Haword species, is consumed by rural and urban populations, mainly in the mining regions of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and contribute to complement feeding and family economy. These cacti have been used since ancient times by indigenous peoples, and are currently being employed as antibiotics, analgesics and diuretics, in combating diarrhea, burns treatment, ulcers healing, and in the control of cardiac and nervous pathologies. In addition, in the last decades have been studied the effect of several compounds of these plants in the prevention and/or treatment of obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemias, osteoporosis and iron-deficiency anemia. In this chapter will be approached the general characteristics of these plants, their metabolic effects already studied, highlighting the importance of their consumption for improve nutritional status and income of economically disadvantaged people, in urban and rural environment of different regions in Brazil and the world; especially in those areas where climate and soil are more favorable to cultivation of these cacti known as non-conventional vegetables.
Article
The species of Opuntia genus are among the main Cactaceae consumed in semi-arid regions of the world and recently they are often used in the formulation of different new foods. Cladodes and fruits are notable for their contents of mucilage and healthy water-soluble compounds besides some essential fatty acids and terpenoids. The carbohydrate polymers, polyphenols and betalains of Opuntia have shown beneficial effects against metabolic disorders along with anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. The Opuntia mucilages are generating new nutritionally healthier ingredients with good technological characteristics. This review shows that the genetic, environment and physiological stages of the fruits and cladodes can widely influence the Opuntia phytochemical complexity, also reflecting on their benefits for human health and technological characteristics. Important phytochemicals have been shown to be specific for some Opuntia, while other compounds can be widely found in different glycosylated or esterified forms. Carbohydrate, ash, and polyphenol contents can be influenced by both environment and ripening stage. In addition, extraction conditions need to be better standardized for mucilages and flavonols while other compounds, such as alkaloids, deserve to be studied by more sensitive and specific analytical techniques, with the aim to increase the knowledge of the Opuntia chemical complexity and related biological and technological properties.
Chapter
Flowers of Cactaceae have a peculiar structure. As in all Angiosperms, their flowers are modified shoots, but in this family the shoot is more complex: it is externally covered by stem tissue. The cactus flowers show a wide variety of forms, sizes and structural characters related to the evolutionary history of their lineages. This richness in morphology provides a wide spectrum of pollination syndromes and, therefore, flowers are important food resources for bats, bees, birds, and other fauna components, providing pollen and nectar. These ecological interactions highlight the importance of conservation of cacti for ecosystems maintenance.
Chapter
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill, commonly called prickly pear or nopal cactus, belongs to the Cactaceae family. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant, known, since the dawn of time, for its ability to thrive under environments recognized as stressful for most plant species. Opuntia ficus-indica has been used for a long time as diet, fodder, and beverage for both humans and animals, as well as to prevent soil erosion and to combat desertification. Opuntia ficus-indica has traditionally marked the folk medicine, owing to its therapeutic properties to a plethora of bioactive molecules, involving organic acids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, betalains, carotenoids, vitamins, biothiols, taurine, saponins, fatty acids, and phytosterols. The content of these bioactive molecules varies within cladodes, fruits or prickly pears, peels, seeds, and flowers. Whereas pears were commonly considered as noble fruits, peels have been arisen in the last decades as a promising by-product for both animals and humans health and nutrition. Nowadays, there is compelling evidence that Opuntia cacti are functional foods, source of nutrients, and bioactive molecules endowed with high antioxidant potential, and a large specter of biological, medicinal, and pharmacological applications. Indeed, Opuntia ficus-indica is highlighted as an excellent source of natural pigments, having promising applications in food industry and cosmetic. The present chapter aims to stressing the major classes of bioactive phytochemicals from Opuntia ficus-indica, with a deep understanding of the basis of their antioxidant activities, as well as an overview of their biological and medicinal properties.
Article
Screw pressed prickly pear seed cakes from four Tunisian varieties were analyzed for their chemical and some functional and antioxidant properties, along with the physico-chemical characteristics of the extracted oils. This extraction yielded 40.14 to 62.95% of oil. Fatty acid (FA) composition revealed domination of linoleic and oleic acids and high content of polyunsaturated FA (∼69-74 %) with presence of ɣ-linolenic, docosadienoic and eicosapentanoic acids. Characterization of the cake seeds showed high amounts of total dietary fibers (82.41-83.54 %), important polyphenol content (∼113-180.81 mg GAE/100g DM) and scavenging activity (IC50: 450-763 μg/mL), good oil holding capacity (4.31g/g for Opuntia Stricta variety), and light beige colors. Amino-acid composition revealed that major components were Glutamic acid, Arginine and Aspartic acid. The data indicate that cold pressed Opuntia seeds could be a source of fiber concentrates which could be used as functional ingredients in the food industry, as well as good quality oils.
Chapter
Opuntia cacti, which have been known since the fifthteent century, are commonly found in America and the Mediterranean. This genus is best known to man because of its economical importance and its capacity to flourish in poor soils and arid places. The most widely studied plants are Opuntia ficus-indica called prickly pear or Indian fig. The colorants present in Opuntia plants are normally found in the flowers and fruit, these colorants are betalains (also found in beet root, amaranth, and all cacti), which are divided in two groups: betacyanins that have red or purple color, or betaxanthins with yellow or orange color. The main betalains in prickly pear are betanin and indicaxanthin, and in less quantity, vulgaxanthin, miraxanthin, portulaxanthin, and neobetanin can be present. Besides betalains, prickly pear contains vitamins and phenolics. All these compounds have characteristics such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticarcinogenic. Although prickly pear is consumed fresh, there are some products based on its juice such as wine and candies. Since only juices is used, seeds and peel are considered as wastes. In this work, the content of betalains, phenolics and antioxidant activity (DPPH ans TEAC) were evaluated in four varieties of prickly pear seeds and peel (Amarilla Montesa, Blanca Cristalina, Roja Lisa, and Esmeralda). Betacyanins were more abundant in reddish prickly pear seeds and peels, while betaxhantins in green and yellow varieties. Phenolics in peels were higher in red and yellow varieties. Phenolics contents in seeds averaged 344, 170 and 45 mg/100 g for Total phenolics, Tannins and Flavonoids, respectively.
Chapter
Cactus pear seed oil is a novel and essential oil. Progressive expansion on the extraction and refining of cactus pear seed oil has been made in recent years. This was and is done to expand the market and use of cactus pear seeds in countries producing Opuntia spp. cactus. The seed oil is an excellent source of bio-active substances such as essential fatty acids, sterols, phenolics, tocopherols and carotenoids. It is predicted that non-traditional cold-pressed oils’ use in the cosmetic and nutraceutical market will increase, and as a result, advanced extraction methods need to be explored. Conventional extraction methods generally use heat, maceration, agitation and long extraction times, e.g. solvent extraction, while microwave, supercritical fluids, e.g. CO2, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction as well as hydro-distillation are unconventional methods. These methods all exert a physical effect on the sample. This chapter will report on the effect of extraction methods on oil yield, fatty acid composition and nutraceutical properties of seed oil from various Opuntia spp.
Chapter
synonyms: Kaktusfeigenöl (D); prickly pear seed oil (E)
Article
Cactus seed oil is gaining considerable popularity in the cosmetic industry. To estimate cactus seed oil’ industrial as well as domestic ease of use, we investigated the oxidative stability of Moroccan cactus seed oil under accelerated aging conditions. In addition, we compared cactus seed oil stability to that of argan oil, a popular and well-established cosmetic oil, under the same conditions. Cactus seed oil is much more sensitive to oxidation than argan oil. Its shelf-life can be estimated to be no longer than 6 months at room temperature. Such instability means that the preparation process for cactus oil must be carried out with great care and cactus seed oil needs to be protected once extracted.
Chapter
Diabetes is a chronic disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, the search for appropriate hypoglycemic agents has been focused on traditional medicine plants, partly because natural products may be better treatments than currently used drugs. Many plants were reported to be useful for the treatment of diabetes. The pharmacological agents currently used to treat type 2 diabetes produce serious side effects and fail to alter the course of diabetic complications and are not safe for use during pregnancy. The prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) is a member of the Cactaceae family and is widely distributed in Mexico, Latin America, South Africa, and Mediterranean area. It has been used in traditional folk medicine because of its role in treating several diseases and conditions. The shrub (Opuntia ficus indica L.) has an antihyperglycemic effect. From a nutritional point of view, the plant plays a double role, medicinal and food, within the framework of the prevention of diabetes in the poor and underdeveloped countries. Its chronic prescription for people with diabetes could prevent long-term complications of this disease. The advantage of natural preparation is based not only on the ability to control hyperglycemia, but also its chronic use without undesirable effects. Recently the researchers are interested more and more in the therapeutic effects of prickly pear. Analysis of prickly pear seeds’ showed a significant amount of polysaccharides, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. The structure of glucuronoxylans identified in prickly pear seeds oil has exhibited antidiabetic effects. The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate the effects of Opuntia spp. as a natural hypoglycemic agent for the treatment of diabetes.
Chapter
Plant extracts are essential substances and explored for their natural active ingredients, which have different properties including nutritional, antioxidant and healing. Opuntia spp. are primarily grown as a fruit crop that generates huge amounts of seeds from which oils can be extracted. The seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, phenolics, and vitamins and included in the human diet to contribute to health. It has also been used in traditional folk medicine because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. It can also potentially be used by the food industry to manufacture natural or green safe food with an extended shelf-life. O. ficus-indica oil was found to be effective in cutaneous wound healing, while the antimicrobial effect prevented infections. The oil is a valued cosmetic ingredient because of its skin and hair hydration action. Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid and a precursor of arachidonic acid biosynthesis, which is the substrate for eicosanoid synthesis. Linoleic acid has beneficial properties for the skin and also has hypocholesterolemic effects. Polyunsaturated fatty acids alleviate symptoms of coronary heart disease, stroke and rheumatoid arthritis. Sterols lower blood LDL cholesterol. This chapter reports extensively on the composition of Opuntia seed oils from different species and its food and non-food applications.
Article
Full-text available
Synthetic drugs are potentially toxic and are not free from side effects on the host. Therefore an attempt has been made to study the antimicrobial activity of plants. As plants and plant-based drugs are less toxic and have acceptable side effects, hence in the present study the crude extracts of fruits of Prickly pear were selected to study antimicrobial activity. In the present work the ethanolic fruit extract was extracted by using soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical screening was carried out qualitatively by color reactions with different reagents. The Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Glycosides, Terpenoids, Tannins, Saponins, Cardiac glycosides and Carbohydrates. The antimicrobial activity of this fruit extract was determined by applying Agar Disc diffusion method. Ethanol extract of Prickly pear showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus microorganisms tested in 40 mg/ml concentration. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was Determined. MIC values about Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus were 20, 40, and 40 mg/ml respectively. This study can be basis for the further research to find out more detail information regarding the relationship between antimicrobial activity and other quantitative phytochemical content which may help to highlight the chemicals which are responsible for this activity.
Preprint
Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia-ficus indica are used in several fields, this study made it possible to highlight the determination of the oil quality from the fruits of Pistacia lentiscus and that of the seeds oil of Opuntia-ficus indica , and this, by determining its physicochemical parameters such as acid value, saponification and insaponification value, iodine index, peroxyd value, as well as refraction index, humidity and their biochemical compositions, in particular the fatty acids (by CPG) from the samples of oils collected from the region of Khemis Miliana (Ain defla) and extracted by a mechanical method. The results show a quantitative difference between the oily samples in percentage of fatty acids. The contents of Oleic Acid, Linoleic Acid and Palmitic Acid are highest in the case of lentisk oil and are respectively 58.35%, 19.65%, 19.63%. However, the content of Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid, Palmitic Acid and Stearic Acid are highest in the case of prickly pear and are respectively 63.74%, 21.30%, 10.17%, 3.58%.
Chapter
Full-text available
The Opuntia, commonly known as cactus pear or prickly pear, belongs to the Cactaceae family and is widely distributed either as indigenous, alien, wild, or domesticated species in various countries across the world. Seeds are usually removed as waste products from the fruit pulp and can constitute important new oil source. The Opuntia seed oil, commonly called prickly pear seed oil, has been extracted using maceration-percolation, Soxhlet, cold pressing, supercritical carbon dioxide, and ultrasound extraction, for which yields of 1–20% have been reported. Opuntia ficus-indica is the most common Opuntia species for which the physicochemical characteristics, the composition of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols have been reported. The main fatty acids of prickly pear seed oil are palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. Environmental conditions and maturation stages of prickly pear have effects on the properties of the oil. High levels of sterols are present, with β-sitosterol as the dominant sterol. The dominant tocopherol is γ-tocopherol. The oil exhibited a high in vitro antioxidant potential, and with its reported phenolic content, it has various health and cosmetics applications.
Article
Physical and chemical properties of Opuntia stricta seed oil were investigated. Compositions of FAs, TAGs, sterols, triterpenols and tocopherols were established. The compliance of methyl ethers and FA indicators with ASTM, EN, and IS standards for biodiesel was proved.
Article
Full-text available
Some quality parameters were evaluated in Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil samples obtained from fruit wastes harvested in S.Cono (Catania- Italy). The seeds (12-16% of the fruit peel) were submitted to hexane extraction, obtaining 8-9% oil, on seed dry weight. The tests carried out on this oil gave the following results: fatty acids content (as oleic acid): 2.5%, iodine number: Wijs (105.5), peroxide number (10meq O2/Kg), UV absorption: K232 = 3.15; K268 = 0.22; δK= + 0.01, all in agreement with the characteristics of other common vegetable oils. The acidic fraction revealed an high degree of unsaturation (82.3 %) with monounsatured and polyunsatured contents of 21.0 % and 61.3 %, respectively. The sterolic fraction was composed mainly of β-sitosterol (61.4%), campesterol (16.5 %), stigmasterol (4.2 %) and other more unsatured sterols (6.2 %). Alcanolic fraction contained mainly hexacosanol (73.7%), along with low quantities of docosanol (10.7%) and octacosanol (8.1%) and smaller amounts of other components. Among triterpenic alcohols, the most abundant component was found to be 24-methylcycloarthenol (34.2%), followed by cycloarthenol (29.3%), and β-amyrin (2.2%). Based on these results, Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil appears to be a good potential source of alimentary oil.
Article
Full-text available
Prickly pear fruit seeds were subjected to a range of chemical analyses during their 15 week maturation period. Seeds contained on average 71.5 g kg−1 dry matter, 61.9 g kg−1 crude oil, 9.4 g kg−1 protein, 507.4 g kg−1 crude fibre, 12.3 g kg−1 ash and 409.0 g kg−1 carbohydrate. The fatty acid composition of prickly pear seed oil consisted of 1.3–1.9 g kg−1 myristic (14:0), 132.1–156.0 g kg−1 palmitic (16:0), 14.4–18.5 g kg−1 palmitoleic (16:1), 33.1–47.9 g kg−1 stearic (18:0), 210.5–256.0 g kg−1 oleic (18:1), 522.5–577.6 g kg−1 linoleic (18:2), 2.9–9.7 g kg−1 linolenic (18:3), 4.2–6.6 g kg−1 arachidic (20:0) and 2.1–3.0 g kg−1 behenic (22:0) acids, which is comparable with that of corn oil. No statistical difference in seed weight ratio was determined during the maturation period, whereas changes in the saturated fatty acids of the seed oil were observed. From this study it can be concluded that the seeds of prickly pear are suitable as animal feed. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Full-text available
The thermal profiles of 17 edible oil samples from different plant origins were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two other confirmatory analytical techniques, namely gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were used to determine fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions. The FA and TAG compositions were used to complement the DSC data. Iodine value (IV) analysis was carried out to measure the degree of unsaturation in these oil samples. The DSC melting and crystallization curves of the oil samples are reported. The contrasting DSC thermal curves provide a way of distinguishing among these oil samples. Generally, the oil samples with a high degree of saturation (IV<65) showed DSC melting and crystallization profiles at higher temperature regions than the oil samples with high degree of unsaturation (IV>65). Each thermal curve was used to determine three DSC parameters, namely, onset temperature (T o ), offset temperature (T f ) and temperature range (difference between T o and T f ). Reproducibility of DSC curves was evaluated based on these parameters. Satisfactory reproducibility was achieved for quantitation of these DSC parameters. The results show that T o of the crystallization curve and T f of the melting curve differed significantly (P<0.01) in all oil samples. Our observations strengthen the premise that DSC is an efficient and accurate method for characterizing edible oils.
Article
Full-text available
The rheological properties of aqueous solutions of the mucilage isolated from Opuntia ficus indica have been examined. Steady-shear viscosities in a range of shear rate from 1 to 300 s−1 were observed as a function of mucilage concentration, temperature, pH and ionic strength. A non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior was observed. A quite important increase in pseudoplasticity (or shear thinning) due to increase in the mucilage concentration, in the range from 1 to 10% (w/w) was showed. In the range of shear rates examined, viscosity values of a mucilage solution at 10% are similar to those shown by a xanthan 3% aqueous solution, both at 25°C. The Ostwald–de Waele or power law model successfully correlated the viscosity–shear rate data. The viscosity was dependent on ionic strength, as in the case of polyelectrolytes, and decreased with ionic strength. This behavior was more pronounced when using divalent cations. A marked dependence of viscosity on pH was also observed, as pH was increased from acidic to alkaline conditions, the viscosity increased.
Article
Full-text available
Seeds and pulp of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) were compared in terms of fatty acids, lipid classes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins and β-carotene. Total lipids (TL) in lyophilised seeds and pulp were 98.8 (dry weight) and 8.70 g/kg, respectively. High amounts of neutral lipids were found (87.0% of TL) in seed oil, while glycolipids and phospholipids occurred at high levels in pulp oil (52.9% of TL). In both oils, linoleic acid was the dominating fatty acid, followed by palmitic and oleic acids, respectively. Trienes, γ- and α-linolenic acids, were estimated in higher amounts in pulp oil, while α-linolenic acid was only detected at low levels in seed oil. Neutral lipids were characterised by higher unsaturation ratios, while saturates were higher levels in polar lipids. The sterol marker, β-sitosterol, accounted for 72% and 49% of the total sterol content in seed and pulp oils, respectively. Vitamin E level was higher in the pulp oil than in the seed oil, whereas γ-tocopherol was the predominant component in seed oil and δ-tocopherol was the main constituent in pulp oil. β-Carotene was also higher in pulp oil than in seed oil. Oils under investigation resembled each other in the level of vitamin K1 (0.05% of TL). Information provided by the present work is of importance for further chemical investigation of cactus pear oil and industrial utilisation of the fruit as a raw material of oils and functional foods.
Article
Full-text available
Studies were conducted on properties of oil extracted from raspberry seeds. Oil yield from the seed was 10.7%. Physicochemical properties of the oil include: saponification number 191; diene value 0.837; p-anisidine value 14.3; peroxide value 8.25 meq/kg; carotenoid content 23 mg/100 g; and viscosity of 26 mPa.s at 25°C. Raspberry seed oil showed absorbance in the UV-B and UV-C ranges with potential for use as a broad spectrum UV protectant. The seed oil was rich in tocopherols with the following composition (mg/100 g): [alpha]-tocopherol 71; [gamma]-tocopherol 272; [delta]-tocopherol 17.4; and total vitamin E equivalent of 97. The oil had good oxidation resistance and storage stability. Lipid fractionation of crude raspberry seed oil yielded 93.7% neutral lipids, 3.5% phospholipids, and 2.7% free fatty acids. The main fatty acids of crude oil were C18:2 n-6 (54.5%), C18:3 n-3 (29.1%), C18:1 n-9 (12.0%), and C16:0 (2.7%). The ratio of fatty acids, polyunsaturates to monounsaturates to saturates varied depending on lipid fraction. Polymorphic changes were observed in thermal properties of raspberry seed oil.
Article
Full-text available
We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae). This protein has a molecular mass of 6.5 kDa and was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of this protein was determined and it was shown to have similarities with the amino acid composition of several proteins from the 2S albumin storage protein family. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein is Asp-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Glu-Gln-Arg.
Article
The mucilage extracted from the cladodes (modified stems) of Opuntia ficus-indica contains residues of d-galactose, d-xylose, l-arabinose, l-rhamnose, and d-galacturonic acid. Seasonal variation in the sugar composition of the mucilage has been investigated. Fractionation studies indicate that the mucilage is essentially homogeneous. The rate of release of the constituent sugars and the change in optical rotation on mild hydrolysis coupled with the results of chromic acid oxidation suggest that the mucilage contains α-arabinofuranosyl, β-xylopyranosyl, β-rhamnopyranosyl, β-galactopyranosyl, and α-galactopyranosyluronic acid residues. The results also suggest a core containing galacturonic acid, rhamnose, and galactose, to which xylose and arabinose are attached in peripheral positions.
Article
The purified mucilage from Opuntia ficus-indica is a high MW polysaccharide which behaves as a polyelectrolyte. Viscosity of its solution is dependent on the Ca2+ ion concentration and on pH, being greatest at alkaline pH. The sedimentation coefficient was dependent on concentration. The molecule had an estimated axial ratio of 256 in water, and this was reduced at low pH and in the presence of high concentrations of Ca2+. The molecule was studied with light scattering and CD techniques and its UV spectrum was recorded. All these parameters were influenced by pH and by ion concentration. The gelation properties also changed with pH and with Ca2+ giving dense gels in its presence and loose ones in its absence. The results are interpreted in terms of changes in conformation of the molecule, changes in Ca2+ binding and degree of ionization of the molecule. An attempt is made to relate the molecular properties to the physiological function of the mucilage in the calcium and water economy of the plant.
Article
The water soluble fraction of peeled prickly pear nopals called native sample (NS) has been characterised mainly by SEC/MALLS analysis. Two main components have been identified: one with high average molar mass (Mw of 13×106gmol−1) called the high weight sample (HWS), the other being a low Mw fraction (LWS). After extensive ultra filtration of NS, isolated HWS and LWS are obtained. From sugar composition analysis, HWS has been found to be a pure polysaccharide, without protein of the pectin family. Moreover, HWS contains a low amount of charged sugar. The conformation of HWS has been discussed using molar masses, gyration radii and viscometry results and LWS has been evidenced as a protein. Rheological behaviour is reported to give an initial understanding of the system's behaviour. The effect of the degree and purification and added monovalent and divalent salts were investigated, The low charge density of the polymer backbone resulted in interesting viscosity stability even in the presence of salts.
Article
The rheology of a highly paraffinaceous crude oil has been studied by a rotary viscometer. The influence of the mechanical history of the oil sample on the flow curve form was examined. The system under investigation was found to be pseudoplastic with clearly pronounced thixotropic properties, which are indicated by the hysteresis phenomenon between the data obtained on increasing and decreasing the shear rateγ˙. At least two different parts of the flow curve were observed at low and high shear rates. We assume that two different mechanisms of the energy dissipation referred to these parts of the flow curve >(γ˙). We consider the Casson equation as the most appropriate within the high shear rate region, in spite of the fact that the Herschel-Bulkley equation often fits the experimental data better. The choice of the Casson model is confirmed by the regular changes in the rheological parameters of this equation. Moreover, the agreement of the flow curves with the Casson equation increases with increasing oil structure breakdown.
Article
Volatile components of a commercial variety of prickly pear were concentrated by vacuum codistillation with water, followed by ether extraction of the distillate. The concentrate was examined by large bore capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 61 compounds were identified. Quantitatively, alcohols are the major class of compound represented, although numerous esters and carbonyl compounds are also present at low concentrations. Some of the more interesting compounds found are a group of saturated and unsaturated nine-carbon alcohols.
Article
A total of 16 wild underexploited leguminous crop seeds (belonging to the subdivisions Mimosoideae, Caesalpinoideae, and Papilionoideae) were investigated for their proximate composition and mineral content with the hope of establishing their potential as sources of feed for livestock and their possible industrial uses in Nigeria. Members of the leguminoseae studied were fairly good sources of protein. Mean protein content was 21.83 ± 6.80%. Most members of the subdivision Mimosoideae contained high amounts of protein. These are typified by Acacia senegal (38.89%), Parkia clappertoniana (29.40%), Prosopis africana (25.74%), and Tetraptera tetrapleura (25.47%). Pterocarpus osun (Papilinoideae) contained a crude protein level of 28.08%. Ether extract, crude fiber, and ash levels for these wild species were fairly high. Generally, these leguminous seeds appeared to be good sources of calcium, phosphorus, and potassium. They however contained low levels of sodium. Wide variability existed in both the zinc and manganese contents among the species investigated.
Article
Attempts were made to use prickly pear fruits, Opuntia ficus-indica, which are locally abundant and relatively inexpensive in the manufacturing of jam. Physical characterization of the strained pulp showed a value of 14.2° Brix for total soluble solids (TSS), 14.5% total solids and a pH of 5.75. The acidity of the pulp as citric acid was 0.18%. Proximate analysis revealed low amounts of protein (0.21%) as Nx6.25, crude fat (0.12%), crude fibre (0.02%), ash (0.44%) and pectin (0.19%). All the sugars were present as reducing sugars (12.8%) and consisting mainly of glucose and fructose (60:40). Vitamin analysis showed only trace amount of vitamin A @-carotene) and 22.1 mg% of vitamin C. The pulp was rich in potassium, fair in calcium, magnesium and phosphorus and poor in sodium and iron. Pilot plant studies on the manufacturing of the jam in conjunction with sensory evaluation of the final products showed that blanching in comparison to non-blanching resulted in no significant difference in the sensory quality of the jam. Citric acid and a combination of citric and tartaric acids (1 :l) wcrc preferred over several other natural acids used as acidifying agents. The addition of cloves, grapefruit, orange and almond flavours ranked best among several other flavours added in addition to the pulp containing 20% date paste.
Article
Oil extracted from Opuntia ficus-indica seeds constituted 13.6% of the whole seed. Results of the physical and chemical analyses of the oil for refractive index, iodine number, saponification number, Reichert-Meissl number, Hehner value, acid value and unsaponifiable matter compared well with the characteristics of other commonly consumed vegetable oils. Thin-layer chromatography in conjunction with gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a relatively high degree of unsaturation, 82%, with a linoleic acid content of 73.4% followed by palmitic, 12%, oleic 8.8% and stearic acid, 5.8%. Based on these results, Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil appears to be a good potential source of edible oil for human and/or animal consumption.
Article
Dried sheets (Teen-Edin) from prickly pear (Taifi cultivar) fruits were made and the composition of the pulp and the optimum formulation sheet was analysed. The optimum formulation was obtained by adding to fruit pulp (100%), 10% sucrose, 1.1% citric acid, 0.15% sodium metabisulphite, and 0.5% olive oil (w/w). Sodium metabisulphite improved the colour and citric acid produced a similar acid taste to the traditional apricot sheets. The sheets were highly acceptable to a small panel and have potential for manufacture as a possible alternative to apricot sheets (Kamar-Eddin). The technique could also be used for preservation in many other arid parts of the world where prickly pears grow.
Article
Results are reported on the nutritional quality of prickly pear seeds,Opuntia ficus-indica. The seeds contained 16.6% protein, 17.2% fat, 49.6% fiber and 3.0% ash. The meal showed a high amount of iron (9.45 mg %). The contents of Mg, P, K, Zn and Cu were nutritionally significant contributing approximately 10–20% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) of these elements per 100 g of dry weight. The amount of Ca represented less than 10% of the RDA for that element. Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and glycine were the most abundant amino acids making nearly half of the total amino acids content. The seeds were rich in sulfur amino acids (methionine + cystine). Lysine was the first limiting amino acid resulting in a chemical score of 62 for the protein. The in-vitro protein digestibility and the calculated protein efficiency ratio were 77% and 1.82 compared to 90% and 2.50, respectively, for ANRC casein.
Article
This review discusses cactus pear fruit with special emphasis on its functional components. Besides their nutritional importance, their significance in plant physiology is also described. Opuntia sp. is characterized by high levels of amino acids, especially proline and taurine. The latter was recently re-evaluated in nutritional science as a conditional amino acid and was hitherto virtually unknown in plant tissues. Free amino compounds also take part in osmoregulation and play an important role in betaxanthin biosynthesis. In contrast to red beets, cactus pears offer a great palette of colour hues and therefore may be used as a food colouring free from certification. The mucilages in Opuntia sp. tissue are responsible for water retention and can be used as dietary fibre or food thickening agents. Low in acids, the fruit is suitable for use in dairy products. With readily absorbable sugars, high vitamin C and mineral content, as well as containing polyphenols, amino acids and having a pleasant flavour, cactus pear is tailor-made for functional food preparations.
Article
Complete data for density as a function of temperature have been measured for a number of vegetable oils (crambe, rapeseed, corn, soybean, milkweed, coconut, lesquerella), as well as eight fatty acids in the range C9 to C22 at temperatures from above their melting points to 110°C (230°F). The specific gravity and density measurements were performed according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard test methods D 368, D 891 and D 1298 for hydrometers and a modified ASTM D 369 and D 891 for pycnometers. Correlation constants, based on the experimental data, are presented for calculating the density of fatty acids and vegetable oils in the range of temperature from 24°C (75°F) or the melting point of the substance, to 110°C (230°F). The constants are valuable for designing or evaluating such chemical process equipment as heat exchangers, reactors, process piping and storage tanks. Estimated density of fatty acids by a modified Rackett equation is also presented.
Article
The rheological properties of two complex mixtures of short-chain triglycerides were experimentally determined. Dynamic or absolute viscosities of the mixtures were measured for shear rates of 0.32 to 64.69 s−1 at temperatures between 25 and 80°C. The compositions of the mixtures were based on the oil of the plant species Cuphea viscosissima VS-320, a natural source of short-chain triglycerides. The dynamic viscosities of these mixtures were compared to those of a traditional vegetable oil (peanut oil) and diesel fuel. The results of this comparison were used to make estimates of the performance of such triglyceride mixtures as diesel fuel substitutes, since viscosity can be a key indicator of fuel performance for possible substitute diesel fuels. The crystallization temperatures of these two mixtures were also determined experimentally, and the effects of crystallization on fuel performance were projected. Additionally, the dynamic viscosities of pure triglycerides from C6∶0 to C18∶0 at 75°C were plotted vs. chain length. These viscosities were measured at high shear rates (>6 s−1) where dynamic viscosity is shear-independent. An obvious trend in the relationship between triglyceride chain length and viscosity was observed. A second-order regression was used to obtain an equation for this relationship. This equation was used as a model for composition dependence of viscosity. This model was applied to the viscosities of the triglyceride mixtures examined here. There was good agreement between the model and the actual, measured viscosity values determined in this study.
Article
Because some publishedn-fatty acid densities and molar volumes disagree significantly with others, an attempt was made, based primarily on the principle of homology, to distinguish between reasonably accurate and inaccurate data. Literature densities compatible with each other and with requirements of homology (including limiting densities) were identified. These densities, considered to be at least reasonably accurate, were used as standards and compared with other published densities. Most publishedn-fatty acid densities, judged by these criteria, appear to be reasonably accurate.
Article
Viscosity data have been obtained as a function of temperature for seven fatty acids (pelargonic, capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, and oleic) and four triglycerides (tricaprilin, tripalmitin, tristearin, and triolein) and their binary mixtures at temperatures from above their melting points to 90°C. The viscosity measurements were performed by using Cannon Fenske glass capillary kinematic viscometers. Modified versions of the Andrade equation were used to correlate the kinematic viscosities of pure fatty acids and pure triglycerides. The MacAllister method was used for their binary mixtures. The correlation constants are valuable for designing or evaluating chemical process equipment, such as heat exchangers, reactors, distillation columns, and process piping.
Article
This talk discusses the quantification of microstructure in fat crystal networks by using the relationship of the elastic moduli (G′) to the solid fat content (SFC) via the fractal dimension (D) of the network. Results from application of a scaling theory developed for colloidal gels [W.H. Shih et al., Phys. Rev. A 42 (1990) 4772] to chemically and enzymatically interesterified and non-interesterified butterfat/canola oil mixtures and to cocoa butter and SalatrimTM are presented and discussed. In situ images from confocal laser microscopy and polarized light microscopy of the crystal network of butterfat and butterfat-canola oil blends yielded fractal dimensions of D=1.88 and D=2.02±2% respectively, which are in good agreement. The use of rheological measurements to calculate a fractal dimension of the crystal network of butterfat–canola oil blends yielded D=1.99, in good agreement with D calculated from the confocal laser microscopy and the polarized light microscopy images.
Article
The mucilage isolated from Opuntia is shown to contain arabinose, galactose, galacturonic acid, rhamnose and xylose. It has a uronic acid content of ca 10% and a MW of 4.3 × 106. It equilibrates to 175% of its dry wt at 100% relative humidity. Its possible role in the physiology of the plant is discussed.
Article
An unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph derived from the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus and named UfaM3 was defective in the conversion of stearic to oleic acid. It was cultivated on diluted (25%) prickly-pear juice in batch culture. The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N ratio) of the juice (44% glucose and 56% fructose content) was about 50 g/g. Differential utilization of glucose and fructose was observed. The efficiency of substrate conversion was 0·50 g/g for biomass and 0·21 g/g for lipids. The quality of lipids produced by UfaM3 approached cocoa butter.
Article
The cactus pear has become an important fruit crop in many semi-arid lands of the world. The fruit and the young cladodes (‘nopalitos’) have commonly been consumed fresh, but the last decade's research studies on cactus pear processing have produced another alternative which prevents damage to the fruit and, in spite of technological characteristics that make processing a challenge (high soluble solids content, low acidity and high pH), adds value to this crop. The cladodes of the plant are a good source of fibre, an important element for the human diet and of considerable potential for medical use. The results of several of these research studies involving the production of juices, marmalades, gels, liquid sweeteners, dehydrated foods and other products are discussed.
Article
The proximate composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) was investigated and is reported on a dry weight basis. The most abundant component of the pulp and skin was ethanol-soluble carbohydrates. Pulp contained glucose (35%) and fructose (29%) while the skin contained essentially glucose (21%). Protein content was 5.1% (pulp), 8.3% (skin) and 11.8% (seeds). Starch was found in each of the three parts of the fruit. Pulp fibers were rich in pectin (14.4%), skin and seeds were rich in cellulose (29.1 and 45.1%, respectively). Skin was remarkable for its content of calcium (2.09%) and potassium (3.4%). Prickly pear is a neglected nutritional source which should be more widely used because of its potential nutrient contribution.
Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil ChemistsÕ Society
American Oil Chemists Society (1993). Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil ChemistsÕ Society. Champaign, IL: American Oil ChemistsÕ Society.
Manuel des corps gras
  • A Karlesind
  • J P Wolff
Karlesind, A. & Wolff, J. P. (1992). Manuel des corps gras. AFECG, Lavoisier.
Official methods of analyses
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1984). Official methods of analyses. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1990). Official methods of analyses. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Chemical characterization of prickly pear pulp, Opuntia ficus indica, and the manufacturing of prickly pear jam
  • W N Sawaya
  • H A Khatchadorian
  • W M Safi
  • H M Mohammad
Sawaya, W. N., Khatchadorian, H. A., Safi, W. M., & Al-Mohammad, H. M. (1983). Chemical characterization of prickly pear pulp, Opuntia ficus indica, and the manufacturing of prickly pear jam. Journal of Food Technology, 18, 183-193.