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Anomalous effects in hydrogen-charged palladium — A review


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There are more than 10 groups world wide that have reported the measurement of excess heat in 1/3 of their experiments in open and/or closed electrochemical cells with a Pd solid metal cathode and deuterium containing electrolyte, or D2 gas loading of Pd powders (see Table 1 of the main text). Most of these groups have occasionally experienced significant events lasting for time periods of hours to days with 50–200% excess heat measured as the ratio between electrical input energy and heat output energy. Moreover, these experimenters have improved their methods over time and it is to be noted that the reported excess heat effect has not diminished in frequency or magnitude. This paper cites selected data generated over the past 15 years to briefly summarize what has been reported about the production of excess heat in Pd cathodes charged with deuterium. A set of new materials experiments is suggested that, if performed, may help to reveal the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for the reported excess heat.
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Anomalous effects in hydrogen-charged palladium A review
G.K. Hubler
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, United States
Available online 13 March 2007
There are more than 10 groups world wide that have reported the measurement of excess heat in 1/3 of their experiments in open and/or closed
electrochemical cells with a Pd solid metal cathode and deuterium containing electrolyte, or D
gas loading of Pd powders (see Table 1 of the main
text). Most of these groups have occasionally experienced significant events lasting for time periods of hours to days with 50200% excess heat
measured as the ratio between electrical input energy and heat output energy. Moreover, these experimenters have improved their methods over
time and it is to be noted that the reported excess heat effect has not diminished in frequency or magnitude. This paper cites selected data generated
over the past 15 years to briefly summarize what has been reported about the production of excess heat in Pd cathodes charged with deuterium. A
set of new materials experiments is suggested that, if performed, may help to reveal the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for the reported
excess heat.
© 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Electrochemistry; Palladium; Hydrogen
1. Introduction ............................................................. 8568
2. Lack of excess heat in 19891990 ................................................. 8569
3. Summary of past work ....................................................... 8569
4. Recent examples of excess heat ................................................... 8569
5. Material properties of Pd at high hydrogen concentration ...................................... 8571
6. Summary and conclusions ...................................................... 8572
Acknowledgements ............................................................ 8572
References ................................................................ 8572
1. Introduction
Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of a modified, planar geometry
Fleishmann and Pons cell presented here to review its main
features [1]. A Pd cathode plate positioned between two parallel
Pt-plate anodes are immersed in electrolyte (0.1 M LiOD in
O). Voltage applied between the electrodes causes hydrogen
to enter the cathode. Hydrogen that evolves from the cathode
and oxygen that evolves from the anodes are recombined by a
catalyst residing above the liquid in closed cells, and allowed
escape in open cells. A thermocouple measures the temperature
of the electrolyte. The H/Pd ratio of the cathode is measured in
situ by means of a four-point probe resistivity ratio R/R
, where
is the initial resistivity value, and the R/R
versus H/Pd is
compared to literature values. This in-situ monitoring of the
hydrogen concentration in Pd was not in use in the first year
after the Fleishmann and Pons announcement [2]. Details of
calorimetry will not be discussed in this short review.
Motivated by the report of excess heat by Fleischmann and
Pons [1], a number of research groups from around the world
have been conducting experiments on the PdD materials sys-
tem more or less continuously since 1989. Considerable pro-
gress has been made on several fronts that include improved
reproducibility of high loading (i.e., D/Pd N0.90) of deuterium
Surface & Coatings Technology 201 (2007) 8568 8573
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in Pd cathodes, improved reproducibility of measured excess
heat in highly deuterium-loaded Pd cathodes, and improved in-
situ measurement of the status of the Pd cathodes [2]. The
materials science of hydrogen loading is now well enough
understood that it may offer a reason why the many groups that
tried to reproduce the heat effect in 19891990 were
unsuccessful. Less encouraging are the facts that there is still
no viable physical mechanism to explain the heat effect, and
triggering the heat effect is still not empirically understood.
2. Lack of excess heat in 19891990
Many research groups attempted to reproduce the excess
heat production and the neutron and gamma ray signals reported
by Fleishmann and Pons in the year following their spectacular
announcement. The nuclear data that Fleishmann and Pons
presented proved to be in error and have never been reproduced.
However, there remains the possibility that their excess heat
production results may have been correct. One reason that most
researchers were unsuccessful in achieving heat production may
have been at least in part due to the lack of understanding of
how to achieve H/Pd ratio of N0.90. Procedures required to
achieve this loading [3] that were not generally known or
followed include:
Pd cracks under loading (4% vol. change), especially for
pure, annealed Pd, and the internal surface area of cracks are
recombination sites for hydrogen and deloading in the cracks
competes with electrolytic charging and the net loading is
Pd must be strengthened and toughened by alloying or
mechanical treatment to avoid surface cracks.
Pd must have an optimum grain size to load. H entry is
primarily along grain boundaries.
Pd must be loaded gently (gradually or cycled in current) or
it will crack even after the above cathode preparation steps
(loading time diffusion time).
Achievement of high loading with D is many times more
difficult than for H.
Catalytic surfaces are easily contaminated and often will not
maintain water electrolysis efficiency over the time that is
required for high H loading.
Unable to achieve high loading, and, therefore, excess heat,
most researchers declared that heat production in Fleishmann
and Pons cells is not a real effect and ceased working on the
3. Summary of past work
Table 1 is a partial list of groups that are or have been active
in this area [413]. Previous work by many researchers has
determined some necessary but not sufficient conditions to
observe excess of heat [14]. These are:
High D Loading (xN0.90; PdD
High electrical current (250 mA/cm
Dynamic trigger that imposes a D flux in, out or along the
cathode (Δtemperature (ΔT), Δcurrent flow (ΔI), laser)
Abrupt changes in any of these parameters can stimulate the
production of excess heat with greater frequency than a system
maintained at steady state. It has been empirically found that a
HeNe laser (10 mW CW) impinging on the Pd surface can
stimulate the excess heat effect as well [15]. Two emerging
trends are, that the incubation time for heat production decreases
as the cathode volume decreases, and, that increased surface-to-
volume ratio increases the specific energy/mass value of excess
heat production.
4. Recent examples of excess heat
Two examples cells that are reported to produce excess heat
are presented in the next 3 figures. In Figs. 2, 3 and 4, the cell
was in a planer geometry (as in Fig. 1), closed system with
100 μm thick, 4-cm
-area Pd foil, and run in current control
mode. Fig. 2 shows time versus input power on the right
ordinate and versus integrated energy on the left ordinate, for a
Fig. 1. Schematic representation of modified FleishmannPons electrolysis cell
used at ENEA, Frascati, Italy, and Energetics Tech., Ltd.
Table 1
Selected list of research groups that have measured excess heat in the palladium
deuteride material system
Research group Institution Cathode type Reference
Arata Osaka University Powder [4] (1994)
Fleischmann University of Utah Rod [1] (1990)
Lautzenhiser Amoco Research Laboratory Ingot [5] (1990)
Lesin Energetics Tech., Ltd., Israel Foil [6] (2004)
McKubre Stanford Research International Rod [7] (1993)
Mengoli CNR IPELP, Italy Foil/rod [8] (1998)
Oriani University of Minnesota Rod [9] (1990)
Swartz Jet Thermal Products, USA Wire [10] (2006)
Violante ENEA, Rome, Italy Foil [11] (2004)
Will University of Utah Rod [12] (1990)
LabA Government lab, USA Rod [13] (2001)
LabB Company lab, USA Powder [13] (1998)
8569G.K. Hubler / Surface & Coatings Technology 201 (2007) 85688573
control cell in which the electrolyte is H
O in 0.1 M LiOH [11].
Input power is determined by measurement of current and
voltage and output power is measured by calorimetry. Note the
time lag of response of the input and output power that is
characteristic of the time constant of the calorimeter. The total
integrated input energy is a well-behaved straight line, and the
integrated output energy shows a curve that is below the input
energy and is characteristic of small energy losses due to the
97% efficiency of the calorimeter.
Fig. 3 shows time versus excess power (output powerinput
power) on the right ordinate versus integrated energy on the left
ordinate, for a cell identical to that in Fig. 2 and in which the
electrolyte is D
O and 0.1 M LiOD [11]. At time 25,000 s, the
cell begins to display excess power that behaves erratically until
the cell is turned off. The integrated input energy monotonically
increases and the integrated output energy initially displays a
transient often seen as the cell heats up due to the initial turn on
and is dependent on the initial cell temperature and input power
history. The integrated output energy rises faster at the time the
excess power is observed, and rises above the input energy by
the end of the run. Taking into account the 3% energy loss of the
calorimeter, this cell displayed a total of 8% excess power in the
form of heat for the duration of this experiment.
Fig. 4 shows input and output power versus time for a cell in
which the electrolyte is D
O and 0.1 M LiOD. The input power
was cycled between high and low values. At 220,000 s, the cell
begins to display excess power that continues until the experi-
ment is shut down. This cell produced 50% excess power, or
2.2 net W, averaged over a period of 12 days [6].
The primary criticisms of experiments that measure heat
production during electrolysis of Pd in deuterium containing
electrolytes are:
1. Energy is stored by some as yet unknown but straightforward
mechanism during long incubation times and then released
2. Excess heat due to recombination of oxygen and hydrogen in
cell (battery).
Fig. 2. The integrated input and output energy (left-hand scale) and the instantaneous input and output power (right-hand scale) versus time for a reference experiment
with hydrogen at ENEA using a modified FleishmannPons electrolysis cell (H
O + 0.1 M LiOH). Calorimeter power error is ± 10 mW at 1003000 mW [11].
Fig. 3. The integrated input and output energy (left-hand scale) and the instantaneous excess power (right-hand scale) versus time at ENEA using a modified
FleishmannPons electrolysis cell (D
O + 0.1 M LiOD). Calorimeter excess power error is ± 10%, or about 6 mW at the peak in excess power at 50,000 s [11].
8570 G.K. Hubler / Surface & Coatings Technology 201 (2007) 85688573
3. Calorimeter is not calibrated correctly (experimental error).
4. Energy inventory not measured correctly (experimental
Criticisms 1 and 2 are stored chemical energy explanations.
Number 1 appears to be questionable since incubation times in
some experiments that use small volume cathodes are as short as
a few minutes and experiments that integrate the total energy do
not detect endothermic processes that would signal energy
storage prior to excess heat release. Number 2 appears to be
questionable since excess heat has been measured in many
closed-cell experiments where the energy from recombination
of hydrogen and oxygen is continuously recovered. Individual
experiments can always be criticized as having experimental
errors and one might conclude that all researchers in Table 1
make similar subtle mistakes in order to refute their reports of
excess heat. One might also conclude that there is ample
evidence that excess heat is produced under certain conditions,
and, that the results in Table 1 are consistent over time and
collectively suggest that a closer look at this materials system is
5. Material properties of Pd at high hydrogen concentration
While there was a flurry of activity in the 1980s concerning
superconductivity in PdH alloys, most of the research at that
time involved hydrogen concentrations far less than Pd/H ratio
of 0.90. The remainder of this paper discusses experiments that
if done, could shed light on possible mechanism(s) that produce
excess heat.
First, it is desirable to perform detailed tracking of the
morphological and impurity changes to the cathodes and anodes
ex situ before and after charging with hydrogen using a variety of
methods such as SEM, XRD, XRF and ICP-OES, to name a few.
Second, in-situ experiments are necessary since electro-
chemical loading is one of the few methods to achieve high
loading. Once the cell voltage is turned off, the hydrogen
evolves from the cathode very rapidly, so ex-situ experiments
on this material are impractical. In-situ experiments require
propagation of signals into the liquid to the Pd foils and return.
This restricts the signals that can be used to X-rays, gamma
rays, neutrons and light waves in the transmission band of
water, and to transducers at or near the foil.
Third, a reproducible materials system for such experiments
is an absolute necessity. Fortunately, such a reproducible Pd
cathode material has emerged from the work of group headed by
V. Violante. His group has performed metallurgical studies of
the effects of mechanical treatment and annealing on the ability
to electrolytically load Pd foils with hydrogen [16,17]. Follo-
wing Violante's procedures, it is now possible to load Pd foils
up to H/Pd N0.90, with 100% reproducibility.
Armed with a reproducible PdH alloy materials system, what
experiments can or should be performed? The following sug-
gested experiments are by no means an exhaustive list, but do
represent a cross-section of experiments that investigate dif-
ferent aspects of this material system.
1. Tensile stress the first-order materials parameter of
pressure and its related quantity tensile stress has never been
investigated. Use of in-situ tensile apparatus on the cathode
would assess the primary effect of stress on the loading, voltage,
current, and temperature characteristics of the basic loading
experiment and would characterize the stress behavior of this
material system in any of the suggested experiments below.
2. High-energy X-ray scattering this experiment monitors
the Pd lattice as the hydrogen concentration increases. It will
measure lattice expansion and any phase changes that might
occur around Pd:H ratios of 1:1. This experiment has been
performed only up H/Pd ratio of 0.76 [18,19].
3. Neutron scattering this technique characterizes the
deuterium sub-lattice positions and provides information on Pd
and D phonons with inelastic scattering. This experiment cannot
be performed with hydrogen due to the 9× shorter neutron
scattering length in H
O compared to D
4. Radioactive isotope spectroscopy it has been suggested
that a nuclear process is responsible for unusual effects in PdD
[1]. This experiment turns this supposition on its head by
purposely injecting isotopic material into experiments. One
introduces a radioactive isotope or isomer into the Pd by thermal
diffusion, and observes the effects of the PdD environment, if
any, on gamma and X-ray radiation emitted from the decay of
the excited nuclei. For example, one might observe a small
energy shift, or change in the lifetime of the isomer at high
loadings that would signal a chemical effect on the nuclei. Such
influences have been observed [20], and this would be a survey
experiment to determine if there are unusual excitations in this
materials system that affects the nucleus directly. Candidate
isomers are 270-day half-life
Co electron capture decaying to
Fe, and 2.7-day half-life
Au Beta decaying to
Hg. Both
have relatively low energy gamma lines (14412 keV), and Au
also produces a 70 keV X-ray that probes the electron K-shell of
Hg. Other candidates are 367-day half-life
Ru Beta decaying
Pd emitting 600 keV gammas, and 4-day half-life
electron capture decaying to
Rh emitting high-energy gam-
mas. All four isotopes are soluble in Pd. An alpha emitter might
be monitored by Pd K X-ray excitation.
5. Mössbauer spectroscopy [21] The isomer
Co is
commonly used to explore the hyperfine fields [22] acting at the
Fe nucleus in solids. One can survey effects of H environment
Fig. 4. The instantaneous input power (bottom curve) and output power (top
curve) versus time at Energetics Tech., Ltd., using an ENEA Pd Foil in a
modified FleishmannPons electrolysis cell (D
O+0.1 M LiOD). This
experiment produced 2.2 W (+50%) of average power for 12 days
(300 h), with a 3 day incubation time [6].
8571G.K. Hubler / Surface & Coatings Technology 201 (2007) 85688573
on magnetic and/or electric quadrupole hyperfine fields caused
by distortion of the electron cloud in ns time resolution. In
particular, the isomer shift, δ, indicates the degree of s-electron
distortion that might be caused by the PdH lattice and exci-
tations therein. It also can provide the magnitude of electric and/
or magnetic field at the Fe nucleus. An external magnetic field is
required for hyperfine magnetic studies.
6. Perturbed angular correlations (PAC) [21] Internal
hyperfine fields can be measured using gammagamma coin-
cidence techniques on gamma emissions from radioactive iso-
topes diffused into Pd. A candidate is 367-day half-life
that Beta decays to excited
Pd that emits gamma rays in a 624
and 512 keV cascade in time coincidence. The electric qua-
drupole moment of the excited state couples to the hyperfine
electric field and processes. Measuring the time dependence of
the anisotropic angular distribution of the emitted gamma rays
captures this precession. One can obtain the lattice location of
the Pd and the electric field acting at the Pd nucleus. This would
assess possible disturbance of the s-electron orbitals around the
nucleus that might be caused by the present of hydrogen in the
lattice with time resolution of nanoseconds. Another candidate
is 2.8-day half-life
In that decays by electron capture to
Cd that emits 419 and 247 keV gamma rays in time
coincidence. Many others are possible.
7. Nuclear acoustic resonance (NAR) [23] It has been
suggested that acoustic excitation of PdD can trigger heat
producing events. The NAR technique is usually used in con-
junction with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). NMR is not
well suited to metals and conducting liquids. However, NAR or
just acoustic resonance can be used in conjunction with all of
the experiments listed above, to assess the influence of natural
acoustic resonance in the PdD determined by internal friction
mechanisms and/or the geometry of the cathode. Natural reso-
nances (up to hundreds of kHz) in the cathode excited using
an in-situ or ex-situ acoustic transducer, can exchange energy
with phonons and defects in the cathode that may influence the
measurements of experiments 16 above.
6. Summary and conclusions
In this paper reports of anomalous heat in the materials system
of highly hydrogen-loaded Pd were selected from the literature
and highlighted. It was suggested that evidence for anomalous
heat effects is now strong enough to warrant fundamental
investigations of this system. Based upon the availability of new
reproducible PdH foil materials with H/Pd ratio N0.90, a case
was made that these foils could be a reliable platform for the
exploration of the PdH system at high hydrogen fractions with a
variety of sophisticated in-situ materials science techniques. A
selected list of possible experiments was presented that if exe-
cuted, may help to reveal the underlying mechanism(s) respon-
sible for the excess heat data. The experiments would provide
fundamental materials data on the primary phases and lattice
position of the Pd and H, phonon modes of the H sub-lattice,
stress-modified H-diffusion, influence of the H-rich chemical
environment on nuclear decay, electron cloud distortion around
the nucleus, electric and magnetic hyperfine fields at impurity
nuclei and Pd, time dependence of these fields with nanosecond
resolution, and the effect of acoustic waves on nuclear alignment
in external and hyperfine fields. Individuals acting in isolation
could not conduct these experiments. They require sophisticated
experimental infrastructure, interested participants acting as a
team, and sustained financial support.
I would like to thank D. Knies and A. Ehrlich for in-depth
criticisms, P. Hagelstein, J. Aviles, K. Grabowski and D. Nagel
for useful discussions, M. Melich and M. McKubre for assis-
tance with references and history, J. Baglin for helpful insight
and V. Violante and G. Dearnaley for encouragement and
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attention the data in Figs. 15 of this paper and does not endorse models
and explanations of the effect therein).
[11] V. Violante, M. Apicella, E. Castagna, L. Capobianco, L.D. Aulerio,
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[13] Unpublished work. These laboratories are no longer working due to lack of
institutional and funding support in the case of the government laboratory,
and due to lack of funding in the case of the company. Their inclusion in
this list is subjective and is based on my personal viewing of their data and
operation of their experiments.
[14] M.C.H. McKubre, et al., 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion,
IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France, Monte-Carlo, Monaco,
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Matter Nuclear Science, Proc. of ICCF-10, World Scientific Publishing,
NJ, ISBN: 981-256-564-7, 2006, p. 159.
8572 G.K. Hubler / Surface & Coatings Technology 201 (2007) 85688573
[16] A. De Ninno, V. Violante, A. LaBarbera, Phys. Rev. B56 (1997) 2417;
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A. Adrover, M. Giona, L. Capobianco, P. Tripodi, V. Violante, J. Alloys &
Comp. 358 (2003) 157;
A. Adrover, M. Giona, L. Capobianco, P. Tripodi, V. Violante, J. Hydrogen
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Hu, Phys. Rev., B 58 (1998) 14775.
[19] R. Felici, L. Bertalot, A. DeNinno, A. LaBarbera, V. Violante, Rev. Sci.
Instrum. 66 (1995) 3344.
[20] C.-A. Huh, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 171 (1999) 325.
[21] For an informative discussion of the Mössbauer Effect (ME) and Perturbed
Angular Correlations (PAC), see
[22] For a rigorous discussion of hyperfine interactions and experimental data,
see Hyperfine Interactions, eds. A.J. Freeman and R.B. Frankel,
(Academic, New York, 1967).
[23] D.I. Bolef, R.K. Sundfors, Nuclear Acoustic Resonance, Academic,
New York, 1993.
8573G.K. Hubler / Surface & Coatings Technology 201 (2007) 85688573
... Reviews of this topic, together with citations to the literature may be found in [1,11,12,13,14]. The most substantiated data is for the deuterium-Palladium system where deuterium loading is achieved through electrolysis with heavy water (D 2 O). ...
... Comparing two metals, we can note that the equilibrium hydrogen surface coverage of palladium surface is close to one [27,[64][65], and hydrogen-palladium ratio (in the bulk of metal) in 0,5 M H2SO4 at 30 • C at pressure 1 atm. amounts to 0.691at. ...
... Comparing two metals, we can note that the equilibrium hydrogen surface coverage of palladium surface is close to one [27,[64][65], and hydrogen-palladium ratio (in the bulk of metal) in 0,5 M H2SO4 at 30 • C at pressure 1 atm. amounts to 0.691at. ...
... In addition, experiments have shown that the excess heat is related to the structures of cathode materials. For instance, palladium cathodes hav- ing the [100] preferred crystal orientation have a higher probability of yielding excess heat bursts 3,4 . However, good reproducibility of AHE remains the major issue. ...
Full-text available
The present article summarizes anomalous heat events which were observed in a large number of electrolysis experiments using heavy water and palladium-based cathodes. The amount of excess heat produced by some of these experiments is too large to be accounted for by any known chemical processes. It was found that events of the anomalous heat effect (AHE) are accompanied by increased cell voltage during electrolysis and that there are characteristic cathode surface morphologies which are associated with excess heat events. AHE has been observed during electrolysis following dynamic stimulation of the cell by timedependent electrolytic currents (SuperWaves) and ultrasonic excitation. Past experiments have increased our understanding of the anomalous heat effect in the palladium-deuterium systems, but there is much left to be learned.
... Reviews of this topic, together with citations to the literature may be found in [1,11,12,13,14]. ...
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A recent theoretical explanation for observed anomalous low energy nuclear phenomena which have puzzled physicists for many years is expanded on. Based on covariant relativistic quantum mechanics and historical time wave equations, it explains a large number of observed anomalous eects by supposing that nuclear masses can vary in nuclear active environments in condensed matter settings. The modied quantum wave equation originally introduced by Fock and Stueckelberg in the 1930s with signicant enhancements up to the present by Horwitz and others prove that variable masses are compatible with the principles of both quantum mechanics and relativity. They can explain all of these eects by modifying the kinematic constraints of the reaction, enhancing electron screening and quantum tunneling rates, and allowing for resonant tunneling. Some previous results are recounted, and experimental evidence based on variable radioactive decay rates and other evidence for variable masses is presented which adds some new potential support for this theory.
Experiment Findings
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Update on Cosmological Model for the Anomalous Heat Effect (AHE) #Graham K. Hubler The Medical School, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO USA E-mail: 6635 Prestwick Drive, Highland, MD 20777 At ICCF19 in Padua, I gave a talk entitled “On a Possible Cosmological Explanation for the Anomalous Heat Effect” that proposed the AHE was the solid-state conversion of Axion dark matter particles into photons. I submitted a patent in 2017 on this topic that was rejected by the USPTO in part because there was no proof that Axions composed dark matter. In the intervening years Axions have garnered the most interest as a dark matter candidate after sensitive searches for WIMPS failed to detect them and searches for particles predicted by Super Symmetry (SUSY) have not been detected by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in CERN and so SUSY is not an explanation of physics beyond the standard model (SM). In fact, the Axion is the only particle prediction motivated by the SM that has not been detected, and so is theoretically well motivated. Most Axion researchers point to cosmological models that predict the Axion mass is <30x10-6 eV, and therefore most searches for the axion are for this mass range. A prediction of this model is that the Axion mass is between 0.01 eV and 1 eV. Recent theories suggest more massive Axions stating that; a) dark matter with a mass of 0.5 eV undergoes Bose-Einstein condensation (Axion is spin 0 Boson scaler particle) and explains the behavior of all galaxies, b) Axion oscillations in the early universe can explain the missing anti-matter paradox if the mass is ~0.06 eV. Given renewed and major interest Axions as a dark matter candidate it is reasonable to revisit the dark matter model as an explanation for AHE and update several points that were problematic in the first iteration. The model can be summarized as follows: a phonon resonance (~1013 Hz) in PdDx causes a metal-to-insulator electronic phase transition each half cycle; in the insulating half cycle, a Pd 5s electrons is localized and unpaired on each Pd atom, causing a magnetic field inside the outer electron shell of up to 16,000 Tesla (Ni 4s electron, 6100 Tesla) causing a very large PdDx (NiHx) bulk effective medium magnetic field. Axions passing through the PdDx are converted to photons via the Inverse Primakoff Effect with momentum conservation provided by photons from the E&M emission of the phonons in resonance that match the mass frequency of the Axions. The converted photons are absorbed in the PdDx and the electrolyte causing heat and self-sustainment of the resonance and therefore the entire process. The conversion probability is enhanced due to; 1) its dependence on the magnetic field squared, 2) the coupling constant of conversion is proportional to the Axion mass so is large for larger masses, 3) the dark matter density in the solar system is greater than the galaxy halo density due to the capture of dark matter and, 4) a resonant enhancement due to the E&M photons in the crystal resonating with the same frequency as the mass frequency of the Axions. Why there is no huge and dangerous external macroscopic magnetic field was ignored in the original patent. Here is an explanation. It is experimentally verified that the Primakoff effect that converts photons to Pions occurs in 10-22 seconds. Due to scaler particle symmetry, we expect that the inverse Primakoff effect, converting particle mass to a photon, would also be very fast. Also, electron relaxation times are fast, on the order of 10-15 seconds. Therefore, the electronic phase transition that produces the large magnetic field is present for a short time each cycle so that the average macroscopic field is small. It was also stated in the original patent that the D/Pd ratio needed to be large, on the-order-of 0.9. Recent advances in the understanding of AHE now dictates that this ratio can be as low as 0.4. Ed Storms has been telling us this for years. The AHE is difficult to induce experimentally as it requires an active phonon resonance of the exact narrow frequency of the mass of the Axion when converted to a photon. The phonon resonant frequency in PdDx is a complicated function of the D concentration (cannot get right frequency with H), defect concentration, interstitial site occupancy (fraction of octahedral vs tetrahedral), temperature, polycrystalline texture, surface micro-topology and probably more factors.
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Graham K. Hubler, University of Missouri and Joseph P. Aviles, Tantalon, MD Energy generation by efficient inverse-Primakoff Effect solid state conversion of scalar particle dark matter into photons The anomalous heat effect (AHE)/Fleischman-Pons Effect is a real physical phenomenon and does not have a nuclear origin. This article introduces a cosmological hypothesis of the (AHE). The article outlines how stimulated phonon resonances in Pd atoms in PdDx initiate oscillating electronic metal-insulator phase transitions that produce up to 10,000 Tesla oscillating magnetic fields at frequencies of ~1013-1015 Hz in Pd atoms. The large local magnetic field is caused by formation of an unpaired 5s electron-mediated hyperfine field in the Pd atom while in the insulating state. The collective effective medium large magnetic field of the entire Pd solid converts scalar, spin 0, axion dark matter particles into photons via the inverse Primakoff Effect in the energy range of 1 meV to 1000 meV, provided the oscillation frequency matches the mass frequency of the axion. The photons are absorbed in the Pd to produce the heat signature of the AHE. It is shown that the available axion dark matter flux density in the solar system provides up to 40 W/cm2 available power, and can provide the observed heat energy in the AHE. The putative axion mass of 1 – 1000 meV is consistent with a promising new superfluid dark matter theory that places the axion mass between 100 and 1000 meV. It is suggested that crystals other than Pd may provide the same effect under special conditions. Axions in this mass range have not been detected previously since there are no existing experiments designed to detect masses >30 µeV. This hypothesis can explain the heat generation and RF mission by active PdDx cathodes and the fact that the heat effect is much less for PdHx.
Gas loading of palladium particles <2 nm in size produces anomalous amounts of heat in a reproducible manner. This heat is produced in the presence of deuterium but not in the presence of hydrogen. Control experiments have ruled out the excess heat was due to impurities in the deuterium that were absent in the hydrogen. Because the system is simple and mostly reversible, all extra heat must be of chemical or some other origin. Neither radiation nor nuclear "ash" was found to correlate with the anomalous heat. In some matrices, the likely source of the anomalous heat is D-H exchange with the water present in the matrix, where an approximate third increase of the expected energy from calculations can account for most of the excess heat. In other matrices, no simple explanation of the excess heat can be made.
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Anomalous heat effect (AHE) is the appearance of excess energy in the form of heat when a palladium cathode is electrolysed in heavy water, and is much less evident when light water is used. The present arti-cle describes the organization, motivation and plans of an institute formed to perform fundamental research aimed at discovering the mechanism of AHE.
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This book is published for the Proceedings of ICCF-12 International Conference of Condensed Matter Nuclear Scince, 27 November - 2 December 2005, Yokohama, Japan. All papers were peer-reviewed and edited. Only first authors of each section papers are listed as authors above. The progress and scientific status of condensed matter nuclear science around 2005 can been seen in this book.
The R&D efforts of the Electric Power Research Institute in the field of fuel cell (FC) development are discussed, with special attention given to the first-generation phosphoric acid FC (PAFC), the internal reforming molten carbonate FC (IR-MCFC), and the solid oxide FC. The electrolytes used in the these systems, the FC characteristics, and their applications are described, and the key issues for commercialization are identified.
This article develops a linearized approximation for the stress-induced diffusion (SID) model describing hydrogen transport in planar and cylindrical membranes. The linearized version of the SID model is amenable to a closed form solution that yields a quantitative prediction for the short time-scale behavior of the permeation flux for both planar and cylindrical structures.
This article analyzes the stress-induced diffusion (SID) model for hydrogen transport in thin cylindrical membranes when the planar approximation, usually adopted in the literature, is relaxed. The SID model, explicitly formulated for a cylindrical membrane predicts a non-linear steady-state concentration profile, characterized by a concentration gradient at the inner surface which can be significantly lower than the macroscopic concentration gradient imposed, depending on the initial hydrogen content of the membrane.We provide analytical arguments to show that this effect is due to the fact that concentration-induced stresses do not relax at steady state, and this is a peculiar feature of thin hollow cylinders, not occurring in thin plates.
It was verified that a new kind of energy is caused by “Spillover-Deuterium” generated in a double structure (DS)-cathode with “Pd-black”. Using this cathode, the authors confirmed the sustained production of a significantly abnormal amount of energy over a period of several months that could not be ascribed to chemical reaction energy. The chemical reaction energy of 0.1[mol] Pd-black used is only 4[kJ], but more than 200[MJ] of excess energy was continuously produced for over 3000[hr] at an average rate of 50-100[kJ/hr] using a DS-cathode with a same quantity of Pd-black. Intermittent operation over a period of two years using this structure proved the complete reproducibility of these results.
This paper reports on a Seebeck-effect calorimeter that was used to establish that generation of energy, in excess of the electrical energy input, can occur during the electrolysis of DâO. The magnitude of the excess power is measured with respect t the electrolysis of HâO as the baseline. The excess power levels of
Spiral-wound palladium cathodes were immersed in low-electrical conductivity D2O (with no additional electrolyte) and in 8.2 mM PdCl2, and electrically polarized against a platinum anode. They were examined for heat production using multi-ring thermal spectroscopy with Joule controls. These devices (cathode volume ~0.5 cm3) can yield significant excess heat (peak excess power production 1.5 W, peak electrical power gain of ~2.7). Both optimum operating and peak excess heat production points along the input electrical power axis have been identified.
The hydrogen chemical potential in metallic membranes is affected by the self-stresses generated by the interstitial transport within the lattice (stress-induced diffusion). This article provides analytical and numerical evidence that, in the presence of stress-induced diffusion, hydrogen transport in thin metallic cylindrical membranes can exhibit macroscopic features qualitatively different from those observed in planar structures. This is a consequence of the different ways diffusion-induced stresses propagate in planar and in the cylindrical structures.We focus on the investigation of the uphill diffusion effect (observed experimentally in Pd and Pd alloy membranes) originally explained as a consequence of the failure of the Fick law for solid-state diffusion. We show that the classical stress-induced diffusion (SID) model applied to a cylindrical structure leads to a Fickian-type transport equation, which indeed displays the uphill effect solely as a consequence of the non-linear, non-local time-dependent boundary conditions corresponding to permeation experiments.
The electrolytic insertion of deuterium into Pd at 95°C was investigated by a simple calorimetric technique. This involved continuous feeding of heating power to the electrolytic cell to maintain it isothermal with an external thermostatic bath: any extraneous thermal phenomenon taking place inside the cell is directly determined by the lack of balance of the original heating power input. It was thus found that Pd loading by deuterium is always paralleled by excess power generation, which largely exceeds the electrolytic power input. After prolonged electrolysis the loaded electrodes were found to continue heat generation in open circuit (o.c.) conditions. The reproducibility of the thermal phenomenon allowed its dependence on several experimental parameters to be investigated.
It is shown that accurate values of the rates of enthalpy generation in the electrolysis of light and heavy water can be obtained from measurements in simple, single compartment Dewar type calorimeter cells. This precise evaluation of the rate of enthalpy generation relies on the non-linear regression fitting of the “black-box” model of the calorimeter to an extensive set of temperature time measurements. The method of data analysis gives a systematic underestimate of the enthalpy output and, in consequence, a slightly negative excess rate of enthalpy generation for an extensive set of blank experiments using both light and heavy water. By contrast, the electrolysis of heavy water at palladium electrodes shows a positive excess rate of enthalpy generation; this rate increases markedly with current density, reaching values of approximately 100 W cm−3 at approximately 1 A cm−2. It is also shown that prolonged polarization of palladium cathodes in heavy water leads to bursts in the rate of enthalpy generation; the thermal output of the cells exceeds the enthalpy input (or the total energy input) to the cells by factors in excess of 40 during these bursts. The total specific energy output during the bursts as well as the total specific energy output of fully charged electrodes subjected to prolonged polarization (5–50 MJ cm−3) is 102–103 times larger than the enthalpy of reaction of chemical processes.