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Comparison of antioxidant properties of persimmon vinegar and some other commercial vinegars in radical-scavenging assays and on lipid oxidation tuna homogenates

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Comparison of antioxidant properties of persimmon vinegar and some other commercial vinegars in radical-scavenging assays and on lipid oxidation tuna homogenates

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Abstract

Five kinds of vinegars (two kinds of persimmon vinegars, unpolished rice vinegar, polished rice vinegar, and apple vinegar) were evaluated for their scavenging activity towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, superoxide radicals, and hydroxyl radicals, and for their antioxidant activity in tuna homogenate. The total phenolic content was also determined by the modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Markedly high phenolic contents and radical-scavenging activities were found for vinegar made from persimmon Saijyo varieties, and unpolished rice vinegar. When incorporated into fatty tuna homogenates, persimmon vinegar effectively inhibited lipid oxidation in the homogenates. Persimmon vinegar may be as useful in fish processing as are other naturally occurring antioxidants, helping to prevent the formation of off-flavour in fish and their products and to increase shelf life.

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... Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effects of vinegars on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and their anti-obesity effects in rats fed high-fat diets (HFDs). We compared the anti-obesity effects of spirit vinegar, which mainly comprises acetic acid, with those of natural fermented vinegars (apple, lemon, balsamic, and brown rice vinegars), which are known to contain a large amount of physiologically active substances [10,28,29,30,31]. ...
... Vinegars prepared with fruits and cereals mainly have a higher content of polyphenolic compounds [10,11,13,28,29], which have been reported to prevent or treat obesity, inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity [39], hyperlipidemia, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, cancer, and hypertension [5,15,40,41,42]. Apple and apple products (vinegar, cider or juice) contain polyphenolic compounds such as chlorogenic acid, benzoic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, caftaric acid, syringic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, catechin, epicatechin, tyrosol and vanillin [11]. ...
... Lemonbased products are rich in limonoids, coumarins, and flavonoid compounds such as naringin, neohesperidin, and hesperidin [13]. The black vinegar prepared with unpolished rice contains dihydroferulic acid, dihydrosinapic acid, sinapic acid, vanillic acid, and p-hydroxycinnamic acid [10,28]. Balsamic vinegar also contains high levels of total polyphenols and flavonoids [29]. ...
... In recent years, different studies have been conducted on these products that mainly focused on their organoleptic characteristics and their quality parameters, which has been analyzed by chemical and sensory methods. Some examples include the studies carried out with rabbit eye blueberry (Min-Sheng and Po-Jung, 2010), apple (Liu et al., 2008;Sakanaka and Ishihara, 2008), lemon, peach (Liu et al., 2008), persimmon (Sakanaka and Ishihara, 2008;Ubedaet al., 2011b), plum He, 2009), andstrawberry (Ubedaet al., 2011a), mix fruit (Ezembaet al., 2021) vinegars. ...
... In recent years, different studies have been conducted on these products that mainly focused on their organoleptic characteristics and their quality parameters, which has been analyzed by chemical and sensory methods. Some examples include the studies carried out with rabbit eye blueberry (Min-Sheng and Po-Jung, 2010), apple (Liu et al., 2008;Sakanaka and Ishihara, 2008), lemon, peach (Liu et al., 2008), persimmon (Sakanaka and Ishihara, 2008;Ubedaet al., 2011b), plum He, 2009), andstrawberry (Ubedaet al., 2011a), mix fruit (Ezembaet al., 2021) vinegars. ...
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Abstract: The vinegar produced from different locally grown fruits and industrial produced vinegar was evaluated to determine their proximate and elemental composition. The proximate parameters analysed includes moisture content, total solids, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, carbohydrates and ash content. The elemental composition was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). The moisture content of Vin A, B, C and D are 85.00%, 78.30%, 90.35% and 90.65% respectively. The crude protein in Vin A, B, C and D are 0.20±0.0001, 0.94±0.02 0.69±0.05 and 0.64±0.003 respectively. The total solid contents of Vin A, B, C and D are 15.00±0.02, 21.7±0.03, 9.65±0.001, 9.35±0.2 respectively. The content of crude fat in Vin A, B,C and D are 3.0±0.0611, 9.0±0.33,3.0±0.02 and 1.40±1.0 respectively. The content of carbohydrates in Vin A, B, C and D are 9.63, 4.16, 4.36 and 4.96 respectively. The content of crude fibre in Vin A, B, C and D are 8.00±0.01, 1.40±0.71 4.00±0.2 and 4.00±0.004respectively. The content of crude ash in Vin A, B, C and D are 2.17±0.02, 7.60±0.34 1.65±0.02 and 2.30±0.14 respectively. A total of 69 elements were evaluated for their composition in the sample. In Vin A, the calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus and sulphur components were detected in the concentration as follows 27.04 ppb, 1.88ppb, 91.2ppb, 3.44ppb, 5.1ppb and 1229.4ppb respectively. In Vin B, their concentration is as follows 4.4422pp, 0.7580ppb, 39.8348ppb, 3.468ppb, 1.5508ppb, 1277.8402ppb. In Vin C, their concentration detected were as follows 29.4103ppb, 3.5820ppb, 115.6922ppb, 5.4867ppb, 3.2771ppb, 1230.3251ppb respectively and in Vin D, the components were detected in the concentration as follows 5.3955ppb, 1.1293ppb, 69.6028ppb, 4.3505ppb, 3.1667ppb, 1226.3422ppb respectively. The micronutrients were detected at different concentration but mainly in minute quantities. The vinegar samples are of good nutritional value and as such be encouraged to be consumed
... Kim et al. [24] had assessed the antioxidant activities of commercial vinegar drinks using DPPH assay and found out that blackberry vinegar has 12.07 % anti-free radical activity. Sakanaka and Ishihara [27] reported that the persimmon Saijo had 84.2 % radical-scavenging activity on DPPH radicals. The result from current shows that biovinegar are also free radical-scavengers, particularly of the peroxyl radicals, which are the major propagators of the oxidation chain of fat, thereby terminating the chain reaction [27]. ...
... Sakanaka and Ishihara [27] reported that the persimmon Saijo had 84.2 % radical-scavenging activity on DPPH radicals. The result from current shows that biovinegar are also free radical-scavengers, particularly of the peroxyl radicals, which are the major propagators of the oxidation chain of fat, thereby terminating the chain reaction [27]. Antioxidants may reduce the risk of many diseases, including heart disease and certain cancers. ...
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The objective of this work was to screen and evaluate the significant parameter which affected the natural fermentation of pineapple biovinegar. In this work, peel waste from local breed pineapple (Royal Pepina) was fermented naturally to produce an aromatic biovinegar. Full factorial design of Design Expert® was used to develop a random experimental run in which six parameters were screened off. They were the fermentation temperature (27 – 50 °C), fermentation time (5 – 28 days), fermentation condition (anaerobic and aerobic), the addition of glucose (0 – 7 %), the addition of yeast (0 – 0.3 %), and peel waste condition (slurry & juice). Three parameters were identified as significant factors, which were the condition of fermentation, fermentation temperature, and addition of glucose. The ANOVA of the model was statistically significant with R ² of 0.9948. The pineapple biovinegar produced in this work contained 3.18 % reducing sugar, 1.03 % ethanol, 3.03 % acid, 0.61 % acetic acid, 1.43 mg equi. AA/100mL ascorbic acid, pH of 3.16, 4.0 % sucrose, 8.0 °Brix total soluble solid, and 82.06 % DPPH free-radical scavenging activity of antioxidant in biovinegar. This result stood second highest after apple cider biovinegar when compared to commercially available biovinegar.
... Persimmon vinegar, obtained from fermented persimmon fruit, is rich in polyphenols, such as gallic acid and catechins, which protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular oxidative stress (Sakanaka and Ishihara, 2008;Zou et al., 2017Zou et al., , 2018. In recent studies, persimmon vinegar, with high potential in the health food market, has been proven to have anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties (Ahmed et al., 2016;Lee et al., 2016). ...
... In recent studies, persimmon vinegar, with high potential in the health food market, has been proven to have anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties (Ahmed et al., 2016;Lee et al., 2016). Sakanaka and Ishihara, (2008) compared the antioxidant properties of persimmon vinegar and other commercial vinegars (unpolished rice vinegar, polished rice vinegar, and apple vinegar) using radical-scavenging assays. The tested vinegars were effective antioxidants, and the persimmon vinegars made from the astringent persimmon (var. ...
Article
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Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruits are among the most widely cultivated fruit crops worldwide, they are widespread in Asian countries and Europe, and their production is increasing along with the demand of consumers. Persimmon is a good source of nutrients and bioactive compounds, especially dietary fiber, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds, among other bioactive phytochemicals. However, persimmon is among the fruits, with a significant postharvest loss over the last few years. The cultivation of persimmon has a limited shelf life; it is a seasonal fruit and is perishable and difficult to store and transport; therefore, many persimmons are discarded. Currently, there is an increase in the valorization of the discarded persimmon fruits to generate opportunities and create a more sustainable system, in line with a possible circular economy. Therefore, in this review, we aim to compile an updated and brief revision of persimmons’ main chemical and bioactive compounds and the potential use of persimmon surpluses and by-products in developing new food products.
... In recent years, different studies have been conducted on these products that mainly focused on their organoleptic characteristics and their quality parameters, which has been analyzed by chemical and sensory methods. Some examples include the studies carried out with rabbit eye blueberry (Min-Sheng and Po-Jung, 2010), apple (Liu et al., 2008;Sakanaka and Ishihara, 2008), lemon, peach (Liu et al., 2008), persimmon (Sakanaka and Ishihara, 2008;Ubedaet al., 2011b), plum He, 2009), andstrawberry (Ubedaet al., 2011a), mix fruit (Ezembaet al., 2021) vinegars. ...
... In recent years, different studies have been conducted on these products that mainly focused on their organoleptic characteristics and their quality parameters, which has been analyzed by chemical and sensory methods. Some examples include the studies carried out with rabbit eye blueberry (Min-Sheng and Po-Jung, 2010), apple (Liu et al., 2008;Sakanaka and Ishihara, 2008), lemon, peach (Liu et al., 2008), persimmon (Sakanaka and Ishihara, 2008;Ubedaet al., 2011b), plum He, 2009), andstrawberry (Ubedaet al., 2011a), mix fruit (Ezembaet al., 2021) vinegars. ...
Article
Full-text available
The vinegar produced from different locally grown fruits and industrial produced vinegar was evaluated to determine their proximate and elemental composition. The proximate parameters analysed includes moisture content, total solids, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, carbohydrates and ash content. The elemental composition was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). The moisture content of Vin A, B, C and D are 85.00%, 78.30%, 90.35% and 90.65% respectively. The crude protein in Vin A, B, C and D are 0.20±0.0001, 0.94±0.02 0.69±0.05 and 0.64±0.003 respectively. The total solid contents of Vin A, B, C and D are 15.00±0.02, 21.7±0.03, 9.65±0.001, 9.35±0.2 respectively. The content of crude fat in Vin A, B,C and D are 3.0±0.0611, 9.0±0.33,3.0±0.02 and 1.40±1.0 respectively. The content of carbohydrates in Vin A, B, C and D are 9.63, 4.16, 4.36 and 4.96 respectively. The content of crude fibre in Vin A, B, C and D are 8.00±0.01, 1.40±0.71 4.00±0.2 and 4.00±0.004respectively. The content of crude ash in Vin A, B, C and D are 2.17±0.02, 7.60±0.34 1.65±0.02 and 2.30±0.14 respectively. A total of 69 elements were evaluated for their composition in the sample. In Vin A, the calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus and sulphur components were detected in the concentration as follows 27.04 ppb, 1.88ppb, 91.2ppb, 3.44ppb, 5.1ppb and 1229.4ppb respectively. In Vin B, their concentration is as follows 4.4422pp, 0.7580ppb, 39.8348ppb, 3.468ppb, 1.5508ppb, 1277.8402ppb. In Vin C, their concentration detected were as follows 29.4103ppb, 3.5820ppb, 115.6922ppb, 5.4867ppb, 3.2771ppb, 1230.3251ppb respectively and in Vin D, the components were detected in the concentration as follows 5.3955ppb, 1.1293ppb, 69.6028ppb, 4.3505ppb, 3.1667ppb, 1226.3422ppb respectively. The micronutrients were detected at different concentration but mainly in minute quantities. The vinegar samples are of good nutritional value and as such be encouraged to be consumed. Keywords: Elemental Composition, micronutrients, crude fibre, carbohydrates and ash content
... As of late, various investigations have been led on these products that mainly concentrated on their sensory attributes and their quality parameters, which has been examined by chemical and sensory methods. Some examples incorporate the studies carried out with rabbiteye blueberry (Min-Sheng and Po-Jung 2010), apple (Liu et al. 2008;Sakanaka and Ishihara 2008), lemon, peach (Liu et al. 2008), persimmon (Sakanaka and Ishihara 2008;Ubeda et al. 2011), plum, and strawberry (Ubeda et al. 2011(Ubeda et al. , 2012 vinegars. ...
... As of late, various investigations have been led on these products that mainly concentrated on their sensory attributes and their quality parameters, which has been examined by chemical and sensory methods. Some examples incorporate the studies carried out with rabbiteye blueberry (Min-Sheng and Po-Jung 2010), apple (Liu et al. 2008;Sakanaka and Ishihara 2008), lemon, peach (Liu et al. 2008), persimmon (Sakanaka and Ishihara 2008;Ubeda et al. 2011), plum, and strawberry (Ubeda et al. 2011(Ubeda et al. , 2012 vinegars. ...
Chapter
The objective of the present study was to investigate the nutritional components of the Nabag (Ziziphys-spina christa) fruit which is widely consumed in Sudan, to produce vinegar from its edible part and to assess its quality characteristics. The samples were obtained from Wad Medani local market, central Sudan, which were then subjected to some chemical analyses. The average chemical components of nabag fruit were: The contents of moisture, protein, total sugars, fructose, sucrose, FAN, Titratable acidity and ascorbic acid were found to be 6.8 ± 0.09%, 7.6%. 7.2%, 112, 50.2, 60, 118 (mg/l), 0.76% and 35.56 (mg/100 g), respectively. Fermentation process was carried out for the nabag pulp. The pH was adjusted at 4.8 using sodium hydroxide (1 N). 50 g of baker’s yeast (DCL), and the soluble solids were adjusted to 18 °Bx using a sucrose solution was added. The fermentation was conducted for 72 h, at 20 °C. The concentration of the distilled ethanol after fermentation was found to be (91%). Oxidation process was carried out to produce vinegar. The concentration of acetic acid in the obtained vinegar 6.24 g/100 ml and it had a pH value and density of 2.92 and 0.933448 g/ml at 33 °C, respectively. The nutritional composition of nabag fruit pulp suggests that it can be used in food formulation operations and as industrial raw materials.
... We measured DPPH scavenging activity as previously described (Terahara et al. 2003;Xu et al. 2007;Sakanaka and Ishihara 2008;Budak and Guzel-Seydim 2010;Chun et al. 2014) with a few modifications. Briefly, 2 9 10 -4 mol/L DPPH solution was prepared using 100% ethanol and 2 mL of DPPH solution was added to 2 mL sample. ...
... The hydroxyl radical-scavenging ability of samples was measured using the salicylic acid method (Xu et al. 2007;Sakanaka and Ishihara 2008;Du et al. 2013). Briefly, 4 mM iron sulfate (FeSO 4 ) and 4 mM hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) were prepared using distilled water and 4 mM salicylic acid was prepared using 100% ethanol. ...
Article
Acetobacter pasteurianus JST-S was screened from solid fermented grains of vinegar in China, identified by molecular analysis, and used for the production of purple sweet potato vinegar using purple sweet potato as the substrate. By orthogonal experiment, maximum total acid concentration (4.26% [v/v]) was achieved under optimized conditions as follows: fermentation time, 3.5 days; ethanol content, 9% v/v; and inoculum size, 8% v/v. During the production of purple potato vinegar, the anthocyanin concentration decreased from 652.07 to 301.73 μg/mL. The antioxidant activity of products, including diphenyl-picryl hydrazide radical-scavenging capacity (above 60%), reducing power (above 0.47), and hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity (above 46%), showed positive linear regression (P < 0.01), which could be related with the changes in anthocyanin concentration and antioxidant activities at different stages of vinegar fermentation. The acetic acid and other non-phenolic antioxidants in purple sweet potato vinegar may have contributed to the antioxidant activities. Results of these studies may provide a reference for the industrial production of vinegar by liquid fermentation of purple sweet potato.
... The antioxidant capacity of the industrial apple vinegars ComVA1 and ComVA3 were more than 2-and 4-times lower in comparison to homemade apple vinegar (HMV1). The explanation lies in the fact of the higher total phenolic content in HMV in comparison to ComV [48][49][50][51][52][53]. ...
... Idaein and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside on the other hand, were detected in raspberry extracts while fermented vinegars were characterized by the lowest concentration and the smallest diversity of flavonoids. [51,62]. Other studies showed that raw materials of fruit vinegars (such as apple and blueberry) contain abundant phenolic acids including catechin, syringic acid, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, protocatechuic acid, and p-coumaric acid [62]. ...
Article
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In the current study, the antioxidant activity of traditional homemade fruit vinegars (HMV) was estimated by measuring the rate of homogeneous redox reaction with 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical cation (ABTS•+) using cyclic voltammetry. The antioxidant capacity of six HMV produced using traditional methods and the physicochemical characterization were measured in different vinegar production steps throughout a double spontaneous fermentation process, i.e., without any addition of yeasts or acetic acid bacteria. Their antioxidant capacity was compared with seven fruit commercial vinegars (ComV). Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity was independently measured with the TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) assay, aiming at correlating with the electrochemical experimental data. Obtained results from both methods, the electrochemical and TEAC assays, interestingly indicated that all HMV have at least 10 times higher antioxidant activity than ComV. Furthermore, the large range of values for antioxidant capacity in samples of commercial vinegars from apples attested the importance of the raw material quality and technological procedures. The positive correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity measured by the two type of assays indicated that rose hip homemade vinegar (HMV5) has the highest antioxidant capacity. In contrast, the lowest levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were found in apple and persimmon homemade vinegars (HMV1 and HMV6, respectively) which indicated that the type of fruit is crucial towards the production of high-quality vinegars. In this way, the use of traditional processes for the production of fruit vinegars proved to be very promising in terms of producing differentiated vinegars and, concomitantly, reaching high levels of health-promoting antioxidant capacities.
... These levels of DPPH values were almost similar to our results. The outcomes revealed that dates' vinegar either red or black is also free radical scavenger, mainly of peroxyl radicals, which are main diffusers of the oxidation chain of fat, thereby dismissing the chain reaction (Sakanaka & Ishihara, 2008). Whereas positive significant correlations were noted between TFC and DPPH radical scavengers in the phytochemicals (Table 2). ...
... The total titratable acidity, pH value, and sugar content of date's vinegar are shown in Table 3 (Hafzan et al., 2017;Sakanaka & Ishihara, 2008) and also according to international legislation. ...
Article
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Antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids, carotenoids, pH, and total titratable acidity of red and black date's vinegar were analyzed. The extraction method was designed and optimized for this purpose with respect to the variety and solvent concentrations along with the time of ultrasonication. The results showed that red dates' vinegar has significantly (p < 0.05) higher total phenols (3.38 ± 0.13 mg GAE/ml) and antioxidant activity as compared to black dates' vinegar, which had a higher amount of carotenoids (3.43 ± 0.11 mg/100 ml). Similarly, red dates' vinegar has more flavonoids as compared to commercially available Zhenjiang vinegar. In terms of physiochemical properties, both red and black date's vinegar were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Use of 50% and 80% methanol with 25 min of ultrasonication for extraction seemed more effective. The total phenols, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, carotenoids, and physiochemical analysis of the red and black date's vinegar indicated that vinegar from dates (red or black dates) is a competitive product in the marketplace.
... Biovinegar is produced from a fermentation of variety of cereals and fruits which has been used for foods for preservation, flavoring and pickling [1]. It can be made from a suitable raw material of agricultural origin containing starch, sugars, or both, by the process of double fermentation, first alcoholic followed by acetous [2]. ...
... The result of the current study is comparable with previous works which Kim et al. [14] had reported the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of blackberry vinegar was 12 % while Keser et al. [15] reported the grape vinegar had 58.07 % activity. The result from current study as depicted in Figure 1 shows that vinegars are also free radical-scavengers, particularly of the peroxyl radicals, which are the major propagators of the oxidation chain of fat, thereby terminating the chain reaction [1]. Antioxidant scavenges free radicals from the body cells, and prevents the damage caused by oxidation. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to characterize a biovinegar (OPPB) produced from natural fermentation of pineapple peel. Physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and sensory evaluation were investigated to compare its quality with apple cider vinegar (ACV) and dates vinegar (DV). The vinegars were evaluated for their scavenging activity towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical for the antioxidant activities. Physicochemical properties such as ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, acidity, acetic acid, ethanol, total soluble solid, pH and sucrose content were also determined. Consumer preferences and perception towards the biovinegar were carried out through a survey. The OPPB shows a comparable radical scavenging of 82 % and physicochemical properties such as acidity of 3.03 %, ascorbic acid of 1.43 mg equi. AA/100 mL sample, pH of 3.16, acetic acid of 0.61 %, ethanol of 1.03 %, sucrose of 4.0 g/100 g, reducing sugar of 3.18 % and total soluble solid content of 8.0°Brix with commercial vinegar (ACV and DV). Descriptive statistical test indicates that there were no significant differences in color intensity, sourness, sweetness, flavor, and aroma with the vinegars tested but OPPB was 56 % more preferred than ACV and DV by the respondents.
... The antioxidant capacities of the C. nutans extracts were quantified using 2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assays. The use of at least two methods is recommended to evaluate and compare the antioxidant capacity of a sample [21]. Because they are stable radicals, DPPH and ABTS are widely used to determine the Total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of crude and fraction of C. nutans leaf extracts. ...
... The antioxidant capacities of the C. nutans extracts were quantified using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assays. The use of at least two methods is recommended to evaluate and compare the antioxidant capacity of a sample [21]. Because they are stable radicals, DPPH and ABTS are widely used to determine the antioxidant activity of plants [22,23]. ...
Article
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Clinacanthus nutans is a well-known herb that has been used as an alternative and therapeutic medicine, however more selective C. nutans extracts are needed. In this study, leaves were extracted with 80% methanol and further fractionated with n-hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform, n-butanol, and aqueous residue. Subsequently, the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant scavenging activity, and antiproliferative effects on breast cancer (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 [MCF7]) and normal breast (Michigan Cancer Foundation-10A [MCF 10A]) cells of the extracts were measured. Additionally, molecular docking simulation of the major compounds from C. nutans extracts was conducted. The aqueous residue had the highest TPC and TFC, whereas the crude extract had the highest scavenging activity. Among the extracts, dichloromethane extract (CN-Dcm) was selected as it had the highest selectivity index (SI) (1.48). Then, the chosen extract (CN-Dcm) was proceed for further analysis. The compounds from CN-Dcm were identified using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The major compounds from CN-Dcm were further investigated through molecular docking studies. Palmitic acid and linolenyl alcohol were the compounds found in the CN-Dcm extract that exhibited the highest binding affinities with p53-binding protein Mdm-2. These results highlight the potential of C. nutans as a source of anticancer activities.
... Vinegar, produced via the complex fermentation of grain or fruits, is a worldwide popular condiment [1,2]. Many works have shown the beneficial effects of vinegar consumption on the health of human [3][4][5][6][7]. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP, Figure 1(a)), which naturally exists in a variety of fried, roasted, or fermented foods, is considered to be the main component of vinegar's flavor, nutrition, and health care function and quality [1,2,8]. ...
... Vinegar is a worldwide popular food condiment and pickling material due to its taste and flavor [7]. It also has nutrition and health care functions [4,6] and plays an important role in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) food therapy [5] ...
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Vinegar is good for health. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is the main component of its flavor, quality, and function. We hypothesized that vinegar/TMP pretreatment could induce myocardial protection of "nutritional preconditioning (NPC)" by low-dose, long-term supplementation and alleviate the myocardial injury caused by anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R). To test this hypothesis, TMP content in vinegar was detected by HPLC; A/R injury model was prepared by an isolated mouse heart and rat cardiomyocyte to evaluate the myocardial protection and mechanism of vinegar/TMP pretreatment by many enzymatic or functional, or cellular and molecular biological indexes. Our results showed that vinegar contained TMP, and its content was in direct proportion to storage time. Vinegar/TMP pretreatment could improve hemodynamic parameters, decrease lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase activities, and reduce infarct size and apoptosis in the isolated hearts of mice with A/R injury. Similarly, vinegar/TMP pretreatment could increase cell viability, decrease LDH activity, and decrease apoptosis against A/R injury of cardiomyocytes. Vinegar/TMP pretreatment could also maintain the mitochondrial function of A/R-injured cardiomyocytes, including improving oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate, reducing reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, mitochondrial permeability transition pore openness, and cytochrome c releasing. However, the protective effects of vinegar/TMP pretreatment were accompanied by the downregulation of VDAC1 expression in the myocardium and reversed by pAD/VDAC1, an adenovirus that upregulates VDAC1 expression. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate that vinegar/TMP pretreatment could induce myocardial protection of NPC due to downregulating VDAC1 expression, inhibiting oxidative stress, and preventing mitochondrial dysfunction; that is, VDAC1 is their target, and the mitochondria are their target organelles. TMP is one of the most important myocardial protective substances in vinegar.
... The second period from 2007 to 2018 was a vibrant period in this field. The phenolic compounds in different vinegars such as traditional balsamic vinegar (TBV) [26], persimmon vinegar [27], strawberry vinegar [28], and SAV [29,30] were also studied. In addition, other bioactive compounds including ligustrazine [31] and 5-hydroxy-4-phenyl-butenolide [32] in cereal vinegar, caffeoylsophorose in purple sweet potato vinegar [33], tryptophol in black soybean vinegar [34], amino acids [35], vitamins [36], melanoidins [37][38][39], polysaccharides [6,40], and anthocyanin [41] were also studied. ...
Article
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Vinegar is one of the most widely used acidic condiments. In recent decades, rapid advances have been made in the area of vinegar research, and the intellectual structure pertaining to this domain has significantly evolved. Thus, it is important that scientists keep abreast of associated developments to ensure an appropriate understanding of this field. To facilitate this current study, a bibliometric analysis method was adopted to visualize the knowledge map of vinegar research based on literature data retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) database. In total, 883 original research and review articles from between 1998 and 2019 with 19,663 references were analyzed by CiteSpace. Both a macroscopical sketch and microscopical characterization of the whole knowledge domain were realized. According to the research contents, the main themes that underlie vinegar research can be divided into six categories, that is, microorganisms, substances, health functions, production technologies, adjuvant medicines, and vinegar residues. In addition to the latter analysis, emerging trends and future research foci were predicted. Finally, the evolutionary stage of vinegar research was discerned according to Shneider's four-stage theory. This review will help scientists to discern the dynamic evolution of vinegar research, as well as highlight areas for future research.
... Also, the saccharide contents in commercial vinegars are higher than those in traditional vinegars, and this might be due to the addition of sugars during the alcoholic fermentation processes (Jang et al., 2015). Sakanaka and Ishihara (2008) reported that unpolished rice vinegar contains higher total phenolic contents compared to polished rice vinegar because unpolished rice contains the rice bran, which is rich in phenolics such as dihydroferulic acid, dihydrosinapic acid, sinapic acid, vanillic acid, and p-hydroxycinnamic acid. In the same study, apple cider vinegar was found to contain significantly lower contents of total phenolics, probably due to the raw material used. ...
... mg MDA/kg samples during the entire storage period, which was similar to the value obtained for the sodium nitritetreated group. This is probably caused by the functional materials of vinegar with antioxidant activity, such as polyphenols and flavonoids, which is similar to that of sodium nitrite-containing meat products (Choe & Kim, 2016;Sakanaka & Ishihara, 2008). In addition, jasmine tea extract in vinegar contains catechins, which show strong antioxidant activity (Benzie & Szeto, 1999). ...
Article
We evaluated the combined effect of high pressure (HP) and vinegar addition on control of Clostridium perfringens and quality in emulsion-type pork sausages. Sausages were manufactured with different levels of commercial white distilled vinegar made with jasmine tea extract (0, 1, and 2%) and sodium nitrite (0.02%, control). The sausages except for sodium nitrite treatment were subjected to HP at 500 MPa (four cycles and each for 3 min). After storage, the combined treatment of HP and vinegar showed the lowest number of C. perfringens vegetative cells (4.8-log CFU/g reduction) among the all treatments. The combined treatment also inhibited the growth of C. perfringens spores for five weeks (stored at 4 °C for two weeks followed by at 20 °C for three weeks). Among all treatment combinations, the best pH, water-holding capacity and chewiness, were found with the HP-vinegar sausage. In addition, vinegar treatment inhibited the lipid oxidation of sausage throughout the storage. Use of HP and vinegar addition inhibited growth of C. perfringens without observed adverse effects on quality of the emulsion-type sausage. Industrial relevance: Currently, the use of natural additives and novel processing technologies for replacing sodium nitrite in meat products is gaining attention owing to increase in consumer demand for nitrite-free and safe meat products. The study showed that the addition of 1% (w/v) of vinegar and pressure treatment at 500 MPa (four cycles and each for 3 min) can replace sodium nitrite to inhibit growth of C. perfringens in emulsion-type sausages.
... In recent years, studies of fruit vinegar beverages were increasingly paid attention to the diversity of fruit vinegar beverages, such as strawberry vinegar, persimmon vinegar and blueberry vinegar (Ubeda et al., 2016;Senji and Yuuya, 2008;MinSheng and Chien, 2010). However, these experiments were almost done in a triangular flask, which did not completely simulate the actual fermentation process. ...
Article
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Compared with carbonated beverages, fruit vinegar was gradually becoming more favored by consumers, because of their higher nutritional functions. But its popularization was limited by higher selling price. This article described a fruit vinegar fermentation device that can be used at home and also introduced the design principles, composition and operation methods. Furthermore, taking apple vinegar as an example, the key parameters of fermentation were determined by single-factor and orthogonal tests. In alcohol fermentation, the fermentation time, fermentation temperature and inoculation amount were 72 h, 30°C and 0.07%, respectively. In acetic acid fermentation, the fermentation temperature, ventilation and bacteria amount were 32°C, 4 L/min and 0.18%, respectively. The refreshing and fermented apple vinegar could be obtained with the total acid content of 3.6 g/100 mL. The kinetic formula between the content of acetic acid and fermentation time was calculated and acetic acid content of fruit vinegar could be determined by controlling fermentation time according to the formula. So, the device could produce different content of acetic acid of fruit vinegar automatically, without manual operation. The study was sufficient to provide reference and experience for further popularization of fruit vinegar. © 2018 Xinpeng Dai, Xiaoxue Xing, Lin Liu, Zhili Xu, Jianfeng Sun, Jie Wang and Jianlou Mu.
... Additionally, several in vitro and in vivo studies have highlighted the potential antioxidant property of the persimmon fruit and its extracts [8,9]. More specifically, persimmon vinegar can effectively inhibit lipid oxidation in fatty tuna homogenates [10] and has anti-obesity properties [11]. These biological activities are mainly attributed to the phenolic compounds. ...
Article
The changes in antioxidant capacity and phenolics of persimmon during alcoholic fermentation, acetification, and short aging were investigated. An increase in the antioxidant activity was observed when persimmon was transformed from puree to vinegar. The total content of phenolics remained stable, in contrast to the concentration of condensed tannin, which significantly (p < 0.05) increased during alcoholic and acetic fermentations, although followed by a decrease after aging. The phenolic compounds were characterized and quantitated. Gallic acid was the main phenolic compound, and its content increased by 14.4% during alcoholic fermentation and reduced by 53.5% during acetic fermentation. Additionally, the flavan-3-ol compounds increased during alcoholic fermentation and acetification. Vanillyl alcohol, (−)-epigallocatechin, and p-coumaric acid were not observed in persimmon puree but detected in persimmon wine and vinegar. These results indicate that alcoholic and acetic fermentation can improve the antioxidant capacity of persimmon fruit.
... The wine white vinegar from Meteora (Agricultural Cooperative of Trikala) (sample WW3) revealed the lowest (p < 0.05) radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, whereas the pomegranate vinegar from Ayanoglou S.A. (sample F4) exhibited the lowest (p < 0.05) TPC, compared to all samples. The apple vinegars (samples F1-F3) ( Table S3) revealed low contents for total phenolic compounds compared to most of the common vinegars, which could be attributed to the low phenolic content of the raw material used, in accordance with Sakanaka and Ishihara [28] findings. ...
Article
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Commercially available common and balsamic vinegars were examined, using a combination of spectrophotometric, chromatographic, colorimetric and spectroscopic methods. Total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, radical scavenging capacity, phenolic profile, colour parameters, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectra were comparatively studied. The main scope was the assessment of vinegar antioxidant and metabolic profiles and the identification of the most appropriate features influencing their type and subtypes. Red grape balsamic vinegars exhibited the strongest antioxidant profile. High total phenolic content and radical scavenging-antioxidant activity of vinegars was strongly correlated with high hue-angle and colour density values and low lightness and a* values. FT-IR spectra analysis confirmed the presence of organic acids and carbohydrates and, in combination with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), the occurrence of phenolic compounds. NMR spectroscopy enabled the identification of 27 characteristic metabolites in each type of vinegar. The combination of all applied techniques provides critical information on compositional differences among the vinegars and could serve as an application tool for similar fermentation products.
... Moreover, the determination of the antioxidant capacity is strongly influenced by The data are presented as mean values AE SD (n = 9); the superscript letters within each column indicate homogeneous sub-classes as resulted from ANOVA (P < 0.05; Tukey's post-hoc test). the experimental conditions and heterogeneity of matrix, so this could complicate also the comparison between the results (Sakanaka & Ishihara, 2008). ...
Article
In this work, bee pollen samples from different botanical origin were investigated for antioxidant capacity. Thereafter, a phenolic profiling was produced through a mass spectrometric untargeted metabolomic approach. Marked differences were identified in TPC, ranging from 4.2 (Magnolia) to 29.6 mg/g GAE (Lamium). Wide differences were also recorded in antioxidant capacity (ORAC, ABTS and DPPH assays). Untargeted profiling allowed annotating 467 compounds with flavonoids being the most frequent class of phenolics followed by phenolic acids, tyrosols, lignans and other. OPLS-DA clearly discriminated the most represented floral families (Umbelliferae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae), suggesting, thus, that botanical origin leaves a characteristic phenolic signature in pollen. Overall, 35 phenolics accounted for most of the discrimination, with flavonoids being the most represented class. Despite the fact that further research is needed, the phenolic profile of bee pollen is a promising tool to investigate the botanical origin.
... Balsamic vinegar showed the highest antimicrobial activity against S. aureus whereas white wine and grape vinegars (GV5) exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity on E. coli and P. aeruginosa, respectively. Priyadarshini et al. 32 evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sweet lime peel, sweet lime fruit peel combo, and sweet lime fruit vinegars against E. coli, Salmonella Typhi, and Klebsiella species. Sweet lime fruit-peel combo vinegar demonstrated the highest inhibition for growth of E. coli and Salmonella Typhi. ...
Article
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Background: The aim of this study was to discriminate commercial apple, rice, balsamic, red wine, rose, white wine, grape and pomegranate vinegars according to antimicrobial activities, total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant activities, colour parameters and predict quality characteristics of vinegars using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results: Results showed that the highest TPC (3971.43±25.00) was found in balsamic vinegar while the lowest TPC was observed in rice vinegar (14.36±0.16). Antioxidant activities of vinegars were in accordance with TPC. Grape based vinegars exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.aeruginosa). However, there were no statistically significant differences among vinegars depending on antimicrobial activities. According to principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), vinegars were classified into three groups and each group consisted of vinegars from different raw materials. Prediction models were constructed successfully using Partial Least Squares (PLS) considering whole FTIR spectral data. Conclusion: The results indicated that FTIR could be used as a rapid method to estimate antimicrobial activities, TPC, colour and antioxidant activities of vinegars.
... Antioxidants can be used to prevent diseases and oxidation of food products ( Morais et al., 2011). According to the complex nature of natural antioxidants, Sakanaka and Ishihara (2008) suggested that the use of at least two methods is recommended to evaluate and compare the antioxidant capacity of a sample. In this research, we used the procedure based on the reduction of DPPH and ABTS, stable free radicals, to investigate the free radical-scavenging activity of the bee products. ...
Article
Antioxidant activities of bee products from Thailand (honey, bee pollen and propolis) via the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate)(ABTS) assays were determined. The prediction of the EC50 (the half maximal effective concentration) were studied using the logistic, sigmoidal, dose response, and asymmetric 5 parameters (5P) regression models. The antimicrobial ability was tested against Staphylococcus aureus (TISTR 517), Bacillus cereus (TISTR 687), and Escherichia coli(TISTR 1261). Propolis extract with higher total phenolic content (TPC) exhibited more effective antiradical action against the DPPH and ABTS, followed by bee pollen extract and honey. All four regression models could be used to estimate the EC50 of the bee products. However, the dose-respond and 5P provide the better EC50 prediction for the bee products than the others based on the comparability of their results to those of right-angled triangle method. Thai bee products had effective antimicrobial activities on each test microorganism. The antimicrobial potency of the bee products was ranged in the order: propolis > bee pollen > honey. Results revealed that antioxidant activity and antimicrobial ability of the bee products correlated with the TPC values.
... This antioxidant activity was studied using four methodologies since the use of more than one method has been recommended, as such at least two methods must be performed (Sakanaka & Ishihara, 2008). All measurements described in this section were performed in triplicate. ...
Article
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This study aimed to characterize the pollen and physicochemical profiles, and to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of six samples of Moroccan honey. The pollen grains of Eragrostis spp. were predominant in all samples (from a minimum of 46.58 ± 1.59% to 72.72 ± 2.43% as a maximum), exceeding the minimum (generally 45%) required for the monoflorality nomination of a honey sample, and suggestion a case of newly reported honey. The analyzed samples had low diastase activity and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content. Potassium was the dominant element in practically all samples, except the sample with the highest Eragrostis spp. pollen percentage, which showed sodium predominance. The honey color ranged from water white to light amber, and positively correlated the concentrations of phenols, proline and the capacity for scavenging free radicals. However, great variability observed in all the analyzed parameters, and could not be explained by the variability of the Eragrostis spp. pollen percentage, which suggests a hypothesis of low concentrated nectar. The melissopalynological profile of honey is an important parameter for determining the type of honey (multifloral, monofloral, blossom, honeydew) and its relationship to the botanical and geographical provenance. There is generally a relationship between the pollen profile of honey and the biological properties. The physicochemical characterization, antioxidant activity and melissopalynological profile of Eragrostis honey was reported for the first time in this study. These data intend to contribute for the introduction of a new type of honey labeled as Eragrostis honey. At the same time, the evaluation of the antioxidant activity may also trigger the search of other biological properties with medicinal attributes for the new Eragrostis ssp. honey.
... It is higher than apple vinegar (11.2%), unpolished rice vinegar (13.5%), pomegranate vinegar (35.5%), but lower than persimmon vinegar (52.2%). The decrease of 35% is similar to that of carotenoids and total phenolic content (39%), but much lower than decrease in anthocyanin content [23,[25][26][27]. Antioxidant activity of vinegars is found to be strongly correlated with phenolic, flavonoid and total acidity; in this study, identical results have been obtained for phenolic content and total acidity. ...
Article
A mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisisae and Acetobacter aceti was found to be an effective method for improving yield and productivity of the multi-stage vinegar production process, and was optimized using a three level three factor central composite design. The maximum acetic acid concentration (60.08 g/L) was achieved with 0.3 microbe ratio, 1.4 g/L of CaCO3 and 1 day of anaerobic condition. A low-anaerobic period with low-aeration rate, low yeast to bacteria ratio and high-CaCO3 content were optimum for high-acetic acid yield. Bael vinegar is rich in phenolic (7 g/L), anthocyanin (47.33 μg/g dw), carotenoid (21.80 μg/g dw) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (45.41%). Phytochemical properties were significantly decreased in quantities during the fermentation process. The bael vinegar produced could be used as an herbal condiment.
... Fermented persimmon extract is a by-product of the persimmon industry in South Korea through aerobic fermentation for 1-2 year. As food additive, FPE produces high acetate concentration and low pH, which can reduces lipid oxidation, off-flavor, and inhibit microbial growth (Kittelmann et al., 1989;Woo et al., 2004;Sakanaka & Ishihara, 2008). The previous study showed that FPE increased acetate concentration, which has potential to improve aerobic stability (Kim et al., 2013). ...
... Vinegar is rich in carbohydrates, organic acids, alcohols and polyols, amino acids and peptides, and other volatile substances [1,2], and several studies have described its numerous health benefits. For instance, vinegar has antioxidant and anti-microbial effects [3,4], which come from flavonoids, aromatic amines, phenols, and other compounds. Vinegar can also prevent inflammation and hypertension, suppress appetite, lower serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, and decrease the glycemic index of carbohydraterich foods in individuals with and without diabetes [5]. ...
Article
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A high quality vinegar was produced from fresh Cornus officinalis fruits using a two-step fermentative process (ethanol fermentation for 15 days, followed by acetic fermentation for 7 days). The total acid percentage and total polyphenol concentration were 4.86% and 1584 mg/L, respecively. The morroniside and Loganin, as essential components of Cornus officinalis, have been well preserved in the vinegar, the concentration reached 1139.5 g/mL and 779.34 g/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the free radical-scavenging capability of C. officinalis vinegar was higher than that of other commercially available vinegars, such as Cider vinegars, Persimmon vinegar and Red wine vinegar. The results of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), and hydroxyl free radical assays revealed that the free radical-scavenging rates were 88.46%, 53.96%, and 51.43%, respectively. Compared to the control, the proportions of Clostridia and Firmicutes in the intestinal tracts of mice treated with C. officinalis vinegar decreased significantly, whereas that of Bacteroidetes markedly increased. In summary, our results indicate that C. officinalis vinegar has promising health benefits, and every effort should be made to commercialize this product.
... The TA were measured following the pH-differential method (Zapata, 2014) and TP, by the Folin-Ciocalteu reactive reduction (Zapata, 2014). Since some researchers reported differences between testing systems for AA determination, caused by synergistic interactions among the components, the use of at least two assays is recommended (Sakanaka & Ishihara, 2008). Thus, AA was determined by two procedures: 2,2´-azino-bis-(3ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS •+ ) radical-scavenging assay and 2, 2diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH • ) radicals absorbance reduction method (Zapata, 2014). ...
Article
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Blueberries are widely recognized for their beneficial health effects due to their bioactive compounds content. In addition, balsamic vinegars trade developed quickly because of their wide acceptance in gourmet food. A novel product made with second quality berries, being suitable for human consumption, i.e., blueberry balsamic vinegar, was evaluated. This work aimed to assess changes in Total Anthocyanins (TA), Total Phenolics (TP), and antioxidant activity during production process of blueberry balsamic vinegar, at the following stages: raw material, blueberries juice after enzyme treatment, blueberries alcoholic substrate, blueberries vinegar, concentrated blueberry juice and blueberries balsamic vinegar. Additionally, three alternative evaporation systems, rotary vacuum evaporator, microwave and vacuum microwave, were evaluated in order to determine the concentration method that best retains TA and TP in blueberry juice for its further use in this process. The highest TA and TP retention was achieved by blueberry juice concentration with a rotary vacuum evaporator. On the other hand, both alcoholic fermentation and acetification negatively affected those compounds and antioxidant activity during vinegar production. However, mixing with concentrated juice to obtain blueberry balsamic vinegar allowed balancing nutrient concentration reductions due to processing. The present study showed that production of blueberry balsamic vinegar gives rise to an interesting possibility to reduce losses due to fruit waste while getting added value products with healthy qualities.
... Vinegar also contains phenolic compounds and inorganic salts derived mainly from raw materials. These compounds exhibit different biological activities, such as recovery from exhaustion, antiobesity, antitumor, and antioxidant effects [6][7][8]. Unlike phenolic compounds, secondary metabolites are transformed by microorganisms during fermentation [9]. However, most studies on vinegar produced from grains, fruits, or medical plants containing a high concentration of bioactive compounds have rarely explored the correlation between metabolites and bioactive effects in the fermentation of vinegar. ...
Article
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Fermented vinegar is prepared from grains and medicinal plants. Here, we produced vinegar from peeled and unpeeled roots of bellflowers (Platycodon grandiflorum) using Acetobacter pasteurianus A11-2 and analyzed bellflower vinegar (BV) samples using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry over 15 days of fermentation to assess the quality. We also evaluated their antibacterial and immunoenhancing effects using RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The major metabolites in BV are organic acids, with the main volatile compounds being ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, 1-pentanol, hydroxypropanoic acid, and malonic acid. When we fermented BV from unpeeled roots for 10 days with a starter culture, we observed significant antibacterial and immunoenhancing effects in macrophages. Therefore, we could determine the metabolite and functional differences in vinegar obtained from bellflower roots and proposed that bellflower roots with peel are an effective substrate for developing vinegar and healthy food products.
... Additionally, the authors concluded that the antioxidant activity of pomegranate vinegar decreased during alcoholic fermentation by 17.6% during acetic fermentation. In a study developed with persimmon vinegar, apple vinegar, polished rice vinegar, and unpolished rice vinegar, researchers compared the antioxidant ability of vinegars and found that persimmon vinegar exhibited high superoxide radical-scavenging activity, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, and antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation in tuna homogenates [107]. In vivo studies have shown that fruits vinegar increased enzymatic antioxidants including superoxide dismutase (SOD) (7 fold), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) (4.81 fold), glutathione reductase (GRx) (1.66 fold), and total antioxidant status (TAS) (3.45 fold). ...
Article
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The popularity of fruits vinegar (FsV) has been increased recently as a healthy drink wealthy in bioactive compounds that provide several beneficial properties. This review was designed in the frame of valorization of fruits vinegar as a by-product with high value added by providing overall information on its biochemical constituents and beneficial potencies. It contains a cocktail of bioactive ingredients including polyphenolic acids, organic acids, tetramethylperazine, and melanoidins. Acetic acid is the most abundant organic acid and chlorogenic acid is the major phenol in apple vinegar. The administration of fruits vinegar could prevent diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, oxidative stress, cancer, and boost immunity as well as provide a remarkable antioxidant ability. The production techniques influence the quality of vinegar, and consequently, its health benefits.
... Total polyphenol content of vinegar produced from different varieties of apples Polyphenols are secondary metabolites found in most plant species, often reflecting the bitter and astringent fruit flavor. 21 Its content in the fruit differs according to the species, 22 varieties, 23 and their geographical origins. 24 As scientific literature reports, procyanidins and condensed tannins are the principal substances of most apple varieties. ...
Article
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medicine and food preservation. The phytochemical content of AV has been reported to be influenced by several factors. This study was, therefore, conducted to investigate the effects of production methods and varietal profile on the phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of AV. Four varieties of apple; Red Delicious (V1), Gala (V2), Golden Delicious (V3), and Starking Delicious (V4) were employed for the study. The V3 variety was used to prepare AV using three different methods; cutting apple into small pieces (AP), filtering apple juice (AJ), and crushing apple (CA). Then, the vinegar samples were prepared using the AP method for fermenting the four varieties of apple. Free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. The results obtained showed that the V1 variety is rich in flavonoids, and the V2 and V3 varieties are rich in flavones and flavonols, while the V4 variety contains a significant amount of carotenoids. Also, it was observed that the highest antioxidant activity was obtained in the AV prepared from the V1 variety and by CA method with IC50 values of 770.333 and 75.507 µg/mL, respectively. The highest total antioxidant capacity value of 822.266 µg EAA/mL was recorded for the V4 variety. Therefore, the findings from this study elucidate that varietal profile and production methods influence polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of AV. Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Apple vinegar, Polyphenols, Production method.
... The results were expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to control absorbance (100 %). The lower the absorbance percentage, higher the protection against the induced lipid peroxidation [32]. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the cytoprotective effect of ethanol extract of Eichhornia crassipes flowersand its fractions against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress in BRL 3A liver cells. Powdered flowers of Eichhornia crassipeswere subjected to hot continuous extraction in soxhlet extractor using ethanol as solvent material. Initially, the solvent extracts were subjected to qualitative, quantitative analysis and assessed for in-vitro free radical scavenging activity and anti-oxidant activity. The ethanol extract was fractionated using benzene, chloroform and n-butanol. The crude ethanol extract and its fractions were evaluated for its potential cytoprotective effect against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidative stress in BRL 3A cell lines.Biochemical assays were carried out to determine the cytoprotective activity, including cell viability, lipid peroxidation by determining the formation of malondialdehyde, lactate dehydrogenase leakage into culture medium, the catalase activity and the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the cells. Exposure of BRL 3A to 2mM H2O2 reduced the cell viability, increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and caused reduction in antioxidant activities. Pretreatment of cultured cells with crude ethanol extract of Eichhornia crassipes flowers and different solvent fractions at concentrations 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 μg/ml for 30 minutes before H2O2 exposure attenuated the oxidative injury in dose-dependent manner. It was observed that crude ethanol extract of Eichhornia crassipes flowers exhibited a strong cytoprotective by increasing cell viability, decreasing lipid peroxidation and LDH leakage. Further increase in catalase and reduced glutathione activity was noted in the cells pre-treated with ethanol extract of Eichhornia crassipes flowers. These findings suggest that ethanol extract of Eichhornia crassipes flowers has a strong cytoprotective activity against oxidative injury caused by reactive oxygen species.
... Antioxidant properties of bee pollen extracts were evaluated according to ORAC, DPPH, and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) assays. Indeed, according to Sakanaka and Ishihara (2008) due to the complex nature of bee pollen, it is recommended to access antioxidant activity using more than one methodology in order to avoid possible interferences. ...
Article
Bee pollen has been promoted as a dietary supplement for humans due to its nutritional and bioactive properties. Sixty-two samples of Apis mellifera dehydrated bee pollen collected in Brazil (eight states and Federal District) were analyzed for phenolic compounds, flavonoids, antioxidant activity using DPPH, b-carotene and ORAC methods, and anti-microbial activity. The values obtained for total phenolic compounds ranged from 12.60 to 84.22 mg GAE/g bee pollen while total flavonoids oscillated between 1.90 and 36.85 mg quercetin/g bee pollen. The IC 50 ranged from 0.35 to 13.42 mg bee pollen/mL of extract. The inhibition percentages ranged from 52.58 to 98.37% of bee pollen extract using the b-carotene method. When measured by the ORAC method, antioxidant activity was between 132.98 and 575.85 lmols eq. Trolox/g bee pollen. Bee pollen efficiently inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms studied. Candida albi-cans was the most resistant, while Staphylococcus epidermides was the most sensitive.
... Due to the health benefits proven by many reports (Sakanaka and Ishihara, 2008;Chen et al., 2011;Li et al., 2014;Wang et al., 2012a), there has been a growing demand for fruit vinegars, which are sold as a health food (Ou and Chang, 2009). The literature has revealed that the health benefits of fruit vinegars are profoundly dependent on their antioxidant activities (Alonso et al., 2004;Dávalos et al., 2005). ...
Article
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Fruit and vegetable waste has been widely utilized as a low-cost natural source for vinegar production. In this study, the pulp of banana (Musa acuminata ‘Gros Michel’) cv. ‘Hom Thong’ was utilized to produce vinegar using one-stage (acetous) and two-stage (alcoholic and acetous) fermentation and the obtained vinegars were assessed for their physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and polyphenolic contents. It was found that the one-stage fermentation yielded greater levels of acetic acid (5.83% volume per volume; v/v) than two-stage fermentation (5.13% v/v). The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assays, respectively, indicated that the antioxidant activity of the one-stage fermented vinegars (80.27% and 1274 μM Fe(II)/L) was greater than that of the two-stage fermented vinegars (73.20%, 1001 μM Fe(II)/L). In a similar manner, the polyphenolic content of the one-stage fermented vinegars (92.67 μg/mL) was higher than that of the two-stage fermented vinegars (68.01 μg/mL). The color parameters (L*, a*, b*) only showed significant differences in a* for the color change of the vinegars aged during days 0–100 for the one- and two-stage fermented vinegars. Moreover, it was observed that the one-stage fermented vinegars had higher levels of acetic acid, antioxidant activity and polyphenolics contents than the two-stage fermented vinegars. The results suggested that the use of banana pulp to produce vinegar via one-stage fermentation is a good choice to retain the bioactive compounds.
Conference Paper
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Considering the fact that since the second half of last century many pharmacodynamics studies have been carried out about medicinal plants in the most countries of the word and then many medicinal plants has been prepared and marketed, so it is important to study the chemical composition of plant grown in Iran. Rosa spp. belong to Rosacea family which is one of the most important species of Rosa damascene that is called "Gole Mohammadi" in Persian. Due to scent of flowers and high content of active biological compound, Damask Rose has attracted considerable attention in horticulture, biochemistry, pharmaceutical industries. Considering the fact that Damask Rosa has a high value in terms of medicine and economic and Eastern and Western Azerbaijan are the main homeland of this plants, the flowers were collected from the late may to the late June in northwestern Ian (Eastern and western Azerbaijan). Plant samples were transferred to medicinal plants laboratory of Horticulture Department of Urmia University from 26 areas and Carotenoid and Anthocyanin pigments were evaluated. All data was analyzed with three replication and simple and simple one-way analysis using SAS software (ver. 13). The result show that each 4 factors of total phenol, total flavonoids, anthocyanin and cartenoids had a significant difference in level 1 possibility.The highest amount of total phenol and total flavonoid in genotypes G1 and the highest amount of anthocyanin is in the genotype G21 and the highest amount of carotenoid is in G18 genotype.The lowest total phenol and flavonoid is in G6 and G16 genotype. The lowest anthocyanin level was observed in genotype G19. And the lowest level of carotenoid was observed in genotype G18. Generally, according to the results of the research for the the 24 genotypes of the genotype G20 were recommended for higher levels of anthocyanin and recommended for medicinal purposes and genotype G1 due to phenolic compounds is recommended.
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Vinegar is a widely used condiment in the world, and is produced from ethanol by acetic acid fermentation. Different fruits, vegetables, cereals, and wines can be used as ingredients for vinegar production. It is known that vinegar has many nutrient components such as organic acids, polyphenols, and aromatic compounds. Because of these bioactive components, it has many health benefits. China has a long history of producing vinegar and has been using it for health products and as medicine. Chinese aromatic Zhenjiang vinegar (Kozu) is produced from sticky rice. It is famous for its special flavor and health benefits. 5-Hydroxy-4-phenyl-butenolide (Fraglide-1) is a functional compound discovered in Kozu and has anti-fungal and anti-obesity effects. In this study, the Fraglide-1 content of different kinds of vinegars and ingredients, including Kozu samples and ingredients, was investigated. Fraglide-1 analysis was carried out via LC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode. It was found that all the Kozu samples, as well as brown rice vinegar (Kurosu) samples, and the Chinese sticky rice husk used for the production of Kozu, contained Fraglide-1. Kozu production requires a 6-month- to 8-year-long aging process for its special flavor and aroma. Because of this long aging process, Fraglide-1 is thought to move from the sticky rice husk to Kozu.
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Inspired by the previously reported neuroprotective activity of hederacolchiside E (1), we synthesized hederacolchiside E for the first time along with eleven of its derivatives. The neuroprotective effects of these compounds were further evaluated against H2O2- and Aβ1-42-induced injury using cell-based assays. The derivatives showed obvious differences in activity due to structural variations, and two of them exhibited better neuroprotective effects than 1 in the Aβ1-42-induced injury model. Compound 7 was the most active derivative and had a relatively simple chemical structure. Moreover, 1 and 7 can significantly reduce the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and extent of malondialdehyde (MDA) increase resulting from Aβ1-42 treatment, which demonstrated that these kinds of compounds show neuroprotective effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models via modulating oxidative stress. Compound 7 could be used as promising lead for the development of a new type of neuroprotective agent against AD.
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While the use of vinegar to fi ght against infections and other crucial conditions dates back to Hippocrates, recent research has foundthat vinegar consumption has a positive effect on biomarkers for diabetes, cancer, and heart diseases. Different types of vinegar have been used in the world during different time periods. Vinegar is produced by a fermentation process. Foods with a high content of carbohydrates area good source of vinegar. Review of the results of different studies performed on vinegar components reveals that the daily use of these components has a healthy impact on the physiological and chemical structure of the human body. During the era of Hippocrates, people used vinegar as a medicine to treat wounds, which means that vinegar is one of the ancient foods used as folk medicine. The purpose of the current reviewpaper is to provide a detailed summary of the outcome of previous studies emphasizing the role of vinegar in treatment of different diseasesboth in acute and chronic conditions, its in vivo mechanism and the active role of different bacteria.
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Water and methanol extracts of persimmon leaf tea were studied for antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities. Antioxidant activity was measured using a β-carotene bleaching method. The activity of water extract was very strong and 0.125% higher than that of 10 mM ascorbic acid. The scavenging activity against superoxide anion radicals by methanol extract was stronger than that of the water extract, while 0.05% concentration of methanol extract showed about 50% inhibition. DPPH radical-scavenging activity of water and methanol extracts was strong, and 0.1% water extract showed more than 90% inhibition. The hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity of the extracts, at 1%, was nearly equal to that of 1 mM ascorbic acid. These results show that persimmon leaf tea could be considered as a natural antioxidant source.
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Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Analyses of the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) type are convenient, simple, and require only common equipment and have produced a large body of comparable data. Under proper conditions, the assay is inclusive of monophenols and gives predictable reactions with the types of phenols found in nature. Because different phenols react to different degrees, expression of the results as a single number—such as milligrams per liter gallic acid equivalence—is necessarily arbitrary. Because the reaction is independent, quantitative, and predictable, analysis of a mixture of phenols can be recalculated in terms of any other standard. The assay measures all compounds readily oxidizable under the reaction conditions and its very inclusiveness allows certain substances to also react that are either not phenols or seldom thought of as phenols (e.g., proteins). Judicious use of the assay—with consideration of potential interferences in particular samples and prior study if necessary—can lead to very informative results. Aggregate analysis of this type is an important supplement to and often more informative than reems of data difficult to summarize from various techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that separate a large number of individual compounds .The predictable reaction of components in a mixture makes it possible to determine a single reactant by other means and to calculate its contribution to the total FC phenol content. Relative insensitivity of the FC analysis to many adsorbents and precipitants makes differential assay—before and after several different treatments—informative.
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Total polyphenols, total anthocyanins, and reduced ascorbic acid were evaluated in berries belonging to the genera Rubus, Ribes, and Aronia by means of spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the fruit extracts was tested. Total polyphenols ranged from 140.6 to 888.5 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), total anthocyanins ranged from 22.0 to 460.5 mg/100 g FW, and reduced ascorbic acid ranged from 12.4 to 153.8 mg/ 100 g FW. The average EC50 values for Aronia melanocarpa, Ribes nigrum, Ribes rubrum, Rubus fruticosus, and Rubus idaeus were 1.8, 2.8, 5.3, 6.4, and 8.2 mg FW, respectively. The results indicate that the fruits tested are good sources of natural antioxidants.
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Monitoring the development of warmed-over flavor (WOF) is critical for the quality control of meat products. This study was to modify the acid-extraction method for analyzing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) as an indicator of WOF in cooked meats. After centrifuging the extract of cooked beef, the supernatant of the extract was reacted with 80 mM TBA solution at 40 °C. The reaction between TBA and malonaldehyde was completed within 90 min, and interfering agents such as sucrose did not form any detectable color interference. The TBARS values in cooked beef samples after storage at 4 °C for zero and 7 d were 2.1 and 10.8 mg/kg, respectively. The recovery rate was between 92 and 102%. This method could be used to measure TBARS in cooked beef.
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The antioxidant activity of mycelia extracts produced from the submerged cultures of Aspergillus candidus CCRC 31543 was investigated. Inhibition of peroxidation (IP%) of mycelia acetone extracts (MAE) in linoleic acid peroxidation was equal to that of BHA and significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of α-tocopherol. As measured by the Rancimat method in lard, MAE showed marked antioxidant activity with an induction time of 8.4 h at a concentration of 200 μg/mL. MAE also exhibited strong scavenging effect on α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radicals and marked reducing power. HPLC-DAD analysis suggested that MAE possessed the antioxidant components 3,3″-dihydroxyterphenyllin, 3-hydroxyterphenyllin, and candidusin B.
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The nonvolatile fraction of the dichloromethane extract of ginger rhizomes exhibited a strong antioxidative activity using linoleic acid as the substrate in ethanol-phosphate buffer solution. The fraction was purified by chromatographic techniques to provide five gingerol related compounds and eight diarylheptanoids. Among them, 12 compounds exhibited higher activity than alpha-tocopherol. The activity was probably dependent upon side chain structures and substitution patterns on the benzene ring.
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In a major pathway of the autoxidation of methyl linolenate, peroxyl radicals of the internal hydroperoxides undergo rapid 1,3-tyclisation to form hydroperoxyepidioxides. Because linolenate hydroperoxides are relatively unstable, free radical antioxidants are much less effective in linolenate oils than in linoleate oils. Tocopherols and carotenoids effectively inhibit photosensitised oxidation of vegetable oils. Direct gas chromatographic analyses of malonaldehyde do not correlate with the TBA test. Model fluorescence studies indicate that malonaldehyde may not be so important in crosslinking with DNA. In contrast to oxidised methyl linoleate, oxidised trilinolenin does not form dimers. Although trilinolein oxidises with no preference between the 1(3)-and 2-triglyceride positions, the n-3 double bond of trilinolenin oxidises more in the 1(3)- than in the 2-position. Synthetic triglycerides oxidise in the following decreasing relative rates: LnLnL, LnLLn, LLnL, LLLn (Ln = linolenic and L = linoleic). To estimate the flavour impact of volatile oxidation products their relative threshold values must be considered together with their relative concentration in a given fat.
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The antioxidant efficiency of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, Trolox C, and catechin were evaluated for chicken breast meat in a dispersion system at 37 °C. Peroxidation was induced by adding different kinds of initiators. The initiators exhibited the following order of catalytic action: ascorbic acid/Fe2+ > hemoglobin > Cu+/H2O2 > 2,2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH). The antioxidant efficiency of the antioxidants tested depended on their phase distribution and their reactivity to the radicals in various initiation systems. Among the antioxidants tested, catechin was the most effective antioxidant for chicken breast meat oxidation under the experimental conditions.
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The reactive superoxide radical, O2-, formerly of concern only to radiation chemists and radiobiologists, is now understood to be a normal product of the biological reduction of molecular oxygen. An unusual family of enzymes, the superoxide dismutases, protect against the deleterious actions of this radical by catalyzing its dismutation to hydrogen peroxide plus oxygen.
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Publisher Summary This chapter discusses microsomal lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is a complex process known to occur in both plants and animals. It involves the formation and propagation of lipid radicals, the uptake of oxygen, a rearrangement of the double bonds in unsaturated lipids, and the eventual destruction of membrane lipids, producing a variety of breakdown products, including alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and ethers. Biological membranes are often rich in unsaturated fatty acids and bathed in an oxygen-rich, metal-containing fluid. Lipid peroxidation begins with the abstraction of a hydrogen atom from an unsaturated fatty acid, resulting in the formation of a lipid radical. The formation of lipid endoperoxides in unsaturated fatty acids containing at least 3 methylene interrupted double bonds can lead to the formation of malondialdehyde as a breakdown product. Nonenzymic peroxidation of microsomal membranes also occurs and is probably mediated in part by endogenous hemoproteins and transition metals. The direct measurement of lipid hydroperoxides has an advantage over the thiobarbituric acid assay in that it permits a more accurate comparison of lipid peroxide levels in dissimilar lipid membranes.
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Hydroxyl radicals (OH.) in free solution react with scavengers at rates predictable from their known second-order rate constants. However, when OH. radicals are produced in biological systems by metal-ion-dependent Fenton-type reactions scavengers do not always appear to conform to these established rate constants. The detector molecules deoxyribose and benzoate were used to study damage by OH. involving a hydrogen-abstraction reaction and an aromatic hydroxylation. In the presence of EDTA the rate constant for the reaction of scavengers with OH. was generally higher than in the absence of EDTA. This radiomimetic effect of EDTA can be explained by the removal of iron from the detector molecule, where it brings about a site-specific reaction, by EDTA allowing more OH. radicals to escape into free solution to react with added scavengers. The deoxyribose assay, although chemically complex, in the presence of EDTA appears to give a simple and cheap method of obtaining rate constants for OH. reactions that compare well with those obtained by using pulse radiolysis.
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Hydroxyl radicals (OH.) can be formed in aqueous solution by a superoxide (O2.-)-generating system in the presence of a ferric salt or in a reaction independent of O2.- by the direct addition of a ferrous salt. OH. damage was detected in the present work by the release of thiobarbituric acid-reactive material from deoxy sugars, nucleosides and benzoate. The carbohydrates deoxyribose, deoxygalactose and deoxyglucose were substantially degraded by the iron(II) salt and the iron(III) salt in the presence of an O2.- -generating system, whereas deoxyinosine, deoxyadenosine and benzoate were not. Addition of EDTA to the reaction systems producing radicals greatly enhanced damage to deoxyribose, deoxyinosine, deoxyadenosine and benzoate, but decreased damage to deoxygalactose and deoxyglucose. Further, OH. scavengers were effective inhibitors only when EDTA was present. Inhibition by catalase and desferrioxamine confirmed that H2O2 and iron salts were essential for these reactions. The results suggest that, in the absence of EDTA, iron ions bind to the carbohydrate detector molecules and bring about a site-specific reaction on the molecule. This reaction is poorly inhibited by most OH. scavengers, but is strongly inhibited by scavengers such as mannitol, glucose and thiourea, which can themselves bind iron ions, albeit weakly. In the presence of EDTA, however, iron is removed from these binding sites to produce OH. in 'free' solution. These can be readily intercepted by the addition of OH. scavengers.
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The structure-activity relationship of flavonoids as inhibitors of xanthine oxidase and as scavengers of the superoxide radical, produced by the action of the enzyme xanthine oxidase, was investigated. The hydroxyl groups at C-5 and C-7 and the double bond between C-2 and C-3 were essential for a high inhibitory activity on xanthine oxidase. Flavones showed slightly higher inhibitory activity than flavonols. All flavonoid derivatives except isorhamnetin (30) were less active than the original compounds. For a high superoxide scavenging activity on the other hand, a hydroxyl group at C-3' in ring B and at C-3 were essential. According to their effect on xanthine oxidase and as superoxide scavengers, the flavonoids could be classified into six groups: superoxide scavengers without inhibitory activity on xanthine oxidase (category A), xanthine oxidase inhibitors without any additional superoxide scavenging activity (category B), xanthine oxidase inhibitors with an additional superoxide scavenging activity (category C), xanthine oxidase inhibitors with an additional pro-oxidant effect on the production of superoxide (category D), flavonoids with a marginal effect on xanthine oxidase but with a prooxidant effect on the production of superoxide (category E), and finally, flavonoids with no effect on xanthine oxidase or superoxide (category F).
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The in vitro antioxidative activities of various kinds of vinegar were investigated by using a linoleic acid autoxidation model detected by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical system. An ethyl acetate extract of Kurosu (EK), a vinegar made from unpolished rice, exhibited the highest antioxidative activity in both systems. EK (5 mg) inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced edema formation (14%) and myeloperoxidase activity (52%, P< 0.01) in female ICR mouse skin. Furthermore, EK significantly suppressed double TPA application-induced H2O2 generation (53%, P< 0.01) and lipid peroxidation determined by the TBA-reacting substance level (95 %, P< 0.01). In a two-stage carcinogenesis experiment with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/TPA, EK significantly reduced the number of tumors per mouse by 36% (P<0.05) at 15 weeks after promotion. These results suggest that the antitumor-promoting effect may be partially due to the antioxidative properties of EK such as the decomposition of free radicals and interference with free radical-generating leukocytes.
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Chilling whole rice seedlings at 5 degrees C significantly increased the time needed to recover linear growth and reduced the subsequent linear rate of radicle growth. Subjecting nonchilled seedlings to a 45 degrees C heat shock for up to 20 min did not alter subsequent growth, whereas a 3 min heat shock was optimal in reducing growth inhibition caused by 2 days of chilling. The activity of five antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2), and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX; EC 1.11.1.7)] and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)-radical scavenging activity were measured in heat-shocked and/or chilled radicles. Heat shock slightly increased the activity of CAT, APX, and GR and suppressed the increase of GR and GPX activity during recovery from chilling. Increased CAT, APX, GR, and DPPH-radical scavenging activity and protection of CAT activity during chilling appear to be correlated with heat shock-induced chilling tolerance.
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Three hard winter wheat varieties (Akron, Trego, and Platte) were examined and compared for their free radical scavenging properties and total phenolic contents (TPC). Free radical scavenging properties of wheat grain extracts were evaluated by spectrophotometric and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry methods against stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH*) and radical cation ABTS*+ (2,2'-azino-di[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonate]). The results showed that the three wheat extracts differed in their capacities to quench or inhibit DPPH* and ABTS*+. Akron showed the greatest activity to quench DPPH radicals, while Platte had the highest capacity against ABTS*+. The ED50 values of wheat extracts against DPPH radicals were 0.60 mg/mL for Akron, 7.1 mg/mL for Trego, and 0.95 mg/mL for Platte under the experimental conditions. The trolox equivalents against ABTS*+ were 1.31 +/- 0.44, 1.08 +/- 0.05, and 1.91 +/- 0.06 micromol/g of grain for Akron, Trego, and Platte wheat, respectively. ESR results confirmed that wheat extracts directly reacted with and quenched free radicals. The TPC were 487.9 +/- 927.8 microg gallic acid equivalents/g of grain. No correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging capacities for DPPH* and ABTS*+ (p = 0.15 and p > 0.5, respectively).
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Dihydroferulic acid (DFA) and dihydrosinapic acid (DSA) were isolated from Kurosu (unpolished rice vinegar) as the major constituents responsible for Kurosu's radical scavenging activity. The levels of antioxidative activity of DFA and DSA in DPPH radical scavenging were higher than those of their respective structurally related compounds, ferulic acid and sinapic acid. The concentrations of DFA and DSA were low in common rice vinegar (polished rice vinegar), suggesting that Kurosu is more advantageous than rice vinegars as an antioxidative food item. As the concentrations of DFA and DSA were low in unpolished rice, too, these acids are thought to be produced in Kurosu through the process of the fermentation from ferulic acid and sinapic acid, respectively.
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Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been shown to be effective in the prevention of chronic diseases. These benefits are often attributed to the high antioxidant content of some plant foods. Apples are commonly eaten and are large contributors of phenolic compounds in European and North American diets. The peels of apples, in particular, are high in phenolics. During applesauce and canned apple manufacture, the antioxidant-rich peels of apples are discarded. To determine if a useful source of antioxidants is being wasted, the phytochemical content, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative activity of the peels of four varieties of apples (Rome Beauty, Idared, Cortland, and Golden Delicious) commonly used in applesauce production in New York state were investigated. The values of the peels were compared to those of the flesh and flesh + peel components of the apples. Within each variety, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were highest in the peels, followed by the flesh + peel and the flesh. Idared and Rome Beauty apple peels had the highest total phenolic contents (588.9 +/- 83.2 and 500.2 +/- 13.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of peels, respectively). Rome Beauty and Idared peels were also highest in flavonoids (306.1 +/- 6.7 and 303.2 +/- 41.5 mg of catechin equivalents/100 g of peels, respectively). Of the four varieties, Idared apple peels had the most anthocyanins, with 26.8 +/- 6.5 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g of peels. The peels all had significantly higher total antioxidant activities than the flesh + peel and flesh of the apple varieties examined. Idared peels had the greatest antioxidant activity (312.2 +/- 9.8 micromol of vitamin C equivalents/g of peels). Apple peels were also shown to more effectively inhibit the growth of HepG(2) human liver cancer cells than the other apple components. Rome Beauty apple peels showed the most bioactivity, inhibiting cell proliferation by 50% at the low concentration of 12.4 +/- 0.4 mg of peels/mL. The high content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative activity of apple peels indicate that they may impart health benefits when consumed and should be regarded as a valuable source of antioxidants.
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This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant vitamin C, the polyphenol content, and the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity of tomato juice, baked tomatoes, tomato sauce, and tomato soup. During the production of tomato juice and during the preparation of the other tomato products, samples were taken after different times, respectively, after each particular production step. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the content of vitamin C. The total phenolics content was analyzed spectrophotometrically by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The hydrophilic antioxidant capacity was measured by using three different methods: the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay, the ferric reducing antioxidant power test, and the photochemiluminescence assay. The vitamin C contents of the tomato products decreased during the thermal processing of tomatoes. In contrast, the total phenolics concentration and the water soluble antioxidant capacity increased.
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Thirty-six different extracts of six herbs and aromatic plants (fennel, common melilot, milfoil, lavandin cv. Super, spike lavender, and tarragon) were evaluated for their radical scavenging activity by the DPPH*, NBT/hypoxanthine superoxide, and *OH/luminol chemiluminescence methods, and for their antioxidant activity by the beta-carotene blenching test. The total phenolic content was also determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The plant material included cultivated plants and their wastes after being distilled for essential oils. Both remarkably high phenolic content and radical scavenging activities were found for the ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions among the different plant extracts. In general, the distilled plant material was found to exhibit a higher phenolic content as well as antioxidant and radical scavenging activities than the nondistilled material. Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts, and even some crude extract, of both distilled and nondistilled plants exhibited activities comparable to those of commercial extracts/compounds, thus making it possible to consider some of them as a potential source of antioxidants of natural origin.
Phenolic constituents of liquorice. VII. A new calcone with a potent radical scavenging activity and accompanying phenols
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