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Character strengths and well-being in Croatia: An empirical investigation of structure and correlates

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Abstract

We investigated relations among strengths of character in 881 students from Croatian universities. We also examined links between strengths and various well-being indices. Our conceptualization was based on the Values in Action classification system with 24 strengths organized within six superordinate virtues (Peterson & Seligman, 2004). A factor analysis led to a four-factor solution; factors were defined as Interpersonal Strengths, Fortitude, Vitality, and Cautiousness. Of these factors, Vitality (with zest, hope, curiosity, and humor as indicators) emerged as the most relevant to well-being. When examining individual strengths, zest, curiosity, gratitude, and optimism/hope emerged with the strongest associations with elevated life satisfaction, subjective vitality, satisfaction of autonomy, relatedness, and competence needs, and a pleasurable, engaging, and meaningful existence. Results have implications for understanding the structure and variability of benefits linked with particular strengths.

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... Con respecto a la satisfacción vital, se han presentado asociaciones con las fortalezas del carácter (Bayat Rizi et al., 2020;Bechler, 2020;Buschor et al., 2013;Goodman, Disabato, Kashdan, et al., 2018;Hanks et al., 2014;Kaufman, 2015;Korotkov & Godbout, 2014;Lounsbury et al., 2009;Park & Peterson, 2008a;Park et al., 2004;Porto Noronha & Martins, 2016;Proyer et al., 2011;Proyer, Gander, et al., 2013;Weber et al., 2013). Por su parte, la vitalidad, curiosidad, gratitud y esperanza presentaron las mayores asociaciones con satisfacción vital (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010). A su vez, la esperanza, vitalidad, gratitud y amor se asociaron a satisfacción vital pasada, presente y futura (Proyer et al., 2011). ...
... Hasta la actualidad, varios estudios analizaron la estructura de las fortalezas del carácter del modelo de Peterson y Seligman (2004) Por otro lado, se encontraron estructuras tetrafactoriales en: Australia (Haridas et al., 2017;Macdonald et al., 2008), Corea del Sur (Lim, 2015), Croacia (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010), y dos dimensiones en Argentina . Por su parte, Bacon (2005) planteó que las fortalezas pueden agruparse en: fortalezas focalizadas, donde se incluye la creatividad, persistencia, curiosidad, entre otras; y fortalezas de balance, que incluye a la imparcialidad, bondad, etc. ...
... A su vez, estructuras de cinco factores fueron halladas en Argentina , Australia , Estados Unidos (McGrath, 2014b;Peterson et al., 2008), España Merino et al., 2020), Israel (Littman-Ovadia & Lavy, 2012a;Weber et al., 2013), India (Choubisa & Singh, 2011;Singh & Choubisa, 2010) y en población germano parlante (Güsewell & Ruch, 2012;Höfer et al., 2019;Martínez-Martí & Ruch, 2017;Ruch et al., 2010). Por otro lado, se encontraron estructuras tetrafactoriales en: Australia (Haridas et al., 2017;Macdonald et al., 2008), Corea del Sur (Lim, 2015), Croacia (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010), Emiratos Árabes Unidos , España , Estados Unidos (Park & Peterson, 2006b;Shryack et al., 2010), India , Italia (Casali et al., 2020), Israel Shoshani, 2019;, Pakistán (Anjum & Amjad, 2020), Polonia (Najderska & Cieciuch, 2018), Portugal , . Por su parte, Bacon (2005) planteó que las fortalezas del carácter pueden agruparse en: fortalezas focalizadas, donde se incluye la creatividad, persistencia, curiosidad, entre otras; y fortalezas de balance, que incluye a la imparcialidad, bondad, etc. Finalmente, estructuras de un factor se reportaron en Australia , Brasil Seibel et al., 2015) e India Choubisa & Singh, 2011). ...
Thesis
Good character is a principal area in Positive Psychology. The current thesis assesses character strengths with mixed method: quantitative though factor analysis and qualitative using content analysis. Main purpose is evaluate and analyze the character strengths factors in participants from Ecuador, Peru and Paraguay to identify whether international findings are replicated; and verify replication in each country independently. A non probabilistic intentional sample was used: 854 university students (273 Ecuadorians, 277 Peruvians and 304 Paraguayan). Participants completed Inventario de Virtudes y Fortalezas del Carácter IVyF (Cosentino & Castro Solano, 2012) and Protocolo de Cualidades Positivas (Castro Solano & Cosentino, 2013). Main results show three character strengths factors: moderation, progress and fraternity. Secondly, this three factor model is the most parsimonious and replicable despite some differences. Finally, dimensional structure has intercultural differences because each countries have specific relations. Main conclusion show three factors of character strengths and intercultural differences in dimensional structure of each country. Data has limitations: used sample could not be an average citizen of each culture and countries were considered as national culture. Future studies should research intracultural differences in character strengths, identify causes of intercultural differences in each population and analyze character strengths in others Latin-American countries.
... Of all these character strengths, the mostly highly endorsed strengths across 75 countries involved curiosity, fairness, honesty, judgment, and kindness (McGrath, 2015). Most strengths are linked to higher levels of well-being (Peterson & Seligman, 2004;Toner et al., 2012), meaning in life (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Littman-Ovadia & Steger, 2010), academic performance (Datu & Bernardo, 2020;Lounsbury et al., 2009;Park & Peterson, 2009), coping strategies (Gustems-Carnicer & Caldéron, 2016), and reduced burnout (Allan et al., 2019). ...
... Second, although past research showed that almost all strengths relate to academic self-efficacy (Weber & Ruch, 2012), it adopted a crosssectional design which is prone to common method bias. Third, most of these studies primarily concentrated on the relationship of character strengths to subjective well-being (Datu & Bernardo, 2020;Ruch et al., 2010;Ruch et al., 2014;Toner et al., 2012), meaning in life (Datu & Yuen, 2020), and satisfaction of basic psychological needs (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010) which indirectly points to the need to explore how character strengths relate to other dimensions of optimal psychological health. Fourth, although a recent study (Datu & Bernardo, 2020) has shown that selected interpersonal strengths (i.e., fairness, kindness, teamwork, leadership, and forgiveness) are linked to increased well-being, and academic success, it did not assess the link of other strengths to student outcomes. ...
... Fairness, prudence, and hope are related to increased satisfaction with life in selected Australian high school students (Toner et al., 2012). There is also an evidence showing how hope, gratitude, curiosity, and zest have been related to increased well-being outcomes (i.e., life satisfaction, perceived satisfaction of needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, meaning in life, and subjective vitality) among Croatian students (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010). Except for forgiveness and modesty, all character strengths are linked to increase general self-efficacy among Swiss adolescents (Ruch et al., 2014). ...
Article
This research explores the association of character strengths with positive emotions, negative emotions, interdependent happiness, and academic self-efficacy in selected Filipino high school students using a longitudinal design. A survey comprising measures on character strengths, academic self-efficacy, and well-being outcomes was administered to 320 Filipino junior and senior high school students at two different time points. Results demonstrated that Time 1 fairness, Time 1 gratitude, and Time 1 hope positively predicted Time 2 academic self-efficacy after controlling for auto-regressor effects and demographic covariates such as age and gender. Time 1 love of learning positively predicted Time 2 interdependent happiness. Time 1 gratitude positively predicted Time 2 positive emotions. However, Time 1 kindness negatively predicted Time 2 affect balance. Findings underscore the importance of cultivating selected character strengths such as gratitude, fairness, hope, and love of learning in non-Western societies.
... Whereas Peterson and Seligman's (2004) original classification of character strengths to virtues is based on theoretical considerations, subsequent studies on individual differences in character have used techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) or exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to investigate the empirical (factor-analytical) structure of the VIA character trait space and to identify higher-level dimensions (i.e., factors or principal components) on which to aggregate the 24 character strengths (e.g., Anjum & Amjad, 2019;Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Macdonald et al., 2008;McGrath, 2015;Peterson et al., 2008;Ruch et al., 2010;Shryack et al., 2010;Singh & Choubisa, 2010). However, these studies have not led to a consensus regarding the most useful global level(s) of abstraction on which to aggregate the 24 VIA character strengths. ...
... Most of these studies employed exploratory factor-analytical techniques (e.g., PCA or EFA) to identify a single most useful or plausible global level in the solutions-hierarchy on which to aggregate the variance contained in the 24 character strengths. The number of factors or components that were retained varied widely across these studies: one (Noronha et al., 2015;Seibel et al., 2015;Singh & Choubisa, 2009), three (Castro Solano & Cosentino, 2018;Duan et al., 2012;McGrath, 2015;McGrath & Wallace, 2019;Redfern et al., 2014;Shryack et al., 2010), four (Anjum & Amjad, 2019;Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Macdonald et al., 2008;Najderska & Cieciuch, 2018;Petkari & Ortiz-Tallo, 2018;Xie, 2015), or five (Azañedo et al., 2014;H€ ofer et al., 2019;Littman-Ovadia, 2015;Littman-Ovadia & Lavy, 2012;McGrath, 2014McGrath, , 2015Peterson et al., 2008;Peterson & Seligman, 2004;Ruch et al., 2010;Singh & Choubisa, 2010). 6 According to Ng et al. (2017), five-dimensional solutions appear to be most common, whereas other authors have highlighted a three-dimensional solution comprising the dimensions caring (interpersonal strengths), inquisitiveness (intellectual strengths), and self-control (intrapersonal strengths) as most reproducible across different VIA instruments, samples, and analytical strategies (McGrath, 2015;McGrath et al., 2018;McGrath & Wallace, 2019). ...
... Second, sample composition and quality varied widely across previous studies. Most studies were based either on student samples (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Duan et al., 2012;Macdonald et al., 2008;Noronha et al., 2015;Petkari & Ortiz-Tallo, 2018;Singh & Choubisa, 2009Xie, 2015) or on convenience samples that were biased toward a specific demographic group (e.g., the highly educated or females; e.g., Azañedo et al., 2014;Castro Solano & Cosentino, 2018;Littman-Ovadia, 2015;McGrath, 2014McGrath, , 2015McGrath & Wallace, 2019;Ng et al., 2017;Peterson et al., 2008;Redfern et al., 2014;Seibel et al., 2015;Shryack et al., 2010). Such selective samples are likely to suffer from restriction of range and reduced variance, which may limit the number of relevant dimensions that can be identified. ...
Article
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The Values in Action (VIA) framework maps 24 character strengths onto six more abstract virtues through a theoretical classification. However, compared to other individual difference constructs, there is little consensus about the factor-analytic structure of the VIA trait space. Applying Horn’s parallel analysis, Goldberg’s Bass-ackwards approach, and cross-country congruency analysis, we scrutinize the factor-analytic solutions-hierarchy of the 24 VIA strengths with the aim to identify one or more useful global levels of abstraction (akin to the Big Five, HEXACO/Big Six, or personality metatraits). We assessed the 24 character strengths with the psychometrically refined IPIP-VIA-R inventory in two large and heterogeneous samples from Germany and the UK (total N ≈ 2,000). Results suggested that three global dimensions suffice to capture the essence of character strengths: Level III recovered more than 50% of the total variation of the 24 character strengths in well-interpretable, global/general, cross-culturally replicable dimensions. We provisionally labeled them positivity, dependability, and mastery. Their superordinate Level-II-dimensions were reminiscent of the “Big Two” personality metatraits Dynamism and Social Self-Regulation. Our results advance the understanding of the VIA character trait space and may serve as a basis for developing scales to assess these global dimensions.
... Tablo 2 incelendiğinde, yirmi dört karakter gücünün; üç (Littman-Ovadia & Lavy 2012;McGrath, 2014;Peterson vd., 2008;Shryack vd., 2010); dört (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Macdonald vd., 2008;Shoshani & Aviv, 2012) ve en fazla beş boyutta (Ruch vd., 2010;Singh & Choubisa, 2010) gruplandığı görülmektedir. ...
... Ancak ilgili alan yazında karakter güçleri ve erdemleri ölçmeyi amaçlayan ölçme araçları 24 karakter gücü konusunda benzer bulguları ortaya koymalarına rağmen bu güçler her zaman 4 boyutta toplanmamıştır. Karakter güçlerinin farklı yaş gruplarındaki örneklem gruplarında farklı boyutlarda gruplandığı ve bu araştırmalarda boyutların isimlerinin farklılaştığı görülmüştür (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Littman-Ovadia & Lavy 2012;McGrath, 2014;Ruch vd., 2010). ...
Article
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Bu araştırmanın amacı Shoshani (2018) tarafından geliştirilen Karakter Güçleri Envanteri Erken Çocukluk Formu'nun Türkçeye uyarlanarak geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmasının yapılmasıdır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, okul öncesi eğitim kurumlarına devam eden 4-6 yaş çocukların ebeveynlerinden 311 araştırma verisi elde edilmiştir. Envanterin orijinal formu 96 madde, 24 alt faktör ve 4 temel boyuttan oluşmaktadır. Uyarlanan envanterden elde edilen veriler ile orijinal formun yapısına uygunluğunu incelemek için doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA) yapılmış, DFA sonucunda ölçeğin orijinal formunun korunduğu görülmüştür. Envanterin güvenirlik analizleri için iç tutarlık katsayıları ve düzeltilmiş madde toplam korelasyonları hesaplanmıştır. Elde edilen Cronbach alfa katsayıları kişilerarası güçler boyutu için 0.91; entelektüel güçler boyutu için 0.86; ölçülülük boyutu için 0.88 ve aşkınlık boyutu için 0.89 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Yapılan analizler neticesinde Karakter Güçleri Envanteri Erken Çocukluk Formu'nun Türk kültüründe geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı olduğu belirlenmiştir. ABSTRACT The purpose of the current study is to adapt the Character Strengths Inventory for Early Childhood developed by Shoshani (2018) to Turkish by conducting its validity and reliability studies. To this end, a total of 311 research data were collected from the parents of 4-6 year olds attending preschool institutions. The original form of the inventory consists of 96 items, 24 sub-factors and 4 main dimensions. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was run to investigate the compliance of the data collected from the adapted inventory with the construct of the original form and as a result of this CFA, it was found that the construct of the original scale was retained. For the reliability analyses of the scale, internal consistency coefficients and item total correlations were calculated. The calculated Cronbach alpha coefficients are as follows: 0.91 for the Interpersonal Strengths dimension; 0.86 for the Intellectual Strengths dimension; 0.88 for the Temperance dimension and 0.89 for the Transcendence dimension. As a result of the analyses, it was concluded that the Character Strengths Inventory for Early Childhood can be used as a valid and reliable measurement tool in the Turkish culture.
... Before the pandemic, there is evidence supporting how gratitude relates to sense of relatedness among a sample in an online platform in Australia (Naqshbandi et al., 2020), undergraduate students in Singapore (Lee et al., 2015), early adolescents in China (Tian et al., 2016), undergraduate students in Croatia (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010), and college students in the United States (Kashdan et al., 2009). Apart from the direct link of gratitude to relatedness, research suggests that the basic needs for relatedness can predict subsequent gratitude (Lee et al., 2015). ...
... Self-determination theory proposes that fulfilment of basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy, and competence can foster achievement and well-being outcomes (Ryan & Deci, 2000. Before the pandemic outbreak, there is evidence suggesting that students with fulfilled needs for relatedness tend to achieve higher levels of well-being in China (Tian et al., 2016), Croatia (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010), and Norway (Leversen et al., 2012). Even during the COVID-19 pandemic, there is evidence highlighting the mental health benefits of fulfilling relatedness needs in various contexts (Behzadnia & FatahModares, 2020;Cantanero et al., 2020). ...
Article
Objectives: Although gratitude relates to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) well-being outcomes in the United States, more evidence is needed to understand how this psychological strength reciprocally relates to mental health during this pandemic. This study examines the association of gratitude with stress, anxiety, and depression among undergraduate students in the United States via a longitudinal design. Methods: An online survey was administered to 643 undergraduate students in a public university located in the southeastern region of the United States. There was a 1-month interval between the first and second waves of data collection. Results: Cross-lagged panel structural equation modeling showed that whereas gratitude positively predicted subsequent relatedness needs satisfaction, it negatively predicted later stress, anxiety, and depression. Relatedness needs satisfaction was reciprocally linked to subsequent gratitude. Conclusion: Results suggest that gratitude might serve as a protective psychological resource against the detrimental mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Strengths were assigned to virtue categories on theoretical and not empirical grounds. Studies examining the factor structure of the classification usually report 4-or 5-factor solutions (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Ruch et al., 2010). ...
... It shows good psychometric properties (Park, Peterson, & Seligman, 2006) and has been widely used in research. Due to its being a web-based technology and the popularity of this instrument in research and clinical work, more than one million people have completed the VIA-IS thus far (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Peterson, Ruch, Beermann, Park, & Seligman, 2007). Park, Peterson, and Seligman (2006) collected a vast sample of participants from fifty-four nations and all fifty US states, and investigated the relative prevalence of character strengths. ...
Article
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Character strengths and life satisfaction of Slovenian in-service and preservice teachers were researched. The VIA-IS self-assessment questionnaire has been translated into the Slovenian language and has been used for the first time in Slovenia. A total of 173 primary school teachers and 77 student teachers from the Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana, completed the VIA-IS and the Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaires. The highest reported strengths in both groups studied were fairness, kindness, integrity and love. Unexpectedly, both in-service and pre-service teachers reported low endorsements of creativity; inservice teachers also showed low endorsement of humour. Surprisingly, the lowest endorsed strength of pre-service teachers was love of learning. Correlations between strengths and life satisfaction were consistent with related research findings. Low endorsement of creativity, teachers’ humour and students’ love of learning are discussed. From the research findings, it can be concluded that professional environment should stimulate, as well as provide support and opportunities for teachers to build not only upon the strengths of humanity and justice, but also on those of wisdom and knowledge. There is a need in the undergraduate level of teacher education for systematic interventions regarding students’ intellectual strengths with a special focus on cultivating their creativity.
... Based on the other factor determination criteria, and low cross-loadings, the four-factor solution was found to be more interpretable than the six-factor solution. This finding is consistent with previous studies that examined the factor structure of VIA-IS which suggested a four-factor solution (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Macdonald et al., 2008;Ruch et al., 2010;Shryack et al., 2010). However, the character strengths associated with the corresponding four virtues in this study are not similar to character strengths associated with four virtues in the previous studies. ...
... Furthermore, the differences in the loading of character strengths onto different factors may be attributed to the study sample, the study context, and the measurement tool. The previous studies were conducted in various countries to examine the factor structure of the VIA-IS in the general population (Ng et al., 2017;Shryack et al., 2010), including college students (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Macdon-ald et al., 2008). Nevertheless, this is likely the first study to examine the factor structure of VIA-72 using a sample of individuals with MS. ...
Article
Background: Research on character strengths in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) is lacking. Moreover, measures of character strengths have not been validated in this population, limiting the opportunities for further investigation. Objective: To investigate the factor structure of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA)-72 in a sample of individuals with MS. Methods: This quantitative descriptive study included 624 individuals with MS. The factor structure of the VIA-72 was examined using principal component analysis. The internal consistency reliability and validity were assessed by computing Cronbach’s alphas and correlations of the VIA-72 with other psychosocial constructs, respectively. Findings: The principal component analysis revealed an interpretable four-factor structure of the VIA-72: intellectual and emotional strengths, temperance, transcendence, and interpersonal strengths. The factors significantly correlated with measures of quality of life, resilience, social support, depression, fatigue, and personality traits, indicating good concurrent validity. The four factors did not completely align with Peterson and Seligman's (2004) classification system. Conclusions: The four-factor structure of the VIA-72 seems to be interpretable, valid, and reliable. Measures like VIA-72 may help rehabilitation professionals learn more about the nature and development of character strengths among persons with MS and suggest ways to cultivate it. Further studies are indicated to confirm the factor structures and psychometric properties of this scale in persons with MS. Keywords: character strengths; multiple sclerosis; quality of life; rehabilitation
... Several studies have reported on the factor structure of the VIA-IS (see Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Littman-Ovadia & Lavy, 2012;Macdonald, Bore, & Munro, 2008;McGrath, in press;Peterson, Park, Pole, D'Andrea, & Seligman, 2008;Ruch et al., 2010;Shryack, Steger, Krueger, & Kallie, 2010;Singh & Choubisa, 2010). Most of these findings have revealed that four-or five-dimensional models best fit the data. ...
... It implies that the generalizability of the originally propounded classification system is of particular importance. Previous research has demonstrated the cross-cultural generalizability of the VIA-IS to non-US populations; specifically, several studies have examined its psychometric properties, its factorial structure, and the prevalence and demographic correlates of the character strengths measured in Japan (Shimai et al., 2006), United Kingdom (Linley et al., 2007), Switzerland Ruch et al., 2010), Australia (Macdonald et al., 2008), India (Singh & Choubisa, 2010), Croatia (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010), and Israel (Littman-Ovadia & Lavy, 2012). ...
... We posit that provision of security resources which take into account employees' positive traits, such as self-efficacy, optimism and resilience, can have a significant impact on users' security compliance. Positive traits are natural and authentic qualities of a person and are sources of intrinsic motivation to use and energize (Brdar and Kashdan 2010) The originality of the research stems from examining the potential effect of positive factors including both personal traits and enabling security resources on the energetic level of security behavior. We put forward that organizational security policies which are built based on these two determinants might increase employees' security compliance. ...
... Positive traits refer to positive characters of a person in life, such as compassion and self-control. Positive traits are natural and authentic qualities of a person and are sources of intrinsic motivation to use and energize (Brdar and Kashdan, 2010). Positive Psychology also emphasizes the importance of establishing an enabling institution that nurtures positive emotions and characters in people (Krentzman, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
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Abstract: The article "Sharing of teaching staff information via QR-code usage" presented at the conference, which has the common name "Information Systems Management and Evaluation ». One of the most famous information systems in user practice is an information system - "Human Resources Information System" (HRIS), which is essentially a database of the HR organization, which in itself does not provide any management decisions and need a special person who to this database is constantly filled and made changes. In this article, based on the analysis of empirical data is offered a specific solution for database management of HRIS remotely by members of the company. The process of personnel management becomes more effective and operational with the help of one of the technologies IoT- QR code. University Information about the instructors are constantly changing and the human resources department is necessary each time to make changes to the database. There are cases when you need urgent information on the teacher, and it is impossible to obtain an instant on a number of subjective reasons. QR code technology offers amazing features such as: 1. Easy access 2. Deeper relationship with customers 3. Bridge online and offline media 4. Real-time information 5. Invoke user's curiosity These technologies can provide information about the teachers for students, undergraduates, doctoral students, researchers and administration. Files using this technology consist of not only text but also videos in 3D animation. This article describes a practical example of the use of IoT technologies - QR code to improve the efficiency of the automated human resource management system (for example, Almaty Management University).The purpose of this work: to show the ways to improve the information system "Human Resources Information System” (HRIS) through the use of user-friendly, intuitive and fast QR code technology. The object of study: the work of the personnel department, IC ‘Human Resources Information System’ (HRIS) 6. Research model: observation, cross sectional model 7. Variables: behavioral variables 8. Methodology: analysis of the usage and importance of QR code for users. 9. The results of studies: the formation of stable opinion of the importance of the QR code. 10. Criteria for evaluation of thinking: creativity, innovation and technological advancement 11. Findings: not fully disclosed the potential of QR code technology has a significant impact on society. Practical implications: all the legal information about the instructors optically encoded from paper, which definitely contributes to the idea of open systems. It provides simplicity and high reading speed and user interaction with the information. Keywords: QR code, human resource information system, new content, IoT and IoE, physical web, file formats 1
... Despite being applied worldwide, this six-factor model, however, has not been found in empirical studies exploring the dimensionality of the construct; in the original study, the structure included five factors (Peterson & Seligman, 2004), similarly to the studies by Azañedo, Fernández-Abascal and Barraca (2014) and by Ruch, Martínez-Martí, Proyer and Harzer (2014). Structures with four (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010) and three (McGrath, 2015) dimensions have also been found. ...
... Thus, the data were explored. The unidimensional structure, found by exploratory analysis, corroborates the structure originally found by the authors (Noronha et al., 2015) and the character strengths model presented by Seibel et al. (2015) in the Brazilian context, similarly to other countries, where alternative models to the original have also been found (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;McGrath, 2015;Noronha & Zanon, 2018). The differences between models represent the mutable nature of the character strengths of individuals and their affectability by culture. ...
Article
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This study assesses the prevalence of character strengths among Northeastern Brazilians to, more specifically, gather new psychometric evidence by applying the Character Strengths Scale (CSS) to a sample of 383 people (Mage = 27.81; SD = 10.83), mostly single (73.1%) women (65.4%) from Paraíba, Brazil (24.3%), who completed the CSS and answered demographic questions. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the unidimensionality of the scale, with the 24 strengths of character loading on the factor with an eigenvalue of 9.69, explaining 43% of the variance, and with factor loadings ranging from 0.41 (forgiveness) to 0.72 (zest). Cronbach's alpha (0.94) and McDonald's omega (0.95) indicated satisfactory scale reliability. Furthermore, descriptive statistics were calculated to identify the most prevalent strengths in the Brazilian Northeast, namely, gratitude, kindness, curiosity, fairness, love of learning and hope, in decreasing order. Evidence is presented for the use of the CSS as well as the influence of culture and region on the prevalence of character strengths.
... Prior studies have investigated the relationships of character strengths to well-being and mental health outcomes mostly in western and individualist countries (Allan, 2015;Blanca, Ferragut, Ortiz-Tallo, & Bendayan, 2018;Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Hausler et al., 2017;Martínez-Martí & Ruch, 2014;Ruch et al., 2010). Character strengths are associated with positive psychological outcomes (Blanca et al., 2018;Gillham et al., 2011;Martínez-Martí & Ruch, 2014). ...
... Previous research clearly underscores the benefits of character strengths on well-being (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Martínez-Martí & Ruch, 2014;Ruch et al., 2010;Shoshani & Slone, 2013;Weber, Wagner, & Ruch, 2016), academic performance (Lounsbury, Fisher, Levy, & Welsh, 2009;Wagner & Ruch, 2015), and positive relational outcomes Weber & Ruch, 2012). However, little is known about the role that character strengths play in students' stigma towards SEN. ...
Article
Studies have consistently shown that character strengths predict many well-being and positive outcomes. However, there is sparse research on how these strengths relate to stigma towards individuals with special educational needs (SEN). This study addresses this gap through exploring the link of using humanity-oriented strengths (i.e., kindness, love, and social intelligence) to stigma and acceptance towards people with SEN via a cross-sectional design. A survey packet containing questionnaires about kindness, love, social intelligence, and stigma towards SEN, was administered to 210 Filipino undergraduate students. Results showed that gender positively predicted stigma towards SEN. Kindness negatively predicted stigma even after controlling for the effects of age and gender. Results suggest that promoting opportunities to cultivate kindness might serve as valuable approach to reduce negative and discriminatory attitude towards people with special needs.
... The problem is that a varied number of factors have been elicited but none of those studies has identified a six-factor structure. For example, we have been presented with a five-factor model (McGrath, 2014;Ruch et al., 2010;Singh & Choubisa, 2010), a four-factor model (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010), a three-factor model (Khumalo et al., 2008;McGrath, 2015), or a two-factor model , and interestingly, Macdonald et al. (2008) identified both a one-factor and a four-factor model based on the 24 character strengths. It is worth noting that all of these sample cohorts comprised adults. ...
Article
This study bridges understandings of character strengths, based on McGrath and Walker’s four-factor analysis of VIA-Youth, and a key text in current Chinese moral education: The Code for Primary and Secondary Schools. We utilise two research methods, textual analysis and survey questionnaires, to garner data theoretically and empirically. Our research has three aims. First, through analysing ‘the Code’ from a VIA-Youth perspective, we identify 30 implicit character strengths, of which 11 are nominally in common with VIA-Youth. Second, we fit all the 30 strengths into the four-factor model through textual analysis. Third, we test the model by factor-analysing student self-report surveys based on the Code. Our analysis reveals that one of the six extracted factors matches the adaptation of the four-factor model while the remaining five present a mix of virtue categories. Moreover, the nine clusters that constitute the Code present a high resemblance with the structuration of the components’ matrix.
... This study had two main objectives, first was to assess the relationship with well-being (Harzer & Ruch, 2015). Character strengths are directly linked to external factors, just like having good education, a balanced or stable social characteristic, such as gratitude, love, hope, curiosity and vitality are strongly linked or related to satisfaction with life (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Park, 2004). Satisfaction with life is influenced positively by strong strengths of love and gratitude. ...
Article
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The present study aims to find out the impact of character strength on life satisfaction of adolescents from Punjab, whereas, authoritative parenting style moderated the relationship between character strength and life satisfaction. The sample comprised of 410 adolescents from both genders equally with age range of 10-17 years selected through simple random sampling technique. Participants were taken from four metropolitan cities (Multan, Lahore, Faisalabad and Rawalpindi) of Punjab. Three self-report measures were employed in this research; Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth (VIA-Youth) developed by Park & Peterson (2006), Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) and Parental Authority questionnaire (Buri, 1991). The collected data were analyzed through SmartPLS (3.0). Findings of study indicated that there was significant positive impact of character strength on life satisfaction. While, the moderation analysis confirmed significant moderating role of authoritative parenting style between character strength and life satisfaction of adolescents. The findings of this research would be helpful for parents and consultants to understand the major role of authoritative parenting style in shaping the character strength among their children. Key Words: Character strength; Life Satisfaction; Authoritative Parenting & Adolescents
... As shown in Table 1, VIA-IS classifies 24 strengths into six virtues. In addition to the virtue classification, there are also attempts to identify the factor structure of personal strengths by focusing on the details of these strengths (e.g., Peterson, 2006;Peterson et al., 2008;Brdar & Kashdan, 2010). In Harzer & Ruch's (2015) study, a five-factor structure was adopted based on previous studies, which are emotional strengths, interpersonal strengths, strengths of restraint, intellectual strengths, and theological strengths (Table 2). ...
... There has been many studies showing that human strengths become a modality of achieving mental health. Some characters of strengths, namely hope, zest, gratitude, love curiosity and optimism, were strongly associated with increasing of life satisfaction, subjective vitality, satisfaction of autonomy, relatedness, and competence needs, and a pleasurable, engaging, and meaningful existence (Park, Peterson, & Seligman, 2004;Brdar & Kashdan, 2010). In addition, the factors of strength, in this case, Temperance, Vitality, Transcendence, were associated independently with the well-being and happiness (Toner, Haslam, Robinson & Williams, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
Buginese are the tribe which has the third largest number of population in Indonesia. Buginese comes from South Sulawesi and then scattered in various areas in Indonesia. Bugis has six main values that should be internalized by every Buginese since childhood. These values are siri na pesse (self-respect and solidarity), lempu (honesty), Acca (cleverness), asitinajang (appropriateness / fairness), getteng (firmness) and akkareso (effort). If a Buginese can internalize these values and implement them in everyday life then one may achieve mental health. This paper aims to provide an overview of the relationship the Buginese values system with mental health as well as provide a description of the storytelling method used to socialize six main Buginese values. Storytelling is an appropriate pedagogical strategie used for early childhood development. Implementation of storytelling is mainly carried out within the family informally by parents to their children. Moreover, it can be applied in schools more formally by teachers to students. Observers and developers of storytelling method can help in realizing this idea by providing socialization and training of storytelling, also facilitate parents to record a tale made. It is also important for parents to understand the main Buginese values from various sources.
... A small body of research suggests strengths and academic meaning may be positively related. In samples of both college students and adults (Brdar and Kashdan 2010;Wagner et al. 2018), all character strengths measured by the VIA-IS were shown to be positively related to the experience of meaning in life. Further, college students who participated in a positive psychology course that focused on character strengths, including a number of strengths-based assignments and in-class experiential activities (e.g., taking the VIA-IS, writing about their best possible life), reported increased meaning compared to students taking other psychology courses (Smith et al. 2020). ...
Article
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College presents a number of challenges to new students. Few studies have examined how students’ strengths may positively impact their college experience and what factors may promote or impede their success. This study examined the relationship between strengths use and academic satisfaction, academic meaning, and leadership, as well as the influence of two environmental moderators—strengths barriers and environmental support. Participants included 371 newly matriculated undergraduate students at a large, public university in the United States. Results partially supported our hypotheses and revealed a number of important relations. Specifically, strengths use did not predict academic satisfaction; however, strengths barriers negatively predicted academic satisfaction and environmental support positively predicted academic satisfaction. Further, neither strengths barriers nor environmental support moderated the relationship between strengths use and academic satisfaction. Strengths use and environmental support positively predicted academic meaning, and strengths barriers negatively predicted academic meaning. Moreover, strengths barriers and environmental support did not moderate the relation between strengths use and academic meaning. Finally, strengths use positively predicted leadership, and strengths barriers negatively predicted leadership; however, environmental support did not significantly predict leadership. Strengths barriers, and not environmental support, moderated the relation between strengths use and leadership. Implications of these findings are discussed.
... The structure of the 24 character strengths was analyzed and second-order components were found. Principal component analysis pointed to a four-factor solution, in line with some other studies (Brdar, & Kashdan, 2010;Macdonald, Bore, & Munro, 2008), while others identified five or three factors (e.g. Martínez-Martí & Ruch, 2017;McGrath, 2014). ...
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The Covid-19 pandemic obliged people around the world to stay home and self-isolate, with a number of negative psychological consequences. This study focuses on the protective role of character strengths in sustaining mental health and self-efficacy during lockdown. Data were collected from 944 Italian respondents (mean age = 37.24 years, SD = 14.50) by means of an online survey investigating character strengths, psychological distress and Covid-19-related self-efficacy one month after lockdown began. Using principal component analysis, four strengths factors were extracted, namely transcendence, interpersonal, openness and restraint. Regression models showed that transcendence strengths had a strong inverse association with psychological distress, and a positive association with self-efficacy. Openness showed an unexpected direct effect on psychological distress. These results provide original evidence of the importance of character strengths, and transcendence strengths in particular, in supporting mental health and self-efficacy in a pandemic and are discussed within the field of positive psychology.
... Two major perspectives can be distinguished in the literature: possessing strengths and the actual use of them [2]. While possessing and knowing strengths has been positively associated with life satisfaction, a pleasurable and meaningful existence, vitality and well-being [3,4], Govindji and Linley [5] as well as Wood et al. [2] suggested that merely knowing one's strengths is not enough but that using one's strengths is what yields the most valuable outcomes. Govindji and Linley [5] supported their claims by showing that strength use improves subjective and psychological well-being, whereas the knowledge of one's strengths was no significant predictor for either. ...
Article
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The Strength Use and Deficit Correction (SUDCO) Questionnaire has been shown to be a reliable instrument for the measurement of its four dimensions perceived organizational support for strengths use , perceived organizational support for deficit correction , strengths use behavior , and deficit correction behavior in the context of organizations. This paper aims to adapt and validate the SUDCO for the German-speaking population (SUDCO-G). Three studies were conducted. Confirmatory factor analyses and correlations with other psychological constructs on the data of three German samples ( N 1 = 302; N 2 = 243, N 3 = 295) were performed. The twenty-four item SUDCO-G exhibits the anticipated factorial structure with four factors and an acceptable model fit in all three studies ( CFI = .920-.937, TLI = .911-.929, RMSEA = .063-.079, SRMR = 0.52-.075). The associations of the four dimensions to other constructs concur with previous findings (study 2) and the subscales of the SUDCO-G also show positive relations with general strengths use, meaning of work and Psychological Capital (study 3). We conclude that the SUDCO-G is a reliable and valid instrument for the use in the German-speaking population.
... Individuals who reported higher level of character strengths also reported greater life satisfaction (Park et al., 2004). Studies demonstrate that CSs are positively associated with various indicators of wellbeing (e.g., Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Buschor et al., 2013;Douglass & Duffy, 2015;Hausler et al., 2017;Martínez-Martí & Ruch, 2014;Ruch et al., 2007). Of the 24 character strengths, zest, hope, curiosity, gratitude and love, called "happiness strengths" (Littman-Ovadia et al., 2017) were more positively associated with psychological and subjective wellbeing, life satisfaction, and happiness than others (e.g. ...
Article
In previous studies, using one’s Signature Strengths (SS) in a new way for one week, enhanced happiness and alleviated depression in Western cultures; but, whether this holds true in non-Western nations is unknown. Thus, we replicated Seligman et al.’s (2005) original study to explore the distribution of character strengths in Saudi Arabia, examine their link to happiness and depression, and evaluate the effect of using one’s signature strengths for one week. A sample of 377 Saudis aged 18 to 68 completed the Steen Happiness Index, Beck Depression Inventory, and Values In Action (VIA) survey and were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups: using SS alone, using SS with reminder, or, the control group. The highest strengths were honesty, kindness, fairness, appreciation of beauty, and judgment, while the lowest were self-regulation, zest, and humility. Positive correlations were found between happiness and hope, gratitude, zest, and curiosity, while negative correlations were found between depression and zest and hope. All participants, independent of the experimental group, reported being happier and less depressed (p < .005) post-intervention; yet, our results showed more modest results than Seligman et al.’s (2005) study. Participants receiving a reminder also reported the highest level of happiness. Such findings provide insights for further research and evidence of potential cultural differences to consider when tailoring this intervention to the Middle Eastern region.
... Research has shown the relationship between character strengths and life satisfaction and psychological well-being at different stages of human life (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Ovejero et al., 2016;Park et al., 2004;. Similarly, the scientific literature reports that in adolescence, inverse relationships of character strengths have been found with psychopathological characteristics, but positive relationships with the perception of family environment and life satisfaction (Giménez, 2010), even as predictors of well-being (Gillham et al., 2011), as well as positive relationships with academic self-efficacy, school success and appropriate behavior in the classroom , including the association of character strengths with vocational interests (Proyer et al., 2012). ...
Article
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The Growing up Strong Program has been designed within the framework of positive psychology as an exercise in character education based on the identification, recognition, and use of character strengths among teenagers in secondary school. The study explores the role of mental health (understood as proper psychosocial functioning) in the promotion of adolescent psychological well-being and positive youth development. The aim of this research was to evaluate the resources of the subjects following their participation in the Program. The sample comprised 221 male and female adolescents, aged between 12 and 15. The data were collected using the Scale of Psychological Well-Being for Adolescents and the Factors in Youth Development Scale, both with demonstrated reliability and validity. The results showed, after the Program: good levels of positive youth developmental resources (self-esteem, optimism, self-efficacy and future orientation); evidence of prevention of psychosocial risk behaviors, specifically in relation to raised awareness of substance use, alcohol consumption and smoking, and non-specifically in relation to social-relational risks; good levels of life satisfaction and psychological well-being; positive correlations between positive youth development, psychological well-being, life satisfaction and prevention of psychosocial risks. It can be concluded that the Growing up Strong Program is an instance in character, emotional and well-being education, which generates a healthy network among adolescent users in the educational community.
... Pokazalo se kako su pojedinci s višim rezultatom na sve tri dimenzije, odnosno osobe koje teže "ispunjenom životu" značajno zadovoljnije životom od onih s niskim rezultatima na sve tri dimenzije istovremeno (Peterson i sur., 2005). Osim za zadovoljstvo životom, orijentacije su se pokazale relevantnima i za doživljavanje pozitivnog i negativnog afekta, kao i za različite karakterne snage povezane sa zadovoljstvom životom (Brdar i Kashdan, 2010;Peterson i sur., 2005;Peterson, Ruch, Beermann, Park, i Seligman, 2007;Vella-Brodrick, Park, i Peterson, 2009). Iako je važnost orijentacija prema sreći za subjektivnu dobrobit i zadovoljstvo životom potvrđena, istraživanja se do sada nisu sustavno bavila pitanjem činitelja koji utje-ču na njihovo formiranje. ...
Article
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Istraživanje načina na koji pojedinci konceptualiziraju sreću, odnosno njihovih uvjerenja o tome što čini sretan život predstavlja važan element razumijevanja subjektivne dobrobiti jer ova uvjerenja ne reflektiraju samo njihova razmišljanja već i utječu na subjektivni osjećaj sreće. Istraživanja takvih uvjerenja pokazala su da postoje tri temeljne orijentacije koje naglašavaju mogućnost dostizanja sreće putem ugodnog, smislenog ili angažiranog života. S obzirom na to da nije dovoljno poznato koji činitelji doprinose razvoju spomenutih orijentacija, na uzorku od 415 sudionika provedeno je istraživanje čiji je cilj bio odrediti ulogu religioznosti, društvene ideologije i pet moralnih temelja koji uključuju brižnost, pravednost, lojalnost prema vlastitoj skupini, poštovanje autoriteta te tjelesnu i duhovnu čistoću u objašnjenju orijentacija prema sreći. Dobiveni rezultati izdvojili su moralne temelje lojalnosti i podložnosti autoritetu te liberalniju društvenu ideologiju i mlađu životnu dob kao statistički značajne prediktore orijentacije prema ugodnom životu. Uz to, moralni temelji brižnosti, lojalnosti i čistoće, kao i liberalnija društvena orijentacija, predviđali su izraženiju orijentiranost prema angažiranom životu, pri čemu se brižnost, zajedno s religioznošću, pokazala i kao značajan prediktor orijentacije prema smislenom životu. Dobiveni rezultati pokazuju da orijentacijama prema sreći, odnosno uvjerenjima pojedinaca o tome što predstavlja najbolji put prema sreći, doprinose njihova temeljna moralna, vjerska i društvena uvjerenja te upućuju na potrebu daljnjih istraživanja međuodnosa vrijednosnih orijentacija, zadovoljstva životom i orijentacija prema sreći. Ključne riječi: društvena ideologija, moralni temelji, orijentacije prema sreći, religioznost, subjektivna dobrobit
... Several, adaptation and validation, studies of the VIA-IS have been performed in various countries, e.g. Switzerland , Germany (Ruch et al., 2010), Japan (Shimai et al., 2006), Croatia (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010), India (Singh & Choubisa, 2010), and Spain (Azañedo et al., 2014). ...
Article
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The aim of the present study was to examine the conceptual framework of character strengths in the Greek cultural context and, to do so, the factor structure of the Greek version of the Values In Action-120 (VIA-120) inventory of strengths was explored. A lifespan sample of 3,211 Greek adults was used to examine the factorial structure and psychometric characteristics of the measurement. The results indicated that the structure of the 24 character strengths was confirmed and a model of five virtues has emerged. The similarities and differences between the Greek and other cultures’ models are being discussed. The VIA-114GR demonstrated adequate reliability, convergent validity to wellbeing indices, and discriminant validity to negative experiences. Gender and age differences were found in several strengths and virtues. Also, the findings showed that the five signature strengths of the Greek sample were kindness, love, honesty, fairness, and persistence and the five bottom strengths were love of learning, spirituality, perspective, modesty, and self-regulation. Limitations, recommendations for future studies, and practical implications for the use of VIA-114GR are being discussed.
... The structure of the 24 character strengths was analyzed and second-order components were found. Principal component analysis pointed to a four-factor as the best solution, in line with some previous studies (Brdar and Kashdan 2010;Macdonald et al. 2008). The strengths aggregated in much the same way as in previous reports, with some notable exceptions. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Covid-19 pandemic obliged people around the world to stay home and self-isolate, with a number of negative psychological consequences. This study focuses on the protective role of character strengths in sustaining mental health and self-efficacy during lockdown. Data were collected from 944 Italian respondents (mean age = 37.24 years, SD = 14.50) by means of an online survey investigating character strengths, psychological distress and Covid-19-related self-efficacy one month after lockdown began. Using principal component analysis, four strengths factors were extracted, namely transcendence, interpersonal, openness and restraint. Regression models with second-order factors showed that transcendence strengths had a strong inverse association with psychological distress, and a positive association with self-efficacy. Regression models with single strengths identified hope, zest, prudence, love and forgiveness as the strengths most associated with distress, love and zest as the most related to self-efficacy and zest to general mental health. Openness factor and appreciation of beauty showed an unexpected direct relation with psychological distress. These results provide original evidence of the association of character strengths, and transcendence strengths in particular, with mental health and self-efficacy in a pandemic and are discussed within the field of positive psychology.
... In our investigation, we define strengths as "pre-existing qualities that arise naturally, feel authentic (and) are intrinsically motivating to use" [17]. These characteristics are of an intrapersonal nature, such as: future dreams and hopes, growth mindset, accountability, taking responsibility for own actions, perseverance, prior experiences. ...
... In addition, using character strengths at work can help us thrive by making work more engaging (Bretherton & Niemiec, 2018) and meaningful (Littman-Ovadia & Steger, 2010). And most importantly, using interpersonal character strengths, also called the "strengths of the heart" (Park & Peterson, 2006), can help satisfy belonging needs (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010). Identifying, using, and celebrating character strengths has potential positive impacts in many places. ...
Article
For new mothers, feeling like you belong can be the difference between surviving or thriving in the transition back to work. In this paper, I explore belonging as a psychological construct, including how it is measured, experienced and cultivated in different contexts, and apply that to the realities of working motherhood. Mothers who successfully find belonging experience higher well-being as individuals. Organizations who are able to help new mothers find belonging positively impact the diversity of their workforces and can rectify the inequality in women’s work experiences. A sense of belonging can foster many elements of well-being. This paper not only reviews the literature on belonging, but also provides a roadmap for working mothers and those who support them at work.
... Ancak bu araştırmada uygulanan faktör analizi sonucunda altı yerine dört temel erdem başlığı oluşmuştur. Bunlar; kişiler arası güçler, yılmazlık, cesaret ve tedbirlilik olarak elde edilmiş ve başlıklandırılmıştır. ( Brdar ve Kashdan, 2010). ...
Thesis
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Ergenlik dönemi insan yaşantısındaki önemli dönemlerden biridir. Bu dönemde bireyde oluşmaya başlayan hızlı ve çok boyutlu değişim ve gelişimler beraberinde birçok risk faktörünü getirmektedir. Özellikle bu dönemde ergenin duygusal gelişiminden kaynaklanan duygu inişçıkışları ve patlamaları oldukça sık gözlenmektedir. Hem duygusal problemler –içselleştirme (internalizing) hem de davranışsal problemler-dışsallaştırma (externalizing) ergenlik döneminde çocukluğa göre artış gösteren durumlar olarak belirtilmekte ve ergen için olumsuz deneyimlere neden olmaktadır. Pozitif psikoloji son dönemde en fazla dikkat çeken yaklaşımlardandır. Bu yaklaşım önceki hastalık ve hastalığın sebepleri temelli yaklaşımlara alternatif olarak geliştirilmiştir. Olumsuz tanıların yerine alternatif olumlu tanılar ve tanımlamalarla ortaya çıkar. Yeterlilik temellidir. Bireyin yeterliliklerini temel alarak ilerlemeyi kabul eder. Karakter güçleri ve erdemli oluş değerler sınıflaması pozitif psikoloji temelli bir sistemdir. Karakter güçleri ve erdemli oluş kavramı altı ana erdem boyutu altında yirmi dört karakter gücünü kapsayan bir değerler sınıflamasıdır. Yapılan araştırmalarda değerlere sahip olmanın yaşam doyumuyla doğrudan bağlantılı olduğu saptanmıştır. Bu araştırmanın amacı, ergenlik döneminde ortaya çıkan içselleştirme ve dışsallaştırma belirtilerine ilişkin karakter güçlerinin koruyucu etkisi olup olmadığının incelenmesidir. Araştırma kapsamında içselleştirme ve dışsallaştırma problemlerinin sosyo-demografik değişkenlere göre farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığı da incelenmiştir. Bu araştırmada dışsallaştırma problemleri Jessor ve Jessor (1977) Problem Davranış Kuramı’ na göre ele alınmıştır. Burada belirtilenler sigara kullanımı, alkol ve madde kullanımı, intihar eğilimi, anti-sosyal davranışlar, erken yaşta güvensiz cinsel ilişki ve yeme sorunlarıdır. İçselleştirme problemleri olarak depresyon, anksiyete, fobiler, obsesif kompusif bozukluk ele alınmıştır. Araştırmaya Van il merkezinden 1138 ergen katılmıştır. Araştırmada veri aracı olarak katılımcıların demografik özeliklerini belirlemek amacıyla; Demografik Bilgi Formu kullanılmıştır. Duygusal ve davranışsal problemleri belirlemek amacıyla 11-18 Yaş Grubu Gençler İçin Kendini Değerlendirme Ölçeği ( Youth Self Report –YSR-11/18 ) ve Kısa Belirti Tarama Listesi-53 (SCL-53) uygulanmıştır. Son olarak karakter güçlerini belirlemek için ülkemizde ilk defa VIA Gençlik Taraması (VIA Youth Survey-96) kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda elde edilen bulgular değerlendirildiğinde sosyo-demografik özellikler içerisinde anne eğitim düzeyi önemli bir değişken olarak saptanmıştır. Anne eğitim düzeyi arttıkça ergende dikkat problemleri ve kural dışı davranışlar görülmektedir. Ayrıca anne eğitim düzeyi yüksek ergenler Bilgelik ve Ölçülülük erdem boyutlarında daha düşük özellikler göstermiştir. Kızlarda daha çok içselleştirme erkeklerde ise dışsallaştırma problemleri görülmüştür. Erkeklerin kızlara göre değerleri daha düşüktür. Araştırma yapılan sınıflarda sınıf düzeyi yükseldikçe değerlerin oranlarında düşme meydana gelmiştir. Karakter güçlerine ilişkin bulgularda ise karakter güçlerinin içselleştirme problemlerine ilişkin çok yüksek oranda koruyucu olduğu saptanmıştır. İçselleştirme problemlerinin temelinde dışsallaştırma problemleri yer almaktadır. Doğrudan etkisine bakıldığında karakter güçleri dışsallaştırma problemlerine ilişkin daha zayıf bir oranda koruyucudur. Ancak karakter güçlerinin içselleştirme problemleri üzerinden dışsallaştırma problemlerine dolaylı etkisi göz önünde bulundurulduğunda oldukça yüksek bir koruyuculuğa sahip olduğu saptanmıştır. Sonuç olarak karakter güçlerinin ergenlikte geliştirilmesi ve pekiştirilmesiyle ortaya çıkacak içselleştirme ve dışsallaştırma problemleri azaltılacak ve ergenlerin yaşadığı riskler büyük oranda azaltılmış olacaktır.
... Therefore, we looked at the interpretation of character strength factors reported in studies on VIA character strengths in adults. Previous factor analytic studies suggested two (using ipsative data: Peterson, 2006;Ruch, Proyer, Harzer, et al., 2010), three (Duan et al., 2012;Khumalo et al., 2008;McGrath, 2015;Shryack et al., 2010), four (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Macdonald et al., 2008;Shryack et al., 2010), or five factors (e.g., Littman-Ovadia & Lavy, 2011;McGrath, 2014;Peterson et al., 2008;Ruch et al., 2014;Ruch, Proyer, Harzer, et al., 2010;Singh & Choubisa, 2010). For the current study, we considered functions based on the resulting higher-order factors of these factor analyses. ...
Article
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While character strengths are expected to contribute to the ‘good life,’ they also may serve specific purposes (e.g., the strength of curiosity should support the acquisition and use of knowledge). This study explored the potential functions of character strengths from a within-person perspective. We used a literature review and qualitative and quantitative surveys to determine potential functions. This resulted in 17 distinguishable functions (e.g., ‘feeling free and independent’). We used a diary study that included N = 196 participants (84.4% women, mean age: 25.68 years) who reported their daily character strength enactments and their experiences of the functions for 14 consecutive days. Our results suggested that the enactment of character strengths was positively related to several functions. However, the character strengths also showed distinguishable patterns of relationships with the functions, which were largely in line with – but not limited to – the functions suggested in the VIA classification.
... While this division is grounded in theory, empirical advances present a more complex picture. Researchers examining the factorial structure of the VIA-IS have consistently found only 3-5 factors (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Littman-Ovadia & Lavy, 2012;Macdonald et al. 2008;McGrath, 2014;Singh & Chousbisa, 2010). It has been suggested that a factor analysis would not reflect the theoretical structure of the character strengths and virtues model, as it is not factorial to begin with (Ruch & Proyer, 2015). ...
Article
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Numerous studies examined the association between character strengths—positive traits that comprise a good personality—and satisfaction with different aspects of life. However, few studies explored the connection between character strengths and marital satisfaction. The present study, conducted on a sample of 177 married couples, aims to examine this connection. Given the findings of previous studies, showing that both spouses’ personality traits contribute to relationship quality, we expect to find a connection between the spouses’ strengths and their marital quality. Using actor-partner interdependence model analyses, we examined the effects of three strengths factors (caring, self-control, and inquisitiveness) of both the individual and the partner on marital quality, evaluated by indices measuring marital satisfaction, intimacy, and burnout. Our findings revealed that the individual’s three strengths factors were related to all of his or her marital quality indices (actor effects). Moreover, women’s caring, inquisitiveness and self-control factors were associated with men’s marital quality, and men’s inquisitiveness and self-control factors were associated with women’s marital quality (partner effects). Our findings join the efforts of previous studies to understand the association between character strengths and the various elements of mental well-being, especially romantic relationships.
... However, a Growing literature shows that the structure of character strengths does not fit the six-factor theoretical framework. Research has reported various numbers of factors based on analyses of the VIA-IS measure, for example, five-factor model (McGrath, 2014;Ruch et al., 2010;Singh & Choubisa, 2010), fourfactor model (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010), three-factor model (McGrath, 2015a;Khumalo et al., 2008), or two-factor model , although all of these sample cohorts are adults. It is particularly interesting to note that Macdonald, Bore, and Munro (2008) identified both a one-factor and four-factor model based on the 24 character strengths. ...
Article
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The main purpose of the current study was to investigate the structure or dimensionality of the official Chinese Code for Primary and Secondary-School Students as well as the “moral-character salience level” that the 35 Code items assess. Although the Code can be perceived as a major aspirational behavior document for students to follow, no previous evidence has analyzed the structure of the Code instrument and what level of moral character the Code items are likely to assess. Such a lack of psychometric analysis hinders the effective discussion and communication of the Code in the moral-education literature, nationally and internationally. Based on factor and bifactor models, our findings demonstrated that the 35 Code items do have a unidimensional structure, dominated with a general factor, and reveal the salience level of the items, which could offer practical implications for a potential revision of the Code. We also relate our discussion to the structural analysis of the positive psychological VIA-instruments, in order to advance cross-cultural dialogue on measures of Chinese and Western moral education.
... On similar grounds, the Holy Bhagavad Gita has emphasized the importance of work that is reflected in the dimension of steadfastness in adverse situations in which an individual stays loyal and committed to his/her work. Supporting the newly found factor also known as "titiksha" is comprehended as the strength of the mind (Brdar and Kashdan, 2010) that an individual maintains during dukkha and difficult situations (Marballi, 2017;Thanissara, 2014). Thus, being steadfast and adaptable in adverse situations leads to a sense of purpose with a balance of mind in the face of success and failure (Satsangee, 2012). ...
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Positive psychology nurtures the potent qualities of individuals and aids them in carving a niche for themselves. Based on this theoretical foundation, a non-cognitive trait-like grit plays an imperative role in attaining high achievement. Previous studies have identified three dimensions of grit: perseverance of effort, consistency of interest and adaptability to situations. Recent research has criticized the dimension consistency of interest in a collectivist context. The present study provides an account of grit in view of eastern perspectives to check the suitability of the construct in India. Current findings provide a framework for the development and validation of Multi-Dimensional Scale of Grit reveals four dimensions of grit, namely, adaptability to situation, perseverance of effort, spirited initiative and steadfastness in adverse situations. It also provides an insight regarding the duration of goal attainment with respect to grit. The research conducted over three studies included Indian university students to develop and examine the psychometric properties of grit. Study 1 focused on item analysis and development of the factor structure through exploratory factor analysis. Study 2 confirmed the previously obtained factor structure through confirmatory factor analysis. In study 3, the psychometric properties of the scale were measured through test-retest reliability and validity, criterion, convergent and divergent. Results indicated that Multi-Dimensional Scale of Grit is a reliable and valid measure. It also indicated that the obtained 12 items and four dimensions were in synchronization with the relevant eastern perspective.
... Based on our characterization of flourishing which includes both hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing (Huppert and So, 2013), extant research broadly reports significant relationships between character strengths and the former (Brdar and Kashdan, 2010;Buschor et al., 2013;Hausler et al., 2017;Athota et al., 2020;Baumann et al., 2020;Villacís et al., 2021). Additionally, specific research which addresses wellbeing as flourishing confirms the positive relationship between both variables (Baumann et al., 2020;Niemiec, 2020). ...
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The aim of this research was to delimit the predictive and mediational model of resilience between character strengths to predict flourishing, in a sample of undergraduate students. After signing their informed consent, 642 university students completed three validated scales (i.e., character strengths, resilience, and flourishing). Using an ex post facto design, regression, structural modeling, and mediation analyses were carried out, in order to construct a multi-causal predictive model. Results indicated a consistent predictive direct effect of character strengths on resilience and flourishing and of resilience on flourishing. As hypothesized, resilience also showed a mediating effect on the relationship between character strengths and flourishing. Additionally, results also revealed that the reactive and proactive factors of resilience were explained by different character strengths (e.g., emotional strength/cognitive, interpersonal strengths), reinforcing the idea that the two directions are complementary and necessary. Finally, several implications were established for the practice of positive psychology.
... Asimismo, se han encontrado estrechas relaciones entre las diferentes Fortalezas del carácter y el bienestar subjetivo (e.g. Bai, 2011;Brdar, &Kashdan, 2010;Gillam, et al, 2011;Leontopoulu, &Triliva, 2012;Liney, Nielsen, Gillett, & Biswas-diener, 2010;Proctor, Maltby, & Linley, 2010;Ruch, et al, 2010;Wood, Linley, Maltby, Kashdan, Hurling, 2011), la satisfacción vital (Hool, 2011;Weber & Ruch, 2012) y la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (Proctor et al., 2010). Una gran cantidad de estudios indican relaciones positivas entre todas las Fortalezas variables del bienestar tales como satisfacción con la vida y felicidad y relaciones negativas con problemas mentales tales como depresión (Chan, 2009;Dahlsgaard, Peterson & Seligman 2005). ...
... Each study yielded a different model of the latent structure of the 24 strengths, with differences in the number of factors extracted, in the content of those factors (in terms of the strengths composing them), and even in the labels used to name the factors. Scholars found evidence to support grouping the 24 strengths into three (e.g., Duan et al., 2012;McGrath, 2015;Seibel et al., 2015;Shryack et al., 2010), five (e.g., Azañedo et al., 2017;Peterson & Park, 2004;Ruch et al., 2010;Singh & Choubisa, 2010) or, less frequently, four (Anjum & Amjad, 2020;Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Macdonald et al., 2008) or two factors (Khumalo et al., 2008). As summarized graphically in Table S1 in the Supplemental materials, an intellectual secondorder factor usually comprising strengths such as creativity, curiosity or love of learning emerged in several studies. ...
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The Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) is a widely-used measure for character. Its factorial structure is still debated, however, and previous validation studies usually failed to examine the unidimensionality of the single character strengths. In addition, no studies to date have examined its Italian version. We validated the structure of the Italian short form of the VIA-IS in a sample of 16722 participants. Using confirmatory factor analysis and treating items as ordinal variables, we followed three simple, but too often neglected, steps: we studied the unidimensionality of the single strengths first, then their convergence into second-order virtues, and then fitted a hierarchical model that includes items, strengths and virtues, as originally proposed by Peterson and Seligman. All strengths except "love of learning" were unidimensional, and both the virtues and the final hierarchical models showed acceptable fit indices, unlike three models derived from an exploratory factor analysis. The same findings emerged for a smaller sample of 1035 participants. Finally, both character strengths and virtues showed positive relations with general mental health and negative relations with psychological distress. These results are discussed considering previous studies on the factorial structure of the VIA-IS.
... In the phase of reporting the analysis process and the result, the values obtained from the analysis matrices were digitized in frequencies and presented in tables. Since character strengths are interrelated (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010), some learning outcomes were associated with more than one category (viz. character strength) at the same time. ...
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It was aimed to examine the learning outcomes in the Life Science Course Curriculum (LSCC) in terms of character strengths in the present study. This research was carried out with the analytical research model. In the research framework, deductive content analysis was used. According to the results, prudence, self-regulation, citizenship, kindness, and social intelligence were the top five character strengths in LSCC. The strengths of bravery, persistence, leadership, forgiveness, modesty, hope, and humor were not found in LSCC. The most prominent virtue in LSCC was temperance. It is noteworthy that courage was the least emphasized virtue in LSCC. As the grade increased, the virtue of wisdom was more emphasized within LSCC learning outcomes. Considering the units, self-regulation, social intelligence, citizenship, kindness, prudence, and open-mindedness were the most emphasized character strengths in the unit of Life in Our School. Self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, open-mindedness, love, and appreciation were the most common ones in the unit of Life in Our Home. Prudence and self-regulation came to the fore in the units of Healthy Life and the Safe Life. Citizenship in the unit of Life in Our Country and curiosity, love of learning, and love in the unit of Life in Nature became distinctive.
... The scholars explain that such opportunities are intrinsically motivating and satisfy an employee's need for autonomy, which contributes to increased thriving (Mahomed & Rothmann, 2019). Having opportunity to grow at work also advances the use of personal strengths because employees will have more challenges that they can pursue and gain more confidence in their abilities (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Ruysseveldt et al., 2011). This increased confidence will allow the employee to spend more effort applying their strengths and persevere, even in the face of obstacles (Bandura, 1977). ...
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According to the socially embedded model of thriving at work, employees thrive (i.e., experience a sense of vitality and learning), when they can engage in agentic work behaviours. In this study, we first examine whether strengths use can be seen as an agentic work behaviour that contributes to thriving. Second, we investigate whether the degree to which colleagues recognize each other’s strengths boosts the positive relationship between strengths use and thriving. Third, we propose that perceived organizational support for strengths use and opportunities for professional development are organizational factors that contribute to thriving because they enable employee strengths use, and that this indirect relationship is also reinforced by intercollegial strengths recognition. An analysis of 445 Dutch employee and 159 close co-worker reports show that strengths use and thriving are indeed positively connected. Our findings reveal that intercollegial strengths recognition is a positive moderator of the relationship between strengths use and vitality. We identify two organizational factors that contribute to thriving through employee strengths use and find that the nature of the indirect pathway to vitality also depends on colleague recognition. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
... Performance evaluation indicated that the more parsimonious models identified by BMA outperformed the full models estimated by frequentist regression in terms of AIC, BIC, and CVRMSEs. When correlation analysis was conducted, in line with previous studies (e.g., Brdar & Kashdan, 2010), the 24 character strengths were significantly and positively correlated with each other. However, not all moral functioning indicators were significantly correlated with character strengths. ...
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We explored the relationship between 24 character strengths measured by the Global Assessment of Character Strengths (GACS), which was revised from the original VIA instrument, and moral functioning comprising postconventional moral reasoning, empathic traits and moral identity. Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) was employed to explore the best models, which were more parsimonious than full regression models estimated through frequentist regression, predicting moral functioning indicators with the 24 candidate character strength predictors. Our exploration was conducted with a dataset collected from 666 college students at a public university in the Southern United States. Results showed that character strengths as measured by GACS partially predicted relevant moral functioning indicators. Performance evaluation results demonstrated that the best models identified by BMA performed significantly better than the full models estimated by frequentist regression in terms of AIC, BIC, and cross-validation accuracy. We discuss theoretical and methodological implications of the findings for future studies addressing character strengths and moral functioning.
... Therefore, researches on character strengths have also accelerated. Character strengths are defined as qualities that emerge spontaneously, make the individual feel unique, energise and motivate internally (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010). In their comprehensive research, Peterson and Seligman (2004) defined 24 character strengths (VIA Classification of Character Strengths and Virtues). ...
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Developing character strengths in early childhood has attracted increased attention all around the world in recent years. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined teachers' awareness and practices concerning character strengths. The present study aimed to discover early childhood teachers' awareness of children's character strengths and classroom practices to reveal and develop these strengths based on the 24 character strengths included in the VIA Classification of Character Strengths and Virtues. Interviews were held with 25 early childhood teachers selected via criterion sampling method and the interviews were coded using content analysis. The main findings of the study show that the strengths teachers consider important in children are similar to those they frequently observe in children (i.e., curiosity, love, love of learning and creativity). Most teachers highlight the development of creativity in children, believing that adopting different perspectives, problem-solving and achievement would be improved through creativity. In addition, teachers suggested that self-regulation should be supported during the preschool period. Teachers' practices to develop character strengths in children were not found purposeful but limited to the national curriculum. Thus, the study discusses possible ways to raise teachers' awareness of character strengths and enhance their practices during early childhood. The theoretical and practical contributions of the study are also discussed.
... Since Peterson and Seligman (2004) formulated their conceptual model of character strengths and virtues, and its associated instruments (i.e., the VIA-IS and its shortened versions such as the VIA-72), a number of studies have examined the latent structure of the character strengths using scale-level exploratory methods (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Duan et al., 2012;Littman-Ovadia & Lavy, 2012;McGrath, 2014;Shryack et al., 2010). Most of these studies -which aim to identify which subsets of strengths co-occur -failed to replicate the original six-virtue model. 1 Specifically, these studies identified a range of factor solutions, reflecting between three (Shryack et al., 2010) and five virtues (McGrath, 2014), and while many of the factors had a conceptual overlap across studies, there was also substantial variability in content. ...
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Evidence supports three principal virtues of Self-Control, Caring, and Inquisitiveness that represent socially-construed notions of desirable behaviors. In Study 1 (n = 509 adults), we demonstrate that the three-virtue structure identified in the VIA-IS also emerges in the VIA-72. In Study 2 (n = 659 adults) we examine the relationship between virtues and personality using correlations and person-centered analyses. Cloninger’s character dimensions, which capture the sociocognitive component of personality – Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness, Self-Transcendence – showed moderate overlap with the three virtues, but remained distinct in its silent and subjective transpersonal aspects that were excluded from VIA. People with positive development of all three character traits were the most virtuous. The specific virtues of a person depended on integrated profiles of both temperament and character. We conclude that virtues are expressed when habits are persistently regulated by all three character traits to the extent that they express self-transcendent goals and values.
... "Appendix A" lists the page numbers for each section of text included in our analysis. While Table 2 organizes the virtues and strengths according to the structure proposed by Peterson and Seligman (2004), this structure has been called into question by empirical work supporting 3-5 factor solutions (Brdar & Kashdan, 2010;Macdonald et al., 2008;McGrath, 2015;Ng et al., 2018). Within each excerpt, we coded sentences that defined the relevant trait, excluding text that provided theoretical, etymological, or historic background to the traits. ...
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The theoretical relationship between personality and character, as two approaches to conceptualizing individual differences, remains poorly defined. Attempts to clarify the relationship by analyzing leading personality and character frameworks—NEO-PI-3 and Peterson and Seligman’s Character Strengths and Virtues (CSV)—have yielded divergent, unclear results. In this paper, we use a qualitative thematic analysis method to systematically compare NEO-PI-3 and CSV trait descriptions. Our analysis found 35 overlapping facet-strength trait pairs, including 22 morally-toned facet-strength relationships. For the CSV, the overlap was spread out among the strengths, while the overlap for NEO-PI-3 was mostly located in the factors of Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. We also found traits that were uniquely evaluated or emphasized by each framework. NEO-PI-3 tended to emphasize traits related to emotions, tasks, and socializing; the CSV tended to emphasize self-management, prosocial, and worldview traits. Our analysis indicates that the two frameworks share substantial description of traits—including moral traits—but are not redundant. Our conceptual results were largely supported by empirical studies. Future research should continue to synthesize conceptual and empirical scholarship to advance understanding of the relationship between these two frameworks for evaluating individual differences.
... Character strengths are seen to be the psychological ingredients defining the virtues [35]. The validity of the VIA model has been confirmed in numerous investigations [18,36,37], across 75 nations [38], including the validation work in a cross-cultural sample of 447,573 participants [17]. ...
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In recent years, various intervention programs have been developed to enhance the quality of life of young athletes. This is particularly important for those who live in residences of professional clubs, far from their families. In this regard, we designed a positive psychology intervention program called “DÉPORVIDA”, aimed at enhancing character strengths. To assess the efficacy of this 8-week intervention, we tested 28 young soccer players from a Spanish professional club. The intervention program used a strength-based approach from the values in action (VIA) model, and was conducted by club employees with formal academic education. Data were analysed using a set of 2 × 2 (intervention × time) mixed design ANOVAs. Results revealed different trends for the intervention and the control groups participants for seasonal performance satisfaction and percentage of time feeling happy/unhappy, highlighting consistent changes in the desired direction. Overall, the results indicate that the DÉPORVIDA program is a useful tool to promote positive development in young athletes.
... Performance evaluation indicated that the more parsimonious models identified by BMA outperformed the full models estimated by frequentist regression in terms of AIC, BIC, and CVRMSEs. When correlation analysis was conducted, in line with previous studies (e.g., Brdar & Kashdan, 2010), the 24 character strengths were significantly and positively correlated with each other. However, not all moral functioning indicators were significantly correlated with character strengths. ...
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We explored the relationship between 24 character strengths measured by the Global Assessment of Character Strengths (GACS), which was revised from the original VIA instrument, and moral functioning comprising postconventional moral reasoning, empathic traits and moral identity. Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) was employed to explore the best models, which were more parsimonious than full regression models estimated through frequentist regression, predicting moral functioning indicators with the 24 candidate character strength predictors. Our exploration was conducted with a dataset collected from 666 college students at a public university in the Southern United States. Results showed that character strengths as measured by GACS partially predicted relevant moral functioning indicators. Performance evaluation results demonstrated that the best models identified by BMA performed significantly better than the full models estimated by frequentist regression in terms of AIC, BIC, and cross-validation accuracy. We discuss theoretical and methodological implications of the findings for future studies addressing character strengths and moral functioning.
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Este trabajo presenta una revisión sistemática sobre las fortalezas psicológicas propuestas por el modelo Values in Action (VIA) y su relación con el bienestar, la satisfacción vital, la felicidad, la resiliencia y la salud en diferentes poblaciones. Los resultados de la revisión de 47 estudios permiten concluir que las fortalezas psicológicas están relacionadas positivamente con la satisfacción vital, el bienestar, la felicidad, la resiliencia y la salud, y en menor medida con indicadores de afecto negativo. Estos resultados son similares en distintos contextos y en diversos grupos de edad. Se discuten los hallazgos de los diversos estudios y se proponen implicaciones y perspectivas futuras del estudio y del desarrollo de las fortalezas psicológicas en los individuos, en los grupos y en la sociedad en general.
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Broader outlook, ethics, and social responsibility have been long-standing concerns in business practices and management. In this regard, an effective management education would play a pivotal role in instilling an ethical grounding among management students, who represent the future management practitioners. Therefore, going beyond the self-oriented perspective and promoting altruistic behavior among them would be significant in establishing broader, socially responsible considerations in organizations. However, little research has investigated how to increase altruistic behavior. To address this need, we propose that Yoga-based practices (YBP) can build-up altruistic behavior by enhancing subjective vitality (SV), self-transcendence (ST), and psychological capital (PsyCap). We report two studies to test this hypothesis. In Study 1, a survey-based study (n = 342), we examine the impact of SV and ST on altruistic behavior mediated by PsyCap. The results from structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized model. In study 2, we examine the impact of YBP on SV and ST using longitudinal randomized controlled experiment design (n = 109). The findings of study 2 suggest that YBP enhanced both SV and ST and that YBP are effective, efficient, and sustainable training tools for building altruistic behavior among management students. We discuss the significance and implications of these findings for organizations, management education, and leadership development. We consider the limitations of our study and suggest directions for future research.
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Character strengths are a protective factor against psychological symptoms. However, there is a lack of research that has investigated the psychometric properties of abbreviated character strengths scales. The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate the Character Strengths Semantic Differential Scale (CS-SDS) with a sample of 235 college students. Using the back-translation method, the CS-SDS was translated from English into Turkish and then adapted. Next, exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the factorial structure of the Turkish version of CS-SDS (T-CS-SDS). The results indicated that the T-CS-SDS had a four-factor structure, namely, leadership, humanity, wisdom, and vitality. Significant moderate correlations were found for the character strengths factors with perceived stress, depression, and life satisfaction. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the factors were above .70. This is the first study that supported the use of the T-CS-SDS as a positive psychology assessment tool to design and implement innovative interventions to increase the well-being of college students.
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Introduction. Positive psychology is one of the most rapidly developing directions of psychological science in the world. Over the past two decades, a large number of empirical researches confirm effectiveness and validity of theoretical studies and practical methods used in the framework of positive psychology. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research in this area in the Russian-speaking scientific community, despite of the presence of high-level scientific teams and individual researchers working in the framework of positive psychology. Probably an important factor in the “low popularity” of positive psychology among Russian authors is the lack of large-scale studies on wide samples of Russian respondents. The purpose of this article is to empirically confirm, the legitimacy of the practical application of the “VIA” model. As well as perform approbation, validation and publication of the Russian-language version of the questionnaire by K. Peterson and M. Seligman “Values in Action Inventory of Strengths” in Russian we suggest more reflecting the essence of the questionnaire name – “24 strengths of the personality”. Materials and Methods. The approbation was carried out on a wide sample of respondents from the professional sphere of education (N = 7 946), using statistical methods for checking the reliability of the questionnaire, including convergent validity and confirmatory factor analysis. Results. The reliability tests showed significant validity results, indicating the reliability of the psychometric tool. The scales of the Russian-language version of the VIA-IS questionnaire show more than sufficient internal consistency, The convergent validity test showed significant correlations with the following scales: Life Satisfaction Scale, Self-Esteem Scale, General Self-Efficiency Scale, and Professional Burnout (Maslach’s). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the factorial structure of the questionnaire. We manage to meet the desirable “cut-off” model fit parameters of Confirmatory factor analysis. Discussion and Conclusion. Hopefully, publication of this Russian-language questionnaire will lead to an increase interest for research in the field of positive psychology in the Russian scientific community. The conclusions made by the authors contribute to the development of theoretical concepts of positive psychology, confirming the general structural integrity and practical validity of the model “VIA”. Moreover, this article provides for open use in the Russian scientific psychological community a universal psychometric technique in form of questionnaire with empirically proven reliability on a wide sample of respondents.
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The aim of the present study was to classify character strengths and virtues, and construct and validate its assessment questionnaire in the Iranian student population. The present research method was of the qualitative-quantitative mixed type. In the qualitative section, Grounded Theory (GT) was used. Thirty-five students in the form of six focus groups (including 24 female students and 11 male students) from among the undergraduate and graduate students of University of [1]Tehran were selected, using judgmental sampling and were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Responses were analyzed by content analysis and the use of two methods of framework and matrix analyses through the MAXQDA10 software. The findings indicated the existence of four factors or virtues in Iranian society: wisdom (including analytical thinking, self-regulation, moderation and prudence, and love of learning), courage (including bravery and honesty), humanity (including justice and fairness, kindness, and forgiveness) and transcendence (including appreciation of beauty and excellence, hope, and spirituality). The second study was conducted using a non-experimental (descriptive) method and a survey plan on 456 students. Analysis of the main components by varimax rotation showed a four-factor structure. These findings suggest that the Iranian Character Strengths Questionnaire can provide reliable data.
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Positive psychology is the scientific study of positive experiences and positive individual traits, and the institutions that facilitate their development. A field concerned with well-being and optimal functioning, positive psychology aims to broaden the focus of clinical psychology beyond suffering and its direct alleviation. Our proposed conceptual framework parses happiness into three domains: pleasure, engagement, and meaning. For each of these constructs, there are now valid and practical assessment tools appropriate for the clinical setting. Additionally, mounting evidence demonstrates the efficacy and effectiveness of positive interventions aimed at cultivating pleasure, engagement, and meaning. We contend that positive interventions are justifiable in their own right. Positive interventions may also usefully supplement direct attempts to prevent and treat psychopathology and, indeed, may covertly be a central component of good psychotherapy as it is done now.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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The SWLS consists of 5-items that require a ratingon a 7-point Likert scale. Administration is rarely morethan a minute or 2 and can be completed by interview(including phone) or paper and pencil response. The in-strumentshouldnotbecompletedbyaproxyansweringfortheperson.Itemsofthe SWLSaresummedtocreatea total score that can range from 5 to 35.The SWLS is in the public domain. Permission isnot needed to use it. Further information regardingthe use and interpretation of the SWLS can be foundat the author’s Web site http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/∼ediener/SWLS.html. The Web site alsoincludes links to translations of the scale into 27languages.
Article
We investigated the relationship between various character strengths and life satisfaction among 5,299 adults from three Internet samples using the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths. Consistently and robustly associated with life satisfaction were hope, zest, gratitude, love, and curiosity. Only weakly associated with life satisfaction, in contrast, were modesty and the intellectual strengths of appreciation of beauty, creativity, judgment, and love of learning. In general, the relationship between character strengths and life satisfaction was monotonic, indicating that excess on any one character strength does not diminish life satisfaction.
Article
How are character strengths related to recovery? A retrospective web-based study of 2087 adults found small but reliable associations between a history of physical illness and the character strengths of appreciation of beauty, bravery, curiosity, fairness, forgiveness, gratitude, humor, kindness, love of learning, and spirituality. A history of psychological disorder and the character strengths of appreciation of beauty, creativity, curiosity, gratitude, and love of learning were also associated. A history of problems was linked to decreased life satisfaction, but only among those who had not recovered. In the case of physical illness, less of a toll on life satisfaction was found among those with the character strengths of bravery, kindness, and humor, and in the case of psychological disorder, less of a toll on life satisfaction was found among those with the character strengths of appreciation of beauty and love of learning. We suggest that recovery from illness and disorder may benefit character. 'Tis an ill wind that blows no good. English proverb
Article
Vitality, or the energy available to the self, is a salient and functionally significant indicator of health and motivation. Previous models (e.g., Baumeister & Vohs, 2007) have suggested how such energy can be depleted but have focused less on how it can be maintained or enhanced. In this article, we describe a model of energy and vitality based on self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000). We review substantial evidence that, whereas the self-controlling regulation of behavior depletes vitality and energy, the autonomous self-regulation of behavior does not. A growing number of experimental and field studies also suggest that vitality and energy are enhanced by activities that satisfy basic psychological needs for relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Lifestyles focused on extrinsic goals are less conducive to need satisfaction and thus engender less vitality. We conclude that social psychological factors associated with need satisfaction have important implications for health and vitality and for informing interventions.
Article
Different orientations to happiness and their association with life satisfaction were investigated with 845 adults responding to Internet surveys. We measured life satisfaction and the endorsement of three different ways to be happy through pleasure, through engagement, and through meaning. Each of these three orientations individually predicted life satisfaction. People simultaneously low on all three orientations reported especially low life satisfaction. These findings point the way toward a distinction between the full life and the empty life.
Article
Popular statistical software packages do not have the proper procedures for determining the number of components in factor and principal components analyses. Parallel analysis and Velicer’s minimum average partial (MAP) test are validated procedures, recommended widely by statisticians. However, many researchers continue to use alternative, simpler, but flawed procedures, such as the eigenvaluesgreater-than-one rule. Use of the proper procedures might be increased if these procedures could be conducted within familiar software environments. This paper describes brief and efficient programs for using SPSS and SAS to conduct parallel analyses and the MAP test.
Article
The development of a classification of strengths, the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths, has done much to advance research into strengths of character. Using an Internet sample of 17,056 UK respondents, we present data on the character strengths of a large UK sample. Women typically scored higher on strengths than did men. However, four of the top five “signature strengths” of the UK men and women overall were the same (open-mindedness, fairness, curiosity, and love of learning). Strengths typically showed small but significant positive associations with age, with the strongest associations with age between curiosity and love of learning (strengths of wisdom and knowledge), fairness (a strength of justice), and forgiveness and self-regulation (strengths of temperance). The discussion addresses potential limitations and suggests pertinent directions for future research.
Article
Strength-based assessment can enhance clinical clarity, improve the range of information, and provide a more complete picture of clients and their circumstances. Deficit-oriented assessment has improved the assessment and treatment of a number of disorders but, at the same time, has created a negative bias, considered strengths as clinical peripheries or by-products, tended to reduce clients to diagnostic categories, and created a power differential, which could be counterproductive to clinical efficacy. Strength-based assessment explores weaknesses as well as strengths to effectively deal with problems. We present a number of strength-based strategies for use in clinical practice. These strategies, we hope, will help clinicians to operationalize how strengths and weaknesses reverberate and contribute to a client's psychological status, which is comprehensive and guards against negative bias.
Article
Self-regulation is a complex process that involves consumers’ persistence, strength, motivation, and commitment in order to be able to override short-term impulses. In order to be able to pursue their long-term goals, consumers typically need to forgo immediate pleasurable experiences that are detrimental to reach their overarching goals. Although this sometimes involves resisting to simple and small temptations, it is not always easy, since the lure of momentary temptations is pervasive. In addition, consumers’ beliefs play an important role determining strategies and behaviors that consumers consider acceptable to engage in, affecting how they act and plan actions to attain their goals. This dissertation investigates adequacy of some beliefs typically shared by consumers about the appropriate behaviors to exert self-regulation, analyzing to what extent these indeed contribute to the enhancement of consumers’ ability to exert self-regulation.
Article
In this article, we examine subjective vitality, a positive feeling of aliveness and energy, in six studies. Subjective vitality is hypothesized to reflect organismic well-being and thus should covary with both psychological and somatic factors that impact the energy available to the self. Associations are shown between subjective vitality and several indexes of psychological well-being; somatic factors such as physical symptoms and perceived body functioning; and basic personality traits and affective dispositions. Subsequently, vitality is shown to be lower in people with chronic pain compared to matched controls, especially those who perceive their pain to be disabling or frightening. Subjective vitality is further associated with self-motivation and maintained weight loss among patients treated for obesity. Finally, subjective vitality is assessed in a diary study for its covariation with physical symptoms. Discussion focuses on the phenomenological salience of personal energy and its relations to physical and psychological well-being.
Popular statistical software packages do not have the proper procedures for determining the number of components in factor and principal components analyses. Parallel analysis and Velicer's minimum average partial (MAP) test are validated procedures, recommended widely by statisticians. However, many researchers continue to use alternative, simpler, but flawed procedures, such as the eigenvalues-greater-than-one rule. Use of the proper procedures might be increased if these procedures could be conducted within familiar software environments. This paper describes brief and efficient programs for using SPSS and SAS to conduct parallel analyses and the MAP test.
Article
Moral competence among adolescents can be approached in terms of good character. Character is a multidimensional construct comprised of a family of positive traits manifest in an individual's thoughts, emotions and behaviours. The Values in Action Inventory for Youth (VIA-Youth) is a self-report questionnaire suitable for adolescents that measures 24 widely valued strength of character. Data from several samples bearing on the internal consistency, stability, and validity of the VIA-Youth are described, along with what is known about the prevalence and demographic correlates of the character strengths it measures. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an interpretable four-factor structure of the VIA-Youth subscales: temperance strengths (e.g., prudence, self-regulation), intellectual strengths (e.g., love of learning, curiosity), theological strengths (e.g., hope, religiousness, love), and other-directed (interpersonal) strengths (e.g., kindness, modesty). The uses of the VIA-Youth in research and practise are discussed along with directions for future research.
Article
How are strengths of character related to growth following trauma? A retrospective Web-based study of 1,739 adults found small, but positive associations among the number of potentially traumatic events experienced and a number of cognitive and interpersonal character strengths. It was concluded that growth following trauma may entail the strengthening of character.
Methodological issues in positive psychology and the assessment of character strengths
  • Park
Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2006b). Methodological issues in positive psychology and the assessment of character strengths. In A. D. Ong & M. van Dulmen (Eds.), Handbook of methods in positive psychology (pp. 292-305). New York: Oxford University Press.
Average to A+: Realising strengths in yourself and others
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Linley, A. (2008). Average to A+: Realising strengths in yourself and others. London: CAPP Press.
Values in action scale and the Big 5: An empirical indication of structure
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Orientations to happiness and life satisfaction: The full versus the empty life
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Construct explication through factor or component analysis: A review and evaluation of alternative procedures for determining the number of factors or components
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