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Post-Normal Science and the complexity of transitions towards sustainability

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Abstract

The theory of Post-Normal Science is now approaching obsolescence; it needs to be renewed and enriched. In historical perspective, PNS evolved from a criticism of Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and put the essentially political idea of Extended Peer Community at its core. Establishing the legitimacy of the EPC requires a review of the methodology of science in the policy process. The time is not ripe for a modification of PNS, and so the best move forward is to raise the issue of Sustainability. For that I sketch a theory of complex systems, with special attention to pathologies and failures. That provides the foundation for a use of ‘contradiction’ as a problem incapable of resolution in its own terms, and also of ‘characteristic contradiction’ that drives a system to a crisis. With those materials it is possible to state the characteristic contradiction of our modern industrial civilisation, and provide a diagram with heuristic power.

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... The current thesis takes American Pragmatism and post-normal science as a conceptual basis. Both rest on the idea that the credibility and legitimacy of knowledge production can be assured via iterative reflexive processes and conjointly defined criteria, for example, within an extended peer community (Ravetz, 2006). Pragmatism lends itself to ´mixed methods´ (Creswell, 2014) and offers a way out of the dichotomy between value neutrality and value relativism (Popa et al., 2015). ...
... This means that it considers system complexity, unpredictability, contradictions and diverse normative perspectives as integral elements of the practice of science itself and of the issues under investigation. Contradictions may be defined as "a set of problems or tasks that cannot be resolved within the terms of reference (or ´paradigm´) in which they have been conceived, and, hence require creativity (Ravetz, 2006). Inquiry does not uncover general ´truths´, but deals with context-specific challenges whose understanding is derived from the triangulation of data constructed from multiple perspectives, sources and methods, and serves to contribute to dialogues about how to tackle them (see methods 5.2.1). ...
... A pragmatic approach offers a third way´ between positivism and relativism by conceiving of knowledge production (and use) "as a social and reflexive process whereby criteria of scientific credibility and legitimacy are jointly defined within a community of inquiry" (Popa et al., 2015). This approach builds on "post-normal science" that has proposed the Extended Peer Community as a methodological approach and practice to assure quality in science (Ravetz, 2006). It extends scientific quality assurance to include practitioners and citizens who contribute with "common sense", their knowledge, and values in relation to "real-world situations", complex problems and problem-solving strategies (Funtowicz & Ravetz, 2008;Ravetz, 2006). ...
Thesis
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The thesis offers in-depth empirical insights into diverse factors that foster or hinder collective capacities of actors to address sustainability challenges at the water-land nexus. It focuses on how relations, knowledge, and practices in diverse organisations and professions engaged in governance and social learning processes in the Syr and Upper Sûre river basins in Luxembourg have changed following the entering into force of the EU Water Framework Directive in 2000. Finding that contradictions in water and land systems grow while spaces for self-organisation and meaning-making shrink, the thesis raises fundamental questions concerning both dominant supply- and productivity-oriented paradigms and managerial approaches to sustainability. New governance approaches are needed to foster social learning and actionable knowledge, embracing interrelations between ecological and social dimensions of sustainability.
... Science, as the only legitimate source of knowledge about the modernization paradigm, supports these universalization processes thanks to generalization and unbiased principles. However, both these principles are widely disputed (Ravetz 2006;Henríquez 2013). Generalization assumes that scientific findings can be successfully implemented regardless of previous conditions or that these conditions can be controlled and modified in order to ensure success (the world in a laboratory (Ravetz 1999)). ...
... Therefore, on large scales in complex systems, decision-making based on science presents problems of generalization and significant perception and bias effects. Ravetz (2006) proposes that decision-making processes face cumulative uncertainties (from technical to ethical uncertainties) as what is at stake increases ( Fig. 9.2). Thus, science, by itself, is unable to provide solutions on large scales, probably because of the complexity and number of emergent factors. ...
... However, these principles and models may have been successful for certain regions, but they have not been successful for others mainly due to two reasons. First, modernization requires preconditions for successful implementation such as resource availability and investment, and, second, unlike industrial processes, nature conservation, rural development, and land planning and management are complex systems, and, therefore, decision-making is affected by uncertainties and ignorance that science is not able to totally control (Ravetz 2006). Therefore, as many authors have showed, the modernization paradigm has failed in many places and situations (Van der Ploeg 1990;Sánchez de Puerta 1996;Sevilla 2013), not only in the socioeconomic domains but also in environmental domains (Martinez-Alier et al. 2016), as is widely known. ...
Chapter
The Amazon is the largest forest system on Earth, supporting a variety of indigenous societies, small farmers, extractivists, and artisanal fishers with different cultures and relations with wildlife. However, the Brazilian Amazon has lost more than 436,000 km² of forest in the last 30 years, and Protected Areas may not be enough to ensure the conservation of biodiversity and cultural heritage. On the other hand, formal alliances with rural inhabitants can decentralize resource management, strengthen full-time surveillance systems, reduce overall costs, and boost conservation effectiveness. Here, we provide an assessment of the two largest community-based management (CBM) programs in the Brazilian Amazon, which are inducing strong social and ecological benefits at a large scale. First, we show the benefits from CBM of giant arapaima, which has promoted an impressive stock recovery of the world’s largest freshwater scaled fish (Arapaima spp.), generating income and other benefits for rural livelihoods in Amazonian floodplains. Second, we show that CBM of freshwater turtles (Podocnemis spp.) has also promoted the population recovery of overexploited turtles, contributing to the maintenance of important cultural values. We also identified a set of social and institutional principles, and the intrinsic values of natural resources, which can help develop successful CBM programs. Finally, we discuss how these principles can strengthen existing initiatives and/or inspire new ones. Reconciling biodiversity conservation and local aspirations for rural development is an urgent socioecological demand in Amazonia. Raising the profile of successful initiatives can be a powerful strategy to disseminate a message of hope and action to local and international agencies that can support the scaling up of these successful models.
... i.e., situations where normal scientific recommendations rarely meet the intended results. This results from information being uncertain, stakes high, values in conflict, and decision urgent (Munda, 2004;Ravetz, 2006). Considering such elements would be appropriate for Flood Risk Reduction (FRR). ...
... This might rarely provide appropriate solutions considering the rapid environmental and climate changes (Ayeb-Karlsson et al., 2019). This, in the perspectives of Post-Normal Science scholars, is a typical example of conventional science becoming insufficient in providing absolute truth, i.e., facts or information becoming increasingly uncertain, stakes high, values in conflict, yet decisions urgent (Munda, 2004;Ravetz, 2006). ...
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Scholarly debates on disaster risk reduction have widely highlighted the interest in integrating indigenous knowledge with science to produce hybrid context-specific knowledge to suitably tackle disaster risk. Yet, an epistemological framework to enable hybridization remains a challenge. Focused on the case of floods, this dissertation investigated the (socio-)epistemic nature of indigenous knowledge and developed a framework to guide the best way to integrate it with science. Two key research techniques were used throughout: critical review of scientific literature and policy documents, and empirical analysis through participatory ethnography. Starting with questioning existing literature, the lack of an epistemological framework for knowledge integration is evidenced. The hylomorphic framework is proposed as a suited theoretical framework for integrative science in understanding and tackling disaster risk. This framework is standpoint in nature; it stresses the primacy of two intrinsic elements: the indigenous lived experience of a specific hazard-prone context (i.e., the hyle) and the context-specific risk science (i.e., the morphe). Based on this theoretical framework, three empirical case studies were conducted to structure the processes through which indigenous knowledge on understanding and tackling disasters is produced. The first empirical case study, exemplifying the empiricist constructive approach to understanding natural hazards, shows that locality and weaving into culture hardly stand in the way of indigenous systematization and/or objectivity. The other two add evidence that indigenous knowledge can be trans-local and adapting while being based on lived experiences and open sociocultural deliberations. Then the praxis of incorporating indigenous knowledge was evaluated from the viewpoint of the dominant discourse(s) that inform interventions on disasters. It evidenced that the discourse followed by key stakeholders (e.g., policymakers and scientists) determines whether indigenous knowledge is incorporated. This was further evidenced in the field testing of the hylomorphic framework: skewing the evaluation criteria to the vantage point of communities-at-risk enabled coalescing epistemologies, ontologies, values, and re-politicization. These attributes thus constitute the core epistemic processes of coalescing science and indigenous know-how into a hybrid epistemology of knowledge integration on disaster risk reduction. Based on these attributes, recommendations are made. They encompass science, society, and practice in the context of suitably understanding and reducing disaster risk.
... Firstly, it attempted to understand if the design principles, structure and the intended outcomes reproduce and reinforce the merely technoscientific tools of 'domination'-of nature, ecosystems, non-humans and marginal populations. While it is important to transform socio-technically towards better degrees of sustainability (Geels 2011), gross disparities between contexts, both societal and technical fixes tend to run parallel and neither directly challenges the other basic contradiction-the expropriation of the poor (Ravetz 2006). Thus, it is crucial to detect if (and how) new forms of biases, injustices, inequalities and hegemonies might develop in the process of execution of the project. ...
... As increasingly market-based solutions are called for to tackle environmental problems such as climate change or pollution, a tripartite nexus involving the capital market, techno-science solutions and academia becomes prominent (Watts 2015). Such a nexus manifests through, for example, making implicit demands for "high potency models that feature techno-scientific innovation" (Ravetz 2006), proposing that the idea that problems were mono-causal and transitory, and consider uncertainty as a quantifiable risk that can be objectively managed (Camino et al. 2014). Problems are faceable by experts, responsible for "manufacturing and shooting 'silver bullets' powered by huge, centrally-driven fluxes of energy and matter" (Ibid: 5, Deutz 2014). ...
Article
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Transdisciplinary sustainability research (TSR) is essential to better understand and tackle wicked problems such as climate change and realisation of sustainable development goals (SDGs). However, despite the normative nobility, a significant share of these initiatives seems to remain merely rhetorical that fail to address both local level socio-environmental crises and global catastrophes such as rising emissions. To better understand structural and procedural barriers within a TSR project, this study conducted “research on (a transdisciplinary sustainability) research”. It locates two critical reasons why TSR is not able to deliver on its promises in offering effective guidance in addressing global sustainability crisis and discusses how it can be more equitable in knowledge generation in particular and science in general. Firstly, it necessitates TSR to challenge the neo-colonial regime and the hegemonic processes of a dominant Northern episteme around the concept of sustainability, as it otherwise threatens to reinforce and perpetuate the status quo that produces unsustainability from the top. Findings also reveal key procedural shortcomings (often connected to the hegemony itself) that include constricted temporal allowance, insecure scientists and nexus of techno-science markets, Northern academia, funding agencies and governments. This not only seems to affect universality and reflexivity of the TSR project, but also undermines justice and equity by reinforcing prevailing power orders. It seems essential to theoretically shift from domination to partnership, allying with multiple realities, legitimising diverse ontologies and validating epistemic plurality to help TSR gain greater credibility. Procedurally, reforms in institutional research and funding processes including extended temporal spaces and helping scientists to have better collaboration across scales seem critical to enable TSR projects realise their true potential.
... The challenges arising in the context of transformations towards sustainable development cannot be addressed by individual scientific disciplines alone. Moreover, many established scientific approaches, methods and quality criteria are ill-suited to meet these challenges (see Ravetz 2006;Fjelland 2016;Jasanoff 2010). The need to develop new paradigms of knowledge production that transcend current disciplinary boundaries and the epistemic limitations of exclusively disciplinary research has been acknowledged since the 1990s. ...
... Attempts to provide a clear scientific solution to problems of either category are usually doomed to failure and, at worst, can deliver findings that are so deficient as to be harmful. In both cases, there are no clear-cut solutions to these problems but merely provisional and 'best-possible' solutions that are subject to constant social (re-)negotiation (see Ravetz 2006;Grundmann 2016). Many of the challenges addressed by transformation research and transformative research fall into these categories. ...
Technical Report
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The Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) explores the characteristics, barriers and drivers of promising sustainability transformations, seeks ethically justified concepts of sustainable development and designs and facilitates transformation processes. As such, it performs transformation research and transformative research. It addresses both societal actors and the scientific community (Chapter 1). Subsequently, the conditions and challenges of the IASS's transformative research approach will be discussed. To begin with, the approach will be located in the broader epistemological horizon of transformative research. This is accompanied by the critique of traditional forms of research and the demand for other, inter-and transdisciplinary as well as transformative forms of research (Chapter 2). Transformative research in particular faces a series of epistemological, socio-theoretical and ethical challenges. The IASS must be aware of these and productively turn them in its work, but also understand them as a specific research task (Chapter 3). Subsequently, it is explained how transformative research is carried out at IASS (Chapter 4) and which orientation points guide its work and advice (Chapter 5).
... Recognizing the challenges and the stakes of understanding and transitioning towards sustainability, the emerging transdisciplinary SS aspires to transcend traditional boundaries of academic disciplines and "normal science" (Kuhn, 1962), converging to the paradigm of "post-normal science" (Funtowicz and Ravetz, 1993). From this perspective, SS is evolving through both a scientific and a social paradigm, acting as a bridge between them (Sala et al., 2013b), and assuring its quality by being both scientifically and socially robust towards the ethical commitment of sustainability (Ravetz, 2006). ...
Article
Sustainability science (SS) has emerged to foster inter- and transdisciplinary research practices and the creation of new, robust, actionable knowledge for navigating sustainability transitions. However, whether the research paradigm of the emerging transdisciplinary SS has permeated the relevant research body to integrate with the subfield of sustainability assessment (SA) is an open question. Aiming to investigate and enhance interdisciplinary communication in SS theory and practice, we comparatively study three literature bodies: SS, SA and Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA). By combining conceptual analysis, bibliometric and social network analysis, and systematic content review, we explore how these research fields are and can be further interrelated. Our analysis indicates that the research paradigm of SS has hardly been embraced by SA scholars. There are however few SAs that have attempted to put SS concepts into practice and perform SAs that are both scientifically- and socially-robust. Extensive applications are needed to address current limitations and understand the feasibility and the outcomes of SS-inspired SA. Reflecting on the few empirical studies, we conclude that LCSA as currently applied cannot be a holistic and transdisciplinary framework for sustainability. An integration of life cycle- and other methods into robust, transparent and socially-embedded SA frameworks is needed, which will be enabled through communication and collaboration among SS and LCSA/SA scholars. Our paper gives insights towards this direction.
... Such problems, layered with complexity, require multiple systemic responses, extending beyond reductionist science and accompanying "command and control," managerialist conceptions of reality. Instead, any productive and purposeful engagement with grand challenges requires an appreciation and embrace of their system complexity, inherent uncertainty and a post-normal approach to science (Ravetz, 1999(Ravetz, , 2006. ...
Article
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The present moment of deep transition, as well as being a time of danger, presents an opportunity for positive renewal. This paper develops a model of deep institutional innovation at times of historic change such as the present and outlines a research agenda aimed at initiating a holistic assessment of the main foundational institutions in society and re-imagining them in ways that will allow them to fulfill their basic ethical and effectiveness functions. Such a fundamental critique and re-imaging, the paper argues, is essential if global challenges are to be mitigated and resolved.
... The academic and societal discourse on sustainability and socio-ecological transformation has been receiving widespread attention for decades (Kates et al. 2001;Clark, Crutzen, and Schellnhuber 2005). In the sustainability discourse it has become widespread consensus that the nature of sustainability-related challenges in the Anthropocene needs to be described and addressed from an understanding of complex adaptive systems (Clark and Harley 2020;Waltner-Toews, Kay, and Lister 2008;Ravetz 2006;Liu et al. 2007;Kay et al. 1999;Espinosa and Porter 2011;Steffen et al. 2011). Within academia, the discourse on sustainability science has been connected with the emergence of transdisciplinary research as a way to address complex societal problems more holistically. ...
... Societal problems such as climate change, conservation and sustainability share the double curse of wicked problems embedded within complex systems. Dissatisfaction with the contributions of traditional science to progress with solutions to these urgent problems has led to calls for a postnormal science (PNS) that jettisons scientific certainty and value neutrality to embrace uncertainty about the future and contested values (Carrozza 2015;Ravetz 1994, 2020;Ravetz 2006). In this paradigm, a scientist's role in decision making shifts from predicting the future to giving stakeholders an appreciation of how the future may unfold. ...
... post-normal science (Mode 2) (Merton, 1996;Msomphora, 2016;Ziman, 2000;Ravetz, 2006 ...
Article
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Developing fisheries policies based on the best available science (BAS) has been generally required in international agreements and national legal documents in many countries. However, it is difficult to comply with BAS when lacking a uniformly agreed‐upon operational framework. In this study, we conducted an exhaustive literature review and developed a framework that includes a comprehensive set of criteria and a basic operational structure for science‐based fisheries management (SBFM) to better integrate BAS in fisheries policies. We proposed that SBFM consists of four components: objective‐setting, data input (implementation and enforcement process), data production (scientific research process), and data use (management strategy development). The capacity of a fisheries system to produce and use BAS is mainly reflected in the following areas: (a) efficient informational feedback among these components; (b) collecting a good range of quality‐assured data that meet the needs of scientific research and fishery policy formulation; (c) analyzing the collected data; and (d) selecting and using the best data from different sources. The framework developed provides a set of new patterns for the use of fisheries science, which is applied for management purposes. It can inform the creation, evaluation, and improvement of management systems rooted in SBFM and strengthen SBFM‐related research, communication, and cooperation.
... Outcomes/Opportunities/Impacts: Fishbowl conversations are useful for sharing ideas or information from a variety of perspectives on a range of topics particularly for discussing policy decisions. They provide ways for students to see that people in complex discussions draw on values and politics as much as they do on science and other disciplinary-based knowledges (Ravetz, 2006). They provide a creative way to include a large group of people in a small group discussion. ...
Article
“Wicked problems” are complex to understand and challenging to teach. Our experience of teaching about environmental concerns in Aotearoa New Zealand suggests how these concepts are taught is more important for student learning than the nature of wicked problems themselves. By offering opportunities for students to co-develop their own situated knowledges about wicked problems, they can conceptualise and tackle them more effectively at their own pace and in their own experiential contexts. Here we identify and discuss approaches to teaching and learning that can be effectively applied to any wicked problem. We demonstrate a hopeful way to teach and learn about unwieldy and overwhelming issues that many of today’s undergraduates will inevitably be expected to confront in the future. This paper provides aframework to engage students in acourse, and tools for engendering active participation insituated and tangible learning experiences when teaching wicked problems. As lecturers teaching in aSchool of Environment in the disciplinary areas of geography, environmental science, science communication, and sustainability, we discuss the value and applications of these ideas across three levels of undergraduate teaching. We identify challenges that we have experienced and show how it is possible to turn these challenges into opportunities.
... to resolve complex policy issues in particularly environmental science (Ravetz 2006, Goemine 2011. Others argued that post-normal science tended to turn into politics presented as a new way of doing science since the issues that require expertise are often closely linked to normative questions (Wesselink & Hoppe 2011). ...
Thesis
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This thesis analyses and discusses the contributions and shortcomings of technocratic, participatory and regulatory strategies to solve the deadlock in decision-making about market authorisations of GM crops in Europe. I argue that political decision-making is not just the sum of science, public dialogue and regulations, but that politics has its own role to take decisions in situations of uncertainty and societal disagreement.
... Long-held and influential assumptions about the neutrality of technology are increasingly being challenged in both the physical sciences (Jasanoff, 2003(Jasanoff, , 2007Ravetz, 2006;Stirling, 2008) and in social science disciplines, including accounting, economics, management and public policy (Dillard and Ruchala, 2005;Fischer and Gottweis, 2012;Griggs et al., 2014;Söderbaum, 2007). We briefly review the rationales for re-evaluating traditional conceptualisations of technologies and expert-society relations in pluralist and power-laden societies as a basis for considering how technologies of humility might enrich agonistics-based CDAA. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present an expanded introduction of Jasanoff’s (2003, 2007) work on “technologies of humility” to the accounting literature and to show how it can be useful in developing critical dialogic accountings for non-financial matters. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on Jasanoff’s (2003, 2007) distinction between “technologies of hubris” and “technologies of humility”, this study extends prior research on critical dialogic accounting and accountability (CDAA) that seeks to “take pluralism seriously” (Brown, 2009; Dillard and Vinnari, 2019). This study shows how Jasanoff’s work facilitates constructing critical, reflexive approaches to accounting for non-financial matters consistent with agonistics-based CDAA. Findings Jasanoff’s four proposed focal points for developing new analytical tools for accounting for non-financial matters and promoting participatory governance – framing, vulnerability, distribution and learning – are argued to be useful in conceptualising possible CDAA technologies. These aspects are all currently ignored or downplayed in conventional approaches to accounting for non-financial matters, limiting accounting’s ability to promote more socially just and ecologically sustainable societies. Originality/value The authors introduce Jasanoff’s work on technologies of humility to show how CDAA, informed by Jasanoff’s proposed focal points, can help to expose controversial issues that powerful interests prefer to obscure, to surface the normative foundations of technocratic analytic methods, to address the need for plural perspectives and social learning and to bring all these aspects “into the dynamics of democratic debate” (Jasanoff, 2003, p. 240). As such, they provide criteria for constructing accounting technology consistent with agonistics-based CDAA.
... An interesting case study could shed light on the CDU's positioning on agricultural pollutants in Hessen and analyze whether it was influenced by a coalition government with the Greens, thereby contributing to the literature on the greening of party politics. Finally, future research could examine the issue of agricultural pollutants from the perspective of post-normal scienceand investigate how science is translated into policies(Funtowicz & Ravetz, 2018 ;Ravetz, 2006). More specifically, it would be insightful to gain a better understanding of how political parties deal with the complex and uncertain nature of the risks posed by agricultural pollutants and how this affects their policy positions.3.7 ReferencesAbbasi, Y., Mannaerts, C. M., & Makau, W. (2019). ...
Thesis
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This dissertation set out to investigate whether studying the public debates on water pollution by agricultural nitrate and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) contributes to an enhanced understanding of differences in respective policymaking in Germany. Theoretically, the articles of this cumulative dissertation predominantly built on previous literature on public debates, discourse networks and narrative strategies. A growing literature in political science suggests that public debates influence policymaking processes in democratic systems and has shown that analyzing public debates contributes to a better understanding of observed variation in policy outcomes. Empirically, the articles investigated public debates and policymaking on two cases of water pollution in Germany: nitrate water pollution caused by agricultural activities and CECs with special attention on pharmaceutical contaminants. Both cases varied regarding the characteristics of the public debates and the policy outcomes. The debate on agricultural nitrate water pollution became increasingly polarized over time and coincided with a significant change in fertilizer regulation, whereas the persistence of comparatively liberal regulation on CECs was accompanied by a non-polarized and largely non-disputed public debate. The four articles of this cumulative dissertation are structured into two parts. In the first part, two articles engaged with the empirical case of agricultural pollution of water. The first article investigated the public debate on agricultural nitrate pollution. More specifically, it analyzed whether political actors used narrative strategies to influence policymaking. The second article focused on German political parties and investigated whether their attention and positioning on agricultural pollutants in water was associated with policymaking on the issue. In the second part, the two articles shed light on the public debate on water pollution by CECs. The first article explained the policy outcome on pharmaceutical contaminants by examining the German public debate on the issue. The second article compared the approach of discourse and policy networks and their respective empirical findings on the issue of CECs. Overall, the dissertation makes several theoretical, methodological and empirical contributions to literature on public debates, policy narratives, agenda-setting, policy integration, social network analysis, and the issue of water pollution in Germany.
... The most common criticism refers to, precisely, the non-differential treatment of uncertainty which does not take into consideration the heterogeneity in the nature of the events of study and our inability to accurately measure their future odds. These include events with low probability of occurrence but high impacts (Chichilnisky 2000;Basili 2006;Ravetz 2006); events that cannot be accounted for due to the presence of irreducible uncertainties (i.e. the socalled 'unknown unknowns'); or events that are not-measurable and cannot be defined operationally due to 'deep uncertainty'. These are the typical events associated with climate projections: extreme and highly uncertain. ...
Article
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We interrogate mathematical modelling as an instrument of knowledge co-production by concentrating on the classical probabilistic operationalization of decision-making under uncertainty used for informing climate change mitigation options. We construct our co-productive assessment framework by first retrieving criticisms targeted at expected utility theory in relation to its epistemic and ethical limits in dealing with ‘true’ uncertainty. We then reflect on how ethical values should operate in relation to uncertainty in order to live up to the co-production ideal and specifically, to the principle of Responsible Research and Innovation. We thus undertake the perspective of a general modeller and test our reflections by imagining the classical probabilistic space of calculation as a space of negotiation between probabilities, ideas, values and beliefs. We thus propose an alternative ‘public’ space of calculation in which the conditions for co-production are set up on a pragmatic and moral account of rational expectations.
... First, water challenges persist and conventional command and control approaches have failed to adequately address these challenges (Pahl-Wostl et al., 2011;Schoeman et al., 2014). Second, there is an increasing awareness of complex systems, uncertainty, and interconnectivity in relation to water (Folke, 2003;Galaz, 2007;Holling, 1995;Pahl-Wostl, 2007b;Pahl-Wostl et al., 2011;Ravetz, 1999;Ravetz, 2006;Smith et al., 2011). Third, human dimensions of water (i.e., governance and social construction) are being increasingly emphasized and recognized as interconnected with ecosystems (Global Water Partnership, Technical Advisory Committee, 2000;Linton, 2014;Pahl-Wostl et al., 2011). ...
Article
Increasing scholarship has focused on a shift in scientific water paradigm in the 21st century from an understanding of water systems as stationary, predictable and command‐and‐control as appropriate governance to an understanding of them as complex, dynamic, and uncertain. This shift has been characterized in several ways. We focused on two prominent characterizations: as a “new water paradigm” and as “water resilience.” We identified the defining hallmarks of each, the “precursor” scholarship upon which these Defining Works build, and how the Defining Works have been advanced with “Subsequent Works” that cite them. We used bibliometric data to analyze the three bodies of literature and inductive coding to identify the hallmarks of the new water paradigm and water resilience from Defining Works. Four categories of hallmarks were identified that describe the emerging scientific water paradigm: complex adaptive systems orientation; governance and management configurations, which are inclusive, integrative, adaptive; governance and management actions that emphasize linkages between social and ecological systems and imperative of sustainability; and, attributes of diversity, redundancy and openness. There was insufficient evidence in fields of research, author country, and publishing journals to confirm that the emerging scientific water paradigm has been conceptualized in two distinct ways. Despite the degree of similarity between the two conceptualizations, the literature is strongly oriented toward one or the other. We suggest consilience between these two conceptualizations and scholars working with them to advance collective understanding of governance and management in light of our current understanding of water systems. This article is categorized under: • Human Water > Human Water Abstract Four broad categories of hallmarks, or defining features, that contribute to describing the emerging scientific water paradigm. Size of hallmarks indicates frequency identified; shading indicates to what extent the two conceptualizations of focus contribute.
... Post normal science is a method of inquiry for addressing long-term issues when relatively little information is available, facts are uncertain, values are in dispute and urgent decisions and outcomes are critical (Ravetz, 2007). ...
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The Craft Your Future project brings together educational institutions, students, local authorities, creative centers and (social) companies in the creation of a strategy that helps regions use intangible cultural heritage to increase their attractiveness, boost local economies and build a future based on these regional resources. The Craft Your Future strategy is based on the vision that young people are the source of tomorrow’s economy and, therefore, should lead the design of future strategies. The development of student leadership skills, proactivity and business mentality will drive change and innovation.
... This might suggest a complex issue of post-normal situation, i.e., situations where normal scientific recommendations rarely meet the intended results. This results from information being uncertain, stakes high, values in conflict, and decision urgent [8,9]. Considering such elements would be appropriate for Flood Risk Reduction (FRR). ...
Article
The continued significant impacts of disasters from natural hazards raise questions regarding the epistemic commensurability of measures recommended to achieve substantial disaster risk reduction. Using the case of Flood Risk Reduction (FRR), this study critically reviews key scientific literature on the epistemic foundations of the indigenous, scientific, and integrated knowledge perspectives to disaster risk reduction. Results suggest that the adoption of measures for FRR is determined by how related or detached, in their lived experiences, communities-at-risk are from the perspective into which measures are framed. Yet the increasingly recommended integrated knowledge perspective rarely grasps lived experience. Therefore, an extension of the integrated knowledge perspective is proposed based on an analogy with the philosophical theory of hylomorphism to derive a hylomorphic framework of integrating knowledge for effective and efficient disaster risk reduction. Specific to FRR, this framework elaborates how appropriate knowledge integration (for FRR) should be founded at a composite of two intrinsic elements: the indigenous lived experience of a specific flood-prone context (i.e., the hyle) and the context-specific flood risk science (i.e., the morphe).
... andina Se requiere reconfigurar el conocimiento, uniendo lo que la modernidad separó: racionalidad / emoción, hombre/naturaleza, que permitan la emergencia Énfasis de novedades históricas (Leff, 2007;Ravetz, 2006;Santos, 2002), que cuestionen tanto a los modelos desarrollistas como a las formas de producción científico-tecnológicas de homogenización mundial. Se requiere una "epistemología política", propia de un paso de la ciencia reduccionista a una "ciencia holística" (Boff, 2012;Elbers, 2013), propia de una "ciencia posnormal" (ya no ubicada en los riesgos tecnológicos, sino los de la sostenibilidad ambiental y la supervivencia), y de "ciencia con la gente" como lo plantean Funtowicz y Ravetz (2000), una "ciencia alternativa" a la de la modernidad, que contribuya a resolver los problemas de alta complejidad, novedad y variabilidad, como los presentes en los desafíos y riesgos de la actual época (de naturaleza socioambiental, como cambio climático, nanotecnología, ingeniería genética, transgénicos, energía nuclear, etc.). ...
Chapter
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Este capítulo de libro, representa un avance de la línea de investigación “Inclusión de la dimensión ambiental en la educación en Ciencias”, propuesta por el grupo de investigación DIDAQUIM, en el doctorado en educación de la Universidad Distrital, en Bogotá. En él se discuten las bases conceptuales sobre el estado de la crisis civilizatoria de la modernidad (particularmente ambiental), y se argumenta sobre la necesidad de un proceso de cambio fundamentado en alternativas propias de la ciencia pos normal, las epistemologías del sur, la filosofía andina y la ecología integral. Así mismo, se hace una estructuración educativa de la relación pedagógica: sostenibilidad / sustentabilidad, como bases de la creación de una didáctica ambiental para la investigación sobre cuestiones de justicia socio ambiental y del desarrollo de niveles morales en tramas de transición complejas, lo que demanda una formación de los docentes de ciencias desde la perspectiva del CDC Ambiental.
... The monism and belief in one authority contributes to thinking in terms of absolute, universal and supreme, with deleterious effects on relationships with other cultures (Sunde, 2008), relationships with nature (Barrett et al., 2016), and the myth of self-righteousness, e.g. if you are fighting God's battle, you will win (Macy, 1991, p. 5). (Ravetz, 2006). He sought a method that could create truths certain beyond any shadow of doubt (Capra, 1982, p. 44). ...
Thesis
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The dominant cultural paradigm is reflected in language heavy with static, mechanistic nouns. The perceptions of paradigm disrupt the complex inter-relationality from which diverse life on this world emerges and evolves. Most learning experiences in the dominant paradigm, even though well-intended, unconsciously perpetuate these static, mechanistic, anthropocentric, and hierarchical beliefs. This thesis is a deep and wide exploration of how else things might be. A diverse group of educators have been experimenting with ways to bring more relational paradigms into being. The work of these educators can be described as transformative sustainability learning. The intention of transformative sustainability learning is to create the conditions for students to perceive, feel, think, and act in ways within and beyond the dominant paradigm. Helpful in creating these conditions for students are pedagogies born from more relational paradigms, such as transdisciplinary, critical, experiential, systems and complexity theories. The thesis explores how each of the philosophers who created such relational pedagogies paused to reflect on the long arc of history, and as a result asserted that the dominant paradigm, and its views of reality, brings deleterious effects which seriously impede humanity’s ability to be sustainable, let alone resilient and regenerative. As such, these philosophers created processes to help learners transcend these beliefs. Even though the pedagogies associated with transformative sustainability learning were born from a more relational perception, with a focus on verbs, process, dynamism, not everyone who uses the term ‘transformative sustainability learning’ works from within these philosophical premises. Not everyone has an awareness of their own worldview or the influence of the dominant paradigm on their educational practices. Thus, these relational and complex pedagogies can be separated from their philosophical foundations and be practised within the beliefs of the dominant paradigm (i.e. static things organised by human superiority). Perhaps this inability to transcend the invisible beliefs of the dominant cultural paradigm explains in part why earlier sustainability pedagogies have not been as broadly impactful as hoped. If so, how can we become more aware of our own worldviews and the paradigmatic implications of the concepts we engage? Relational pedagogies share a critique of the separatist perception infusing the dominant paradigm. Helpful in complexifying this perception is one’s own transformative experiences. This inquiry reveals and probes the stories of the philosophers who preceded transformative sustainability learning as well as transformative sustainability scholar-educators who have undergone such transformative experiences. Designing transformative sustainability learning is benefited by having transformative experiences of one’s own. As consciousness of their worldview and the surrounding paradigms strengthened, these educators developed an expanded set of relational beliefs to inform their learning design. They design experiential learning about content, process and experiences enabling new ways of perceiving and being, which create the condition for a more sustainable, regenerative world. Weaving the whole together results in a rare, deep and wide exploration of diverse meaning-systems, and the subsequent distillation of threshold concepts for stretching and complexifying both learners’ and teachers’ ways of being towards sustainability. In short, this is a story about an unusual cohort of worldview-aware educators who are helping others to become worldview-aware. This inquiry offers scholarship into the philosophical premises and processes of transformative sustainability learning, in support of educators and facilitators seeking learning experiences that will support a more sane, more just, ecologically alive world.
... In der Nachhaltigkeitsforschung haben sich zahlreiche partizipative Forschungsansätze entwickelt, die unter verschiedenen prägnanten Schlagwörtern diskutiert werden. Im internationalen Kontext sind Begriffe wie post-normal science (Funtowicz und Ravetz 1993;Ravetz 2006), Mode 2-learning (Gibbons 1994) oder partizipative Aktionsforschung present (Lewin 1946;Reason 1994;Reason und Bradbury 2008 Stauffacher et al. 2008;Guimarães et al. 2014;Heinrichs et al. 2011;Jong et al. 2016). ...
Book
Full-text available
Die Erwartung an Partizipation in der Nachhaltigkeitsforschung ist hoch: Von Wissenschaft und Praxis kollaborativ erarbeitetes Wissen soll Herausforderungen wie die Transformation des Energiesystems adressieren. Doch die Kritik nimmt zu, dass – entgegen den in sie gesetzten Erwartungen – kollaborativ veranlagte Formate wenig neuen Inhalt zur Lösung der Nachhaltigkeitsprobleme beitragen und begrenzte Partizipationsmöglichkeiten für diverse soziale Gruppen bieten. Somit führen sie zu einer unkritischen Reproduktion hierarchischer Machtstrukturen. Diese Arbeit entwickelt literaturbasiert eine Analyseheuristik zur Charakterisierung vier zentraler Partizipationsansätze in der Nachhaltigkeitsforschung, die mit Machtdimensionen und Konzepten gesellschaftlicher Transformation verbunden sind. In einem innovativen Fallstudiendesign werden eine vergleichende Metaanalyse und eine vertiefende Einzelfallstudie kombiniert. Die Studie leistet einen innovativen Beitrag zum besseren wissenschaftlichen Verständnis partizipativer Prozesse und deren (Un-)Wirksamkeit und bietet zudem praktische Hinweise für reflexive, verantwortungsvolle und diverse Partizipationsprozesse, die berücksichtigen, dass Prozess und Inhalt maßgeblich von Vorannahmen beeinflusst werden.
... Research, policy and practise within the outer realm of complexity and uncontrollability requires different thinking. A similar schema was modified by Funtowicz and Ravetz (1993) and Ravetz (2006) in theorising a post-normal science that -rather than presuming an ideal of universal regularity and prediction -shifts to an ontology that accepts conditions of uncertainty and complexity (post-normal science) where decision stakes are high. ...
Article
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The potential of pastoral land use to create positive environmental, economic, and social outcomes is constrained by a “way of seeing” land and people through the eyes of Modernity and mechanical determinism. That ontology of land is compounded and reinforced by positivism, and the associated hierarchical and dis-integrated epistemology around the culture:nature nexus – including what is seen as “objective” science and technology driving practise. Both the ontology and epistemology of our Modern land use culture drive a reduction of ethics, relationship, and meaning to the measured utility of either production or dollars within a “resource sufficiency” view of the land factory. The consequence is not just the non-realisation of potential synergies and multiple functions underpinning value and resilience within the socio-ecological systems associated with pastoral land. It also degrades the “functional integrity” of those integrated systems and increases the fragility and multiple negative outcomes to local economic, environmental, and social functions. This study examines the underlying philosophical thoughtscapes of Modern agri-business models and contrasts those models with the emerging alternatives: from reducible universally-quantifiable machines to post-industrial thought; including post-normal science, integrated complex adaptive systems, and emerging work shifting homogeneous “economies of scale” industrialism to realising potential “economies of scope” by building functional and self-organising systems. It further examines the potential scope to be gained using three specific examples: multi-functional integrated landscapes, resilience theory specific to drought, and market value chains.
... So customary law must be the original law of the Indonesian people, rooted in customs or an emanation of the fundamental cultural values of the Indonesian people, which means binding and finding all these thoughts recognized by the constitution, the 1945 Constitution. Therefore, in this study, we intend to gain a deep understanding of how the Indonesian people see and feel customary law in the reformation era from the point of view of the complexity and diversity of Indonesian society (Cadenasso et al., 2006;Ravetz, 2006). ...
Article
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Although this customary law is official in Indonesia, its existence and use are minimal. At the same time, customary law is the primary source of state law in building law towards the perfection of legislation. Although customary law is not written down in the context of recognition, it is still recognized even though it is within certain limits and consensus. So, this is what we consider to be the complexity resulting from the socio-cultural diversity in Indonesia so that the existence of customary law is not recognized by national law. We have carried out this study using the review method on a hundred pieces of evidence of field findings, and we present it in this report so that we gain a deep understanding of how to understand customary law and the complexity of the socio-cultural diversity of Indonesian society. Hopefully, this finding is helpful for observers of customary law and developments in the country.
... With these developments in the theory of science, the re-evaluations of the meaning of epistemic landscapes can at least be represented in a rudimentary way. Particularly, research dealing with the consequences of anthropogenic climate change is also called "problem driven science" [21]. Not least because of this assessment, the hypothesis arises logically, according to which this research should precisely show a higher "interweaving" of classical epistemic landscapes. ...
... With these developments in the theory of science, the re-evaluations of the meaning of epistemic landscapes can at least be represented in a rudimentary way. Particularly, research dealing with the consequences of anthropogenic climate change is also called "problem driven science" [21]. Not least because of this assessment, the hypothesis arises logically, according to which this research should precisely show a higher "interweaving" of classical epistemic landscapes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Climate change causes global effects on multiple levels. The anthropogenic input of greenhouse gases increases the atmospheric mean temperature. It furthermore leads to a higher probability of extreme weather events (e.g., heat waves, floods) and thus strongly impacts the habitats of humans, animals, and plants. Against this background, research and innovation activities are increasingly focusing on potential health-related aspects and feasible adaptation and mitigation strategies. Progressing urbanization and demographic change paired with the climate change- induced heat island effect exposes humans living in urban habitats to increasing health risks. By employing scientometric methods, this scoping study provides a systematic bird’s eye view on the epistemic landscapes of climate change, its health-related effects, and possible technological and nature-based interventions and strategies in order to make urban areas climate proof. Based on a literature corpus consisting of 2614 research articles collected in SCOPUS, we applied network-based analysis and visualization techniques to map the different scientific communities, discourses and their interrelations. From a public health perspective, the results demonstrate the range of either direct or indirect health effects of climate change. Furthermore, the results indicate that a public health-related scientific discourse is converging with an urban planning and building science driven discourse oriented towards urban blue and green infrastructure. We conclude that this development might mirror the socio-political demand to tackle emerging climate change-induced challenges by transgressing disciplinary boundaries.
... Therefore, in the case of systems, values defined at certain scale change if we make decision at larger scale and mismatches emerge as deviation of real value with regard expected value, previously stablished at smaller scales [1]. These deviations, as uncertainties, increase as what is at stake (beside scale) in decision enhance [5]. These uncertainties must be managed instead of overlooked [6]. ...
Conference Paper
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It is widely recognized that reality, in general, and the field of action of the different disciplines in particular, behaves as a complex system. System insofar as it is the result of the interaction of innumerable elements and factors whose behavior is determined by these interactions, and complex insofar as this behavior faces a high degree of uncertainty (understood as the difference between what we expect to happen and what actually happens). The complexity and the derived uncertainty increase with the scale and extension of the sphere of action-influence. In the case of agronomists and other professionals related to the rural environment, the extension of the scope of action ranges from farm management to decision making in legislative development. In this context, the scope has to do with the number of agents that are affected by the decisions made by the technicians. The notion of scale or extension is not integrated into the structure of engineering education, as elements of training, among other reasons, because it is considered that the skills and competences acquired operate with the same effectiveness at different scales and extensions. However, it has not been considered that as the scope of action increases, new properties and uncertainties appear that must be managed. Competences acquired for one scale-extent cease to be effective when applied to another scale. With this paper we try to argue that the skills and competences acquired at smaller scales (e.g. farm management) are not the skills and competences needed to operate at larger scales (e.g. land use planning, public natural resource management, legislation and others). We argue that effective farm design-management competencies may be ineffective in legislative development or land management. We propose an approach to the tasks of agronomists from three different scales-extension, proposing different competences and skills for each of them. In this way, we want to provide elements of judgment for the development of training programs that take into account the different scales and their effect on the complexity and uncertainty that technicians face when making decisions, as a basis for their training in multiscale skills. We present two examples, one related to the livestock sector and the other related to water management. keywords: decision making, rural environment, training programs. Abstract It is widely recognized that reality, in general, and the field of action of the different disciplines in particular, behaves as a complex system. System insofar as it is the result of the interaction of innumerable elements and factors whose behaviour is determined by these interactions, and complex insofar as this behaviour faces a high degree of uncertainty (understood as the difference between what we expect to happen and what actually happens). The complexity and the derived uncertainty increase with the scale and extension of the sphere of action-influence. In the case of agronomists and other professionals related to the rural environment, the extension of the scope of action ranges from farm management to decision making in legislative development. In this context, the scope has to do with the number of agents that are affected by the decisions made by the technicians. The notion of scale or extension is not integrated into the structure of engineering education, as elements of training, among other reasons, because it is considered that the skills and competences acquired operate with the same effectiveness at different scales and extensions. However, it has not been considered that as the scope of action increases, new properties and uncertainties appear that must be managed. Competences acquired for one scale-extent cease to be effective when applied to another scale. With this paper we try to argue that the skills and competences acquired at smaller scales (e.g. farm management) are not the skills and competences needed to operate at larger scales (e.g. land use planning, public natural resource management, legislation and others). We argue that effective farm design-management competencies may be ineffective in legislative development or land management. We propose an approach to the tasks of agronomists from three different scales-extension, proposing different competences and skills for each of them. In this way, we want to provide elements of judgment for the development of training programs that consider the different scales and their effect on the complexity and uncertainty that technicians face when making decisions, as a basis for their training in multiscale skills. We present two examples, one related to the livestock sector and the other related to water management.
... Scholars concur that in complex-dynamic systems knowledge will always be partial, and they urge practitioners to move forward with the best available evidence. 54 Context is highly specific and rapidly changing. Waiting for a full understanding will likely result in applying evidence that is already outdated. ...
... These bear significant implications for the important aspect of behavioural change in organisations working (or not) towards sustainability. This is due to the imperative of post-normal science in the context of sustainability science and policy, where complex systems such as organisations experience conditions of high uncertainty and the stakes for decision-making are also high (Funtowicz & Ravetz, 1993;Ravetz, 2004Ravetz, , 2006. The implications of decisions made under these conditions inimitably affect our collective movement towards reducing negative environmental impacts and creating more circular flows of natural resources through the organisation. ...
Book
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This thesis book presents a deep investigation of how to change complex organisations from the inside to ensure they achieve their ambitious sustainability goals in the long term, rather than rely on attractive pledges, reports and websites. This research drew from five disciplines to build an overarching model of transforming the university towards sustainability. The model has been tried and tested four times: on three frontrunner international case study universities and on Maastricht University itself. Through numerous interventions over seven years, together with the Green Office, Maastricht Sustainability Institute (fka ICIS), and other change-makers, the study discovered shared qualities and common patterns of systemic change that teams employ to navigate transformation; in effect, they ‘dance’ through the complexity, high stakes, and power games whilst pushing for robust sustainability performance in their own organisations. These patterns and qualities are built on the results of the three case studies and are recognised as latent and in need of further appreciation in UM. The university itself can be redesigned and transformed, so it can better act as a proactive steward of planetary health. The researcher stands behind this more nuanced and necessary view in light of the pandemic crises of climate, capitalism and corona that we face. The work also constitutes an action-oriented systems-view of various theoretical, practical and epistemological perspectives that work towards a rigorous holistic understanding of how complex organisations like universities transform towards sustainability. In keeping with this systems view, organisational transformation for sustainability was found to manifest in various forms. These all necessitate a profound shift in the system’s equilibrium, with teams and organisations working together as communities of inquiry, from silo-based to matrix-based ways of working, more ‘in sync’ with themselves and their external environments. We learnt a great deal about how organisations transform - whether structural, organisational, behavioural, societal or institutional. This was also rooted in the lived experience of those who participated in this co-inquiry. The kinds of transformation that universities can drive (whether deliberately or by happenstance) need to be understood against this pluralistic manual whilst being rooted in the substance and experience of organisational life.
... This helps when it comes to defining a certain place with multiple engaged dynamics, no matter what intentions initiated the practice or what spatial outcome was created. It is also important to examine professionals' reflections, normative positions, and restrictions on their choices (Law and Mol, 2001;Ravetz, 2006), which can be traced to specific cases in order to discern their tangible effects on people's interactions and on the reality of place, as they play out in everyday spatial practices. Hence, public space in each case study is viewed as a manifestation of the actors' engagements in the production process along with their effects, which become apparent in this realm. ...
Thesis
The creation of public space is intended to contribute to the civic infrastructure of a city. The conventional dichotomy of intentions versus outcomes in urban design practice posits that, while intentions represent more abstract thinking about the various facets of publicness, outcomes are the manifest realizations of those intentions in public spaces. This study grounds itself in an exploration of this intention-outcome gap to examine how urban design facilitates the production of publicness, by means of which public spaces can enable appropriations, i.e., the practices of togetherness, encounters, and expressions of different publics. Analysing the appropriations as unintended consequences is about the planning and design process, by which publicness is produced through larger strategies; and, the process of use, by which publicness is socially experienced and contested. This research applies a comparative case study approach, as examples of brownfield developments and producing ‘city-like’ (stadsmässighet) urban environments in two practices in Sweden: the Liljeholmstorget Transit Hub in Stockholm and the Western Harbour Waterfront in Malmö. The Liljeholmstorget examines negotiations of land uses and trade-offs with private actors, and its publicness addresses informal togetherness and passive encounters in relation to collective routines of commuting and consumption. The Western Harbour Waterfront reveals a determined process to promote the city’s economic growth and image; planned for the well-being of a specific type of public, which was later contested by unexpected users and their unplanned expressions.
... The key to the development of the SBFM framework is to understand our expectations of science and the relationship between science and policy in governance, which involves the topic of the differences between the paradigms of normal science (Mode 1) and post-normal science (Mode 2) (Merton, 1996;Ravetz, 2006;Ziman, 2000;. Wouters et al. (2008) stated that fisheries science, used for management purposes, is moving away from traditional Mode 1 science and turning to Mode 2 science. ...
Article
Sustainable fisheries management requires decisions to be made based on sound science. To help ensure this, a Science-Based Fisheries Management (SBFM) system should be established to produce the best available science (BAS) and to ensure that the BAS forms the basis of decision-making. The goal of this dissertation is to look at how China, the world’s largest marine fisheries country, might build an effective SBFM system to enable its marine fisheries to attain sustainability. Studies were conducted to answer the following guiding questions: 1) what is SBFM? 2) why is it necessary for China to deploy SBFM? 3) what are China’s challenges, roadblocks, and opportunities in implementing SBFM?, and 4) how to overcome the obstacles by reforming China’s fisheries system. This dissertation is structured into four chapters. An extensive literature review was conducted in Chapter 1 to determine the concept and enablers of SBFM in the world. A framework that included a thorough set of criteria and a basic operational structure for SBFM was given. The evolution of China’s marine fisheries management practices from 1949 to 2019 was examined in Chapter 2 based on a comprehensive literature review and the researcher’s observations in meetings and conversations with Chinese fisheries experts. This Chapter provides materials to help people better understand the features and trends of China’s marine fisheries policies, as well as the characteristics of its marine capture fisheries. The study indicated that China’s sustainable marine fisheries management faces numerous challenges and hurdles, the majority of which are associated with SBFM - inefficient science-policy interactions and data shortages. The checklist of SBFM criteria defined in Chapter 1 was used in Chapter 3 to analyze China’s marine fisheries management system from a system engineering perspective. The benefits and drawbacks of the system for implementing SBFM were examined. Finally, in Chapter 4, the advantages and disadvantages of China’s marine fisheries management system were summarized, and recommendations for China’s marine fisheries reform with the goal of constructing a more successful SBFM were provided. This dissertation concluded that 1) China’s sustainable marine fisheries management cannot succeed without institutional reforms to support stronger science and its integration into fisheries policymaking; 2) reforming the fisheries management system from the perspective of system engineering can be an effective way to promote the production of better BAS and its use in policies; and, 3) use of the SBFM framework developed in this study can help China evaluate and reform its marine fisheries legal and institutional framework, and at the same time leverage the localized TAC pilot programs to develop and test a structured approach for SBFM. With the expansion of TAC pilots, the approach can be revised accordingly and finally inform the development and implementation of SBFM at large.
... The achievement of the SDGs is only possible through the joint efforts of governments, businesses, civil society, and all inhabitants of the Earth. Such a transition is complex and requires a change in the very foundations of social life (Kemp et al. 2007;Ravetz 2006;Wiek et al. 2012). This problem is relevant for the Russian Federation (Bobylev and Grigoriev 2017). ...
Book
This timely book presents a remarkable collection of chapters that provides readers with a coherent framework for understanding the factors driving industry competitiveness in contemporary conditions of economic digitalization and the ongoing transition to industry 4.0. Presenting contributions by scientists, engineers, and field experts, the book focuses on using advanced technologies and applications, building innovative and resilient systems in industrial enterprises, developing competitive management systems, creating competence networks, and enhancing integration to foster and sustain industry competitiveness. Both qualitative and quantitative studies are included, and this collection of diverse perspectives adds to the richness of the volume’s insights. Along with reviewing deep theoretical concepts and innovative approaches, the publication provides practical applications and technological solutions to real-world problems existing in industry. Recent advances in management theory and practice focused on the forces driving competition in industry are also extensively covered by the leading scholars and practitioners.
... Sustainability transitions (see Figure 1 below) are goal-oriented rather than emergent processes in complex environments [61], address public goods, e.g., the environment, and there is debate about the merit of particular solutions [62]. Geels [63][64][65] argues that the multi-level perspective (MLP) on sustainability transitions highlights the multi-level and multi-actor nature of socio-technical regime change and acknowledges the need to enhance MLP with theories of agency and governance issues [66] to account for how transition can happen [67]. ...
Article
The combined pressure of economic, environmental, and social crises, including bushfires, waste management, and COVID created conditions for a turn to the circular economy in Australia. In addition to a dominant circular discourse of ecological modernization in state and federal policy and business and public consultations, other more socially inclusive and ecologically sensitive discourses are circulating. The two main competing discourses are a techcentric circular economy and a reformist circular society, the latter reflected in ‘growth agnostic’ doughnut economics. In the context of unambitious federal and state policies, the circular transition is being supported by a range of intermediary organizations whose key representatives envision or ‘figure’ the sustainability transition in hybrid discursive combinations. Few studies of the circular economy transition in Australia exist and none focus on competing discourses and intermediation for sustainability transition. Since intermediary organizations both discursively reflect and lead the circular change, fuller understanding of how circularity is interpreted or ‘figured’ by key actors is crucial. This study identifies how twenty representatives from intermediating organizations actively ‘figure’ the process of the circular transition for Australia, including while managing the tension between personal positions and organizational missions. Employing the concept of figured worlds this qualitative thematic discourse interview study analyses how, drawing on available circular discourses, key actors and their organisations actively ‘figure’ the present and future circular transition. The study contributes to debates on circular discourses, nature, and the limitations of the circular economy in Australia, the relational space of intermediation, and the nature of MLP transitions for a sustainable circular transition economy in Australia.
... In recent decades a number of research as well as management approaches have evolved to facilitate participatory processes and knowledge integration, including postnormal science (Ravetz, 2006), transdisciplinary research (Lang et al., 2012), and adaptive management (Lee, 1999). These approaches overlap in their aim to facilitate co-learning among stakeholders from science and practice, achieve an enriched and collective understanding among these stakeholders of a particular socialecological issue, and co-produce knowledge to serve a common purpose. ...
Article
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Protected areas are complex social‐ecological systems, hence their management should be guided by engagement and co‐learning with diverse stakeholders. The challenge of effective stakeholder participation has generated a body of literature on the design and facilitation of coproduction processes. In this study, we used this literature to develop a principle‐based framework for assessing coproduction. We then applied this framework to evaluate how well “adaptive planning” (a sub‐process of adaptive management used for visioning and objective setting with stakeholders), as applied to the Garden Route National Park in South Africa, aligned with the ideals of coproduction. Our analysis revealed shortcomings in the adaptive planning process, which could be improved through broadening the agenda beyond the mandate and control of national parks, empowering collective agency among a wider stakeholder network, and embedding co‐learning with stakeholders as an ongoing journey. A significant finding was that adaptive management does not align well with the ideals of coproduction, which may be better supported by an adaptive co‐management approach. The latter is particularly necessary in complex national parks that are diverse in terms of both ecosystems and stakeholders, and where governance may be contested. We used relevant literature to develop a principle‐based framework for assessing coproduction processes. We then applied this framework to evaluate the effectiveness of stakeholder participation in adaptive management of a largely unfenced and open access national park in South Africa. Our analysis revealed shortcomings in the stakeholder engagement process, which could be improved through broadening the agenda beyond the mandate and control of national parks, empowering collective agency among a wider stakeholder network, and embedding co‐learning with stakeholders as an ongoing journey.
Chapter
Relationships between humans and nature management face several problems, mainly regarding land use and biodiversity conservation in natural protected areas. Indeed, land-sparing strategies have often been sources of conflicts between local people and conservation institutions, since these strategies are based, in some cases, on non-shared rules and eliminating traditional activities. Some evidences suggest that all stakeholders should be involved through participative strategies as the only way for the effective planning and management of natural protected areas. Moreover, limited management budgets, large areas, and fragmented land use, among other issues, can hinder the feasible control required by management based only on land-sparing strategies and imposed rules.
Article
Our world is in a state of critical transition demanding new, creative, ecosystemically fit and sustainable responses to complex challenges. We need both new types of knowledge and new modes of knowledge production. Interdisciplinarity and Transdisciplinarity have the potential to support more congruently complex forms of knowledge (differentiated, integrated, recursive, emergent, ecosystemically fit). Their success is dependent on a deeper understanding of their own organizational complexity. In this paper, I highlight key knowledge gaps and research questions for the development of a richer knowledge base to guide the intentional management and facilitation of Interdisciplinarity and Transdisciplinary Relations toward creative and abductive outcomes. I defend the investigation of creativity and abduction, as hallmarks of the complexity of Interdisciplinarity and Transdisciplinarity, from a process, relational and complexity-informed perspective, mobilizing contributions from Psychology. I discuss Psychology’s modes of engagement with Interdisciplinarity and Transdisciplinarity in addressing complex challenges. In this context, I introduce the notion of “dissolution” as an Interdisciplinary and Transdisciplinary relational process supporting the theoretical, methodological and pragmatic enrichment or transformation and increased complexity of different disciplines, bodies of knowledge or modes of knowing. Finally, I propose a new domain for research and practice: a (“Dissolved”) Psychology of Interdisciplinary and Transdisciplinary Relations.
Research
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Teksty opublikowane w numerze tematycznym Przeglądu Kulturoznawczego, przesłane w odpowiedzi na CfP: https://bit.ly/3aMGi9q /// Texts published in the thematic issue of Cultural Studies Review, in a response to the CfP: https://bit.ly/3obQzPr /// Redakcja merytoryczna: Michał Pałasz /// Edited by: Michal Palasz /// Przegląd Kulturoznawczy (Cultural Studies Review) 1 (47) 2021
Thesis
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Human knowledge is not a static entity, but is a dynamic and cumulative learning process, which transforms and evolves through experience and communication. Human beings, and therefore human societies, are guided and governed based on the acquired and inherited knowledge. When we face complex environmental problems, the available knowledge is our best tool to overcome them and find solutions, and each individual, community or society applies the knowledge at hand, or at least, considered as useful. This PhD research discusses that under complex environmental issues -in which there are varying degrees of uncertainty and urgency, such as the impacts of climate change, invasive agricultural species, or overfishing- techno-scientific data is not providing all the answers that humans and environment require. Therefore, an urgent need to mobilise other kinds of knowing in order to co-create knowledge and elaborate more efficient policies is proposed. It is explored how relevant sources of situated environmental knowledge exist within communities that have subsisted and evolved under conditions of insularity and relative isolation, that is, in islands and remote territories. These types of spaces share a series of characteristics that allow their study under a unique perspective: insularity; in addition, they are suggested as “environmental-knowledge hot spots”. Under a Post-Normal Science paradigm, and in order to validate the value and usefulness of the knowledge these types of communities hold, this thesis applies an integrated approach consisting on institutional analysis and participatory processes to three different case studies. The studied cases range from the invasion of an agricultural pest that severely affects the cultivation of potatoes on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands); the artisanal fishing as a response to overfishing in Tenerife; and finally, the impacts of climate change on small Arctic communities. This research tries to illustrate the need to overcome scientific, social, cultural and institutional barriers in current environmental policy making processes. These processes must be based on trans-disciplinary and trans-epistemological approaches, allowing the inclusion and enhancement of other types of knowing into the cycles.
Book
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In the face of ecological emergencies, this book explores and experiments with the meanings and implications of being and organizing in a relational world. From a position of vulnerable optimism, it attempts to engage in accessible ways with the typically inscrutable ideas of sociomateriality and posthumanism. The perspective of entanglement that is developed, and associated dilemmas considered, involve searching for possibilities of giving voice to voiceless more-than-human others. This book is about prompting imaginings of possibilities for responsible being and collective flourishing that can be hopeful for us all. NB - If you download please make a donation to Mayfly Books via this link - https://mayflybooks.org/being-and-organizing-in-an-entangled-world-sociomateriality-and-posthumanism/ . Thanks.
Chapter
Against the optimistic and technocratic way of considering the Anthropocene as the ‘new age of humans,’ i.e., ‘human’s power over nature,’ this chapter rather evidences that the Anthropocene is an epoch of great danger and indeterminacy—and for scientists themselves, an age of ‘impotent power’—which calls, therefore, for prudence and humility. In opposition to the ecomodernist techno-optimistic ‘neoliberal Anthropocene,’ the alternative is a humbler ‘democratic Anthropocene,’ in which humanity repairs and protects the world instead of trying to master or replace it. This chapter also shows that the need for a more critical and normative Anthropocene research agenda (as opposed to calls for a depoliticized and techno-focused ‘good Anthropocene’) has become pressing. It challenges the unifying narrative proposed by the proponents of the ‘Anthropocene’ concept according to which the new geological era would be the result of a ‘natural’ evolutionary history of humanity. On the contrary, it demonstrates that the Anthropocene, far from being a consequence of ‘natural evolution,’ is linked to specific sociohistorical events such as the development of growth-based economies and the imbalanced ecological and economic exchanges between the North and the South, which globally characterized the rise of carbon-fueled, consumer capitalism. For this reason, the Anthropocene raises issues of global (environmental) justice, unequal geographical effects of the ecological crisis, and uneven distribution of wealth, power and responsibility that the green republicanism presented in this book seeks to address.
Article
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Controversies around large-scale development projects offer many cases and insights which may be analyzed through the lenses of corporate social ( ir )responsibility (CS I R) and business ethics studies. In this paper, we confront the CSR narratives and strategies of WeBuild (formerly known as Salini Impregilo ), an Italian transnational construction company. Starting from the Global Atlas of Environmental Justice (EJAtlas), we collect evidence from NGOs, environmental justice organizations, journalists, scholars, and community leaders on socio-environmental injustices and controversies surrounding 38 large hydropower schemes built by the corporation throughout the last century. As a counter-reporting exercise, we code (un)sustainability discourses from a plurality of sources, looking at their discrepancy under the critical lenses of post-normal science and political ecology, with environmental justice as a normative framework. Our results show how the mismatch of narratives can be interpreted by considering the voluntary, self-reporting, non-binding nature of CSR accounting performed by a corporation wishing to grow in a global competitive market. Contributing to critical perspectives on political CS(I)R, we question the reliability of current CSR mechanisms and instruments, calling for the inclusion of complexity dimensions in and a re-politicization of CS(I)R accounting and ethics. We argue that the fields of post-normal science and political ecology can contribute to these goals.
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This chapter examines the current assault on nature as coming from two different fronts: On the one hand, it comes from the hypermodern camp, that is, from those who celebrate the Anthropocene as the apex of human mastery and domination over nature (‘good Anthropocene’ scenario), the ‘techno-optimists’ who are willing to (re)engineer/recreate the earth, and the neo-greens who wish to see the growth-based economy and the technological colonization of the planet continue, even if the cost is the disappearance of life-sustaining ecosystems. On the other hand, the assault on nature stems from postmodern techno-theorists, renamed for our purpose ‘most-moderns,’ who, relying on the concept of ‘technonatures,’ contend a hybridist ontology which eventually justifies the de/reconstruction (read: destruction) of the planet under the rule of technoscience and capitalism. The latter narrative does not only acknowledge that nature has ended as an independent force because of human’s growing techno-scientific power on Earth: It extrapolates, from the history of humanization, that nature as an ontological reality was somehow always already ‘dead,’ and that the idea of a ‘nature out there’ is, therefore, intrinsically flawed. This chapter contends that both hypermodernists and techno-postmodernists are trapped in modernity’s failures, i.e., in the dream of a technological appropriation of nature, as well as in the binary modes of thinking they denounce (cf. separation nature/culture) that have contributed to creating the ecological predicament itself. Against those views, it shows that the natural world is not an inert matter amenable to all sorts of transformations but rather an ‘uncooperative beast’ which rebels against human manipulations and expresses its ‘revolt’ to human attempts of control in the form of eco-catastrophes—what has been designated in this chapter as ‘the return of nature’ in the Anthropocene.
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This volume offers an exploration of major changes in the way knowledge is produced in science, technology, social science, & humanities, arguing that a new mode of knowledge production promises to replace or radically reform established institutions, disciplines, practices, & policies. A range of features - reflexivity, transdisciplinarity, heterogeneity - associated with the new mode of knowledge production are identified to illustrate the connections between them & the changing role of knowledge in social relations. Methodological difficulties inherent in attempts to describe a new mode of knowledge production are discussed, & implications of this mode for science policy & international economic competitiveness, collaboration, & globalization are treated. The book is particularly relevant for those concerned with educational systems, the changing nature of knowledge, the social study of science, & the connections between research & development, & social, economic, & technological development. The book is presented in 7 Chpts with a Preface & an Introduction. (1) Evolution of Knowledge Production. (2) The Marketability and Commercialisation of Knowledge. (3) Massification of Research and Education. (4) The Case of the Humanities. (5) Competitiveness, Collaboration and Globalisation. (6) Reconfiguring Institutions. (7) Towards Managing Socially Distributed Knowledge. References accompany each Chpt. 2 Tables. W. Howard (Copyright 1995, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
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This volume offers an exploration of major changes in the way knowledge is produced in science, technology, social science, & humanities, arguing that a new mode of knowledge production promises to replace or radically reform established institutions, disciplines, practices, & policies. A range of features - reflexivity, transdisciplinarity, heterogeneity - associated with the new mode of knowledge production are identified to illustrate the connections between them & the changing role of knowledge in social relations. Methodological difficulties inherent in attempts to describe a new mode of knowledge production are discussed, & implications of this mode for science policy & international economic competitiveness, collaboration, & globalization are treated. The book is particularly relevant for those concerned with educational systems, the changing nature of knowledge, the social study of science, & the connections between research & development, & social, economic, & technological development. The book is presented in 7 Chpts with a Preface & an Introduction. (1) Evolution of Knowledge Production. (2) The Marketability and Commercialisation of Knowledge. (3) Massification of Research and Education. (4) The Case of the Humanities. (5) Competitiveness, Collaboration and Globalisation. (6) Reconfiguring Institutions. (7) Towards Managing Socially Distributed Knowledge. References accompany each Chpt. 2 Tables. W. Howard (Copyright 1995, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
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Few will still doubt that our modern technological culture has reached a turning point, and that it must change drastically if we are to manage our environmental problems. It may not yet be as widely appreciated that science, hitherto the mainspring of that technological progress, must also change. From now on its central task must be concerned with the patholo-gies of our industrial System; and this imposes new problems and requires new methods. These are the subject our of study.
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Science is continually confronted by new and difficult social and ethical problems. Some of these problems have arisen from the transformation of the academic science of the prewar period into the industrialized science of the present. Traditional theories of science are now widely recognized as obsolete. In Scientific Knowledge and Its Social Problems (originally published in 1971), Jerome R. Ravetz analyzes the work of science as the creation and investigation of problems. He demonstrates the role of choice and value judgment, and the inevitability of error, in scientific research. Ravetz's new introductory essay is a masterful statement of how our understanding of science has evolved over the last two decades.
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An appropriate response to the new challenges to science will require more than new explicit goals and social organisation. New leading questions will be appropriate. The traditional questions of ‘what/how?’ for research and ‘how/why?’ for the design fields, will be supplemented by ‘what-if?’. This previously had its place in exploratory phases of all research; now it will become an essential component of ‘post-normal’ science. Its form precludes the dogmatic and exclusive styles which have hitherto been dominant in science as applied to policy problems; and it lends itself to open enquiry and public participation.
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Foreward, by Jonathan Harr Preface (1997) Preface (1990) Acknowledgments Introduction Town in Turmoil: History and Significance of the Woburn Cluster The Formation of an Organized Community The Sickness Caused by "Corporate America": Effects of the Woburn Cluster Taking Control: Popular Epidemiology Making It Safe: Securing Future Health Bibliography
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Science always evolves, responding to its leading challenges as they change through history. After centuries of triumph and optimism, science is now called on to remedy the pathologies of the global industrial system of which it forms the basis. Whereas science was previously understood as steadily advancing in the certainty of our knowledge and control of the natural world, now science is seen as coping with many uncertainties in policy issues of risks and the environment. In response, new styles of scientific activity are being developed. The reductionist, analytical world-view which divides systems into ever smaller elements, studied by ever more esoteric specialties, is being replaced by a systemic, synthetic and humanistic approach. The old dichotomies of facts and values, and of knowledge and ignorance, are being transcended. Natural systems are recognized as dynamic and complex; those involving interactions with humanity are “emergent,” including properties of reflection and contradiction. The science appropriate to this new condition will be based on the assumptions of unpredictability, incomplete control, and a plurality of legitimate perspectives.
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The heated controversy over “citizen participation,” “citizen control”, and “maximum feasible involvement of the poor,” has been waged largely in terms of exacerbated rhetoric and misleading euphemisms. To encourage a more enlightened dialogue, a typology of citizen participation is offered using examples from three federal social programs: urban renewal, anti-poverty, and Model Cities. The typology, which is designed to be provocative, is arranged in a ladder pattern with each rung corresponding to the extent of citizens' power in determining the plan and/or program.
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The quality of the scientific inputs to the policy process is known to be problematic. No one can claim “truth” for his results. Nor can uncertainty be banished, but good quality can be achieved by its proper management. The interaction of systems uncertainties and decision stakes can be used to provide guidance for the choice of appropriate problem-solving strategies. When either or both of these are high, then mission-oriented applied science and client-serving professional consultancy are not adequate in themselves, and an issue-driven post-normal science is necessary. Just as in cases with ethical complexities (as in biomedical science) there must be an “extended peer community,” including all stakeholders in the dialogue, for evaluating quality of scientific information for the policy process.
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Complex systems are becoming the focus of important innovative research and application in many areas, reflecting the progressive displacement of classical physics and the emergence of a new and creative role for mathematics. This article makes a distinction between ordinary and emergent complexity and argues that a full analysis requires dialectical thinking. In so doing the authors aim to provide a philosophical foundation for post-normal science. The exploratory analysis developed here is complementary to those conducted with a more formal, mathematical approach, and begins to articulate what lies on the other side of that somewhat indistinct divide, the conceptual space called emergent complexity.
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Governments face increasingly acute dilemmas in securing the safety of their citizens in the face of controversial technological innovations. This state of crisis results from structural features of the globalising knowledge economy, and the contradictory roles of governments, acting both as promoters of global business enterprise and also as regulators on behalf of a sophisticated and suspicious public. I explain the crisis by substituting ‘safety’ for ‘risk’ as the operative concept, and also using paradox as an explanatory tool. I produce a closed-cycle paradox, analogous to the classic Catch-22, to exhibit the contradictions in the situation. I discuss ways of resolving these, which include the recognition of policy-critical ignorance and the adoption of the perspective of post-normal science.
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Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.
A No-Nonsense Guide to Science A Study of Failures of Global Systems Interfaces Between Science and Society Towards a non-violent discourse in science
  • J R Ravetz
Ravetz, J.R., 2006a. A No-Nonsense Guide to Science. New Internationalist Publishers, London. Ravetz, J., 2006b. A Study of Failures of Global Systems. In: Guimarã es Pereira, A ˆ., Guedes Vaz, S., Tognetti, S. (Eds.), Interfaces Between Science and Society. Greenleaf Publishers, Sheffield, UK. Ravetz, J., 2006c. Towards a non-violent discourse in science. In Klein Goldewijk, B., Frerks, G. (Eds.), New Challenges to Human Security: Empowering Alternative Discourses, Wageningen Academic Press, Netherlands; also at www.jerryravetz.co.uk.
Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems Late lessons from early warnings: the precautionary principle 1896–
  • L Gunderson
Gunderson, L., Holling, C.S. (Eds.), 2002. Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems. Island Press. Harremoë s, P., Gee, D. (Eds.), 2001. Late lessons from early warnings: the precautionary principle 1896–2000. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen. Hobbes, T., 1655. De Corpore, Parts II and III.
The maturing of the structural contradictions of modern European science. An exploratory sketch. www.jerryravetz.co.uk. Shiva
  • J Ravetz
Ravetz, J., 2006. The maturing of the structural contradictions of modern European science. An exploratory sketch. www.jerryravetz.co.uk. Shiva, V., 2005. Earth Democracy/Justice, Sustainability and Peace. South End Press, Cambridge MA.
Science and technology in the age of uncertainty
  • Ravetz
Ravetz, J.R., 2005. Science and technology in the age of uncertainty. In: Restivo, S. (Ed.), Science, Technology and Society—An Encyclopedia. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 481–484.
Towards a non-violent discourse in science
  • J Ravetz
Ravetz, J., 2006c. Towards a non-violent discourse in science. In Klein Goldewijk, B., Frerks, G. (Eds.), New Challenges to Human Security: Empowering Alternative Discourses, Wageningen Academic Press, Netherlands; also at www.jerryravetz.co.uk.
De Corpore, Parts II and III
  • T Hobbes
Hobbes, T., 1655. De Corpore, Parts II and III.
The Machine Stops and other stories
  • E M Forster
Three types of risk assessment and the emergence of Post-Normal Science
  • Funtowicz
A Study of Failures of Global Systems
  • Ravetz
Plundering the Public Sector: how new Labour are letting consultants run off with £70bn of our money
  • D Craig
  • R Brooks