Article

The Relationship Between Testosterone and Aggression: A Meta-Analysis

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Abstract

In non-human animals, the relationship between testosterone and aggression is well established. In humans, the relationship is more controversial. To clarify the relationship, Archer conducted three meta-analyses and found a weak, positive relationship between testosterone and aggression. Unfortunately, each of the analyses included only five to six studies. The aim of the present study was to re-examine the relationship between testosterone and aggression with a larger sample of studies. The present analyses are based on 45 independent studies (N=9760) with 54 independent effect sizes. Only studies that reported a p-value or effect size were included in the analyses and the sample may underestimate the proportion of non-significant findings in the population. Correlations ranged from −0.28 to 0.71. The mean weighted correlation (r=0.14) corroborates Archer's finding of a weak positive relationship.

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... There is evidence supporting a positive association between testosterone and status motivation (Archer, 1991(Archer, , 2006Book, Starzyk, & Quinsey, 2001;Cashdan, 1995;Eisenegger et al., 2011;Geniole et al., 2019;Grant & France, 2001;Josephs et al., 2006;Mazur & Booth, 1998). Recent research suggests that testosterone administration increases status motivation among men in low status and unstable hierarchy conditions (Vermeer et al., 2020). ...
... A meta-analysis found that baseline testosterone was positively related with aggression in male samples (Geniole et al., 2019). An association between testosterone and aggression and retaliation might occur because these behaviours may allow one to gain status in certain situations (Archer, 2006;Book et al., 2001;Eisenegger et al., 2011;Prasad et al., 2017). Similarly, a positive relationship between testosterone and selfish behaviour in economic discounting tasks (Wu et al., 2019) might be indicative of testosterone motivating selfishness to enhance status. ...
... There appears to be sex differences regarding the association between testosterone and status seeking. While the association between testosterone and status seeking-related behaviours in men has been replicated in numerous studies (Archer, 2006;Geniole et al., 2019;Salvador et al., 1999), the literature in women seems more mixed (Archer, 2006;Book et al., 2001). Some studies found a positive association between testosterone and status seeking in female samples (Baucom et al., 1985;Grant & France, 2001;Josephs et al., 2006;Mehta et al., 2017;van Honk et al., 2016). ...
Article
Researchers have called for a greater use of neuroscientific methods to advance theories in ethical behavior. Our research takes a neuroscientific approach to investigating unethical behavior by examining the roles of testosterone and intrasexual competition. We propose that unethical behavioral intentions will be greater for high-testosterone individuals in response to highly intrasexually competitive situations as a means of enhancing status. In an experiment, we measure baseline testosterone and assign participants to an intrasexually competitive or control condition. We demonstrate that in men, but not in women, testosterone is positively associated with unethical behavioral intentions in response to an intrasexual competition prime. Furthermore, using textual analysis, we find that testosterone is positively associated with the usage of anger-related words in response to an intrasexual competition prime among men. In turn, anger-related words are positively associated with unethical behavior, suggesting that anger may play a role in motivating high-testosterone men to behave unethically. Overall, our findings contribute to the literature by suggesting that testosterone and competition lead to greater unethical behavior in men, and that anger plays a role in promoting unethical behavior.
... T is often viewed as an antisocial hormone that inhibits cooperation, and has been linked with aggression, competition, and social dominance (Book, Starzyk, & Quinsey, 2001;Carré & Olmstead, 2015;Grant & France, 2001). Not only is T associated with competition for valued resources and social status (Eisenegger et al., 2011;Newman, Sellers, & Josephs, 2005), individuals with higher levels of T also exhibit greater cognitive performance, especially when their social status is in jeopardy (Josephs, Newman, Brown, & Beer, 2003;Newman et al., 2005). ...
... Not only is T associated with competition for valued resources and social status (Eisenegger et al., 2011;Newman, Sellers, & Josephs, 2005), individuals with higher levels of T also exhibit greater cognitive performance, especially when their social status is in jeopardy (Josephs, Newman, Brown, & Beer, 2003;Newman et al., 2005). Additionally, high-T individuals are considered more masculine, aggressive, and dominant (van Anders et al., 2011;Book et al., 2001), and low-T individuals tend to be more feminine, nurturing, and submissive (van Anders, 2013;van Anders et al., 2011). Scholars argue that low T facilitates affiliative behaviors, but high T shifts the focus from affiliation to competition (Eisenegger et al., 2011;Wardecker, Smith, Edelstein, & Loving, 2015). ...
... The present study investigated the influence of T on perceptions of romantic partners' accommodation and nonaccommodation during conversations about relational stressors, and their subsequent satisfaction with the conversation. Previous research on T suggests that the hormone is positively associated with competition and that high-T individuals exhibit greater dominance and aggression than low-T individuals (van Anders et al., 2011;Archer, 2006;Book et al., 2001). The findings reveal that for women, T was negatively associated with perceptions of partner accommodation and conversation satisfaction, and perceptions of partner accommodation mediated the relationship between T and conversation satisfaction. ...
Article
The present study contributes to a growing line of research exploring the associations between physiology and communication behavior. Specifically, this study investigated the influence of testosterone (T) on perceptions of partners' accommodative and nonaccommodative behaviors during a conversation about a relational stressor, and their subsequent association with satisfaction with the conversation. One hundred individuals participated in the study, which included a pre-survey, lab visit, and post-survey. Results revealed that for women, T was negatively associated with perceived partner accommodation and satisfaction with the conversation. Findings uncovered significant mediation effects of women's perceived partner (non)accommodation, while revealing several partner effects. Furthermore, the study found that satisfaction with the conversation was positively predicted by partner accommodation and negatively predicted by partner nonaccommodation for both women and men. These results indicate the utility of communication accommodation theory in examining conflict conversations and imply that T may influence communicative behaviors during conversation about a relational stressor.
... Data from animal studies suggest that exogenous testosterone is linked to aggression (Archer, 1991;Book et al., 2001). For example, Breuer et al. (2001) and McGinnis et al. (2002) reported an increase in aggressive responses to mild provocations in rats receiving testosterone. ...
... Overall, the above research performed in cisgender women and cisgender men with hypogonadism did not confirm a positive association between exogenous testosterone and aggression-related constructs. In contrast, Geniole et al. (2019) reported a weak, positive association between endogenous testosterone and aggression in cisgender men, and thereby they support the findings from two older meta-analyses (Archer, 1991;Book et al., 2001). Interestingly, Archer (1991) and Book et al. (2001) reported significant associations between testosterone and aggression in persons AFAB too. ...
... In contrast, Geniole et al. (2019) reported a weak, positive association between endogenous testosterone and aggression in cisgender men, and thereby they support the findings from two older meta-analyses (Archer, 1991;Book et al., 2001). Interestingly, Archer (1991) and Book et al. (2001) reported significant associations between testosterone and aggression in persons AFAB too. Furthermore, Geniole et al. (2019) reported a significant weak positive association between circadian fluctuations in testosterone levels and aggression in cisgender men. ...
Article
Background Transgender men are assigned female sex at birth, but identify as men. The anabolic and androgenic sex hormone testosterone has been positively associated with aggression. Therefore, transgender men are warned of increasing aggression when initiating testosterone therapy. Aim To explore the literature regarding the effects of testosterone therapy on aggression-related constructs in transgender men. Methods Following PRISMA-guidelines, PsycINFO, MEDLINE®, EMBASE, and PubMed® were searched in November 2019. Risk of bias was analyzed using the Newcastle-Ottawa-Scale, and result-synthesis was grouped by aggression-outcome. Results Seven prospective cohort studies investigating aggression-dimensions pre- and post-testosterone therapy, reporting on data from 664 transgender men, were eligible. The studies had moderate to high risk of bias due to non-randomization, lack of appropriate control groups, and reliance on self-report. The behavioral tendency to react aggressively increased in three studies out of four (at three months follow-up), whereas only one study out of five found angry emotions to increase (at seven months follow-up). In contrast, one out of three studies reported a decrease in hostility after initiation of testosterone therapy. The remaining studies found no change in aggressive behavior, anger or hostility during hormone therapy. Discussion and conclusion Four out of seven studies reported an increase in aggression-related constructs, while one study reported a decrease. In all studies reporting changes, the follow-up period was less than 12 months, indicating that gender-affirming testosterone therapy could have a short-term impact on aggression-related constructs. However, the available studies carried a risk of bias, which indicates a need for further research.
... At neural level, a detrimental effect of testosterone has been observed on the functional connectivity between areas involved in social information processing, the amygdala, and the orbitofrontal cortex [53,58]. These findings show that testosterone can influence social decision-making [7,21] either through top-down mechanisms that alter cognitions about other people or via bottom-up processes altering prepotent affective responses [15,21]. Rather than working independently, however, cognitive and emotional processes influence and interact with each other [16,42,55]. ...
... At neural level, a detrimental effect of testosterone has been observed on the functional connectivity between areas involved in social information processing, the amygdala, and the orbitofrontal cortex [53,58]. These findings show that testosterone can influence social decision-making [7,21] either through top-down mechanisms that alter cognitions about other people or via bottom-up processes altering prepotent affective responses [15,21]. Rather than working independently, however, cognitive and emotional processes influence and interact with each other [16,42,55]. ...
Article
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Although there is evidence that testosterone has deteriorating effects on cognitive and affective empathy, whether testosterone administration influences both routes to understanding others has not yet been simultaneously investigated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) pharmacological study using a within-subjects, randomized placebo-controlled double-blind crossover design to examine the effects of 100 mg transdermal testosterone administration on brain activation during a task that examines affective and cognitive empathy simultaneously in a sample of 23 healthy right-handed adult men. Relative to placebo, testosterone did not alter affective or cognitive empathy functional brain networks. Instead, the task yielded activation in the canonical networks associated with both types of empathy. Affective empathy yielded activation in the inferior and middle frontal gyri, inferior temporal gyri, and the cingulate cortex. Cognitive empathy was associated with activation of the temporoparietal junction, medial prefrontal cortex, middle and inferior temporal gyri, and temporal pole. Behaviourally, testosterone administration decreased error rates and increased participants’ confidence in their responses regardless of response accuracy. Independent of testosterone administration, participants reported higher affective responses during emotionally negative scenarios. Even though our results provide further evidence that testosterone administration in healthy men does not alter brain activity underlying cognitive and affective empathy, testosterone administration does influence the empathic concern and hence socio-cognitive processes. The reproducibility and variability of the current and previous findings should nevertheless be addressed in upcoming studies.
... Archer (1991) üç ayrı meta-analiz çalışması gerçekleştirmiş ve insanda saldırganlıkla testosteron arasında zayıf bir pozitif ilişki olduğu sonucuna varmıştır. Book, Starzyk ve Quinsey (2001), kırk beş araştırmayı içeren meta-analizlerinde, benzer şekilde bu ilişkinin zayıf ve pozitif olduğunu görmüşlerdir. ...
... Archer (1991) conducted three separate meta-analysis studies and concluded that there is a weak positive relationship between aggression and testosterone levels. In a meta-analysis of forty-five studies, Book et al. (2001) also found that this weak positive relationship. Another hormone thought to be associated with aggression in men is cortisol. ...
... The relation between violence and sex has a strong biological basis most prevalent in animals. Hormonal influences on neural circuits controlling aggressive behaviour are an important component and probably the largest contributor (Book 2001). ...
... There are also gender differences involving hormonal influences (Book 2001) as well as the particular differential development of the human prefrontal cortex. The latter does not mature until the mid 20s in males compared to the late teens in females. ...
... Other research has investigated the link between trustworthiness (Stirrat and Perrett 2010) and dominance (Valentine et al. 2014) with fWHR. There is evidence of a relationship between fWHR and prenatal (Whitehouse et al. 2015), pubertal (Welker et al. 2016) and situational testosterone (Lefevre et al. 2013) and a link between testosterone and antisocial behaviour (Archer 1991;Book et al. 2001;Carré et al. 2017). Thus, if antisocial tendencies are related to testosterone, which is related to facial morphology (fWHR), then the risk of aggression posed by another person could be communicated through facial structure. ...
... However, this literature is not consistent. The meta-analytic relationship between aggression and testosterone itself is weak (Book et al. 2001); there are inconsistent findings on fWHR being sexually dimorphic (Kramer et al. 2012;Lefevre et al. 2012;Özener 2012) and related to self-reported traits (Gómez-Valdés et al. 2013;Kosinski 2017) or aggressive behaviour (Deaner et al. 2012). There are also concerns about the utility of fWHR for making judgments about antisocial tendencies (Efferson and Vogt 2013). ...
Article
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Recognising intraspecies threat is essential for survival. However, this needs to be balanced against the undue avoidance of unknown others who may be useful to us. Research has shown that judgments of ‘aggression’ and ‘threat’ posed by an unknown person can accurately reflect that person’s general aggressive tendencies. To date, there has not been a within-sample comparison of the informativeness of static and walking stimuli for threat judgments. In this study, 193 participants rated the threat posed by 23 target people presented as both simplified gait presentations (point-light walkers) and still images. We analysed how threat judgments made by participants were predicted by the target’s self-reported aggression (accuracy), the sex of the targets and the medium of target presentation (point-light vs. still image). Our results showed that participants’ threat judgments accurately predicted targets’ aggression. Male targets received higher threat ratings than female targets and point-light displays were rated as more threatening than still images. There were no effects of target sex and presentation medium on accuracy of threat perception and no sex by medium interactions on judgments themselves. Overall, this study provides further evidence of the accuracy of threat judgments at detecting trait aggression. However, further research is needed to explain what features of the target people are enabling the accurate judgments of aggression.
... Over the years, a series of meta-analyses of the numerous studies have been performed; all converge on the conclusion that the link between T and aggression in humans is weak but positive (in the range of r = .08 to .14), but is also inconsistent and highly variable (Archer, Graham-Kevan, & Davies, 2005;Book, Starzyk, & Quinsey, 2001). What explains the observed empirical inconsistency that plagues this literature? ...
Chapter
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The brain, behavior, and neuroendocrine system have coevolved to support human group living. Recent developments in behavioral endocrinology over last several decades increasingly point to the powerful role of social experiences in influencing and being influenced by hormones. Here, we review the accumulated empirical developments that link two hormones—testosterone and cortisol—to social competition and affiliation. We suggest that testosterone and cortisol both influence and reflect the dynamics of human social behavior in domains of competition and affiliation, albeit in very different ways. The evidence supports the notion that testosterone may function as a competition hormone that calibrates psychological systems to current social standing and adaptively guide status-seeking efforts. As for cortisol, much evidence reveals that cortisol modulates affiliative behaviors in ways that appear to be adaptive; cortisol is elevated during times of social threat, social isolation, and loneliness, possibly to mobilize responses geared toward seeking coping and support, but is dampened when individuals gain social control and affiliative support. Still, more work is needed to unpack the complex interplay between neurobiology and human sociality. We end with a number of methodological recommendations on how using salivary bioscience methods may ultimately lead to a richer understanding of the complex reciprocal ties between biology and human social behavior.
... Although the exact mechanism underlying approach-avoidance behavior remains unclear, previous studies have emphasized a role for the neuroendocrine system (Kaldewaij et al., 2016). Testosterone is a hormone that is strongly associated with aggressive and approach-related behavior (Book et al., 2001;Lombardo et al., 2012). For instance, testosterone administration studies highlighted the testosterone-initiated bias toward the approach of social threat, which may underlie mechanisms of social dominance and aggression (Enter et al., 2014(Enter et al., , 2016Radke et al., 2015;Volman et al., 2016). ...
Article
Psychopathy is a personality construct that encompasses a constellation of traits reflecting emotional dysfunction and antisocial behavior. Individuals with elevated levels of psychopathic traits have shown abnormal affective processing. Studies with psychopathic offenders suggested that this is a result of altered automatic social approach-avoidance tendencies. The goal of the current study was to increase the insight into the underlying mechanism of affective processes in community-dwelling individuals with a high level of psychopathic traits by studying approach and avoidance behavior in an experimental setting. Furthermore, given its link with aggression and threat approach, testosterone was measured to investigate a possible mediatory role. Eighty-seven healthy individuals performed a computerized affective approach-avoidance task in which they pushed or pulled emotional faces using a joystick. The results showed that high levels of psychopathic traits corresponded with diminished threat avoidance to angry faces, as was found previously in psychopathic offenders. Although endogenous testosterone was positively associated with the level of psychopathic traits, it did not mediate the effect of psychopathic traits on threat avoidance. We propose that an increased understanding of the interplay between different neuroendocrine mechanisms could lead to a better insight into the underlying mechanism of abnormal threat avoidance in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Age is also expected to affect individuals' coping strategies. This comes through the influence of the interaction between biological factors, on one hand, and life experience, cognition, and social context, on the other hand (Book, Starzyk, and Quinsey 2001). Furthermore, hormones can be involved in the development of aggression as they affect the emotional level of the teens and hence are likely reflected in their aggressive behavior (Tsorbatzoudis, Travlos, and Rodafinos 2013; Ramirez 2003). ...
Article
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This study utilizes self-reported data on exposure to conflict, collected in the West Bank, to examine the exposure effect of house raids or arrest of household members on child behavior. We show that exposed children are more likely to engage in violent behavior. We also show that the exposure effect is independent of gender and that its magnitude is greater for older children. We propose that altering personality traits, mainly exacerbating neuroticism is a channel through which exposure to conflict affects children’s behavior.
... Age is also expected to affect individuals' coping strategies when exposed to conflict. This comes through influence of the interaction between biological factor, on one hand, and life experience, cognition, and social context, on the other hand (Book et al., 2001). Furthermore, hormones can be involved in the development of aggression as they affect the emotional level of the teens and hence are likely reflected on their aggressive behavior. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study utilizes self-reported data on exposure to conflict, collected in the West Bank, to examine the exposure effect of house raids or household members' arrest on child behavior. We show that exposed children are more likely to engage in violent behavior. We also show that the exposure effect is independent of gender and that the magnitude of the effect is greater for older children. We propose that altering personality traits, mainly neuroticism and agreeableness, is a channel through which exposure to conflict affects children's behavior.
... This also mirrors biological evidence suggesting that endocrinological changes could inform personality differences. Testosterone levelswhich have been found to be associated with a variety of malevolent behaviors (Book et al., 2001;Eisenegger et al., 2011;Mazur & Booth, 1998)decrease across the adult age range (Fabbri et al., 2016;Handelsman et al., 2016). Lower testosterone levels in older adults could form the biological basis for the lower tendency for aggressive, antisocial behavior. ...
Article
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The strong overlap of personality traits discussed under the label of “dark personality” (e.g., psychopathy, spitefulness, moral disengagement) endorses a common framework for socially aversive traits over and beyond the dark triad. Despite the rapidly growing research on socially aversive traits, there is a lack of studies addressing age-associated differences in these traits. In the present study (N = 12,501), we investigated the structure of the D Factor of Personality across age and gender using Local Structural Equation Modeling, thereby expressing the model parameters as a quasi-continuous, non-parametric function of age. Specifically, we evaluated loadings, reliabilities, factor (co-)variances, and means across 35 locally weighted age groups (from 20 to 54 years), separately for females and males. Results indicated that measurement models were highly stable, thereby supporting the conceptualization of the D factor independent of age and gender. Men exhibited uniformly higher latent means than females and all latent means decreased with increasing age. Overall, D and its themes were invariant across age and gender. Therefore, future studies can meaningfully pursue causes of mean differences across age and between genders.
... Testosterone Testosterone has been found to be most reliably associated with extraversion-related traits, particularly characteristics related to social dominance (Archer 2006;Archer et al. 1998;Archer et al. 2005;Book et al. 2001;McCabe and Fleeson 2012). Traits such as dominance, aggression, assertiveness, and status-seeking are conceptualized as further facets of social dominance and have been studied in both humans and other animals-with many finding associations between these behaviors and testosterone (Archer 2006;Josephs et al. 2006;Mazur and Booth 1998;Mehta and Josephs 2010;Slatcher et al. 2011;Soto and John 2017;Wingfield et al. 1990;Wingfield et al. 2000). ...
Article
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Objective Hormones are often conceptualized as biological markers of individual differences and have been associated with a variety of behavioral indicators and characteristics, such as mating behavior or acquiring and maintaining dominance. However, before researchers create strong theoretical models for how hormones modulate individual and social behavior, information on how hormones are associated with dominant models of personality is needed. Although there have been some studies attempting to quantify the associations between personality traits, testosterone, and cortisol, there are many inconsistencies across these studies.Methods In this registered report, we examined associations between testosterone, cortisol, and Big Five personality traits. We aggregated 25 separate samples to yield a single sample of 3964 (50.3% women; 27.7% of women were on hormonal contraceptives). Participants completed measures of personality and provided saliva samples for testosterone and cortisol assays.ResultsThe results from multi-level models and meta-analyses revealed mostly weak, non-significant associations between testosterone or cortisol and personality traits. The few significant effects were still very small in magnitude (e.g., testosterone and conscientiousness: r = −0.05). A series of moderation tests revealed that hormone-personality associations were mostly similar in men and women, those using hormonal contraceptives or not, and regardless of the interaction between testosterone and cortisol (i.e., a variant of the dual-hormone hypothesis).Conclusions Altogether, we did not detect many robust associations between Big Five personality traits and testosterone or cortisol. The findings are discussed in the context of biological models of personality and the utility of examining heterogeneity in hormone-personality associations.
... Individuals registered as adult criminals showed significantly reduced electrodermal fear conditioning early in life (Gao et al., 2009;Raine et al., 1990). Furthermore, low levels of cortisol and increased levels of testosterone have been linked to antisocial behavior (Alink et al., 2008;Book et al., 2001;Shoal et al., 2003). Decreased levels of cortisol are often associated with externalizing behavior (Alink et al., 2008). ...
Article
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This study examined a biopsychosocial approach on risk assessment in a clinical sample of youth offenders. In search of enhancing the validity of prediction of recidivism through risk factors alone, the added value of protective and neurobiological factors was measured. In 209 male youth offenders (age 15-24), risk and protective factors were assessed with the Structured Assessment of Violence in Youth (SAVRY) and the Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for violence risk-Youth Version (SAPROF-YV). Autonomic nervous system (re)activity was assessed, and cortisol and testosterone levels were measured in saliva. Recidivism data were obtained from official criminal records. As expected, risk factors alone provided moderate predictive validity for general and violent recidivism. Incorporating protective factors and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) reactivity significantly improved prediction models. Risk assessment may gain by adopting a broader, biopsychosocial perspective. Including neurobiology and protective factors in risk assessment could improve release decision-making, offer guidance for better tailored interventions, and enhance chances of successful community reintegration.
... Following the saliva sampling, using Qualtrics survey tool, participants were randomly assigned to an intrasexual competition or control condition. We used the same intrasexual competition (Book, Starzyk, & Quinsey, 2001;Hönekopp & Watson, 2011). Thus, we estimated that we could detect a significant effect in Study 3 using a smaller sample size. ...
Article
In line with recent research suggesting that testosterone may only be related to decisions under specific conditions, we show that testosterone is associated with conspicuous consumption only when intrasexual competition is high. In three studies, we provide empirical evidence that prenatal and circulating testosterone are only related to conspicuous consumption when intrasexual competition is high. These findings are in line with recent literature that posits that testosterone is only related to particular decisions or behavior when status is at stake. In Study 1, we find that masculinized digit ratios (an indicator of high prenatal testosterone exposure) are only related to greater conspicuous consumption preferences for men that score high on an intrasexual competitiveness trait measure. In Study 2, we find that masculin-ized digit ratios are associated with greater conspicuous consumption preferences, but only among men who are primed with an intrasexual competition recall task. Finally, the purpose of Study 3 was to test if similar effects held when measuring circulating testosterone. We show that baseline levels of circulating testosterone are associated with greater conspicuous consumption preferences, but only after men are primed with intrasexual competition. Overall, we identify intrasexual competition as a crucial precondition for relationships between testosterone (prenatal and circulating) and conspicuous consumption to emerge. We argue that men with masculin-ized digit ratios and men with high circulating testosterone may be more likely to choose conspicuous products as a status-signaling strategy in the mating market if they are inherently intrasexually competitive or when they encounter an intrasexually competitive situation.
... Indeed, this explanation is attested by the evidence that men who reject low offers in the Ultimatum Game have significantly higher testosterone levels than those who accept low offers (Burnham, 2007). This is because among men, there is a consistent, positive correlation between high levels of testosterone and aggression (Book, Starzyk, & Quinsey, 2001), as well as high-testosterone men and seeking social dominance (Dabbs, 1997). Consistent with this view, one study reported that testosterone injections increase the likelihood of rejection decision among male participants in the Ultimatum Game (Kouri, Lukas, Pope, & Oliva, 1995), which suggests that men with naturally high testosterone levels are more likely to reject low offers in the Ultimatum Game. ...
Article
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This article demonstrates how to use three neuroeconomics games adapted from game theory—the Ultimatum Game, the Trust Game, and the Public Goods Game—in school leaders’ decisionmaking training. These three games have been commonly used in the emerging field of neuroeconomics—an interdisciplinary field intersecting behavioral economics, psychology, and cognitive neuroscience. For each game, I first outline how to play it in the training of school leaders’ decision making, followed by the constructs relevant to leaders’ decision making, including fairness, justice, inequity aversion, reciprocity, emotions, social identity, trust, distrust, and altruistic punishment. These games, with a lighthearted touch, serve as part of the pedagogical support to help school leaders uncover salient constructs relevant to their decision-making process.
... Testosterone. Testosterone has been found to be most reliably associated with extraversion-related traits, particularly characteristics related to social dominance (Archer, 2006;Archer et al., 1998;Archer et al., 2005;Book et al., 2001;McCabe & Fleeson, 2012). Traits such as dominance, aggression, assertiveness, and status-seeking are conceptualized as further facets of social dominance, and have been studied in both humans and other animals-with many finding associations between these behaviors and testosterone (Archer, 2006;Josephs et al., 2006;Mazur & Booth, 1998;Mehta & Josephs, 2010;Slatcher et al., 2011;Soto & John, 2017;Wingfield et al., 1990;Wingfield et al., 2000). ...
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**Objective**: Hormones are often conceptualized as biological markers of individual differences and have been associated with a variety of behavioral indicators and characteristics, such as mating behavior or acquiring and maintaining dominance. However, before researchers create strong theoretical models for how hormones modulate individual and social behavior, information on how hormones are associated with dominant models of personality are needed. Although there have been some studies attempting to quantify the associations between personality traits, testosterone, and cortisol, there are many inconsistencies across these studies. **Methods**: In this registered report, we examined associations between testosterone, cortisol, and Big Five personality traits. We aggregated 25 separate samples to yield a single sample of 3,964 (50.3% women; 27.7% of women were on hormonal contraceptives). Participants completed measures of personality and provided saliva samples for testosterone and cortisol assays.**Results**: The results from multi-level models and meta-analyses revealed mostly weak, non-significant associations between testosterone or cortisol and personality traits. The few significant effects were still very small in magnitude (e.g. testosterone and conscientiousness: r = -0.05). A series of moderation tests revealed that hormone-personality associations were mostly similar in men and women, those using hormonal contraceptives or not, and regardless of the interaction between testosterone and cortisol (i.e., a variant of the dual-hormone hypothesis). **Conclusions**: Altogether, we did not detect many robust associations between Big Five personality traits and testosterone or cortisol. The findings are discussed in the context of biological models of personality and the utility of examining heterogeneity in hormone-personality associations.
... Age has been found to be a critical variable when assessing offender risk. As an offender ages, the risk of recidivism of all kinds generally decreases (Book, Starzyk, & Quinsey, 2001;Hanson, 2001;Hanson, Harris, Helmus, & Thornton, 2014;Rice & Harris, 2014). Being over the age of 50 years, in particular, is thought to be protective against nonsexual or sexual recidivism; as well as being protective against first-time sexual offending (Booth, 2016;Nicholaichuk, Olver, Gu, & Wong, 2014;Rettenberger, Haubner-Maclean, & Eher, 2013). ...
Article
There is limited information regarding the use of risk assessment tools with aging offender populations. It is known that the likelihood of offending behaviour decreases with age, a small group of men either continue or begin to offend sexually in the later decades of life. The current study investigated the predictive validity of the Static-99 and the Static-99R, in a sample of convicted Australian sex offenders aged 50 and older. A sample of 118 participants was identified, of which 17 (14.4%) re-offended within a follow-up period ranging from four months to 20 years (M = 9.07 years). There were seven recidivists (13.46%) above the age of 60 years (n = 52) and 10 aged 40 to 59.9 years (n = 66). Both the Static-99 and Static-99R demonstrated moderate predictive validity with both age groups. The limitations of this study are discussed as well as recommendations for future research.
... Indeed, this explanation is attested by the evidence that men who reject low offers in the Ultimatum Game have significantly higher testosterone levels than those who accept low offers (Burnham, 2007). This is because among men, there is a consistent, positive correlation between high levels of testosterone and aggression (Book, Starzyk, & Quinsey, 2001), as well as high-testosterone men and seeking social dominance (Dabbs, 1997). Consistent with this view, one study reported that testosterone injections increase the likelihood of rejection decision among male participants in the Ultimatum Game (Kouri, Lukas, Pope, & Oliva, 1995), which suggests that men with naturally high testosterone levels are more likely to reject low offers in the Ultimatum Game. ...
... Testosterone, a steroid sex hormone, is implicated in aggression and violent behaviours (Book et al., 2001). Given its influence on competition and dominance, testosterone has been thought to be negatively related to prosocial behaviours during interpersonal interactions (Zak et al., , 2009. ...
Article
The hormones oxytocin, vasopressin, and testosterone have been implicated in cooperative behaviours and have attracted increasing research interest for their potential to regulate human cooperation in both healthy and clinical populations. However, the behavioural effects of the administration of these hormones remain to be verified. The current analysis included 41 studies involving 3,269 participants with a narrow age range. We examined the administration effects of these hormones on cooperative behaviour and the regulatory effects of individual characteristics, hormone interventions, and task structure and context. Results revealed a moderate positive effect size of oxytocin intranasal administration, a large negative effect size of vasopressin intranasal administration, and nonsignificant effects of testosterone administration on cooperative behaviours. Participants with mental dysfunctions were less sensitive to oxytocin and vasopressin administration. Oxytocin administration was effective in an in-group situation and for initial choices, corroborating a Tit-for-Tat strategy.
... According to Murphy, Williams and Dunning (1990) football hooliganism is a form of aggression typically engaged by young working-class males, who identify a subculture of aggressive masculinity which is "Predominantly, but not solely lower class" (p.13), which provides the normative framework for the performance of antisocial behaviours by football fans. Furthermore, from a physiological perspective, there is a well-established connection between aggressive tendencies and males with higher level of testosterone (Dabbs et al, 2000& Book et al, 2001. They also have slower (resting) heart rates as compared to females, which can also be linked to increased criminal behaviour (Armstrong & Boutwell, 2012). ...
Article
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This essay attempts to evaluate through an extensive literature review which psychological approach could best explain football hooliganism. First, a brief introduction will allow the reader to get familiar with what is legally intended as "'football hooliganism". Once defined the issue, this work will introduce various psychological approaches, ranging from social psychology to bio-physiological explanations. By analyzing several stances within psychology, this article will highlight how, rather than a single approach, a combination of both socio-environmental and biological factors could best explain the Hooliganism phenomenon.
... On the other hand, males generally show aggression towards both sexes [42,45]. One factor influencing aggressive behaviour is the level of testosterone [46]. For example, mice with brain-specific deletion of the androgen receptor gene show less aggression in the resident-intruder paradigm compared to control mice [47]. ...
Article
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Distress calls are a vocalization type widespread across the animal kingdom, emitted when the animals are under duress, e.g. when captured by a predator. Here, we report on an observation we came across serendipitously while recording distress calls from the bat species Carollia perspicillata , i.e. the existence of sex difference in the distress calling behaviour of this species. We show that in C. perspicillata bats, males are more likely to produce distress vocalizations than females when hand-held. Male bats call more, their calls are louder, harsher (faster amplitude modulated) and cover lower carrier frequencies than female vocalizations. We discuss our results within a framework of potential hormonal, neurobiological and behavioural differences that could explain our findings, and open multiple paths to continue the study of sex-related differences in vocal behaviour in bats.
... D'autre part, il a aussi été noté que les entraîneurs masculins ont plus de chances d'avoir des athlètes avec des hautes probabilités d'agresser que les entraîneurs féminines (Chow, et al., 2001). Ces observations semblent logiques dans la mesure où il y aurait un lien entre les comportements agressifs et la concentration de testostérone (Book, et al., 2001). De façon cohérente également, il semble que les sportives ont de meilleurs scores sur les valeurs morales (Šukys, & Jansonienė, 2012). ...
Thesis
Ce travail doctoral s’intéresse aux comportements antisociaux des acteurs du sport. Ce phénomène est abordé au travers des théories liées à la catégorisation sociale, et plus précisément, l’approche de l’identité sociale et les partitions sociales. A la suite de ce développement théorique, deux études principales ont été menées. La seconde s’appuyant sur les conclusions de la première. Une troisième étude a ensuite été mise en place pour réinjecter les connaissances amassées dans le terrain.La première étude, s’articulant autour de cinq sous-études, avait pour objectif de déterminer le contenu, les causes perçues, ainsi que les conséquences perçues, des comportements antisociaux des acteurs du sport. Vis-à-vis du contenu des comportements antisociaux, les aspects de nuisance et de désavantage ressortent. En plus de ces deux aspects, d’autres semblent émerger : la relation entre les acteurs, ainsi que des états spécifiques. Par ailleurs, les causes perçues font référence à l’environnement sportif étouffant de compétitivité et de recherche de valorisation par ses acteurs, aux affects, et aux caractéristiques stables des individus. Enfin les conséquences perçues renvoient aux affects de colère pour les cibles ou observateurs, aux jugements de valeurs négatifs et d’incompréhension pour les observateurs, et à une envie de s’opposer pour les cibles et observateurs, en plus d'un désir de désengagement de l'activité pour la cible. S’appuyant sur l’aspect relationnel dégagé, la seconde étude propose, à l’aide de l’outil RepMut, une cartographie des relations intergroupes parents – entraîneurs et sportifs – entraîneurs, ainsi qu’une cartographie de cette dernière relation lorsque les catégories sociales sont identitairement menacées, ou soutenues. Les résultats révèlent une structure relationnelle solide, et ambigüe, où les normes des groupes sont porteuses de conflits identitaires, alors que les individus cherchent à se rapprocher de l’exogroupe. Lorsque les entraîneurs ou sportifs sont menacés ou soutenus, la structure est toujours visible, et les résultats indiquent que les relations normales sont très proches de la condition menaçante pour les catégories. Enfin, les relations sont teintées de forts affects agréables, et de faibles affects désagréables, dont les deux groupes sont responsables, soulignant l’ambiguïté des relations dans un contexte sportif. Finalement, la troisième étude évaluait l’efficacité d’une intervention sur les entraîneurs concernant les comportements antisociaux. Cette étude a été perturbée par les évènements liés à la COVID-19, mais nous la présentons tout de même, ainsi que les outils pensés pour ce protocole.En conclusion, ce travail montre que dans le cadre de la pratique sportive, l’aspect relationnel entre les acteurs du sport est important vis-à-vis du phénomène des comportements antisociaux. Dans ce contexte de pratique sportive, l’entraîneur semble posséder une place avantageuse.
... Another commonly cited explanation for the age-crime connection is the links between testosterone, aggression and violence (Book et al., 2001). Researchers suggest that the decline in testosterone, in turn, aggression, corresponds with a reduction in criminal activity. ...
Article
Studies on criminal behaviors largely focus on youth and younger adults. While criminal engagement declines with age, the aging population and significant costs associated with older offenders warrant their increased clinical and research attention. The present study utilizes data from the 2002 to 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health to estimate the prevalence and explore the sociodemographic and psychosocial correlates of criminal behavior in adults aged 50 years and older. The overall prevalence of older adults engaging in criminal behaviors during this time was approximately 1.20%. There was no significant difference in crime involvement between adults aged 50 to 64 years and 65 years and older. Older individuals who committed crimes were more likely to be male and Black and earning low income. Criminality was also associated with use of illicit substances and depression as well as receipt of mental health treatment.
... Similarly, autism and attention deficit disorder have been suggested to be extreme forms of male gendering of the brain ( Baron-Cohen, 2003). Male brains are also far more prone to aggression and violence, partly as a result of higher androgen and testosterone levels (Book, Starzyk and Quinsey, 2001). Efforts to treat female depression and male aggression, autism and ADD would give us ways to make the brain more androgynous. ...
Technical Report
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Postgenderism is an extrapolation of ways that technology is eroding the biological, psychological and social role of gender, and an argument for why the erosion of binary gender will be liberatory. Postgenderists argue that gender is an arbitrary and unnecessary limitation on human potential, and foresee the elimination of involuntary biological and psychological gendering in the human species through the application of neurotechnology, biotechnology and reproductive technologies. Postgenderists contend that dyadic gender roles and sexual dimorphisms are generally to the detriment of individuals and society. Assisted reproduction will make it possible for individuals of any sex to reproduce in any combinations they choose, with or without "mothers" and "fathers," and artificial wombs will make biological wombs unnecessary for reproduction. Greater biological fluidity and psychological androgyny will allow future persons to explore both masculine and feminine aspects of personality. Postgenderists do not call for the end of all gender traits, or universal androgyny, but rather that those traits become a matter of choice. Bodies and personalities in our postgender future will no longer be constrained and circumscribed by gendered traits, but enriched by their use in the palette of diverse self-expression.
... Testosterone is the primary male androgen and has been implicated in the masculinization of neural circuits during early development, as well as in the mediation of male and female social behaviors during adolescence [150,151]. The relationship between testosterone and aggression has been well established in animal models [152,153]; however, data from human studies are limited [154]. Males frequently endorse higher PA scores than females [34,41,79], and males may be prone to age-related PA score increases during the pubertal years [155]. ...
Article
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Proactive aggression (PA) is a planned and unprovoked form of aggression that is most often enacted for personal gain or in anticipation of a reward. Frequently described as “cold-blooded” or goal oriented, PA is thought to be associated with low autonomic arousal. With this view in mind, we performed a scoping review of the biological correlates of PA and identified 74 relevant articles. Physiological findings indicated a robust association between PA and reduced resting heart rate, and to a lesser extent a relationship between PA and decreased heart rate and skin conductance reactivity, perhaps indicating dampened sympathetic function. The twin literature identified PA as a heritable trait, but little evidence implicates specific genes in the pathogenesis of PA. Neuroimaging studies of PA pinpoint impaired amygdala function in the assessment and conditioning of aversive stimuli, which may influence the establishment of behavioral patterns. Nodes of the default mode network were identified as possible neural correlates of PA, suggesting that altered function of this network may be involved in the genesis of PA. Given the overlap of PA with reactive aggression and the overall behavioral complexity of PA, it is clear that multiple endophenotypes of PA exist. This comprehensive review surveys the most salient neurobiologically informed research on PA.
... With hormones driving them toward thrill-seeking pursuits and increasingly strong bodies that lack the steady coordination of adults, adolescent males are prime candidates for a range of risky and sometimes violent behaviors that can result in death. A recent meta-analysis finds support for the contention that elevated testosterone levels contribute to aggression, dominance, risk-taking, and impulsivity (Kurath & Mata, 2018), echoing findings of earlier reviews of the literature (Archer, 2006;Book et al., 2001). Further exacerbating these characteristics in adolescent boys is the pace of brain development. ...
Article
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I use data on 187 counties in the United States from 2001 to 2017 to examine local variation in the timing of the excess mortality hump, which is the period in adolescence and young adulthood when mortality rates spike in young men due to an increase in risk-taking behaviors believed to result from a surge of testosterone production and subsequent aggressive, impulsive behaviors. Using an ecological framework, I contend that certain features of the local environment will elevate testosterone production and stunt brain development, leading to behaviors that elevate the risk of death at younger ages. To explore this proposition, I assess the association between the age at the peak of the excess mortality hump in a county and local environmental conditions in that county. I find that the age at the peak of the excess mortality hump is younger in counties where the average annual temperature is high and in counties where air quality is poor.
... For example, cortisol release has frequently been measured in humans to evaluate their responses to social stress events [97]. Testosterone levels seem to increase when individuals anticipate conflict and competitive situations [98,99]. In contrast, oxytocin has been related to social bonding and attachment, cooperation, trust, and several other measures of prosociality (e.g., [100][101][102]). ...
Article
Understanding the behavioral dynamics that underline human-robot interactions in groups remains one of the core challenges in social robotics research. However, despite a growing interest in this topic, there is still a lack of established and validated measures that allow researchers to analyze human-robot interactions in group scenarios; and very few that have been developed and tested specifically for research conducted in-the-wild. This is a problem because it hinders the development of general models of human-robot interaction, and makes the comprehension of the inner workings of the relational dynamics between humans and robots, in group contexts, significantly more difficult. In this paper, we aim to provide a reflection on the current state of research on human-robot interaction in small groups, as well as to outline directions for future research with an emphasis on methodological and transversal issues.
... E2 administration led to a slight decrease of testosterone levels in the E2 condition, which could also have influenced results. Overall, higher testosterone levels have been associated with increased tendencies for displaying aggressive behaviour and one could therefore assume an influence of testosterone on emotional neural networks (Book et al., 2001). Moreover, attenuated testosterone responses towards stress were reported after down-regulation of emotions using cognitive reappraisal in women and men (Burk and Wiese, 2021). ...
Article
Variations of sex hormones during the menstrual cycle can lead to changes in emotion processing. The ability to successfully regulate one's emotions is associated with better social abilities and mental health. While women show better performance in fear extinction learning under high estradiol (E2) compared to women under low E2 levels, little is known about the effect of E2 on emotion regulation. We explored whether E2 modulates emotion regulation in a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm and administered E2 valerate to 32 young naturally cycling women during their early follicular phase in a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design. This standardized experimental control allowed us to explore the specific effect of E2 on emotion regulation while controlling for other hormones varying throughout the menstrual cycle. Behaviorally, no difference between conditions appeared. However, on the neural level, E2 administration was associated with lower activation in the right lingual- and left calcarine gyrus, right orbitofrontal cortex and left hippocampus relative to placebo. With respect to the main effect of down-regulation higher activation of the right superior frontal gyrus and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex was seen; which is in accordance to previous literature. An interaction between drug condition and emotion regulation appeared for the left inferior frontal gyrus extending into the middle frontal gyrus indicating lower activation during down-regulation in the E2 condition than the placebo condition. On the behavioral level, women reported less negative affect in the E2 condition. The results fit well to a previously described psychoneuroendocrinological model in which E2 plays an important modulatory role on emotional processes and risk factors of mental health in women.
... T concentrations did not differ between the groups, however. From the aspect of the physiology of behavior, one might expect a correlation between aggression and T (Book et al. 2001;Giammanco et al. 2005;Lincoln 1972;Martin et al. 2013). In a new social environment, it might be more difficult for NF males to cope with a higher level of inter-individual agonistic interactions than for F males. ...
Article
Out of rut, male red deer (Cervus elaphus) associate themselves in bachelor groups where animals compete for rank position via agonistic interactions. In a previous study on red deer, males were recognized either as “Non-Fighters” (NF, low frequency of attacks) or “Fighters” (F, high frequency of attacks). This study, therefore, aims to verify the consistency of the inter-individual differences in fighting attitude across different social contexts and investigate whether they could be considered an individual characteristic. Behavioral consistency was presumed across three different sampling seasons, assuming that NF would have lower cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) concentrations than the F males. In 2015 the males were kept in one large group and labelled NF and F. In 2016, the herd was divided into two subgroups (“NF” and “F”) based on the frequency of attacks. Finally, in 2017, the males were divided into two randomly composed subgroups. Data about agonistic behavior and concentration of C and T were collected during each season. In 2015 the individuals differed only for the fighting attitude. After the division, the frequency of the attacks always increased, being consistently lower in NF than in F. Unexpectedly, a slight increase in the concentration of C was detected in the NF in 2016, compared to the F who experienced no difference neither in 2015 nor 2017. No significant differences were found in T. We concluded that, even though the males had shown behavioral plasticity, their diversified interaction-prone attitude had been maintained despite the modifications of the social environment.
... The results revealed that T was negatively associated with negative emotion words in two of the three narrative regression models, indicating that high levels of T are associated with less emotional expression in terms of negative emotion word use. Though T is often associated with dominant and aggressive behavior (Archer, 2006;Book et al., 2001;Bos et al., 2010;Carré & Olmstead, 2015;Eisenegger et al., 2011;Grant & France, 2001), higher T has also been associated with less empathy and emotional expression (Julian & McKenry, 1989;Procyshyn et al., 2020;Ronay & Carney, 2013). The latter finding is echoed in the present study, as the results suggest that individuals with higher T express fewer emotions in their written narratives. ...
Article
Research has identified that writing can help individuals find forgiveness for their romantic partners in the wake of relational transgressions, but little is known about the actual narrative components that bring about changes in forgiveness. The current study sought to investigate the narrative components that contribute to month-long changes in forgiveness for romantic partners who have recently experienced a relational transgression. It also sought to uncover emotional and biological mechanisms that can help account for the associations between narrative components and forgiveness outcomes. The results revealed components of narratives that may both contribute to an increase and decrease in forgiveness over the course of one-month. Additionally, emotional expression and testosterone were identified as potential mediators and moderators of the associations between narrative components and changes in forgiveness.
... Manipulation of testosterone levels demonstrates a clear link between the endocrine system and reproductive related traits, including territorial aggression and song in many bird species (Enstrom et al., 1997;Moore, 1984;Silverin, 1980;Van Duyse et al., 2002Van Roo, 2004;Wingfield et al., 1990). However, numerous studies fail to find clear relationships between natural circulating testosterone levels and reproductive traits of interest (Apfelbeck et al., 2013;Book et al., 2001;Hau and Goymann, 2015;Husak et al., 2006;Johnson et al., 2011;Laucht et al., 2011Laucht et al., , 2010McGlothlin et al., 2008;Roulin et al., 2004;Villavicencio et al., 2014;Weatherhead et al., 1993). ...
Article
Experimental manipulation has established testosterone as a potent, pleiotropic regulator coordinating morphology, physiology and behavior. However, the relationship of field-sampled, unmanipulated testosterone concentrations with traits of interest is often equivocal. Circulating testosterone varies over the course of the day, and recent reports indicate that testosterone is higher during the night in diurnal songbirds. Yet, most field studies sample testosterone during the morning. Sampling at times when levels and individual variation are low may be one reason relationships between testosterone and other traits are not always observed. Testosterone is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) initiating the endocrine cascade. Research has examined GnRH-induced testosterone levels with traits of interest, yet the relevance of these induced levels and their relationship with endogenously produced levels are not fully clear. Using photostimulated male great tits (Parus major) we tested the hypotheses that circulating testosterone levels peak during the night and that GnRH-induced testosterone concentrations are positively related to nightly testosterone peaks. Blood was sampled during first, middle or last third of night. One week later, baseline and GnRH-induced testosterone levels were sampled during mid-morning. Morning baseline testosterone levels were low compared with night-sampled levels that peaked during the first third of the night. Further, GnRH-induced testosterone was strongly positively correlated with levels observed during the first third of the night. These data suggest that morning testosterone samples likely do not reflect an individual’s endogenous peak. Instead, GnRH-induced testosterone levels do approximate an individual’s nightly peak and may be an alternative for birds that cannot easily be sampled at night in the field. These findings are likely to have implications for research aimed at relating traits of interest with natural variation in sex steroid hormone levels.
... In addition, aggression can be implicitly assessed using a psychological test, such as the point subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP) test [14,15,], in which subjects engage in the test without knowing that the test aims to examine aggression. Aggression can also be evaluated indirectly by measuring blood concentrations of the sex hormone testosterone in both male [16] and female [17] subjects, although meta-analysis studies find that a correlation between testosterone and aggression is generally weak at best [18][19][20] and that many confounding factors, such as the stress hormone cortisol, are also involved [21,22,]. ...
Article
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Heightened aggression is identified in several psychiatric disorders, including addiction. In this preliminary study with a relatively small number of samples, aggression in subjects diagnosed with behavioural addiction (BA) was implicitly assessed using the point subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP) test along with measurements of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin dynamics in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during the test using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Aggression in BA patients was no higher than that of healthy control (CT) subjects in the PSAP test. Although no apparent increase or decrease in haemoglobin concentrations was observed in the PFC of either BA patients or CT subjects, abnormal correlations within the PFC network were present in BA patients. Consistent with comparable aggression between the groups, blood concentrations of the sex hormone testosterone, which has been shown to be associated with aggressiveness, was even lower in BA patients than in CT subjects. In contrast, when a set of questionnaire surveys for the assessment of aggression were administered, BA patients rated themselves as more aggressive than non-BA subjects. Collectively, these results suggest that aggression may not be heightened in BA, but BA patients may overestimate their aggressiveness, raising concerns about the use of questionnaire surveys for assessments of affective traits such as aggression in behavioural addiction.
... Increased endogenous levels of TST seem to encourage dominant behaviour to such extent that it might result in an elevated aggressive behaviour (8,9). While animal studies are consistent with a strong evidence that high levels of TST can be related to high aggressiveness (10), there are some inconsistencies in humans (11)(12)(13)(14). ...
Article
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INTRODUCTION: Psychological testing to examine potentially aggressive behaviour is a gold standard, but it is not suffi cient. Testosterone might increase an aggressive behaviour; AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether testosterone along with psychological assessment of fi tness to drive could help to identify aggressive drivers. METHODS: Male participants (n = 150) aged from 20 to 25, who possessed a driving license and drive at least 100 km per week, were evaluated in this study using an Inventory of traffi c-relevant personality characteristics, the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Buss-Durkee Aggression Inventory. Saliva was collected for testosterone and cortisol measurements. The fi ve binomial logistic models with dependent variables Caused an accident, Driving license taken away, Court trial, Intoxicated driving and Sporty self-report were tested in this study. RESULTS: The 'Intoxicated driving' model, was found to be statistically highly signifi cant, explaining 48.8 % of the dependent variable's variance (χ 2 (16) = 36.145, p < 0.01). In this model with sensation seeking, actual testosterone and their interaction was highly signifi cant and explained 20.4 % of intoxicated driving variability (χ 2 (3) = 14.283, p < 0.01). This was higher than sensation seeking scores only. CONCLUSION: To conclude, salivary testosterone might prove a biological marker that improves the identifi cation of those with a high probability of aggressive driving or its subtypes (Tab. 3, Ref. 53). Text in PDF www.elis.sk KEY WORDS: testosterone, traffi c psychology, aggressive behaviour, traffi c safety, young drivers.
... Although mixed results have been found with respect to cortisol levels and antisocial behavior, a negative relationship between decreased cortisol (re)activity and antisocial behavior is reasonably consistent [40,41]. A meta-analysis showed a positive relationship between testosterone and aggression, however not all studies find this link [42]. Growing evidence shows cortisol and testosterone are interdependent in their influence on antisocial behavior (e.g. ...
Article
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Background Juvenile delinquents constitute a heterogeneous group, which complicates decision-making based on risk assessment. Various psychosocial factors have been used to define clinically relevant subgroups of juvenile offenders, while neurobiological variables have not yet been integrated in this context. Moreover, translation of neurobiological group differences to individual risk assessment has proven difficult. We aimed to identify clinically relevant subgroups associated with differential youth offending outcomes, based on psychosocial and neurobiological characteristics, and to test whether the resulting model can be used for risk assessment of individual cases. Methods A group of 223 detained juveniles from juvenile justice institutions was studied. Latent class regression analysis was used to detect subgroups associated with differential offending outcome (recidivism at 12 month follow-up). As a proof of principle, it was tested in a separate group of 76 participants whether individual cases could be assigned to the identified subgroups, using a prototype ‘tool’ for calculating class membership. Results Three subgroups were identified: a ‘high risk—externalizing’ subgroup, a ‘medium risk—adverse environment’ subgroup, and a ‘low risk—psychopathic traits’ subgroup. Within these subgroups, both autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrinological measures added differentially to the prediction of subtypes of reoffending (no, non-violent, violent). The ‘tool’ for calculating class membership correctly assigned 92.1% of participants to a class and reoffending risk. Conclusions The LCRA approach appears to be a useful approach to integrate neurobiological and psychosocial risk factors to identify subgroups with different re-offending risk within juvenile justice institutions. This approach may be useful in the development of a biopsychosocial assessment tool and may eventually help clinicians to assign individuals to those subgroups and subsequently tailor intervention based on their re-offending risk.
... Congenital minor physical anomalies, like low-seated ears or a furrowed tongue, also have been found to increase the risk for violent criminality; these anomalies are thought to be indicators of fetal neural maldevelopment in the final three months of pregnancy, which can increase aggressiveness and impulsivity (Arseneault, Tremblay, Boulerice, Seguin, & Saucier, 2000). Further, studies reporting associations between the increased risk of offending and reduced testosterone levels (Brook, Starzyk, & Quinsey, 2001), poor nutrition in the womb and in childhood (Ling, Umbach, & Raine, 2019), exposure to lead and lead poisoning as a child (Boutwell et al., 2016), naturally low cortisol levels (Ling, Umbach, & Raine, 2019), peri-and prenatal brain damage to the prefrontal cortex, and lower overall and specifically verbal IQ (Yang et al., 2014) are some of the most replicated research findings in this area. Mutations related to the MAO-A gene, which are related to problems with normal serotonin metabolism and functionality, have been particularly linked to an increased risk of offending (Moore, Scarpa, & Raine, 2002), as well as the abnormal structure and function of the brain's frontal areas, related to attention, cognitive flexibility, and behavioral control, and amygdala, which is related to emotional processing and fear conditioning (Ling et al., 2019). ...
Article
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This research uses experimental methods to gauge how different facets of essentialist thinking toward (1) types of offending and (2) biosocial risk factors for criminality predict lay punishment support. A randomized between-subjects experiment using contrastive vignettes was conducted with members of the general public (N = 897). Overall, as hypothesized, aspects of essentialist thinking, particularly informativeness, continuity, immutability, and discreteness, toward both biosocial risk factors and types of offending behavior generally predicted more severe punishments surrounding retribution, incapacitation, and deterrence. Yet, surprisingly, several of the same beliefs, specifically toward discreteness and informativeness, also predicted non-punitive sentiments toward restoration and decreased prison time in some contexts. This work demonstrates that essentialist thinking may not only affect how the public cognitively categorizes biosocial risk factors for criminality and types of offending, but that it may have consequences for public support for the punishment of offenders with particular offense records or characteristics.
Chapter
Human Development is an interdisciplinary field with the goal of understanding the complex biological, psychological, social, and contextual interactions that underlie individual development across the life span. Each phase of development (e.g., infancy, middle childhood, and adolescence) is uniquely characterized by differential experiences, developmental capabilities, and physiological functioning. Yet even within a particular phase of life, individual differences in behavioral expression exist, reflecting dynamic responses to experiences occurring in the past years, months, weeks, or even minutes. Further, human physiology is multifaceted, with multiple biological agents acting and interacting to influence behavior. Minimally invasive salivary assessments enable human development researchers to carefully disentangle these complex features of behavior by collecting an array of biological markers, across ecologically meaningful events, at appropriately timed intervals, starting on the first day of life. This chapter will review salivary bioscience’s contributions in furthering the field of human development. The chapter will focus on birth through adolescence, with special attention to the unique developmental experiences that characterize each broad phase of life.
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The use of brain-stimulation approaches in social and affective science has greatly increased over the last two decades. The interest in social factors has grown along with technological advances in brain research. Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) is a research tool that allows scientists to establish contributory causality between brain functioning and social behaviour, therefore deepening our understanding of the social mind. Preliminary evidence is also starting to demonstrate that tES, either alone or in combination with pharmacological or behavioural interventions, can alleviate the symptomatology of individuals with affective or social cognition disorders. This review offers an overview of the application of tES in the field of social and affective neuroscience. We discuss issues and challenges related to this application and suggest avenue for future basic and translational research.
Chapter
The brain control of aggression has been studied for nearly a hundred years with a number of technologies that have become increasingly sophisticated. During this long period, there were several phases when the issue seemed to have been solved: aggression control appeared to have been revealed; however, novel research methodologies have refuted this feeling time and time again. Today, we are witnessing an advance in research technologies that we would have thought unimaginable only a decade ago. As usual, these new technologies put a question mark on what was thought true and reliable earlier; however, there also is a consistency in knowledge. New discoveries did not entirely invalidate previous ones but added new details, explored unknown mechanisms, and incorporated the approaches from other fields. The purpose of this chapter is to integrate old and new discoveries into a single concept that accounts for, on the one hand, the complexity of neurons and network architectures and, on the other, the complexity of aggressive behavior. The created template will be used in subsequent chapters to understand what goes wrong with neural control in models of abnormal aggression and how normal and abnormal human aggression is controlled.
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Objectives Pre-historic decline in human craniofacial masculinity has been proposed as evidence of selection for elevated sociability and a process of ‘human self-domestication’ thought to have promoted complex capacities including language, culture, and cumulative technological development. This follows experimental observation of similar changes in non-human animals under selection for reduced aggression. Two distinct domestication hypotheses posit developmental explanations, involving hypoplasia of embryonic neural crest cells (NCCs), and declining androgen influence, respectively. Here, I assess the operation and potential interactions between these two mechanisms and consider their role in enhanced human adaptation to a cooperative sociocultural niche. Methods I provide a review and synthesis of related literature with a focus on physiological mechanisms effecting domesticated reductions in masculinity and sexual dimorphism. Further, I examine pre-historic modes of socio-sexual selection likely to drive human self-domestication via reduced aggression and masculinity. Results I find pluripotent NCCs provide progenitors for a wide range of vertebrate masculine features, acting as regular targets for sexually driven evolutionary change; suggesting domesticated hypoplasia of NCC-derived tissues would be sufficient to explain declines in masculine traits and features. However, lineage specific androgen receptor variability likely moderates these NCC-based effects. Conclusions These findings extend theorised mechanisms driving noted physiological, morphological, and behavioural changes thought to indicate enhanced sociability and human and self-domestication. Multiple current explanations for human sociability are consistent with physiological domestication under socio-sexual selection favouring dampened masculine physiology and behaviour as adaptations to an enhanced sociocultural niche. The analysis highlights multiple avenues for further investigation.
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Objective The goal of the present study was to extend the findings of the dual-hormone hypothesis (DHH) literature by assessing whether the interaction between testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) is associated with dominance in an adolescent sample via multiple methods of measuring T, C, and dominance, and with pre-registration of hypotheses and analyses.Methods In a sample of 337 adolescents (Mage = 14.98, SD = 1.51; 191 girls) and their caregivers, hormonal assays were obtained from hair and saliva, and dominance behavior was assessed across four operationalizations (behavioral ratings in a leadership task, self- and caregiver reported dominance motivations, and self-reported social potency).ResultsT and C main effects were generally null across hormone and dominance operationalizations, except that observer-rated dominance was negatively associated with salivary T, and social potency was positively associated with salivary T and negatively associated with salivary C. Support for the DHH was weak. Point estimates reflected a small negative T × C interaction for behavioral ratings of dominance, consistent with the DHH, whereas interaction effects for report-based dominance measures were close to zero or positive.Conclusions The results contribute to a growing evidence base suggesting T × C interaction effects are variable across measures and methods used to assess hormones and dominance and highlight the need for comprehensive, multi-method examinations employing best practices in scientific openness and transparency to reduce uncertainty in estimates. Measurement of hormones and dominance outcomes vary across labs and studies, and the largely null results should be considered in that context.
Chapter
This chapter describes the psychological processes relevant to an understanding of human aggression, as well as opportunities for the reduction and prevention of violence. Aggression and violence are consequences of frustration, learning processes and labelling. Intergroup violence is also driven by self-categorization and the resulting outgroup devaluation.
Article
In this study I examine local variation in the timing and magnitude of the excess mortality hump, which is the period in adolescence and in young adulthood when mortality rates spike in young men due to an increase in risk-taking behaviors believed to result from a surge of testosterone production and subsequent aggressive, impulsive behaviors. Using an ecological framework and data on all-cause mortality in the United States between 2000 and 2018, I test the hypothesis that dimensions of the local population structure will exacerbate testosterone production and intraspecific competition among young men, which in turn leads to behaviors that elevate the risk of death. This hypothesis is supported by the data. I find that the age at the peak of the excess mortality hump is younger in counties where the sex ratio skews toward males and where population density is high. Additionally, I find that the overall magnitude of the peak of the excess mortality hump is greater in counties where the sex ratio skews toward males.
Chapter
Research on testosterone has long been dominated by a focus on “high testosterone” behaviors, such as aggression, competition, and dominance. The vast majority of this work, including in humans, has also been conducted in exclusively male samples, based in part on presumed links between testosterone and masculinity. Yet testosterone is implicated in many psychological and interpersonal processes for both men and women, and “low testosterone” behaviors may be particularly critical for ongoing close relationships. This fairly narrow focus on high testosterone, in men, leaves major gaps in our understanding of the social neuroendocrinology of close relationships, particularly as related to positive processes like caregiving, support-seeking, and intimacy. The goal of this review is to integrate the literature on testosterone in close relationships, in both men and women, with an eye toward closeness, intimacy, and other positive processes that likely contribute to and are supported by individual differences in testosterone and changes in testosterone over time. I focus on testosterone in the context of romantic and parent-child relationships, and highlight directions for future research that can help to fill important gaps in this literature. Further, I argue that, because close relationships are inherently dynamic and dyadic, longitudinal research that includes both men and women, and ideally both couple members, is critical for a complete understanding of the role of testosterone in close relationship processes.
Article
Increasing evidence indicates that the interaction between testosterone and cortisol is associated with variation in aggressive behavior. However, results are mixed. The current study further explored the association between testosterone, cortisol, and both reactive and proactive aggression in a large sample of university students. Models considered direct and interactive effects between baseline measures of testosterone and cortisol as well as change in hormones in response to a social stressor. In women, baseline cortisol had a negative direct association with reactive aggression and was further associated with reactive aggression in interaction with baseline testosterone (positive interaction). Hormones were unrelated to reactive aggression in men. Baseline cortisol had a negative direct association with proactive aggression in women. In contrast, the association between change in cortisol and proactive aggression was positive. Cortisol was not associated with proactive aggression in men. In addition, testosterone was not related to proactive aggression either directly or in interaction with cortisol in either men or women. Collectively, these results show that the association between hormones and aggression varies across aggressive behavior type and across sex.
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Amphibians and reptiles have always excited the curiosity and interest of researchers, partly because of their status as transitional forms in the evolution of terrestrial life, and partly because, although representatives of our ancestors, they possess remarkably alien forms and habits. They have infiltrated the heart of many religious and cultural traditions (e.g., Frazer, 1935; Morris & Morris, 1965), and in many cases the thoughts of man and the habits of reptiles and amphibians have become intertwined in a way that challenges objectivity.
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It is obviously very difficult to define the precise involvement of a complex physiological system in a rather nebulous concept dealt with, for example, in Brain (1981a). Consequently, some initial care will be directed toward defining the precise area of this review. This account will deliberately look at the phenomena of hormone-aggression correlations in a wide range of species, but this is not meant to imply the existence of genes for aggression. It is likely that similar strategies will lead to analogous hormone-aggression relationships even in diverse species. One should emphasize (as in Brain, Haug, & Kamis, in press) that different models of aggression generate radically different views of the relationships between hormones and this behavior even within the same species. Some attempt will also be made to relate the material to clinical investigations.
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This paper describes a biosocial model of status in face-to-face groups. It argues that status ranks are allocated among members of a group through face-to-face interaction and that the allocation process is similar across each primate species, including humans. Every member of a group signifies its rank through physical or vocal demeanor. For example, behavioral signs of dominant status include erect posture, glares, eye contact, strutting, and (in humans) assertive speech. Individuals whose behaviors exhibit dominance show high or rising levels of testosterone compared to those who exhibit deference. Testosterone and dominance are reciprocally related. The model relies more on research on males than on females. It is proposed as a theory about both sexes, but with a caution that little is known about sex differences in the relation of hormones to dominance behavior.
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Over the course of the past 6 or 7 million years, humans have evolved some unique life history characteristics. This article examines the timing of life cycle events with a focus on the optimal allocation of energy across energetically expensive physiological demands, for example, growth and reproduction. Data are drawn from nonhuman primates, hominin fossils, and cross-cultural comparisons. This article is organized around the life events of gestation, infancy, childhood and adolescence, adulthood and reproduction, and menopause and post-reproductive life.
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It has been proposed (Brain, 1979a,b; Moyer, 1968, 1976) that there are several types of aggression that differ in response patterns, stimulus conditions, and physiological mechanisms. Genetic (Lagerspetz & Lagerspetz, 1975; Maxson, 1981; Scott, 1966; Scott & Fredericson, 1951; Simon, 1979) and hormonal (see reviews in this volume) influences on most if not all of these types of aggression have been studied in one or more vertebrate species. However, the intersection of genetic and hormonal factors has been explored primarily for androgens and intermale aggression in mice (Mus musculus). This review will consider the evidence that some gene effects on the expression and/or development of intermale aggression are mediated, at least in part, by androgens.
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Hormones are often regarded as one independent variable responsible for the behavior (the dependent variable) of an individual. Hormones are seen as the physiological mechanism underlying behavior and are treated as a “cause” of certain behavioral patterns—“behavioral patterns,” because hormonal levels are not viewed as stimuli that release specific fixed action patterns but as the regulators of motivational states that increase or decrease the probabilities of specific classes of response to environmental stimuli.
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The most important form of human aggression is organized large-scale warfare, found in no other species. Hormones will probably not explain war, which is best understood in terms of bureaucracies, complex organizations, and the politics of nations. Rather, it is at the level of face-to-face interaction, which occurs among all social vertebrates, where physiological mechanisms are likely to be influential in human as well as animal affairs.
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Until the mid-1960s, it was widely believed that the gonadal hormones, particularly the androgens, were the only hormones involved in the control of aggressive behavior. This belief was based on the rather full literature establishing that these hormones are important to aggression, and the effects of no other subsystem had received experimental attention. In the past 15 years, however, it has been established that there are indeed many other kinds of hormonal effects on aggressive behavior, and many of those are discussed in other chapters of this book. This chapter is concerned with the effects of the hormones of the pituitary-adrenocortical axis, ACTH and corticosterone.
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Aggression is a term that has been applied to many different types of behaviors, from hostile language and gestures to physical violence (Buss, 1961). Aggression, as used here, will refer to a category of behaviors associated with physical attack by one house mouse (male or female) on another mouse of the same sex. This type of aggression is therefore most appropriately referred to as “intrasex” aggression. But conspecific aggression in mammals is often referred to as “intermale” aggression, since fighting is generally considered to be a trait characteristic of males and uncharacteristic of females. An exception to this general statement has been the recognition that many, but not all, female mammals exhibit aggression during the postpartum period in defense of their young (Svare, 1981). It is important to recognize that other types of conspecific aggression (e.g., fear-induced aggression, sex-related aggression, infanticide) are commonly observed in many mammals. These other forms of conspecific aggression are influenced by variables different from those that influence either intermale or interfemale aggression (Moyer, 1974). For example, when a nonreceptive female mouse is placed into the home cage of a sexually experienced adult male, the male will attempt to mount the female and the mounting attempts will be rejected. As a result, the male often becomes highly aroused and attacks the female (vom Saal & Bronson, 1978).
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We examine the relationship of testosterone to tendencies to marry and divorce, and to the quality of marriage, of a large representative sample of men. The analysis shows that men producing more testosterone are less likely to marry and more likely to divorce. Once married they are more likely to leave home because of troubled marital relations, extramarital sex, hitting or throwing things at their spouses, and experiencing a lower quality of marital interaction. Sociological models that might be informed by this finding are examined, and its implications for subsequent research are discussed.
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Associations between hormonal and physical status and girls' depressive affect, aggressive affect, and delinquent behavior were studied over the course of one year. Seventy-two White girls, aged 10-14 at initial data collection, were seen twice. Endocrinological status (estradiol, luteinizing hormone [LH], folicle stimulating hormone [FSH], testosterone, and dehydroepiandosterone sulfate [DHEAS] at Time 1, physical development (menarche, secondary sexual characteristics) and maturational timing at Times 1 and 2 were used to predict self- and maternal reports of depressive affect, and self-reports of aggressive affect and delinquent behavior at Time 2. It was posited that initial endocrinological status, as represented by hormonal categories derived by Warren and Brooks-Gunn [(1989) "Mood and Behavior at Adolescence: Evidence for Hormonal Factors, " Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 69, pp. 77-83] and reflecting estradiol, LH, and FSH levels, would be associated with affective expression and delinquent behavior one year later. DHEAS, however, was not expected to be associated with affective expression a year later as it is thought to be more indicative of adrenal changes that are in part environmentally mediated. Initial affective expression was hypothesized to account for more of the variation than prior hormonal status. Hormonal categories predicted depressive and aggressive affect a year later, while DHEAS, physical status, and maturational timing did not. Initial hormonal categories were associated with subsequent reports of delinquent behavior, although not after physical status or prior reports of delinquency were entered into the regression. Initial reports of affective expression accounted for a far greater proportion of the variance in aggressive affect and delinquent behavior than did hormonal or physical status.
Article
Measures of salivary testosterone and the personality dimensions of aggression and pro- social behavior were obtained in 306 (155 male and 151 female) university students. Each participant provided two samples of saliva and completed ten self-report person- ality scales from multiple inventories. A factor analysis of the personality scales pro- duced two factors, an aggression factor and a pro-social behavior factor. Men averaged five times the amount of salivary testosterone as women (99 pent' vs. 18.5 pg/ml) and rated themselves as more aggressive and less nurturant. Within each sex, testosterone was positively correlated with aggression and negatively correlated with pro-social per- sonality. Structural equation modelling analyses suggested that a direct effect model best described the relationship between salivary testosterone and the latent personality dimensions of aggression and pro-social behavior. 0 19% itleplAss.
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Free-living male song sparrows, Melospiza melodia morphna, showed marked aggressive behaviour in response to simulated territorial intrusions throughout most of the year. Only during the prebasic moult, and during inclement winter weather, was territorial aggression suppressed. In contrast, free-living male white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys pugetensis , showed the highest behavioural responses to simulated territorial intrusions in spring when territories were established. Responses then declined as the breeding season progressed, reaching a minimum during the prebasic moult. The latter species migrates to wintering grounds and does not show territorial aggression until the following spring. Plasma levels of testosterone paralleled changes in territorial aggression in white-crowned sparrows, but not song sparrows. The resurgence of autumnal territoriality was independent of any increase in circulating testosterone levels. Males of both species showed increases in testosterone levels in response to simulated territorial intrusions, but this was only significant in white-crowned sparrows. However, male song sparrows had higher levels of testosterone in spring in areas with a high density of territories than males in areas with a low density of territories. These data suggest that although territorial behaviour in the non-breeding season was independent of testosterone in song sparrows, such behaviour in the breeding season may be influenced by this steroid hormone. Finally, it appears that young, first summer, song sparrows were also able to establish a territory in early autumn with no changes in testosterone or luteinizing hormone.
Article
A study of hormonal levels of violent and nonviolent offenders failed to establish any significant differences among murderers, assaulters, and controls. While the results do not suggest a contributory role for random blood hormone levels in facilitating aggressive behavior, further study of complex interactions is necessary to rule out endocrinological factors.
Article
Aggressive behavioral characteristics were assessed in groups of men and women by a self-report instrument, the Aggression Inventory, in which adult males reported more physical and verbal aggression than did females. Furthermore, males had higher scores on measures of impulsiveness and lack of frustration tolerance than did females, while women were more likely to avoid confrontation. In a second study, groups of male and female homosexuals and heterosexuals completed this Aggression Inventory after having blood samples taken to assay resting levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E). Groups of subjects within each gender were closely matched in terms of age, education, and vocational interests. Women were matched for the same time in their menstrual cycle (early follicular phase). Among men, homosexuals were indistinguishable from heterosexuals on all measures of aggression. Lesbians did not differ from heterosexual women on any aggression subscale except physical aggression, in which the homosexual women had lower scores. T and E were positively correlated with several indices of aggressive behavioral characteristics in men but were negatively correlated with those same measures in women.
Article
Aggressive behavior in birds involves a variety of complex visual and vocal displays, most of which appear to be under hormonal control. Singing is a good example of a complex vocal display used in aggressive interactions, and singing behavior is controlled by a series of recently evolved distinct neural nuclei, several of which are hormone sensitive. Visual displays are enhanced by various morphological adaptations such as striking plumage patterns; brightly colored bills, eye rings, and legs; or specialized wattles and combs. These, too, are often under hormonal control. Overall, much less is known about the relationship between hormones and aggressive behavior in birds than in mammals. In part, this may reflect the difficulty of manipulating the avian endocrine system. In general, removal of the avian gonads is much more difficult than gonadectomy in mammals, and other manipulations such as adrenalectomy or hypophysectomy are rarely attempted. The lack of data is certainly not due to any dearth of aggressive behavior among bird species. Bennett (1939), in summarizing her observations on the aggressive behavior of doves, noted that the high frequency of aggressive contacts and the violence of many encounters “tend to discredit the expression ‘gentle as a dove’ and to raise a question of the suitability of the dove as an emblem of peace” (p. 356).
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Aggressive behavior commonly is thought of as the prerogative of males. However, females of a variety of species are aggressive and can compete for rank or other resources with important biological consequences.
Article
The hormone testosterone (T) has a central role in recent theories about allocation of status ranks during face-to-face competition. It has been methodologically convenient to test the hypothesized T mechanism in physically taxing athletic contests, where results have been supportive, although their generalizability to normal social competition is questionable. Competition among chess players is a step closer to normal social competition because it does not require physical struggle, and it is the arena for tests of the T mechanism which are reported here. We find that winners of chess tournaments show higher T levels than do losers. Also, in certain circumstances, competitors show rises in T before their games, as if in preparation for the contests. These results generally support recent theories about the role of T in the allocation of status ranks.
Article
Concentrations of ethanol, testosterone, cortisol, and glucose were determined in serum obtained from 16 males taken into police custody after incidents of spouse abuse. The mean blood ethanol level at the time of arrest was 33.3 ± 2.6 mM. Serum testosterone levels were significantly lower and cortisol levels higher at the time of police intervention (within 1 hour of the incident) compared to control data collected later from the subjects when sober. Offenders did not differ from a group of nonviolent pub patrons at similar blood ethanol levels (35.9 ± 4.5 mM) with respect to serum testosterone, cortisol, or glucose, but their sober state cortisol and glucose concentrations were significantly higher compared to a control group of nonalcoholic men. Intoxication or acute hormonal changes were thus not specifically associated with violent behaviour. Provocative cues, however, may have been more frequent in the offender families, as Straus Conflict Tactics data showed that offenders and victims resorted to verbal aggression significantly more often than control families. The significantly elevated cortisol and glucose concentrations in offenders when sober compared to nonviolent controls could be viewed as direct effects of life stress, or as indirect effects of stress mediated by learned escape drinking. Excessive drinking as well as spouse abuse could be maladaptive coping strategies that principally serve to maintain the status quo, physiologically as well as psychologically. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
Salivary testosterone levels were assayed among 240 members of 12 fraternities at two universities. Descriptions of the fraternities were obtained from university officials, fraternity officers, yearbook and chapter house photographs, and researchers' field notes. At the first university, high testosterone fraternities were more rambunctious, and low testosterone fraternities were more academically successful and socially responsible. At the second university, the highest testosterone fraternity was outstanding in the crudeness of its behavior. At both universities, members of lower testosterone fraternities smiled more. Lower testosterone groups were more friendly and pleasant, and higher testosterone groups more wild and unruly. The underlying behavioral dimension may be characterized as well-behaved vs rambunctious. Whether low testosterone groups are considerate to the point of altruism, and high testosterone groups inconsiderate to the point of callousness, depends upon other factors.
Article
Sociobiological theory suggests that aggression coupled with altruism is highly adaptive for males in all social systems, including the family, whereas sex-role convergence theory indicates that lower levels of aggression are most adaptive for men, particularly at mid-life. The purpose of this study was to determine the role that testosterone, as a proxy for aggression, plays as an adaptive mechanism in the lives of middle-aged males. The sample used in this study consisted of 37 middle-aged (39–50 years of age) males employed in professional occupations in a midwestern metropolitan area. Testosterone levels were regressed on factors typically found to be related to male satisfaction with family life at mid-life: marital satisfaction, parent-adolescent communication, amount of emotional expressiveness, and androgynous characteristics; recent positive and negative stressors and trait anxiety were statistically controlled. Results of step-wise multiple regression analysis indicated that low levels of testosterone were significantly (R = .34, P < .01) related to enhanced marital and parental relationships and androgynous behaviors; however, emotional expressiveness was significantly related to high levels of testosterone.
Article
Levels of circulating cortisol, testosterone, and testosterone-binding globulin were measured in 15 male wrestlers (18–22 yrs of age) in relation to wrestling bouts and their outcomes. Concentrations of cortisol and testosterone increased consistently during wrestling bouts, while levels of testosterone-binding globulin dropped. Winners of competitive matches showed greater increases in both cortisol and testosterone than did losers. Findings indicate that humans, like other social mammals, may undergo specific endocrine changes in response to victory or defeat. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Differences in physical aggression among 114 male !Kung San (bushmen) from Namibia were investigated with regard to sex hormone levels, body dimensions, consumption of alcohol, and degree of acculturation. Subjects were classified from injuries resulting from prior conflicts with mutual physical aggression between the opponents as either violent or nonviolent. The comparison of mean sex hormone values (total serum testosterone, Tser; serum 5α-dihydrotestosterone, DHT; serum estradiol 17β, E2; “free,” non-SHBG-bound salivary testosterone, Tsal) and hormone ratios (Tsal/Tser; DHT/Tser) did not yield any significant differences between the violent and nonviolent group. However, correlation coefficients of sex hormone levels with the frequency of violent behavior within the group of physically aggressive San men were significantly positive for DHT, Tsal, and Tsal/Tser (P < .05) while Tser, E2, and DHT/Tser showed only weak positive correlations. Moreover, the violent men exhibit higher mean values in certain measures of physical robustness which may point to a possible pathway of indirect androgen action on human aggression. When the probands were classified according to their drinking habits, usually abstinent men had shown significantly less violent behavior in the past than men who habitually consume alcohol.
Article
Changes in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were evaluated in males competing in a non-athletic laboratory reaction time task. Subjects were randomly assigned to “win” or “lose” by adjusting feedback regarding their task performance. Further, subjects were randomly assigned to either a Close Contest condition (where one person barely “defeated” his opponent), or a Decisive condition (in which the victory was clear). Throughout competition, samples of saliva were taken and assayed later for T and C. Post-competition mood and attributions were also measured. Winners had higher overall T levels than losers, with no significant difference between Close Contest or Decisive Victory conditions. In contrast, C levels did not differ between winners and losers nor did Condition (Close or Decisive) have any effect. Mood was depressed in Decisive losers compared to all other groups. The results indicate that the perception of winning or losing, regardless of actual performance or merit on the task, differentially influenced T (but not C) levels, and that such hormonal changes are not simply general arousal effects but are related to mood and status change.
Article
Serum testosterone and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 14 young male judo competitors, in samples taken 10 minutes before and 45 minutes after two different procedures. The first involved physical exercise and the second competitive fighting. Both procedures were of 5 minutes duration and sessions took place at the same time (between 10:00 A.M. and 12:00 P.M. local time) but on different days. Comparing the two situations over all subjects revealed that testosterone increased after exercise and decreased slightly after Competition. Between subject comparisons suggested that contrary to previous claims, winning or losing did not significantly change the testosterone and cortisol levels. Comparisons of subjects who were members of the Regional Team with individuals who were not part of that group confirmed that members increased their testosterone levels after competition, whereas the nonmembers showed a significant decrease. Moreover, success of the individuals, in their sporting record, correlated positively and significantly with the changes of testosterone observed during the competition. These preliminary results suggest that previous personal experience of success can influence the pattern of the psychoendocrine response to a contest situation.
Article
We report on two studies of anger and aggression in women. One study concerns an experimental study of anger induction in aggressive and non-aggressive sportswomen. It was found that sports choice in itself, contrary to expectation, does not predict anger arousal and aggressive behavior in the laboratory. However, at an individual level the anger proneness of the subject, as measured by a questionnaire we developed, was related to the intensity of aggressive behavior and subjectively reported anger. The second study concerns the activating effects of androgens on aggression and anger proneness. In a group of 22 female-to-male transsexuals, a battery of anger proneness and aggression questionnaires was administered twice: shortly before and 3 months after the start of androgen treatment. Administration of androgens was clearly associated with an increaese in anger proneness, although there were no changes in several aspects of overt aggressive behavior. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
Thirty-eight male college students, classified as either Type A or Type B based on their Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS-T) scores, competed in a reaction time task that allowed them to administer shocks to an increasingly provocative fictitious opponent. Salivary testosterone and cortisol were measured both prior to and after the task. Aggression was defined as the level of shock the subject was willing to set for the opponent. The results of this study indicate that a relationship exists between endogenous testosterone levels in men and direct physical aggression. Some evidence for the moderating effects of hormones on the level of aggression expressed by Type As was observed. No direct relationship between Type A and aggression was found.
Article
Free testosterone concentrations were measured in the saliva of 84 female inmates and 15 female college students. Testosterone differed among inmates convicted of unprovoked violence, defensive violence, theft, drugs, and a set of other crimes. It was highest with unprovoked violence and lowest with defensive violence, where inmates had reacted violently after being physically assaulted. Testosterone was also related to number of prior charges and to Parole Board decisions about length of time to serve before being released on parole. Mean testosterone levels were similar for inmates and college students.
Article
The study compared normal males who scored at the extremes of Disinhibition (a subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale) on gonadal hormones. High disinhibitors were higher than lows on testosterone, estradiol and estrone, but not on progesterone. A broader range of personality traits, attitudes and experience was factor analyzed and correlated with the hormone measurements. Two large factors were found: (1) stable extraversion vs neurotic introversion; (2) social deviancy vs social conformity. Testosterone loaded positively on the stable extraversion factor and estradiol loaded on the social deviancy factor. Measures of sensation seeking, impulsivity and heterosexual experience tended to correlate positively with both testosterone and estradiol, and persons low on both of these hormones were characterized by a high degree of self control and social conformity.
Article
Relationships of serum and saliva to personality were examined among 401 college students in four laboratory studies and 5,236 military veterans in one archival study. Among the students, there were few relationships between testosterone and traditional personality measures. Among the veterans, MMPI scores and DSM-III diagnoses showed testosterone related to drug and alcohol abuse, antisocial and generally intemperate behavior, and effective disorders. Consistent with social control theory, correlations were higher among veterans who were lower in socioeconomic status. It appears likely that testosterone has innate effects that are socially undesirable but can be attenuated by bonds between the individual and society. Effect sizes were small, suggesting that testosterone will have noticeable effects only in large populations or individuals who differ markedly from the population mean. Further research should focus upon antisocial correlates of testosterone and conditions that produce marked changes in testosterone levels.
Article
Testosterone, crime, and prison behavior were examined among 692 adult male prison inmates. Testosterone was measured from saliva samples, and behavior was coded from prison system records. Inmates who had committed personal crimes of sex and violence had higher testosterone levels than inmates who had committed property crimes of burglary, theft, and drugs. Inmates with higher testosterone levels also violated more rules in prison, especially rules involving overt confrontation. The findings indicate differences between low and high testosterone individuals in the amount and pattern of their misbehavior.
Article
Testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were assayed from saliva samples given by young men (n = 28) and women (n = 32) before, during, and after competing with a same-sex partner in a video game. The T response to the competition is different in each sex; the C response is the same. Male results confirm prior reports of a pre-contest rise in testosterone. Male results did not confirm previous findings that after a contest, the testosterone of winners is higher than that of losers, perhaps because the video game contest produced little mood difference between male winners and losers. Unlike male testosterone, female testosterone generally decreased throughout the experiment. Trends in T and C are parallel in women but not in men. Apparently T works differently in competition between men than between women.
Article
This research examined both inter- and intrasubject correlations between LH, FSH, and plasma testosterone and various measures of behavior, affect, and physical discomfort. Five males between the ages of 22 and 28 participated in the research which took place three times a week over a 10-week period. The data revealed a number of significant intersubject correlations between the various hormones and both behavioral and affective measures. In particular, central nervous system motor functioning was observed to improve with increases in LH and to worsen with increases in FSH and T. Positive affect also was positively correlated with LH and negatively correlated with FSH and T. Three separate stepwise multiple-regression equations were also computed with the hormones acting as the respective dependent variables and the behavioral, affect, and physical discomfort variables as the predictors. The obtained R2 ranged from a low of 0.21 for LH to a high of 0.55 for FSH. The findings of this study support the existence of both affect- and behavior-endocrine relationships across individuals, but indicate that there may be no consistent pattern within individuals.
Article
This paper reports preliminary data from a study designed to examine the relationship between serum testosterone concentration and aggressive behaviors in competitive hockey players. Competitive sports, and particularly hockey, offer the opportunity to study aggressive behavior in a natural setting.
Article
The present investigation evaluated several components of sexual and aggressive behavior in relationship to serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations. The sample was large enough to obtain a wide range of testosterone values, and several approaches were used in measuring sexual and aggressive behaviour. A major finding of this study is the impressive lack of correlation between aggression as measured by the BDHI and the concentration of circulating testosterone. Another finding is the general lack of relationship between testosterone level and questionnaire items related to sexual activity and interest, with the exception of the positive relationship between testosterone and current frequency of masturbation.
Article
The object of the study was to assess the lability of testosterone levels in plasma of normal human males over a long period of time and to search for periodicities in changing levels. Blood samples obtained from 20 healthy young men every second day for 2 months were assayed for total testosterone concentration by radioligand saturation analysis with late-pregnancy plasma. The flucturations of plasma testosterone levels over the total time span were substantial for most individuals; the coefficients of variation ranged from 14 to 42% (median 21%). The presence of periodic functions in these fluctuations was tested by 4 different, relatively independent methods. Close agreement among at least 3 analytic methods was found for 12 out of the 20 subjects. These 12 subjects had cycles of plasma testosterone levels with periods ranging between 8-30 days, with a cluster of periods around 20-22 days. The majority of such cycles were significant at least at the 5% level. The mean amplitudes of these cycles ranged from 9 to 28% of the subjects' mean testosterone levels (average 17%).