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Growth Factors and Antimicrobial Factors of Bovine Colostrum

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Growth Factors and Antimicrobial Factors of Bovine Colostrum

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Abstract

Colostrum is the first natural food produced by female mammals during the first 24–36h directly after giving birth. Chemically, colostrum is a very complex fluid rich in nutrients, antibodies and growth factors. In cows the antibodies provide passive immunity to the new born calf, whereas the growth factors especially stimulate the growth of the gut. The other antimicrobial components of colostrum include lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. Bovine colostrum has also been used as a raw material for immunonoglubulin-rich commercial products (immune milk preparations). These products can be given orally to patients who are suffering infections of the gastrointestial tract or in order to prevent these infections. Usually, however, the cows have to be hyperimmunized against microorganisms, if specific antibodies are required. Several animal studies have shown that the growth factors in bovine colostrum, especially insulin-like growth factors, stimulate cell growth in the gut. Bovine colostrum is also known to contain insulin, transforming growth factor β and related growth factors, but their function in colostrum is not fully understood. Small amounts of these growth factors can also be detected in normal milk. Growth factors as well as antimicrobial factors of colostrum may be used as potential components in clinical nutrition in the future.

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... It catalyzes the oxidation reaction of thiocyanates in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, thereby generating intermediates with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity [138][139][140]. Lactoperoxidase acts as a natural antibacterial agent as an element of non-specific cellular immunity [100,141]. Its concentration is 13-30 mg/L in cow colostrum and 11-45 mg/L in milk [6]. ...
... Other methods for its preparation, like sequential dilution diafiltration using a UF membrane, affinity chromatography, adsorption, or molecular imprinted particles (Lys-MIP), are also known but used only in laboratory practice due to high costs [151,152]. Lysozyme stimulates the non-specific humoral immune response [141,153]. Its content has been found to vary from 0.37-0.6 ...
... All cells need a range of growth factors to maintain proliferation and viability [160][161][162]. The first information about the presence of growth factors in milk and colostrum was recorded in 1997 by Pakkanen and Aalto and later by Gauther et al. in 2006 [141,163]. The following growth factors are known to be present in milk: BTC (Betacellulin GF), EGF (Epidermal GF), FGF-1, FGF-2 (Fibroblast GF), IGF-1 and IGF-2 (Insulin-like GF), TGF-β1, TGF-β2 (Transforming GF), and PDGF (Platelet-derived GF) [101]. ...
Article
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Milk and colostrum have high biological potential, and due to their natural origin and non-toxicity, they have many uses in cosmetics and dermatology. Research is ongoing on their potential application in other fields of medicine, but there are still few results; most of the published ones are included in this review. These natural products are especially rich in proteins, such as casein, β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, immunoglobulins, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme, and growth factors, and possess various antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory properties, etc. This review describes the physico-chemical properties of milk and colostrum proteins and the natural functions they perform in the body and compares their composition between animal species (cows, goats, and sheep). The milk- and colostrum-based products can be used in dietary supplementation and for performing immunomodulatory functions; they can enhance the effects of certain drugs and can have a lethal effect on pathogenic microorganisms. Milk products are widely used in the treatment of dermatological diseases for promoting the healing of chronic wounds, hastening tissue regeneration, and the treatment of acne vulgaris or plaque psoriasis. They are also increasingly regarded as active ingredients that can improve the condition of the skin by reducing the number of acne lesions and blackheads, regulating sebum secretion, ameliorating inflammatory changes as well as bestowing a range of moisturizing, protective, toning, smoothing, anti-irritation, whitening, soothing, and antiaging effects.
... Bovine colostrum is abundant in immunoglobulins, which are more than 100 times greater in colostrum than mature milk, to ensure protection against disease [16]. The common isotopes include immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG, of which IgG is the primary isotope [2] accounting for 85-90% of all bovine colostral immunoglobulins [82]. ...
... During the first 24 h of life, maternal immunoglobulins are absorbed through colostrum to provide passive immunity to the calf [76]. After ingestion, immunoglobulins transfer into the neonate's circulatory system through the lumen of the small intestine [16], where the calf is provided with short-term, immediate immunity [83]. As gut permeability decreases rapidly during the first day of life [84], delaying colostrum intake to as late as 12 h of life will concurrently reduce passive transfer of immunoglobulins [85]. ...
... Lactoferrin, a bioactive protein in colostrum, has been shown to prevent sepsis in infants and calves, which can occur in calves with diarrhea [88,89]. It exhibits antimicrobial characteristics by creating a localized iron deficiency in bacteria though its binding capabilities, thus minimizing the potential for bacterial growth [16]. Moreover, it inhibits the growth of many microbes, including E. coli and Salmonella [90][91][92][93]. ...
Article
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Diarrhea is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in pre-weaned dairy calves and, as such, represents a significant animal health and welfare concern. Furthermore, digestive disease early in life is associated with several long-term consequences such as reduced growth rate and decreased milk yield during the first lactation, thus generating severe economic losses. The majority of diarrheic cases in young calves are treated with antimicrobials; however, it is necessary to develop alternative treatments, as excessive antimicrobial usage can lead to antimicrobial resistance and can negatively impact the gut microflora of a calf. Bovine colostrum is abundant in immune and bioactive factors that improve immune function and development. This rich and natural combination of immunoglobulins, natural antimicrobial factors, growth factors, anti-inflammatories and nutrients may be an attractive alternative to antimicrobials in the treatment of diarrhea in young dairy calves. There is evidence that supports the use of colostrum as an early treatment for diarrhea in young calves. Future research should investigate its therapeutic and economic effectiveness.
... Finally, in cow colostrum, the fat was highly variable [58]. Also, colostrum is a perfect substance for body cell repair and regeneration, due to it contains various growth factors that are insignificant biologically active molecules for renewal and repair of various special and general cells and tissues (like muscle, cartilage) and indirectly affects the metabolism process [39]. ...
... Since colostrum components and its preparations have remarkable properties, it can be used to promote a healthy diet or as alternatives and supplements in medical treats of several human diseases for all ages [118,119]. It can also be used to boost the immune system in both healthy and chronically ill persons [39,120]. Besides, colostrum and whey supplementation were famously and has many medical advantages for healthy adults [121]. ...
... Colostrum or IM can be natural, healthy, and safely functional foods and has broad market prospects [182]. Many commercial IM preparations are offered in the market like Gastrogard product (Northfield Laboratories, Oakden, Australia) to prevent diarrhea due to rotavirus in children; STOLLAIT IMMUNE MILK (New Zealand) to lower high cholesterol values and relieve arthritis symptoms; PRO-IMMUNE 99 (GalaGen Inc., Minnesota, USA) to prevent scarring due to E. coli in young calves; Biotest Pharm GmbH (Frankfurt, Germany) to treat acute diarrhea in patients with AIDS and Viable Bioproducts Ltd. (Turku, Finland) produces sterile filtered colostrum to provide growth and antimicrobial agents through strenuous physical activity for athletes [39,89,183]. Today, raw IM as a commercial drink is widely available in French market for the benefit of whole people, and it grants protection short-term from human infection against coronavirus and used as an alternative until vaccines are available [153]. ...
Article
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This review focused on compiling, summarizing, updating the information available on the colostrum and its health benefits. Colostrum is the first milk secreted by the mammary gland of female mammals immediately after birth during the first few days, and its composition differs from the mature milk. It ensures immune support for newborns in the early stages of life. It is a divine immune gift from the Creator. Mammalian colostrum contains unique components rich in nutritional macronutrients (proteins, fat, carbohydrates) and micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants) and many bioactive substances like antimicrobial factors (Igs, LF, LP, LZ, cytokines) and growth factors (EGF, TGFα and β, IGF-1 and 2, FGF, PDGF, GH), which are necessary to stimulate the immune systems that newborns need for health and survival life. Physicochemical composition changes dramatically in the first few days that distinguish it from mature milk. This reverses an essential difference in their biological function as fractional sources or for health-promotion. So it is considered one of the best natural food supplements consumed within various life stages. Colostrum is used to treat cancer, AIDS, polio, heart disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Hyper-immune colostrum or milk collected from cows immunized by SARS-CoV-2, it can grant protection short-term from infection in humans and can be used as an alternative way to produce specific antibodies against CoVID-19 until effective excess vaccines against new mutations can be available. Likewise, colostrum and its components contribute as a non-drug alternative to the clinical management of CoVID-19. Also, lactoferrin and its supplements are effective in preventing and treating people with coronavirus infection. Therefore, due to these previous multiple functions, colostrum is considered as a natural food, called miracle immune milk, and used as a medicine.
... Both ribonucleases and lysozyme [EC 3.2.1.17] (LZM) are present in higher concentrations in colostrum than in milk with an extensively elevated concentration of enzymes in the early postpartum period [1,[37][38]. Enzymes have several purposes, e.g. they work synergic with other proteins to fulfil antimicrobial activities, they help in consumers' digestive system or they catalyze other important reactions [2,39]. ...
... It provokes bacteriolysis and opsonization having a general higher immune response as well as antiviral and antineoplastic activities [40]. This bacteriostatic effect inhibits the growth of bacteria and shows indirect bactericidal effects potentially effective against udder pathogens [38]. The LZM is effective through exhibiting lytic properties or by complementing the bactericidal action of antibodies [40]. ...
... The peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell walls functions as the substrate for LZM. LZM is hydrolyzing the β (1→4)-bond between muramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in the cell wall [37], which leads to lysis of bacterial cells [38]. As an example, LZM is effective against E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [41]. ...
Preprint
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The purpose of bovine colostrum, being the milk secreted by a cow after giving birth, is to transfer passive immunity to the calf. The calves have an insufficient immune system as they lack immunoglobulins (Igs). Subsequently, the supply of good quality bovine colostrum is obligatory. The quality of colostrum is classified by low bacterial counts and adequate Ig concentrations. Bacterial contamination can contain a variety of human pathogens or high counts of spoilage bacteria, which becomes more challenging with emerging use of bovine colostrum as food and food supplements. There is also a growing risk for the spread of zoonotic diseases originating from bovines. For this reason, processing based on heat treatment or other feasible techniques are required. This review provides an overview of literature on the microbial quality of bovine colostrum and processing methods to improve its microbial quality and keep its nutritional values as food. The highlights of this review are: high quality colostrum is a valuable raw material in food products and supplements, the microbial safety of bovine colostrum is increased using appropriate processing, suitable effective heat-treatment, which does not destroy the high nutrition value of colostrum, the heat treatment processes are cost-effective compared to other methods, and heat treatment can be performed in both small- and large-scale production
... Traditional knowledge, as well as modern scientific research methods, have helped to build a great body of evidence proving colostrum to be one of the most complete and rich natural sources of bioactive regulatory compounds [4,7,[21][22][23]. However, despite its positive influences on both adolescent and adult human organisms, which have been demonstrated in numerous in vitro and in vivo studies, there are still users of colostrum who claim their experience with this supplement was not fully satisfactory. ...
... When specific bioactive compounds are analyzed, important reductions of immunoglobulins (IgG and IgA) and regulatory factors (TNF and IL-2) are observed already within the first 6-12 h [7]. These composition changes followed by a supposed biological activity decrease are the reason why traditional definitions of bovine colostrum formerly described it as a product of dairy cows obtained in the period between delivery and a 36 to 48 h post-calving [23]. Unfortunately, many makers of colostrum-based supplements do not clearly state the period within which they harvest their colostrum. ...
... It is difficult to predict if other important biological effects, such as an immunity boost, typically attributed to colostrum use actually deteriorate, due to delayed harvesting by the same degree as the permeability reduction effect. We can only speculate that this is highly probable, as at least some of the various biological effects of colostrum supplementation are supposedly caused by overlapping combinations of bioactive components [5,10,23]. There have also been links suggested between the ability to maintain intestinal homeostasis with its crucial component-intestinal permeability control-and the good immunity status of the entire organism [29,[34][35][36]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objective: The health supplement bovine colostrum reportedly improves immunity and regulates intestinal homeostasis. Reliable assessment methods are needed to ensure the satisfactory biological activity of all marketed colostrum products. Of the well-established effects of colostrum use, the restoration of appropriate intestinal permeability assessed with the lactulose/mannitol (L/M) differential sugar absorption test upon supplementation with colostrum has been consistently observed. Milking time after delivery is one of the factors that influences the composition of bovine colostrum, which causes a rapid decrease in bioactive components. Materials and methods: We use the L/M test to evaluate the intestinal permeability reduction upon supplementation with colostrum (2 × 500 mg) harvested at various times after delivery (2, 24, and 72 h) or a placebo (whey). In our randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) trial, 31 healthy athletes were divided into four groups and assessed at baseline and after the intervention. Results: The trial revealed that only colostrum collected after 2 h and 24 h caused a significant reduction of intestinal permeability. The comparison of post-intervention vs. baseline Δ values produced statistically significant results for 2 h colostrum versus the placebo and 72 h colostrum groups. Conclusions: We conclude that the change of bovine colostrum composition over the first three days of lactation is accompanied by a decrease in its biological activity as measured with the L/M test. This test may offer a biological quality measure for colostrum.
... Both ribonucleases and lysozyme [EC 3.2.1.17] (LZM) are present in higher concentrations in colostrum than in milk with an extensively elevated concentration of enzymes in the early postpartum period [1,37,38]. Enzymes have several purposes, e.g., they work synergic with other proteins to fulfil antimicrobial activities. LZM supports the digestive system or catalyzes other important reactions [2,39]. ...
... It provokes bacteriolysis and opsonization having a general higher immune response as well as antiviral and antineoplastic activities [40]. This bacteriostatic effect inhibits the growth of bacteria and shows indirect bactericidal effects potentially effective against udder pathogens [38]. The LZM is effective through exhibiting lytic properties or by complementing the bactericidal action of antibodies [40]. ...
... The peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell walls functions as the substrate for LZM. LZM hydrolyzes the β (1→4)-bond between muramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in the cell wall [37], which leads to the lysis of bacterial cells [38]. As an example, LZM is effective against E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [41]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of bovine colostrum, being the milk secreted by a cow after giving birth, is to transfer passive immunity to the calf. The calves have an immature immune system as they lack immunoglobulins (Igs). Subsequently, the supply of good quality bovine colostrum is required. The quality of colostrum is classified by low bacterial counts and adequate Ig concentrations. Bacterial contamination can contain a variety of human pathogens or high counts of spoilage bacteria, which has become more challenging with the emerging use of bovine colostrum as food and food supplements. There is also a growing risk for the spread of zoonotic diseases originating from bovines. For this reason, processing based on heat treatment or other feasible techniques is required. This review provides an overview of literature on the microbial quality of bovine colostrum and processing methods to improve its microbial quality and keep its nutritional values as food. The highlights of this review are as follows: high quality colostrum is a valuable raw material in food products and supplements; the microbial safety of bovine colostrum is increased using an appropriate processing-suitable effective heat treatment which does not destroy the high nutrition value of colostrum; the heat treatment processes are cost-effective compared to other methods; and heat treatment can be performed in both small- and large-scale production.
... Other immunoglobulin, IgA and IgM, are also present in cow colostrum and milk in lower quantities, which is the opposite of human colostrum/milk (Bush and Staley, 1980;Wheeler et al., 2007;Stelwagen et al., 2009). Although immunoglobulins are the main source of immunity for the offspring, there are additional antimicrobial factors present in colostrum, including lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase (Pakkanen and Aalto, 1997). Lactoferrin is an iron binding glycoprotein that is a potent antimicrobial and its roles may involve the regulation of intestinal iron absorption and tissue protection. ...
... Lactoferrin is an iron binding glycoprotein that is a potent antimicrobial and its roles may involve the regulation of intestinal iron absorption and tissue protection. It is hypothesised that lactoferrin is an antimicrobial due to its ability to bind to iron which is essential for bacteria growth (Paulsson et al., 1993;Pakkanen and Aalto, 1997). Lactoferrin is also involved in various physiological pathways such as antigen and antibody processing and production (Paulsson et al., 1993). ...
... Lactoferrin is also involved in various physiological pathways such as antigen and antibody processing and production (Paulsson et al., 1993). Lysozyme is an enzyme and the natural substrate is the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cells, when the enzyme breaks down this cell layer it results in the lysis of the bacteria (Pakkanen and Aalto, 1997) Lactoperoxidase is another antibacterial enzyme found in colostrum and milk, combining with hydrogen peroxide to oxidise thiocyanate, leading to an oxidative product which is inhibitory to some bacteria (Reiter, 1978;Pakkanen and Aalto, 1997). ...
Article
In contrast to pigs and cattle, research focussed on sheep colostrum is limited, especially regarding measuring and defining colostrum quality. Colostrum is the first mammary gland secretion available to offspring and it is accumulated during the last term of gestation. Colostrum is an essential source of nutrition, immunoglobulins and bio-actives, and adequate consumption significantly increases the neonate's chance of surviving the challenging ex utero environment. Colostrum plays an important role during development of the immune system, post-natal growth and thermoregulation, and also mediates the creation of the ewe-lamb bond. In addition to increasing the neonate's ability to survive, access to colostrum during the neonatal period has the potential to improve the future production, development and reproductive efficiency of lambs, as studies in pigs have shown that access to colostrum during the neonatal period promotes maturation of the reproductive tract and increases reproductive efficiency later in life. Colostrum effects many developmental aspects of the neonate therefore, it is important that it is of high quality to ensure maximum future productivity. This review summarises the information currently available on sheep colostrum, including supporting research conducted in cattle and pigs, with particular focus on the impact of colostrum composition and quality on progeny performance.
... In contrast, IgA and IgM are present at much reduced concentrations in bovine colostrum and milk [17]. Lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase have significant antimicrobial effects [18] and other components such as cytokines and interleukins are involved in inflammatory regulation processes and contribute to infection control also [12]. The highly glycosylated polypeptide secretory component [19] is another immune factor present in colostrum and milk that interacts with the adaptive immune system. ...
... Secretory component derived from a portion of the IgA receptor not only enhances IgA functionality when it is attached to IgA [20] but may have direct protective properties itself. Lysozyme is a lytic enzyme that plays a role in the innate immune system by attacking peptidoglycan cell constituents found primarily in gram-positive bacteria, leading to bacterial lysis [18,21]. Bovine colostrum has shown an emerging role as a food supplement due to its healing properties targeted to boost the immune systems in both healthy and chronically ill patients [1,18,22]. ...
... Lysozyme is a lytic enzyme that plays a role in the innate immune system by attacking peptidoglycan cell constituents found primarily in gram-positive bacteria, leading to bacterial lysis [18,21]. Bovine colostrum has shown an emerging role as a food supplement due to its healing properties targeted to boost the immune systems in both healthy and chronically ill patients [1,18,22]. Colostrum has been known for centuries for its health benefits [23]. Literature also showed that the active components in BC were 100 to 1000-fold more concentrated than in human one. ...
Article
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Colostrum is the first secretion of mammalian glands during the early period after birth giving. Its components are biologically active and have beneficial effects on new-born growth and well-being. Bovine colostrum has the highest concentration of these substances and its supplementation or application may provide health benefits. This systematic review was conducted to update current knowledge on bovine colostrum effects including all administration routes on healthy and sick subjects. Full texts or abstracts of twenty-eight papers as reports of systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies and case series were included after searches in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Cinahl databases. The full texts of selected studies were assessed for quality using validated tools and their results were summarized in different categories. Studies were highly heterogeneous as regards to population, intervention, outcome and risk of bias. Bovine colostrum topical application was shown effective on vaginal dryness related symptoms limitation. Its use as food supplement showed interesting effects preventing upper respiratory illness in sportsmen, modulating immune system response and reducing intestinal permeability in healthy and sick subjects. Conflicting results were provided in pediatric population and little evidence is available on its use with older adults. Further studies are mandatory to better understand all factors influencing its activity.
... Recent studies indicate that colostrums should be fed to bovines within the first thirty minutes to maximize IgG absorption rates (Pakkanen et al., 1997). Colostrums vary in quality and quantity. ...
... The amount of colostrums required to be consumed according to age is presented in Table 1. (Pakkanen et al, 1997). Introduction 5 3. ...
Book
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The book explains mostly the field of cattle disease and how can management with that
... [6][7][8][9][10] There is also evidence that it is effective as an adjuvant in the treatment of diseases associated to viral and bacterial infections. 3,[11][12][13][14][15][16][17] The growth-promoting and tissue repair activities of bovine colostrum are due to the rich composition of growth factors, 2,3,7,8,10,[18][19][20][21][22][23] among which: insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II), involved in cell proliferation and differentiation 3,24,25 ; the epidermal growth factor (EGF) that stimulates gut growth in neonates and gut repair processes in adults 26,27 ; the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) that has an anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activity on epithelial cells, and promotes the healing process stimulating the epithelial cell migration at wound sites 19,28 ; the transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) that plays a key role in response to injuries, stimulating gastrointestinal growth and repair, 3 and controls cell migration and differentiation. Bovine colostrum also contains the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), capable of promoting the repair process. ...
... The interest in studying the biological properties of bovine colostrum is related to its rich composition in bioactive molecules including growth factors, [1][2][3]18 65 We observed, for the first time to our knowledge, that bovine colostrum favors the switch of keratinocytes from a proliferative to a differentiated state. Interestingly, colostrum promotes also the process of cell stratification, stimulating keratinocyte terminal differentiation, not only in 2D, but also in 3D human skin equivalents. ...
Article
Bovine colostrum, the first milk secreted by the mammary glands of cows shortly after they have given birth, provides a natural source of bioactive substances helpful to promote tissue development and repair, and to maintain a healthy immune system. Owing to its properties, the use of colostrum in the treatment of human diseases is under investigation. We evaluated the biological activity of colostrum on human primary keratinocytes, focusing on its effects with regard to a proliferation/differentiation balance. Using cellular and molecular approaches, we showed that colostrum favors a cell cycle withdrawal by increasing the expression of p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1. It also promotes the transition of keratinocytes from a proliferating to a differentiating state, as assessed by a decrease in keratin 5 and an increase in keratin 16. We demonstrated the ability of colostrum to induce the expression of early and late differentiation markers (keratin 1, involucrin, and filaggrin) and the synthesis of caspase 14 and bleomycin hydrolase, the two main enzymes involved in filaggrin maturation. Moreover, we showed that bovine colostrum is able to promote keratinocyte stratification and terminal differentiation not only in two-dimensional (2D), but also in a more physiological system of three-dimensional (3D) skin equivalents. Finally, we demonstrated that colostrum stimulates cell differentiation through the PI3K/PLC-γ1/PKCα pathways mainly associated to tyrosine kinase receptors. These results suggest the possibility to benefit from colostrum properties for the treatment of skin diseases characterized by altered differentiation and perturbed barrier function.
... Colostrum contains many biologically active components that may contribute to the growth and development of the neonate. Examples of these compounds include hormones, growth factors, antimicrobial compounds, and immune-related factors (Pakkanen and Aalto, 1997). For example, lactoferrin is widely known to negatively affect the growth of some bacteria (Pakkanen and Aalto, 1997). ...
... Examples of these compounds include hormones, growth factors, antimicrobial compounds, and immune-related factors (Pakkanen and Aalto, 1997). For example, lactoferrin is widely known to negatively affect the growth of some bacteria (Pakkanen and Aalto, 1997). Moreover, it was reported that HC displayed higher concentrations of total bovine colostrum oligosaccharides (bCO) compared with RC. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of simultaneous colostrum pasteurization and probiotic (PRO) use in colostrum of Holstein calves on growth performance, health, and blood metabolites in the pre- and post-weaning period. In this experiment, 60 Holstein female calves (mean birth weight 37.2 ± 2.11 kg) were used in a factorial arrangement of 2 × 2 with 15 calves per treatment. The experimental treatments were: 1. raw colostrum (RC) without probiotic supplementation (RCN), 2. raw colostrum with probiotic supplementation (RCPRO), 3. heat-treated colostrum (HC) without probiotic supplementation (HCN), and 4. heat-treated colostrum with probiotic supplementation (HCPRO). Calves were weaned at d 61 and remained until d 75 of age. The dry matter intake, rectal temperature, and fecal score were recorded daily, and body weight (BW) and skeletal growth were measured at d 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 75 of age. Blood samples were taken at d 0, 1, 35, and 70 to check some blood metabolites. The heat treatment of colostrum decreased the total plate count (TPC), coliform count (TCC), and E. Coli count (TEC) levels. Calves fed RCN tended to have the greatest immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration, and it did not differ among other treatments. Colostrum heat-treatment did not influence d 1 blood metabolites, whereas PRO decreased the total protein and globulin concentration on d 1 blood samples. Colostrum heat-treatment × probiotic supplementation interactions were observed for starter feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), and BW, with calves fed RCN having the lowest values. Starter feed intake, total dry matter (DM) intake, ADG, feed efficiency, and BW were not affected by colostrum treatment. Colostrum heat-treatment × probiotic supplementation interactions were observed for post-weaning, and overall fecal score with RCPRO calves had a lower fecal score than RCN calves. Calves fed HC had higher overall rectal temperature than calves fed RC. Regardless of PRO, DM, crude protein (CP), and organic matter (OM) digestibilities tended to be greater in HC-fed calves than in RC-fed calves. The PRO increased DM and tended to increase OM digestibility compared to those who did not receive PRO. Moreover, the RCN-fed calves had lower overall withers height and hearth girth than calves in other treatments. The results of the present study indicated that the heat treatment of colostrum reduced the TPC, TEC, and TCC and increased the nutrient digestibility of dairy calves. Moreover, the PRO supplementation did not interfere with IgG absorption from colostrum, and it did not impair passive immunity transfer. Also, the addition of PRO to RC can improve the health and performance of calves but has no effect on the performance of calves consuming HC probably due to reduced levels of pathogens.
... Significant reduction in severity and duration of OM was reported in two studies on HSCT patients undergoing chemotherapy-based conditioning regimens where whey proteins were administered as dietary supplements (systemic effect) [55] and as mouthwashes (topical effect) [56]. BC antibacterial activity conferred by lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, and a variety of immunoglobulins [57][58][59], combined with the antimicrobial properties of AV against the Candida species [60][61][62] and type 2 herpes simplex [63], could explain some of our significant findings, such as the reduction in FN (episodes and duration) and the reduced use of antiviral medication in SG. Weak evidences of the benefits of BC on the integrity of the mucosal barrier, reducing intestinal bacteria translocation, have been reported [33,34], and AV's in vitro antiviral action has been described [63]. ...
Article
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Oral mucositis is one of the worst effects of the conditioning regimens given to patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is characterized by dry mouth, erythema, mucosal soreness, ulcers, and pain, and it may impact patient outcomes. Bovine colostrum and Aloe vera contain a wide variety of biologically active compounds that promote mucosal healing. A non-randomized phase II study was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of a combined bovine colostrum and Aloe vera oral care protocol to prevent and to treat severe oral mucositis in transplant patients. Two commercially available products were given to patients in addition to the standard protocol: Remargin Colostrum OS® mouthwash and Remargin Colostrum Gastro-Gel® taken orally. Forty-six (78.0%) patients experienced oral mucositis, 40 (67.8%) developed mild–moderate forms, and 6 (10.2%) severe ones. Comparing the study group’s outcomes with those of a homogeneous historical control group, severe oral mucositis decreased significantly (10.2% vs. 28.4%; P < 0.01), as did its duration (0.5 ± 1.9 vs. 1.5 ± 3.0 days; P < 0.01). Febrile neutropenia episodes (69.5% vs. 95.1%; P < 0.01) and duration (4.0 ± 4.7 vs. 6.2 ± 4.5 days; P < 0.01) also decreased. These findings show that the experimental protocol seems effective in preventing severe forms of oral mucositis. However, a randomized controlled trial is necessary to confirm this.
... Colostrum has a significant amount of lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and lysozyme in its composition, which have antimicrobial and antiviral characteristics. Lactoperoxidase acts on liposaccharide binding, regulating bacterial growth, while lactoferrin has toxic properties for a number of Gram-positive and negative bacteria, as well as antiviral characteristics, and lysozyme acts on the immune system, attacking the peptidoglycan component of Gram-positive bacteria, causing bacterial lysis (Pakkanen & Aalto, 1997). The antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral actions of colostrum allow the destruction of certain pathogens such as Escherichia coli, rotavírus and Cryptosporidium (Bagwe et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Colostrum is the first secretion of the mammary gland produced after birth, differentiating itself from mature milk because it has a higher concentration of proteins, immunoglobulins, vitamins, minerals, bactericides (lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase) and growth factors. The use of bovine colostrum for human consumption has been registered for many years in food or in medicinal therapies, and several studies have been conducted with the objective of evaluating its benefits in human food supplementation. The results point to improvements in cases of gastrointestinal, respiratory, inflammation, and bone development diseases, among others. Its commercialization currently takes place in physical or online markets in some countries. However, its commercialization for human consumption in Brazil is very recent, placing bovine colostrum as a new functional food option for consumers.
... Colostrum is not only a source of nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins and minerals, but it also contains several biologically active molecules that are essential for specific functions. Most of the biologically active substances in complete bovine colostrum that can convey significant health benefits are proteins (Pakkanen and Aalto, 1997). ...
Article
Immunoglobulin G (IgG), chemical composition contents of bovine milk during the first week of postpartum and the effect of heat treatments on bovine colostrum IgG contents were evaluated. Individual milk samples were collected from five cows at 0 to 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days postpartum. The obtained results showed that the total solids, total protein, fat and ash contents decreased irregular with time after parturition, while the lactose content had an opposite trend. IgG concentrations were higher significantly during 0 to 0.5 and 1 st days than those of other days postpartum, where the mean±SD of IgG concentrations were 122.60±5.24 and 118.44±5.90 g/L during 0-0.5 and 1 st days postpartum, respectively. However, IgG concentrations dropped markedly with time progress of lactation at the end of the first week (7 th day); it was 55.16±17.30 g/L that had dropped ratio of 55.01% when compared with its concentrations at 0 to 0.5 day. The IgG concentrations of thermally treated colostrum were decreased to 28.24, 30.27 and 30.18% at 63°C/30 min as well as 57.33, 73.54 and 95.1% at 72°C/15 s during 1, 2 and 3 days postpartum, respectively. On the other hand, the most thermal influence on IgG was at 100°C/10 min, where the percentage losses were 95.72% at 1 st and 100% at 2 and 3 days postpartum. The total amino acids values of bovine milk immunoglobulins (IgS) were highest at 0 to 0.5 day and dropped markedly with time progress of lactation.
... By performing experiments evaluating the in vitro antimicrobial properties of samples, we found that the LF coating provided obvious antibacterial attachment to the sample surface and also exhibited a certain bactericidal effect. After the initial discovery of the antimicrobial activity of LF [41,42], scholars have demonstrated that LF is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity protein and thus can inhibit the growth of many bacteria [43][44][45][46] through a direct action on bacteria themselves. It has been reported that the molecular mechanism of the bactericidal effect of LF on Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria) used in this study is likely to be similar to that of cationic and amphiphilic antimicrobial peptides [41]. ...
Article
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Titanium and its alloys are the main dental implant materials used at present. The biological properties of pure titanium can be further improved by surface treatment methods. Alkali treatment of pure titanium at room temperature can form nanonetwork structures (TNS) on the surface, which has better osteoinductive ability than pure titanium. However, TNS does not possess antimicrobial properties, and bacterial infection is one of the main reasons for the failure of dental implant therapy. Therefore, it was the focus of our research to endow TNS with certain antimicrobial properties on the premise of maintaining its osteoinductive ability. Because of its excellent broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties and because it promotes osteoblast-like cell growth, lactoferrin (LF) was considered a promising prospect as a surface biological treatment material. In this study, bovine LF of physiological concentration was successfully coated on the surface of TNS to form the TNS-LF composite material. Results from in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that TNS-LF had better osteoinductive ability than TNS. Bacterial attachment and biofilm formation were also significantly decreased on the surface of TNS-LF. Therefore, this study has provided an experimental basis for the development of osteoinduction-antimicrobial composite implant materials for dental applications.
... Moreover, colostrum contains growth factors to promote the development of the newborn. The most abundant are insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) (Pakkanen and Aalto, 1997). IGF1 consists of 154 amino acids including 10 cystein molecules and IGF2 179 amino acids with 8 cysteins (Bateman, 2019;UniProt, 2020cUniProt, , 2020d. ...
Article
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Colostrum puddings are widely popular in India as well as in some European countries. To prepare these desserts fresh colostrum from the first or second day of lactation is heated and flavoured by adding spices and sugar. Depending on the day of lactation the colostrum is mixed with normal milk in order to achieve a thinner consistency. However, no thickening agents like starch or different polysaccharides need to be added since, in contrast to drinking milk, the early milk of cows and other mammals, called colostrum, forms gels without adding gelling agents when heated. The aim of this study is to understand the mechanisms involved in colostrum gel formation. In order to learn about the fat distribution in colostrum and the melting of the fat, initially, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and optical microscopy were performed. Furthermore, the colostrum gel formation was investigated by carrying out rheological measurements. Temperature and time sweep were used to characterize the gel formation of colostrum under heating and an amplitude sweep was performed to understand the forces and molecular interactions involved in the formation of the gel network. Taking into account the different composition of milk and colostrum and comparing their distinct behaviour under heating, conclusions could be drawn about which mechanisms cause the formation of a colostrum gel. The gel formation of colostrum is caused by its significantly higher concentration of different proteins, especially β-lactoglobulin. During the heat treatment these proteins denature and subsequently rearrange themselves. Consequently, soft elastic gels are formed by β-lactoglobulin in combination with other proteins, such as IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1), IGF-2 (insulin-like growth factor 2), N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (GALNT1) and lactoferrin.
... From the abundance of research reviewed previously (Pakkanen and Aalto, 1997;Blum and Hammon, 2000;McGrath et al., 2016) and described herein, it is clear that colostrum has an integral role in not only ensuring TPI but also in stimulating the metabolism, development of the GIT, and mucosal and systemic immune system of the neonatal calf. The recent characterization of the multitude of colostral bioactive factors that positively influence neonatal calf health and development highlights the potential need for redefining the term "colostrum quality" to encompass more than IgG. ...
Article
Neonatal dairy and beef calves are required to ingest adequate volumes of high-quality colostrum during their first hours of life to acquire transfer of passive immunity. As such, immunoglobulin G (IgG) has largely been the focus of colostrum research over recent decades. Yet, little is known about the additional bioactive compounds in colostrum that potentially influence newborn calf development and metabolism. The purpose of this narrative review is to synthesize research regarding the effects of colostrum management practices on transfer of passive immunity, as well as to address the potential role of additional colostral bioactive molecules, including oligosaccharides, fatty acids, insulin and insulin-like growth factor I, in promoting calf development and metabolism. Due to the importance of IgG in ensuring calf immunity and health, we review past research describing the process of colostrogenesis and dam factors influencing the concentrations of IgG in an effort to maximize transfer of passive immunity. We also address the transfer of additional bioactive compounds in colostrum and prepartum management and dam factors that influence their concentrations. Finally, we highlight key areas of future research for the scientific community to pursue to ultimately improve the health and welfare of neonatal dairy calves.
... Similarly, Perino and Wittum (1995) showed that the association between sIgG concentration and morbidity events was consistent during the post-weaning period. Although the IgG concentration is universally recognised as the determining factor in assessing the quality of ingested colostrum, it should be noted that a higher sIgG concentration is most likely related to higher ingestion of other molecules and immunoreactive cells directly involved in the neonatal immune system development (Baumrucker et al. 1994;Pakkanen and Aalto 1997). Calves with a lower IgG concentration receive lower amounts of other immunoreactive components, potentially leading to a higher percentage of pathological events during the neonatal period. ...
Article
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There are no published data on the risk factors associated with morbidity, mortality and passive transfer failure in Chianina beef-suckler calves. To implement prevention strategies in beef enterprises, gaining management information and identifying risk factors are essential. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify calf-level management practices and farm characteristics associated with disease incidence, mortality and serum IgG concentration in Chianina beef-suckler calves from farms in Umbria, Italy. In total, 202 Chianina beef-suckler calves aged 2–7 days from nine farms were enrolled. For each calf born, blood samples were collected and specific information on management practices and farm characteristics was obtained through farmer interviews. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured using radial immunodiffusion. Mortality and morbidity data were extracted from the farm’s cow file six months after the last farm visit. The impact of farm characteristics and calf management practices on the mortality rate could not be assesses due to low case fatality in our enrolled calves (10/202). A multivariable logistic regression model indicated that prepartum vaccination against Escherichia coli, rotavirus and coronavirus, and bottle-fed colostrum were associated with serum IgG concentration. Birth season and serum IgG concentration were associated with the development of neonatal calf diarrhoea and the development of both neonatal calf diarrhoea and respiratory disease, respectively. Furthermore, family-owned farms represent an important factor related to respiratory disease episodes. The possible influence of these factors on passive immunity and neonatal calf diarrhoea and respiratory disease appearance should be considered when advising farmers. • Highlights • Effects of farm characteristics and management practices on health were investigated in 202 Chianina calves. • Dam vaccination against Escherichia coli, Rotavirus and Coronavirus, and colostrum feeding assistance affect calf passive immunity. • Calves with low serum IgG concentrations became sick; diarrhoea was common during cold months; respiratory disease was more common in family-run farms.
... Dry matter (g/ 100 ml) 15.3-24.5 12.50 (Blum & Hammon, 2000;Fox & Kelly, 2006;Gopal & Gill, 2000;Kehoe et al., 2007;McGrath et al., 2016;McGrath et al., 2016McGrath et al., , 2016Pakkanen & Aalto, 1997;Stelwagen et al., 2009) Fat (g/100 ml) 3.9-6.7 3.7-4.2 Protein (g/ 100 ml) 4.1-14.0 ...
Research
ABSTRACT: Bovine colostrum (BC) consists of highly concentrated nutritional and bioactive components after parturition. BC supplements are promoted for prevention and management of neurological disorders (dementia, cognition, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease), cardiovascular diseases, immunity-related and allergy problems, skin disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, gut microbial symbiosis as well as type-2 diabetes, and improved athletic performance. This review provides succinct insights into emerging evidence from preclinical and clinical studies which suggest that BC constituents have enormous potential in nutraceuticals and non-pharmacological therapies. The overall composition, factors affecting, traditional and commercial products, health attributes of bovine colostrum particularly, B-type vitamins, oligosaccharides, immunoglobins, growth factors and the role of lactoferrin and lactalbumin in cancer therapy, are also briefly explained. Naturally produced bioactive components, immunoglobulins lay the foundation of life-long immunity, while the other components in colostrum promote growth and maturation of the gastrointestinal tract as well as promote differentiation of bone marrow stem cells, increase lean muscle mass, and decrease the body fat level. The bovine colostrum is rich in versatile iron-binding lactoferrin that has strong anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-microbial properties. Additionally, BC products like ginna, kharwas, aguz, and processed BC supplements like colostrum powder, capsules, and infant-formulas are marketed by many companies all over the world. Considering the escalating cost of synthetic drugs, people in developing countries are desperately looking for affordable and cost effective therapies for curing the non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and infectious diseases. It will be interesting to see if BC might have viricidal effects against COVID-19 virus.
... Colostrum also contains bioactive proteins and peptides that improve local immune defense (Table 3). Growth factors and hormones present in the colostrum play a crucial role in the development and health of young animals [48]. Growth factors can be transferred from the digestive tract toward the circulation and involve tissue development in other parts of the organism. ...
Article
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The present review aims toward a better understanding of the nutrition of newborn puppies and kittens. The post-natal period is very sensitive in dogs and cats, as in other animal species. During the first two weeks of life, puppies and kittens are at high risk of dehydration, hypothermia, and hypoglycemia, as well as infectious diseases as they start to acquire the physiological functions of the adult. Neonatal hepatic glycogen storage is low, and newborns depend on colostrum intake to survive. Colostrum provides immunoglobulins and other important substances such as lipids and carbohydrates. Immunoglobulins are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species, but in this review, we focused our attention on dogs and cats. Furthermore, there are components of colostrum which, although their presence is not absolutely necessary, play an important role in nutrition. These components have received considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional and therapeutic effects both in humans and animals; however, unfortunately, there are few recent studies in companion animals. Here, we have gathered the published articles that describe studies involving different species of animals, emphasizing companion animals. In particular, the purpose of this narrative of the nutritional and functional proprieties of queens’ and bitches’ colostrum.
... Lysozyme possesses antibacterial activity causing cell lysis of Gram-negative bacteria, as well as inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive bacteria [55,56]. Lactoferrin also enhances lysozyme antibacterial activity against E. coli [43]. Evidence in support of the value of lysozyme in BC also includes the finding that if lysozyme-deficit infant formulae is used, rather than one containing lysozyme, it results in a three-fold increase in diarrhoeal disease [57]. ...
Article
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Colostrum is the milk produced during the first few days after birth and contains high levels of immunoglobulins, antimicrobial peptides, and growth factors. Colostrum is important for supporting the growth, development, and immunologic defence of neonates. Colostrum is naturally packaged in a combination that helps prevent its destruction and maintain bioactivity until it reaches more distal gut regions and enables synergistic responses between protective and reparative agents present within it. Bovine colostrum been used for hundreds of years as a traditional or complementary therapy for a wide variety of ailments and in veterinary practice. Partly due to concerns about the side effects of standard Western medicines, there is interest in the use of natural-based products of which colostrum is a prime example. Numerous preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated therapeutic benefits of bovine colostrum for a wide range of indications, including maintenance of wellbeing, treatment of medical conditions and for animal husbandry. Articles within this Special Issue of Nutrients cover the effects and use bovine colostrum and in this introductory article, we describe the main constituents, quality control and an overview of the use of bovine colostrum in health and disease.
... [33] Furthermore, bovine colostrum have antimicrobial peptides, such as lactoperoxidase and lysozyme, which are reportedly toxic to gram-positive bacteria. [34] Playford et al [10] (1999) reported that adding colostrum to drinking water prevented villus shortening in a mouse model of NSI by increasing proliferation and cell migration of rat intestinal epithelioid-1 and HT-29 cells. Kim et al [11] (2004) demonstrated the ability of bovine colostrum to protect against NSIs by reducing intestinal permeability and enteric bacterial numbers, which increased serum albumin and protein levels in a rat model. ...
Article
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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small bowel injuries (NSIs) have been largely ignored for decades due to the focus on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug gastropathy. With the visualization of the small intestines enabled by video capsule endoscopy, the frequency and severity of NSIs have become more evident. NSIs have a complex pathophysiology, and no effective preventive or treatment options have been proven. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been used to treat disorders of the small intestine, and more research on its effectiveness for NSIs has been conducted. We reviewed the current evidence and mechanisms of action of CAMs on NSI. Clinical and experimental studies on the effect of CAMs on NSIs were performed using 10 databases. Twenty-two studies (3 clinical and 19 in vivo experimental studies) were included in the final analysis involving 10 kinds of CAMs: bovine colostrum, Orengedokuto (coptis), muscovite, licorice, grape seed, wheat, brown seaweed, Ganoderma lucidum fungus mycelia, Chaenomeles speciosa (sweet) Nakai (muguasantie), and Jinghua Weikang capsule. The mechanisms of CAM include an increase in prostaglandin E2, reparation of the enteric nervous system, inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reduction of intestinal permeability and enteric bacterial numbers, decrease in oxidative stress, and modulation of small intestinal motility. CAM may be a novel alternative option for treating and preventing NSI, and further studies on human and animal models with relevant comorbidities are warranted.
... They include spray dried plasma, preparations from egg yolks, dried bovine colostrum, dried whey or yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and isolated products of their fractionation (β-1,3/1,6-glucans, mannans). Active components used in feed mixtures for weaned piglets mostly aim to support the growth and development of the animals and to boost non-specifi c resistance to negative environmental factors [13][14][15][16]. ...
Article
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Weaning is a stressful period for the piglets and the sow. Stress during weaning is related to the change of diet which can affect the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as the microbial and immunological status of the animals. In the experiment a yeast-whey preparation was used to decrease the transient growth depression related to reduction of feed intake by the piglets. The piglets were assigned to three treatments. In the control group (I) the animals obtained standard feed mixture used routinely at the farm. In the case of piglets from II and III treatment, the yeast-whey preparation was added in the quantity of 4 and 7%, respectively. Application of 7% yeast-whey preparation to the diet significantly increased the body weight of piglets (p<0.05) and in consequence the average daily body weight gain (p<0.01) in comparison with the control group of animals. Additionally, piglets which were fed the yeast-whey preparation diet had a higher feed intake (p<0.05) and better feed conversion ratio (p<0.05) than those fed a diet without the addition of this preparation. No significant differences were stated for most biological parameters (p>0.05), except for the blood urea level, which was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the treatments where the yeast-whey preparation was used. These results indicated that yeast-whey preparation efficiently suppressed post-weaning diarrhea and improved the performance of the animals.
... Bovine colostrum (BC), the first milk after birth in cows, is rich in immunoglobulins and other immunomodulatory factors (41), inhibits growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) in vitro (42) and prevents septic shock and neuroinflammation in newborn preterm pigs (within 2 d of birth), relative to pigs not fed enterally (43). To further validate preterm pigs as models for preterm infants sensitive to blood stream infections, we investigated responses to SE infection across five different experiments with varying postnatal ages and exposures to immunoglobulin-containing diets. ...
Article
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Background: Preterm infants are born with an immature immune system, limited passive immunity, and are at risk of developing bacteremia and sepsis in the postnatal period. We hypothesized that enteral feeding, with or without added immunoglobulins, improves the clinical response to systemic infection by coagulase negative staphylococci. Methods: Using preterm cesarean delivered pigs as models for preterm infants, we infused live Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE, 5 × 109 colony forming units per kg) systemically 0–3 days after birth across five different experiments. SE infection responses were assessed following different gestational age at birth (preterm vs. term), enteral milk diets (bovine colostrum, infant formula with or without added porcine plasma) and with/without systemic immunoglobulins. Pigs infected with SE were assessed 12–48 h for clinical variables, blood bacteriology, chemistry, hematology, and gut dysfunction (intestinal permeability, necrotizing enterocolitis lesions). Results: Adverse clinical responses and increased mortality were observed in preterm vs. term pigs, when infected with SE just after birth. Feeding bovine colostrum just after birth improved blood SE clearance and clinical status (improved physical activity and intestinal structure, fewer bone marrow bacteria), relative to pigs fed infant formula. A few days later, clinical responses to SE bacteremia (hematology, neutrophil phagocytic capacity, T cell subsets) were less severe, and less affected by different milk diets, with or without added immunoglobulins. Conclusion: Prematurity increases the sensitivity of newborn pigs to SE bacteremia, potentially causing sepsis. Sensitivity to systemic SE infection decreases rapidly in the days after preterm birth. Both age and diet (parenteral nutrition, colostrum, milk, formula) may influence gut inflammation, bacterial translocation and systemic immune development in the days after birth in preterm newborns.
... The principal function of proteins in milk is to provide young mammals with essential amino acids, for the development of their muscular as well as other protein-containing tissues. Milk proteins also supply numerous biologically active proteins (Fox and Flynn 1992) and other beneficial components, for example, immunoglobulins (Shah and Lee 2000), metal and vitamin binding proteins, growth factors (Pakkanen and Aalto 1997), and different protein hormones (Walzem et al. 2002). ...
Chapter
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Bioactive peptides are milk-derived short chains of amino acids with potential biological activity, which are released in the gut through digestion of milk proteins. Some of their beneficial effects include immunomodulatory, anticancerous, antithrombotic, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antioxidative. Although these peptides are made up of the same amino acids as other dietary proteins, the specific sequence of these amino acids is responsible for such extraordinary effects. This chapter attempts to summarize the available data on bioactive peptides such as their general characteristics, production, physiological functions, and potential applications.
... markedly higher in the EUGR group, probably indicating a lower plasma iron-binding capacity related to decreased transferrin production by the liver, as supported by observations in malnourished children (39,40). Fortification with BC may have prevented low blood iron-binding capacity partly via lactoferrin, another iron-binding protein (41). Since many pathogens rely on free iron to replicate, the higher free iron concentration in EUGR pigs may have increased their susceptibility to bacterial infections (42). ...
Article
Background Extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) in preterm infants is associated with higher morbidity and impaired neurodevelopment. Early nutrition support may prevent EUGR in preterm infants, but it is not known if this improves organ development and brain function in the short and long term. Objective Using pigs as models for infants, we hypothesized that diet-induced EUGR impairs gut, immunity, and brain development in preterm neonates during the first weeks after birth. Methods Forty-four preterm caesarean-delivered pigs (Danish Landrace × Large White × Duroc, birth weight 975 ± 235 g, male:female ratio 23:21) from 2 sows were fed increasing volumes [32–180 mL/(kg·d)] of dilute bovine milk (EUGR group) or the same diet fortified with powdered bovine colostrum for 19 d (CONT group, 50–100% higher protein and energy intake than the EUGR group). Results The EUGR pigs showed reduced body growth (−39%, P < 0.01), lower plasma albumin, phosphate, and creatine kinase concentrations (−35 to 14%, P < 0.05), increased cortisol and free iron concentrations (+130 to 700%, P < 0.05), and reduced relative weights of the intestine, liver, and spleen (−38 to 19%, all P < 0.05). The effects of EUGR on gut structure, function, microbiota, and systemic immunity were marginal, although EUGR temporarily increased type 1 helper T cell (Th1) activity (e.g. more blood T cells and higher Th1-related cytokine concentrations on day 8) and reduced colon nutrient fermentation (lower SCFA concentration; −45%, P < 0.01). Further, EUGR pigs showed increased relative brain weights (+19%, P < 0.01), however, memory and learning, as tested in a spatial T-maze, were not affected. Conclusion Most of the measured organ growth, and digestive, immune, and brain functions showed limited effects of diet-induced EUGR in preterm pigs during the first weeks after birth. Likewise, preterm infants may show remarkable physiological adaptation to deficient nutrient supply during the first weeks of life although early life malnutrition may exert negative consequences later.
... [12,53] From a chemical point of view, growth factors are polypeptides with molecular masses ranging from 6 to 30 kDa, with the number of compositional amino acid residues including from 53 to 425. [12] Although several growth factors have been recognized in ruminant mammary secretions, the richest growth factors in colostrum and milk of bovine species are in order: insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2, some components of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2. [51,54] The concentrations of growth factors detect in colostrum, for the most part, are higher than those in milk and the main biological function was reviewed by Pouliot and Gauthier. [51] The growth factors are so-called due to their ability to stimulate the growth of cell lines in vitro, have numerous physiological functions. ...
Article
Colostrum of ruminants is the first secretion of the mammary gland produced after birth. It is a complex biological fluid that ensures the immune support of newborns in early life. There is a growing interest in human consumption of colostrum as a nutraceutical due to its nutrients, antibodies, vitamins, immune factors, and growth factor contents. This review illustrates the applications of colostrum as an emerging food focusing on its nutraceutical aspect and the importance of colostrum as a functional food. Emphasis is also posed on the use of colostrum for its potential probiotic properties as well as an immunomodulator, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. We focused on the latest technology adopted in colostrum quality evaluation and explored the effects of treatments on bioactive compounds. In conclusion, soon, colostrum-based supplements may play a complementary/adjuvant role in the prevention and treatment of different diseases as well as for pharmaceutical purposes or as an everyday food supplement.
... It is indisputable that colostrum is meant to further neonatal GIT ontogenesis (Guilloteau et al., 1997;Blum and Baumrucker, 2002;Zabielski et al., 2008;Ontsouka et al., 2016), as evidenced by its extensive nonnutritive bioactive factor content (reviewed by Blum and Hammon, 2000;McGrath et al., 2016) and capacity to stimulate the release of endogenous endocrine factors by nutrient delivery to the small intestine (Hadorn et al., 1997;Hammon et al., 2000;Inabu et al., 2018). Of particular interest to the current study is the oral delivery of IGF-1 in colostrum (Pakkanen and Aalto, 1997;Blum and Hammon, 2000) to the neonatal calf by its small intestine-targeted mitogenic capacity to increase epithelial cell proliferation (MacDonald, 1999;Shen et al., 2004). Because the mitogenic action of IGF-1 can be enhanced by GLP-2 (Dubé et al., 2006;Rowland et al., 2011;Leen et al., 2011), these 2 hormones were promising targets to determine their relationship to neonatal intestinal development and postnatal nutrient consumption. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated how feeding colostrum- or a colostrum-milk mixture for 3 d postnatal affects plasma glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and small intestinal histomorphology in calves. Holstein bulls (n = 24) were fed colostrum at 2 h postnatal and randomly assigned to receive either colostrum (COL), whole milk (WM), or a 1:1 COL:WM mixture (MIX) every 12 h from 12 to 72 h. A jugular venous catheter was placed at 1 h postnatal to sample blood frequently for the duration of the experiment. Samples were collected at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 11, and 12 h. Following the 12-h meal, blood was collected at half-hour intervals until 16 h and then at 1-h intervals from 16 to 24 h. A 27-h sample was taken, then blood was sampled every 6 h from 30 to 60 h. Again, blood was taken at half-intervals from 60 to 64 h, then at 65 and 66 h, following which, a 2-h sampling interval was used until 72 h. Plasma GLP-2 (all time points) and serum IGF-1 (at time points: 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h) were both analyzed. Duodenal, jejunal, and ileal tissues were collected at 75 h of age to assess histomorphology and cellular proliferation. Feeding COL, rather than WM, increased plasma GLP-2 by 60% for 2 h and tended to increase GLP-2 by 49.4% for 4 h after the 60-h meal. Insulin-like growth factor-1 area under the curve (from 12 to 72 h) tended to be 27% greater for COL than WM calves but was otherwise unaffected by treatment. Ileal crypts tended to proliferate more with MIX than WM, whereas ileal crypt proliferation did not differ for COL compared with MIX or WM and was not different between treatments in the proximal jejunum. Villi height was increased 1.8 and 1.5× (COL and MIX vs. WM) in the proximal and distal jejunum, respectively, whereas MIX duodenal and ileal villi height tended to be 1.5 and 1.4× that of WM. Crypt depth did not differ in any region. Surface area of the gastrointestinal tract was reduced for WM by 60 and 58% (proximal jejunum) and 38 and 52% (ileum) relative to COL and MIX and was 54% less than MIX in the distal jejunum. Overall, extended COL feeding minimally increased plasma GLP-2 and serum IGF-1 compared with WM feeding. As COL and MIX similarly promoted small intestinal maturation, feeding calves transition milk to promote intestinal development could be a strategy for producers.
... Colostrum is obtained in large quantities. It is considered nutraceutical and contains plenty of physiologically active components, including immunoglobulins (Igs), lactoferrin, lysozyme, cytokines, growth factors, hormones, oligosaccharides, and lipid components (Pakkanen and Aalto 1997;Korhonen 2009;Borad and Singh 2018). The main difference between mature milk and colostrum is the level of IgG concentration (0.72-0.90 versus 32-212 mg mL −1 of bovine immunoglobulin G, respectively) (Gapper et al. 2007; Godden et al. 2019). ...
... The modern dairy cow produces colostrum far in excess of the requirements of its calf; surplus colostrum is available for the recovery of Ig and other nutraceuticals (Paakanen and Aalto, 1997). Some work has been done on hyperimmunizing cows against certain human pathogens (e.g., rotavirus), for the production of antibody-rich milk for human consumption, especially by infants. ...
Chapter
Proteins represent one of milk's macroconstituents (along with water, lipids, and carbohydrates), accounting for ~ 3.0%–3.5% of the total composition. In bovine milk, there are two main protein families, namely, casein and whey protein. Caseins are milk-specific proteins that exist as colloidal aggregates dispersed in milk serum. The bovine milk protein system is casein dominant, which enables large quantities of calcium to be delivered to the neonate. The natural function of milk is to supply the neonate of the species with its complete nutritional requirements for a period of time postpartum. Milk proteins (and their peptides) provide essential amino acids and amino groups for the biosynthesis of nonessential amino acids and, when in excess, also supply energy. They also provide many of milk's physiological functions, performed by immunoglobulins, enzymes, enzyme inhibitors, growth factors, hormones, and antibacterial agents. The development of advanced fractionation and processing techniques has led to the production of many milk-derived ingredients that have different functional properties and applications.
... Surprisingly, there was an increase in the infection prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. because colostrum and milk contain not only IgG but also a range of other components such as neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, antimicrobial factors, and other molecules that provide energy for an effective immune response [23][24][25]. ...
Article
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Aim: The research aimed to test the association between the level of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in bovine colostrum and calf blood serum and to evaluate its relation to Cryptosporidium spp. invasion in calves. Materials and Methods: Fresh colostrum and fecal specimens from cows (n=114) as well as blood and fecal specimens from newborn calves (n=114) were collected in the dairy cattle farm. Investigated calves were separated from their mothers directly after birth and received 2 L of colostrum in two separate feedings within the first 24 h. Blood samples were taken from calves at the age of 2 days. Coprological samples were taken from calves at the age of 1, 10, and 15 days. Both colostrum and fecal samples from cows were taken on the 1st day after calf birth. Rectal fecal samples were collected separately from each calf and cow into plastic bags. The collected calf serum samples and bovine colostrum samples were tested for bovine IgG by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit bovine Ig. To record oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in feces, the flotation method was used. Binomial logistic regression was performed to ascertain the effects of IgG in bovine colostrum and calf blood serum on the likelihood of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in calves. Results: The concentration of IgG in bovine colostrum was higher (70.7±26.6 g/L, mean±standard deviation) than that in calf blood serum (13.2±6.1 g/L); the statistically significant difference was 57.4 g/L (95% confidence interval, 52.4-62.4), t (124.872)=22.536, p
... IGF1 is important growth factor present in colostrum and milk, in initial hour colostrum it is present in higher amount and decline substantial amount in time dependent manner. We measured 186.29 ng/ml in the first milking colostrum, then IGF1 concentration declined each 24 hrs milking and value on the days 6 was 33.85 nm/ml, the results correspond with earlier published values of IGF1 in bovine colostrum by Pakkanen and Aalto, 1997 [28] ; Ginjala and Pakkanen, 1998 [11] ; Elfstrand et al. 2002 [8] . Presence of higher amount may be due to its critical demands for calves after birth to full fil important functions like, metabolism of protein and carbohydrate, formation of blood vessels (angiogenesis), survivability, proliferation, growth and development of the GI-tract of newborn calves (Donovan and Odle, 1994 [7] ; Pandey et al., 2020 [29] ). ...
Article
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First lacteal secretion is known as colostrum or liquid gold and is the single most important factor in determining health and survival of the neonatal calf. Colostrum contains high concentration of nutrients and biologically active components such as carbohydrates, growth factors, enzyme inhibitors, nucleotides, cytokines, fats, minerals and vitamins, as well as immune-competent cells and soluble proteins that provide immunity to the infant and influence immune system maturation. The sole objective of colostrum is to fulfil the nutritional, immunological and growth demand of new born calf. Somatic cell count (SCC) in colostrum was very high in first few hrs after its number reduced gradually. Somatic cells and differential leukocyte count (DLC) were estimated by making a smear on microscopic slide. Highest level of total SCC was reported in colostrum of day 0 (day of calving) then it decreased significantly on subsequent days, and lowest level was reported on the day 6. Colostrum contains highest percentage of macrophage fallowed by lymphocytes and neutrophils. In transition milk lymphocyte percentage increased significantly and reached highest level on the day 6, whereas number of macrophages was decreased significantly and reached lowest level on the day 6. However, no significant difference was reported in case of neutrophils of colostrum and transition milk. Viability of somatic cells in colostrum of day 0 was significantly (P<0.05) low as compare to other days of lactation. The level of IGF1 was significantly (P<0.05) changes from day 0 to days 6, whereas there was no significant difference between days 5 and 6. The current study thus provide the basic information related to the concentration of different cells, viability and growth factors in colostrum and transition.
... Bovine colostrum contains 8%-25% IgG whereas human colostrum contains 2% IgG (Boudry et al., 2008). The immunoglobulins constitute the largest group of immune components in colostrum and the levels are about 100-times higher in bovine colostrum than mature bovine milk (Pakkanen & Aalto, 1997). The dominant immunoglobulin in bovine colostrum is IgG, which makes up 85-90% of the total immunoglobulin content, with IgG1 constitutes up to 80-90% of the total IgG content (Larson et al., 1980;Barrington et al., 1997). ...
Book
India is the largest milk producing country in the world since 1999 and its current milk production is 176.3 million tonnes. In Indian economy livestock sector is considered as the growth engine of agriculture sector, while the share of agriculture in the overall GDP is decreasing, the share of livestock is increasing in the agriculture GDP and it contributes to about 25% of Agriculture & Allied GDP. The small and marginal dairy farmers of the country are invariably the integral part of Indian dairy. Though, the milch population in the country is very large, persisting problems related to scarcity of feed, fodder, poor focus on animal health and animal nutrition, unavailability of sustainable markets, lack of skill, climate change, etc. have severely deterred the growth of dairy farmers. Nowadays, several developments have been witnessed in the field of Dairy processing, New Product Development, Dairy Extension, Scientific Animal Husbandry Practices, Veterinary services, Dairy Education, ICT applications, and so on. In order to channelize all the favourable developments affecting the Indian Dairy sector in a coordinating and meaningful manner, it was decided to organize a one day National Seminar on the topic “New Developments in Dairy Sector: Issues and Strategies for Increasing Income of Rural Milk Producer of India” on 16th November 2019. The theme of the seminar is quite appropriate for today’s dairy sector. The seminar is an opportunity to all leading academicians, Postgraduate and doctoral scholars, dairy technologists, Veterinarians, independent entrepreneurs from all over the country to reflect upon the current scenario, share contemporary best practices, share new research outcomes and contribute tremendously towards the theme of the Seminar. This book is a compilation of various research articles, review articles, case studies, conceptual papers contributed by eminent practitioners, researchers and scholars associated with Indian dairy sector. There are around 79 chapters in the book. We wish the reading proves valuable to all of you.
... Dry matter (g/ 100 ml) 15.3-24.5 12.50 (Blum & Hammon, 2000;Fox & Kelly, 2006;Gopal & Gill, 2000;Kehoe et al., 2007;McGrath et al., 2016;McGrath et al., 2016McGrath et al., , 2016Pakkanen & Aalto, 1997;Stelwagen et al., 2009) Fat (g/100 ml) 3.9-6.7 3.7-4.2 Protein (g/ 100 ml) 4.1-14.0 ...
Article
Bovine colostrum (BC) consists of highly concentrated nutritional and bioactive components after parturition. BC supplements are promoted for prevention and management of neurological disorders (dementia, cognition, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease), cardiovascular diseases, immunity-related and allergy problems, skin disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, gut microbial symbiosis as well as type-2 diabetes, and improved athletic performance. This review provides succinct insights into emerging evidence from preclinical and clinical studies which suggest that BC constituents have enormous potential in nutraceuticals and non-pharmacological therapies. The overall composition, factors affecting, traditional and commercial products, health attributes of bovine colostrum particularly, B-type vitamins, oligosaccharides, immunoglobins, growth factors and the role of lactoferrin and lactalbumin in cancer therapy, are also briefly explained. Naturally produced bioactive components, immunoglobulins lay the foundation of life-long immunity, while the other components in colostrum promote growth and maturation of the gastrointestinal tract as well as promote differentiation of bone marrow stem cells, increase lean muscle mass, and decrease the body fat level. The bovine colostrum is rich in versatile ironbinding lactoferrin that has strong anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-microbial properties. Additionally, BC products like ginna, kharwas, aguz, and processed BC supplements like colostrum powder, capsules, and infant-formulas are marketed by many companies all over the world. Considering the escalating cost of synthetic drugs, people in developing countries are desperately looking for affordable and cost-effective therapies for curing the non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and infectious diseases. It will be interesting to see if BC might have viricidal effects against COVID-19 virus.
Article
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Bovine colostrum is the product of the cow's udder for the first few days after parturition. When compared with normal milk, colostrum is very rich in immunoglobulins. These antibodies provide passive immunity, or defense against infectious diseases, to the newborn calf. Likewise, the bitch's colostrum protects the newborn puppies. However, as from about 16 hours after birth, intestinal uptake of immunoglobulins is no longer possible due to intestinal barrier closure (1). Several canine nutritional supplements are based on bovine colostrum in powder form. These products generally tout immune and digestive support, but other health claims may be made also (Notes 1-3). Two brands of complete, dry puppy foods, and one brand of adult dog food, declare colostrum as ingredient, the inclusion percentages being 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% (Note 4). The bovine colostrum in those foods is asserted to support the immune system. To preserve the bioactivity of its immunoglobulins, bovine colostrum should be subjected to low-heat pasteurization and drying. The three dry dog foods likely are furnished with a liquid or dry coating in the final production phase prior to packaging. It may be assumed that dried bovine colostrum is added to the kibbles in an enrobing, low-temperature step. The product descriptions do not mention stabilization of the colostrum ingredient. In weanling and adult dogs, given the intestinal barrier closure, intact immunoglobulins in ingested bovine colostrum can only initiate effects in the lumen or at the wall of the intestine. The digestive-support claim is unsubstantiated: there is no evidence that bovine colostrum enhances food digestibility or improves feces consistency. As to the immune-support claim, there is some evidence that bovine colostrum influences immune cells within and beyond the gut wall. Only one published study (2) enables scrutiny of the immune-support claim for its validity. In adult dogs fed a dry food with 0.1% bovine colostrum, two antibodies were increased, one in gut contents and the other in blood. Thus, bovine colostrum did influence the immune response, but rephrasing this into immune support is premature. Reproducibility of the study is unknown and colostrum-mediated protection against infectious disease was unaddressed.
Chapter
Edible packaging has long been used in food preservation as casing, coating and self-standing film. Nearly 4000-year-old Sumerian tablets, discovered in Mesopotamia, suggest that small or large intestines of cattle or sheep had been used as natural casing for sausages since ancient times. The first-time use of edible coatings in fruits is attributed to the Chinese, who formulated and applied edible wax coatings for preservation of oranges in the 12th century. Moreover, it is also thought that yuba, a proteic film that formed on the surface of boiled soy milk, was used by the Japanese in the 15th century as the first self-standing edible film applied for wrapping food. Although records about systematic use of ‘active edible packaging in ancient times are scarce, it should be kept in mind that the ancient process of smoking applied to sausages yields an antimicrobial edible film, causing accumulation of antimicrobial smoke components (e.g. acids, phenol, carbonyl) within the casing. However, the patents of 1950s, related to incorporation of antifungal food preservatives into edible pectin films, suggest that scientists became aware of the potential benefits of active edible packaging in the middle of 20th century. This chapter focuses on the definition of active edible packaging and its major concepts, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, flavor-release, and bioactive packaging. The potential of different hydrocolloids to form edible packaging (e.g. film, coating, casing, nanofiber mat, etc.) has also been discussed briefly to prepare readers for the following chapters.
Article
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Colostrum feeding is essential for the transfer of passive immunity and health of newborn calves. Information on current colostrum management practices to reduce calf morbidity and mortality is important but lacking for Dutch dairy herds. We therefore conducted a survey to investigate colostrum management strategies on Dutch dairy farms. The survey was specifically focused on the most recently born calf and was returned by 107 respondents (response rate of 13.4%). The mean amount of colostrum fed at first feeding was 2.9 liters. Overall, 79% of farmers provided the calf with at least 6 liters of colostrum in up to three feedings. The majority of respondents (84%) claimed to provide the calf with colostrum for the first time within 2 h post-partum. Using ordinal logistic regression and Wilcoxon rank sum test, we found no differences in time to first colostrum feeding or total amount of colostrum fed between bull calves and heifer calves, respectively. Ordinal logistic regression showed no significant differences in time to first colostrum feeding or time between calving and removing the calf from the dam between AMS and conventional milking herds. Two sample T-test comparing the total volume of colostrum showed no significant difference between AMS and conventional milking herds. Time of day at which a calf was born affected both volume fed at first colostrum feeding and time until first colostrum feeding. Calves born between 00.00 and 06.00 were significantly at risk of receiving the first colostrum later as compared to calves born at other times. Calves born in the evening received on average a lower amount of colostrum at first feeding. Survey results on colostrum management on most Dutch dairy farms are in agreement with the advice to feed as soon as possible after parturition and to provide at least 6 liters within 24 h of age. The current study points at time of calving as a potential risk factor for sub-optimal colostrum feeding. Further research is necessary to determine the consequences of this observation.
Chapter
Colostrum is the first milk secreted after parturition and provides the newborn with immune protection against pathogens and boosts the physiological performance, growth, and development of the newborn. Thus, colostrum contains high concentrations of immunologically and physiologically active components, including immunoglobulins, leukocytes, lactoferrin, non-specific anti-microbial factors, growth factors, hormones, oligosaccharides, and fat that carries important vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Calves do not receive immunoglobulin in-utero and so rely on absorbing antibodies from colostrum for humoral immunity, otherwise suffering severe scours and high mortality. Cows generally produce more colostrum than required for calf health, and colostrum must be withheld from the milk supply chain, creating an opportunity for separate collection and processing of excess colostrum, especially from larger dairy farms. Research demonstrating nutritional, health and performance benefits across species and in humans support commercial exploitation. Colostrum is collected by specialty processors in major dairy producing regions, and in the US from ∼18% of dairy cows on ∼3% of dairy farms. Whole and fractionated colostrum powders have been prepared from the collected colostrum. Colostrum replacers to prevent “Failure of Passive Transfer” of immunity in calves have also been adapted as animal supplements for lambs, kids and pets. A variety of dietary, sports and cosmetic products containing colostrum form a human health market with retail value in excess of USD1 billion. Antibodies in colostrum from hyperimmunized cows have been developed as pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat gastroenterological infections and diseases in animals and humans. Improved technology for identifying and isolating valuable components may lead to new products or applications based on colostrum.
Chapter
Immunoglobulins (Ig) are major proteins of colostrum and milk that provide essential immunological protection against life threatening bacterial and viral infections to offspring. They act as first line of defense. Bovine secretion contains IgG as predominant Ig, along with IgA and IgM. Their concentrations in colostrum make them principal protein fraction which tends to decrease with progression of lactation to traces in mature milk. In case of human milk, IgA is the predominant Ig. All Igs have common basic Y-shaped structure of IgG molecule. These Igs are important considering their therapeutic roles in offspring, lactating animals as well as human beings. Thus, several Ig rich preparations have emerged in global nutraceutical market.
Article
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Colostrum is the first milk produced post-partum by mammals and is compositionally distinct from mature milk. Bovine colostrum has a long history of consumption by humans, and there have been a number of studies investigating its potential for applications in human nutrition and health. Extensive characterization of the constituent fractions has identified a wealth of potentially bioactive molecules, their potential for shaping neonatal development, and the potential for their application beyond the neonatal period. Proteins, fats, glycans, minerals, and vitamins are abundant in colostrum, and advances in dairy processing technologies have enabled the advancement of bovine colostrum from relative limitations of a fresh and unprocessed food to a variety of potential applications. In these forms, clinical studies have examined bovine colostrum as having the substantial potential to improve human health. This review discusses the macro-and micronutrient composition of colostrum as well as describing well-characterized bioactives found in bovine colostrum and their potential for human health. Current gaps in knowledge are also identified and future directions are considered in order to elevate the potential for bovine colostrum as a component of a healthy diet for a variety of relevant human populations.
Article
Placental and colostral transfer of copper and vitamins A and D from sows to piglets is limited. This study aimed to determine, in commercial conditions, the effect of supplemental provision of copper, vitamins A and D and bovine colostrum (BC) to suckling piglets on their growth performance, antioxidant status and gut microbiota. One group of sows (n=50) was fed a conventional diet, while another group (n=52) was fed conventional diet supplemented with vitamin D (25-OH-D3), β-carotene and copper-yeast from one week before parturition to weaning. During lactation, each litter was assigned to the one of the following treatments: (CON) control; (VIT) exposure to UVB lights and administration of oral retinol acetate, 25-OH-D3 and copper-yeast at 2 and 5 days of age; (COLOS) supplementation of BC from 5 to 10 days of age and (CC) VIT+COLOS. Blood samples were collected from one low-weight (LW) and one high-weight (HW) piglet per litter at 21 days of age (weaning). Piglet weights were measured at birth and at 1, 21 and 56 days of age. Fecal microbiome was analyzed at weaning on one LW and one HW piglet per litter. Sow supplementation increased piglet weight at birth and at 1 day of age, decreased the number of LW piglets (<1.1 kg) at 1 day of age, but the effect faded over time. Colostrum supplementation (COLOS, CC) increased piglet weight at 21 and 56 days of age by 230 and 700 g, respectively. Dietary supplements to sows and piglets had no impact on serum retinol (vitamin A indicator), marginal effects on serum copper whereas it increased (P<0.05) serum 25-hydroxy-calciferol (vitamin D indicator) in piglets at weaning. Concerning antioxidant activities, no clear effect due to treatments to sow or piglets was observed. Analysis of fecal microbiome showed that supplementation to sows and piglets did not have a marked impact on piglet microbiota excepted for BC supplementation to piglets (COLOS, CC) which decreased Enterobacteriaceae whereas supplementation in micronutrients to sow increased Christensenellaceae in piglet's microbiota at weaning. This study reveals that BC can affect microbiota and improve growth performances before and after weaning. Administrations of vitamin D via UVB light exposure and oral supplementation was an efficient way to increase postnatal status of vitamin D in piglets up to weaning while supplementation to sows may improve only piglet weight at birth and modulate microbiota at weaning.
Chapter
Fermented food and beverages constitute a significant part of the human diet (5%–40%) worldwide. Fermentation has been used for preservation and to augment the flavor, texture, and nutritional qualities of the food, since antiquity. During fermentation, the bioavailability of vitamins, minerals, and other constituents increases due to the microorganisms’ metabolic activities. Besides enhancing nutritional quality, fermented foods contain live organisms reported to prevent/treat many health disorders. Types of the fermentation process are also classified based on these microorganisms. In developing countries, fermented foods were usually prepared using traditional methods without any standardized techniques. Considering the beneficial effects of fermented foods, industrial-level production requires consistent specific microorganisms, fermentation methods, evaluation of nutritional compositions, and food safety testing. This chapter discusses the fermented foods and associated organisms, different sources available for the consumption of fermented foods, and food component’s effect on microorganism’s efficacy.
Chapter
The present chapter shows an overview of the production of bioactive peptides (BAPs) obtained from food matrices, using fermentation processes. It shows that it is possible to obtain BAPs from milk, meat, and vegetable proteins and emphasizes scientific production and the proven benefits that milk protein-derived BAPs provide to health. It also emphasizes a promising outlook in BAP production by fully using meat and vegetable proteins using food industry by-products, which also helps to mitigate waste environmental issue. For viable and safe BAPs industrial production, advances about in vivo research and adaptations of biotechnological processes for this scale of production are required.
Chapter
Colostrum is secreted by the mammal’s glandules during the first days after parturition, it is rich in nutrients and bioactive molecules. This first milk is essential to guarantee the growth and immunity of the newborn, in addition to a balanced nutrition. The high immunoglobulin content in colostrum is responsible for the passive immunity from mother to child. Normally, the production of bovine colostrum (BC) in dairy farms is higher than the calf’s necessity and there is not enough knowledge about the potential of this product; consequently, the spare quantity is discarded. Nowadays researchers have investigated the BC potential as a therapeutic or nutraceutical product, although the spreading of this colostrum potential needs to be more effective among the producers. This chapter reviews the colostrum composition which presents some mechanisms to transfer the passive immunity in different species as well as the potential of colostrum for human and animal therapy.
Article
It is critical that bovine maternal colostrum is fed to newborn calves during their first hours of life. Colostrum is the secretion a cow produces after mammary involution that is rich in various nutrients. In addition to the nutritive value for newborn calves, immunoglobulins are of interest due to their role in developing the naïve immune system of calves at birth. The process by which a calf acquires immunity via absorption of immunoglobulins is defined as passive immunity. When calves consume an adequate amount of immunoglobulins, they are classified as having successful passive immunity (SPI). In contrast, if they are deprived of adequate colostrum, they are considered to have had a failure of transfer of passive immunity (FPI). Transfer of passive immunity is assessed by measuring serum IgG concentrations at 24 to 48 h of age. The major factors that influence whether a calf has SPI or FPI are colostrum IgG concentration, quantity fed, and age of calf at colostrum feeding. Monitoring apparent efficiency of immunoglobulin absorption in calves is often recommended to evaluate overall colostrum management practices. Serum IgG analyses can be determined with direct (radial immunodiffusion) or indirect (refractometry) methods and used to assess SPI or FPI prevalence.
Article
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The objective of the present investigation was to compare the chemical and immunological quality of crossbreed goats, Sannen x Beetal and Alpine x Beetal and to study the effect of frequency of milking. Fifteen Sannen x Beetal and Alpine x Beetal dairy goats were selected for the study and colostrum samples were collected at an interval of 12 h from 0 to 72 h after kidding. The colostrum was analyzed for the contents of total solids, fat, protein, lactose, ash, IgG and pH. The levels of protein and total IgG dropped quickly from the time of birth till 72 h postpartum in the colostrum of both the breeds. The colostrum constituents viz. protein, total solids and ash were significantly higher (P< 0.05) at 0 h and then decreased sharply, whereas lactose content was found to be directly proportional to the frequency of milking. Despite the similar trends of increase and decrease in the constituents of colostrum of both the breeds, various significance of statistical differences with respect to the constituents were observed between the breeds.
Article
Colostrum (or immune milk) is the first milk that mammals produce after childbirth, and its composition differs markedly from milk obtained later in lactation. Colostrum is a rich source of immunoglobulins and other biologically active components. The purpose of this literature review is to systematize research on methods of treatment and prevention of human infectious diseases using immunomodulatory and immunoprotective properties of colostrum. The open sources hosted in PubMed, Researchgate and eLibrary databases were studied. The history of the use of colostrum from hyperimmunized cows as a treatment for human diseases can be traced back to the 1950s. Many studies on the use of colostrum have explored its potential in both the prevention and treatment of various infectious diseases. The data obtained indicate the high efficiency of the use of cow colostrum and its components both for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Colostrum is capable of producing a heterologous transfer of passive immunity. The immunization protocols used in the production of immune milk can be highly variable. This is especially true for the timing of immunization. Working on immunization protocols that expose animals to specific antigens can result in enhanced humoral immune responses in the mammary gland. The most relevant is the search for ways to use immune milk as a means to contain the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The literature review provides a description of antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and growth-stimulating factors in bovine colostrum. Examples and descriptions of homologous and heterologous transmission of passive immunity are given.
Article
Background: Bovine lactoferrin is increasingly being used as an ingredient in infant formula manufacture to enhance nutritional efficacy through the provision of immunoprotective, growth, and antimicrobial factors to the neonate. Objective: To evaluate the analytical performance of an optical biosensor immunoassay for compliance with the method performance requirements described in SMPR 2020.005. Method: Following dilution of the sample in buffer, an automated, label-free, real-time optical biosensor immunoassay was used in a direct assay format to quantitate bovine lactoferrin by its interaction with an immobilized anti-lactoferrin antibody. Quantitation was accomplished by the external standard technique with interpolation from a 4-parameter calibration regression. Results: The analytical range (0-200 mg/hg), method detection limit (0.8 mg/hg), recovery (96.1-109.2%), and repeatability (1.0-5.3%) complied with the requirements given in the lactoferrin SMPR. The method was shown to be specific for native, intact lactoferrin; thermally denatured lactoferrin generated no measurable binding response. Conclusions: The method described is suitable for the quantification of intact, undenatured lactoferrin in milk products, infant formulas (bovine milk protein-based, soy protein-based, and amino acid-based), and adult nutritionals and has been demonstrated to meet the performance requirements defined in SMPR 2020.005. Highlights: A single-laboratory validation of an automated biosensor immunoassay for the determination of intact, undenatured lactoferrin is described.
Thesis
In this thesis, we aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of (selected) bovine milk components (and metabolites induced by them) on the immune function of humans. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the topic and provides an outline of fundamental aspects of the immune system that are referred to in later chapters. In Chapter 2 , we summarized and addressed the primary components of bovine milk that have the potential to induce epigenetic changes to exert their immune-supportive effects during childhood. We reviewed the proposed mechanisms, including innate immune training that induces epigenetic modification. Through these mechanisms, the components may exert an effect on the immune system with implications for allergies and asthma. Living in a farm environment and raw bovine milk bioactive components were addressed as contributing factors that may reduce allergies in infancy and beyond. HMOs and bovine milk oligosaccharides (mainly 3'-Sialyllactose) serve as substrates for the SCFA-producing microbiota. SCFAs are potent immune modulators and have significant roles in maintaining homeostasis and steering the response of the immune cells to the environment. In Chapter 3 , we showed that butyrate and propionate had inhibitory effects on the activation of myeloid cells and lymphocytes, whereas acetate had a more selective impact on the immune cells. Production of inflammatory cytokines was suppressed in monocytes, mDCs, and pDCs, as well as T lymphocytes. SCFAs could not train the monocytes for enhanced response to secondary TLR stimulation in vitro but instead induced a tolerance-like phenotype. We attempted to explain the observed effects according to the differential expression of relevant SCFA receptors and transporters. Bovine milk IgG (bIgG) binds to human pathogens such as RSV and, via the Fc portion, interacts with the FcγRs on human immune cells. The relevance of bIgG-containing immune complexes (ICs) on activation of CD32 was studied in Chapter 4 , where we could establish a method to show the direct binding of bIgG ICs to immune cells. It was demonstrated that ICs containing bIgG are directly bound to human CD14+. Subsequently, we could show the role of bIgG ICs on induction of trained immunity after binding to monocytes while contrary to previous reports, (monomeric) bIgG alone did not have similar effects suggestive of the presence of other contributing factors. Human infection challenge models are used as an alternative to field trials to study the immune-supportive effects of dietary components. In Chapter 5 , we found that ingestion of a dairy product (WPC) in a human challenge model did not influence the responsiveness of myeloid cells from healthy volunteers to ex vivo stimulation with TLR ligands. It also did not change the gene expression pattern of the PBMCs isolated from the same donors. Although the model was utilized successfully before, the study product did not exert beneficial effects. We speculated that the study population might be a critical factor for no apparent impact. In Chapter 6 , we focused on optimizing an E. coli infection challenge model in humans to study the protective effects of dietary components and the correlates of protection at rechallenge. Primary infection with even low doses (1E6 CFU) of E. coli protected the subjects against reinfection with a high dose (1E10 CFU) of the same pathogen. Following the primary infection, serum anti-CFAII IgG levels were raised, and monocytes and mDCs responded more strongly to ex vivo stimulation. The latter may indicate the occurrence of trained immunity in vivo. Throughout Chapter 7 , we reviewed and discussed the most important findings of our research and placed the findings in a broader context by relating them to the most recent published literature. In addition, we identified subjects for future study perspectives to follow the work done in this project. Immunomodulation by nutrition or supplementation of the food with potent immunomodulatory components can provide immune support for the immune system in individuals with an immature or impaired immune system. To substantiate the dietary components' beneficial effects and define the supporting mechanisms involved, we studied bovine IgG and metabolites induced by milk oligosaccharides to substantiate their health-promoting and immune-mediated effects.
Article
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Colostrum, which contains various immune and growth factors, aids wound healing by promoting keratinocyte proliferation. Aquaporins (AQPs) are small, hydrophobic membrane proteins that regulate cellular water retention. However, few studies have examined the effect of processed colostrum whey on AQP-3 expression in human skin cells. Here, we investigated the effect of milk, colostrum, fermented milk, and fermented colostrum whey on AQP-3 expression in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Concentrations of 100-400 μg/mL of fermented colostrum whey were found to induce HaCaT cell proliferation. AQP-3 was found to be expressed exclusively in HaCaT cells. AQP-3 expression was significantly increased in 100 μg/mL fermented colostrum whey-treated cells compared with that in controls. Moreover, fermented colostrum increased p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Thus, our results suggest that fermented colostrum whey increased AQP-3 expression in, and the proliferation of, keratinocytes via JNK and p38 MAPK activation.
Article
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Article
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A unique form of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), TGF-beta-2.3 heterodimer, has been purified from bovine bone extract. TGF-beta-2.3 migrated as a single 25-kDa band by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, whereas under reducing conditions it migrated as a 12.5 kDa band. The TGF-beta-2.3 reacted positively with anti-TGF-beta-2 and anti-TGF-beta-3 antibodies on immunoblots. Equal levels of TGF-beta-2 and TGF-beta-3 sequences were detected by N-terminal sequencing. TGF-beta-2.3 eluted as a single sharp peak by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. However, prior reduction of the protein with dithiothreitol resulted in the protein eluting in two peaks, one containing predominantly TGF-beta-3 and the other containing predominantly TGF-beta-2. TGF-beta-2.3 inhibited proliferation of mink lung epithelial cells and promoted the formation of colonies of normal rat kidney fibroblasts in culture with specific biological activity similar to those of TGF-beta-1 and TGF-beta-2. These results demonstrate that the protein is TGF-beta-2.3 heterodimer, consisting of one polypeptide chain each of TGF-beta-2 and TGF-beta-3 linked by one or more disulfide bonds. In addition, TGF-beta-1.2 heterodimer, previously found only in porcine platelets, has also been purified from bovine bone extract.
Article
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The administration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) via subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps partially reversed a catabolic state produced by the co-administration of 20 micrograms of dexamethasone/day to 150 g male rats. Marked dose-dependent effects on body weight and nitrogen retention were produced, with the highest IGF-I dose, 695 micrograms/day, giving a 6 g increase in body weight over 7 days, compared with a 19 g loss in the dexamethasone-only group and an 18 g gain in pair-fed controls. Two IGF-I analogues that bind poorly to IGF-binding proteins, the truncated form, des(1-3)IGF-I, and a variant with an N-terminal extension as well as arginine at residue 3, LR3IGF-I, were approx. 2.5-fold more potent than IGF-I. The response with LR3IGF-I was particularly striking because this peptide binds 3-fold less well than IGF-I to the type 1 IGF receptor. The increased potencies of the IGF-I variants may relate to the substantially increased plasma levels of IGF-binding proteins, particularly IGFBP-3, produced by the combined treatment of dexamethasone with IGF-I or the variants. These binding proteins would be expected to decrease the transfer of IGF-I, but not that of the variants, from blood to tissue sites of action. Measurements of muscle protein synthesis at the end of the treatment period and muscle protein breakdown by 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion throughout the experiment indicated coordinate anabolic effects of the IGF peptides on both processes. Thus 3MH excretion was decreased at the highest IGF-I dose from 83.5 +/- 4.2 (S.E.M.) mumol/kg per 7 days to 65.1 +/- 2.2, compared with 54.9 +/- 1.2 in the pair-fed controls. Part of this response in 3MH excretion may have reflected a decrease in gut protein breakdown, because IGF-I and especially the IGF analogues increased the gut weight by up to 45%. Notwithstanding the effects on protein synthesis and breakdown, the fractional carcass weights remained low in the IGF-treated groups, although the increase in total carcass weight reflected nitrogen rather than fat gain. The dexamethasone-induced changes in liver, spleen and heart weight were restored towards normal by the IGF treatment. The experiment demonstrates the potential of IGF-I treatment of catabolic states and especially the value of modified forms of growth factors that bind weakly to IGF-binding proteins.
Article
The study determined the content of certain antimicrobial proteins in the colostrum of five Ayrshire cows during the first 9 milkings and in milk 14 days from parturition. The following factors were analyzed: total whey protein (WP), total immunoglobulins (Ig), lactoferrin (LF), lactoperoxidase (LP), lysozyme (LZM), and Salmonella typhimurium antibody titer towards somatic (04,12) and flagellar (H1.5, Hi) antigens. The content of all factors varied considerably in the first milking of the various cows, but the difference in content for all but LP and LZM decreased along with the number of milkings. The concentrations of WP, Ig and LF were at their highest in the first milking and dropped markedly in the following milkings. On the other hand, the LP concentration was on average greatest during the 3rd and 4th milkings, and the LZM concentration during the 7th and 8th milkings. The colostral whey from the first milking had the following concentrations on average: WP 69.2 mg/ml, Ig 52.0 mg/ml, LF 1.53 mg/ml, LP 22.8 µg/ml and LZM 0.40µ/ml. In the milk whey the concentrations were as follows: WP 12.2 mg/ml, Ig 0.95 mg/ml, LF 0.09 mg/ml, LP 20.1 µg/ml and LZM 0.37 µg/ml. Agglutinating antibodies to a human pathogenic strain of S. typhimurium were found against both O and H antigens in the colostrum of all cows. One cow, which had been vaccinated with S. typhimurium before parturition, had significantly higher titers than the unvaccinated animals. The latter were found to have antibodies only in the first two or three milkings post partum while the vaccinated cow still had antibodies in the milk 14 days post partum. The results obtained permit the assumption that in addition to antibodies, the nonspecific antibacterial factors (LF, LP and LZM) may contribute to the antimicrobial activity of colostrum and thus enhance the resistance of a newborn calf to microbial infections during the first week of life.
Article
The influence of bovine lactoferrin (LF) and Apo-LF on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Ultra-High Temperature (UHT) 2% fat milk was determined. The effect of LF was dependent upon both the degree of iron saturation and concentration. Before iron removal. LF was found to be approximately 52% saturated with iron; and at 23 and 46 mg/ml LF, minimal growth inhibition of L. monocytogenes was observed. Following dialysis, Apo-LF iron saturation was reduced to approximately 18%. At 15 and 30 mg/ml Apo-LF, a bacteriostatic effect against L. monocytogenes was observed. Inhibition of growth associated with Apo-LF was abolished when ferric ammonium citrate was added to saturate the iron binding sites of the Apo-LF. Copyright © International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians.
Article
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been reported to induce immunoglobulin (Ig)G2b class switching, yet we observed strain differences in IgG2b secretion in response to this mitogen. Specifically, BALB/c B cells, unlike those from DBA/2, synthesized relatively low amounts of IgG2b relative to IgG3, IgG1, or IgM. This report demonstrates that transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1, previously shown to induce IgA class switching, selectively stimulates IgG2b secretion by BALB/c resting B cells activated with LPS. This activity was specifically reversed with a neutralizing anti-TGF-beta 1 antibody. The ability of TGF-beta 1 to act directly on highly purified membrane (m)IgM+ mIgG2b- cells to stimulate IgG2b production, stimulate an increase in IgG2b-secreting cells, and selectively increase the steady-state levels of germline gamma 2b RNA, suggests that it promotes IgG2b class switching. In this regard, addition of anti-TGF-beta antibody to cultures of DBA/2-derived resting B cells activated by LPS, alone, led to selective reduction in IgG2b secretion, indicating that endogenous TGF-beta 1 accounts for the high IgG2b secretory response observed in that strain. Finally, TGF-beta 1 failed to stimulate IgG2b secretion by B cells activated with dextran-conjugated anti-IgD antibody. We propose that TGF-beta 1 is a switch factor for the murine IgG2b subclass for appropriately activated B cells. In combination with other data, this would show that all six non-IgM, non-IgD isotypes in the mouse can be selectively induced by specific cytokines.
Article
The DNA synthesis-stimulating activity of holo-Iactoferrin from human milk was demonstrated using BALB/c 3T3 cells. The stimulatory effect of lactoferrin was caused by the iron bound to the lactoferrin, because the lactoferrin molecule itself did not stimulate the DNA synthesis in the absence of iron. Previously, however, such stimulatory activity of lactoferrin had been thought to be restricted to human cell lines. The maximal degree of DNA synthesis attained in the presence of holo-Iactoferrin was found to be about 4-fold greater than that attained in the presence of holo-transferrin. Transferrin had neither a synergistic nor inhibitory effect on the DNA stimulating activity of lactoferrin. From these results and the fact that the iron-binding affinity of lactoferrin is higher than that of transferrin, especially at low pH values, it is possible that the mechanism of iron-transportation is different between lactoferrin and transferrin. Lactoferrin from bovine milk was as effective as human lactoferrin.
Article
Several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were found to be susceptible to different degrees to purified bovine milk and human milk lysozymes. Sodium chloride accelerated the lysis of both live and ultraviolet-killed cells of Micrococcus lysodeiktieus and Sarcina lutea by the two milk lysozomes. However, the lysis of other bacteria sensitive to the lysozymes was impaired by sodium chloride. In general, ethylenediaminetetraacetate augmented the lysis of both live and ultraviolet-killed cells of Bacillus subtilis by bovine milk lysozyme and that of Pseudomonas acruginosa by both bovine and human milk lysozymes. However, the lysis of other sensitive bacteria, under the same conditions of assay, was depressed by ethylenediaminetetraacetate.In the case of live, actively growing bacteria, the additions of either sodium chloride or ethylenediaminetetraacetate, in general, improved the lysis of the sensitive organisms by the milk lysozomes and egg-white lysozome. For the lysis of Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus, sodium chloride and ethylenediaminetetraacetate, respectively, were found to be essential. The study indicated that milk lysozomes may play a significant role in the inherent anti-bacterial activity of milk.
Article
Cox and Bürk (Eur. J. Biochem., 1991) reported the partial characterization of Milk Growth Factor (MGF) which stimulated the migration of fibroblasts. We have fractionated the partially purified sample by RP-HPLC and obtained the separation of two peaks of activity. The two active components were isolated as pure MGF-a and MGF-b by RP-HPLC and preparative SDS-PAGE. The purified MGF-a, consisting of a single band by gel electrophoresis and a single peak on an HPLC reversed-phase C-4 column, has the same specific activity as TGF-ß2 in the fibroblast migration assay. MGF-a was digested by endoprotease Asp-N and the cleaved peptides were analyzed by Edman degradation and plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS). The whole sequence of MGF-a determined by automated sequenator and PDMS of S-pyridylethylated protein and selected fragments was found to be identical to that of TGF-ß2. MGF-b protein mixture separated by SDS-PAGE was electrophoretically transferred onto a Biometra Glassybond membrane, and the blotted MGF-b protein was directly sequenced on an automated sequenator. The identified 29 amino acids sequence of MGF-b was identical to the amino-terminal sequence of TGF-ß1. Our study demonstrates that MGF is composed of both TGF-ß1 and TGF-ß2. TGF-ß2 (85%) is the predominant form.
Article
A strategy was developed for the purification of a biologically active polypeptide growth and migration factor from skimmed bovine milk. This 25-kDa dimeric molecule, termed milk growth factor (MGF), was isolated by a method consisting of a combination of strong cation-exchange chromatography, low-pressure hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, hydrophobic-interaction HPLC and size-exclusion HPLC steps, which separated the protein according to its properties of charge, hydrophobicity and size, respectively. On average, a total purification of 106—107-fold and a yield of approximately 115 ± 78 ng/MGF/milk was obtained using the method described. All purification steps were performed with novel combinations of ethanol and volatile acidic salt (ammonium acetate) solutions in order to retain biological activity of the protein. These conditions, together with the easy removal of salt by lyophilisation, facilitated the detection of biological activity in fractions collected at each step of the purification by means of a sensitive in vitro fibroblast-migration assay in which the half-maximal activity was obtained at a concentration of approximately 17 ± 4 pg/ml (i.e. approximately 1 pM) of the pure protein. Biological activity of the dimeric protein was unaffected by heat treatment or exposure to acid (pH 2.0), but was lost upon reduction to its monomeric form. Amino acid composition and sequence analyses demonstrate that MGF is related to transforming growth factor type β2.
Article
We have obtained a cDNA clone coding for human transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2. The clone was isolated from a tamoxifen-treated human prostatic adenocarcinoma cell line (PC-3) using oligonucleotide probes based on the partial amino acid sequence of purified TGF-β2. The cDNA sequence predicts that TGF-β2 is synthesized as a 442-amino-acid polypeptide precursor from which the mature 112-amino-acid TGF-β2 subunit is derived by proteolytic cleavage. The proteins coded for by the human TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 cDNAs show an overall homology of 41%. The mature and amino-terminal precursor regions show 71% and 31% homology, respectively. Northern blot analysis identified TGF-β2 transcripts of 4.1, 5.1, and 6.5 kb using mRNA from several different sources. Analysis of polyadenylated RNA from tamoxifen-treated PC-3 cells showed that these cells contain higher numbers of transcripts for TGF-β1 than for TGF-β2, although they produce more TGF-β2 protein than TGF-β1. This suggests that there is a post-transcriptional level of regulation for the production of these proteins.
Article
Bovine secretory IgA (SIgA), recently identified in colostrum, was shown to be homologous to human SIgA by immunologic cross-reaction. A quantitative study indicated that bovine SIgA, a minor component of colostrum, is a major immunoglobulin in most other external secretions including saliva, spermatic fluid, lacrimal, nasal and gastrointestinal secretions. SIgA was isolated from saliva. The free form of secretory component was found to be abundant in milk. A normal lactating cow produces about 1.2 g of this protein per day. Two forms of IgA were identified in serum: a normal serum IgA with no secretory antigenic determinant, and a small amount of SIgA. In vitro synthesis of SIgA by the salivary gland was studied by tissue cultures with incorporation of labeled amino acids.
Article
Bovine colostrum imparts passive immunity to newborn calves during the first 24 h of life and generally has been fed for the first 3 days after birth. Surplus colostrum is unmarketable and available in quantities sufficient to feed heifer calves through 28 to 35 days of age. Colostrum can be preserved conveniently for future use by brief refrigeration, freezing, or storage at ambient temperatures (fermentation or chemical treatment). Freezing results in virtually no loss of nutrients during storage but requires a freezer, extra handling, and daily thawing of required colostrum. Storage via fermentation or chemical treatment results in changes in physical characteristics, unavoidable nutrient losses, and occasional acceptability problems but is convenient and economical. Chemical preservatives are recommended for storage at warm temperatures. During storage at ambient temperatures, pH decreases as acidity increases, and total solids, protein, fat, and lactose contents of colostrum decrease. Total microbial numbers increase rapidly with initiation of fermentation, then level off or decline. Mold and yeast numbers continue to rise throughout storage. Some chemical additives are effective in stopping coliform growth or limiting mold and yeast growth. Colostrum can replace more than an equal weight of whole milk in calf-feeding programs due to its higher solids content. When colostrum is fed on an equal solids basis with whole milk, differences in calf performance are minimal. Colostrum generally does not cause scouring problems in calves. Maximal use of colostrum in calf-feeding programs is recommended.
Article
ABSTRACT Cell-free, fat-free mammary secretions were,tested in vitro for ability to support growth,of,streptococci,associated,with mastitis. Secretions were,obtained,prior to drying off, during the dry period, at calving, and during lactation from four cow,treatment,groups. Treatment,groups were 1) dry cow therapy, 2) dry cow therapy,and,mammary,glands,subjected to induced,inflammation,7 d postdrying- off, 3) no dry cow therapy and no induced inflammation, 4) no dry cow therapy,but,mammary,glands,subjected to,induced,inflammation.,Growth,of Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus fae- calls, and Streptococcus agalactiae in secretions,from,nonlactating,glands,was unaffected,by,induced,inflammation. Growth,of,Streptococcus,boris was significantly,inhibited,in secretion,ob- tained,14 d after induced,inflammation. Dry cow,therapy,had,no effect on strep- tococcal,growth,in secretion obtained,7 d after therapy. Streptococcal,growth,was greatest,in,secretions,from,involuted glands, and there was little or no evidence for growth inhibitory factors in cell-free, fat-free secretions,obtained,during,the dry,period. Milk from,lactating glands
Article
Bovine colostrum contains transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-like activity. High levels of this activity are found in early colostrum (within 12 h after parturition); however, it decreases rapidly after 30 h. In this study, the activity in early colostrum was purified by a sequence of decaseination, DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, precipitation at neutral pH, further gel filtration and reversed-phase FPLC. A homodimeric 23 kDa protein was identified that retained the TGF-β-like activity. Its activity was completely neutralized by a specific anti-TGF-β2 antibody. These results indicate that the TGF-β-like growth factor found in bovine colostrum is chemically and antigenically related to TGF-β2. The physiological roles of the TGF-β2-related growth factor are discussed.
Article
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is one of the predominant growth factors present in milk. The concentration, molecular mass forms and stability of TGF-β in bovine milk were investigated using a standard bioassay measuring the growth inhibition of a mink lung epithelial cell line. Most of the TGF-β bioactivity in milk was found to be in a latent form, which was also retained in the whey fraction. After acid activation, the total TGF-β concentration was 4·3 ± 0·8 ng and 3·7 ± 0·7 ng TGF-β per ml of milk and cheese whey respectively. Cation-exchange chromatography at pH 6·5 was used to concentrate latent whey-derived TGF-β, which could be activated by transient exposure to extremes of pH, urea or heat. Heparin did not significantly activate milk-derived TGF-β. Neutral gel filtration of the cationic whey fraction revealed a major peak of latent TGF-β with a molecular mass of 80 kDa and a smaller peak at 600 kDa. Transient acidification of the cationic whey fraction prior to neutral gel filtration, or gel filtration under acidic conditions, released low molecular mass TGF-β from both high molecular mass peaks. Whey-derived TGF-β was purified using a five-step chromatographic procedure. An N-terminal sequence was obtained for TGF-β2, which accounted for over 85% of the TGF-β bioactivity in whey. All TGF-β activity in whey could be neutralised by a monoclonal antibody directed against TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3. The results suggest that the majority of TGF-β in bovine milk is present in a small latent complex. Journal of Endocrinology (1996) 151, 77–86
Article
Lactoferrin was found to be a potent stimulator of proliferation for L6 myoblasts. Both apo and holo-forms of lactoferrin were equipotent. By contrast, only the holo-form of transferrin (a structurally related iron binding protein) stimulated proliferation, apo-transferrin was without activity. Holo-transferrin was also less stimulatory than lactoferrin. Purified lactoferrin was administered to mature female rats and to neonatal rats by daily subcutaneous injection to determine if there was a measurable effect on muscle cell growth in vivo. Results from the in vivo studies suggest that lactoferrin has little or no effect on muscle cell growth in the whole animal.
Article
Activation of the antibacterial lactoperoxidase system in milk, i.e. increasing the thiocyanate concentration to 0·25 mM and adding an equimolar amount of H2O2, results in a substantial reduction of the bacterial flora and prevents the multiplication of psychrotrophic bacteria for up to 5 d. This treatment has no effect on the physico-chemical properties of milk and does not lead to the accumulation of resistant bacteria. The practical application of the lactoperoxidase system in prolonging the storage period of raw milk at low temperatures is discussed.
Article
Both bovine myeloperoxidase and lactoperoxidase contain one calcium per iron with no other metal present in significant amount. Calcium is bound with high affinity and is removed upon exposure to 6 M guanidine hydrochloride/EGTA which results in precipitation of protein. Computer amino acid sequence analyses of human myeloperoxidase reveal two plausible calcium binding sites. This is the first evidence for the presence of calcium in these peroxidases.
1.1. The IGF-I concentrations in colostrum on days 1 and 2 after parturition were higher than those in cow and neonate plasma.2.2. The modest increase in GH concentrations in cow plasma around parturition would not be enough to stimulate IGF-I release by tissues.3.3. The concentrations of insulin, GH and glucagon in colostrum were substantially lower than those in plasma.
Article
The newborn pig and calf are normally devoid of immunoglobulins at birth and rely on colostrum for serum antibody and milk for intestinal antibody during their early life. Colostrum and milk are well adapted to their different immunological roles. Colostrum immunoglobulin is derived almost entirely from the serum of the dam and after absorption by the neonate is destined here to provide serum antibody. The main immunoglobulin in pig's milk is IgA which predominates also in intestinal juice of the adult. Intestinal IgA is locally formed in the lamina propria of the intestinal tract, whereas milk IgA is locally formed in the mammary gland. It seems likely, however, that IgA production at both sites results from antigenic stimulation of the gut associated lymphoid tissue and the immune systems of these organs are intimately linked. The role of IgA in mucosal defence in the calf appears to be assumed by IgG. Colostrum and milk IgG1 is derived from serum; nonetheless it is likely that the main antigenic stimulus for its formation is obtained from the intestinal tract-the mammry gland immune system is present and its artificial stimulation could prove to be of great practical value.
Article
cDNA copies of a bovine lysozyme (bLys)-encoding gene (Lys) were isolated from libraries specific for granulocytes, as well as the lactating mammary gland. Analysis of each of the longest Lys-specific cDNA inserts revealed nucleotide sequence identity over the entire overlap of 1418 bp. Incomplete at the 5' end, the combined sequence codes for 11 of the 18-amino-acid (aa) Lys leader peptide and 130 aa residues of the mature Lys. Similar to mouse and human Lys from blood cells, the encoded protein contains one aa residue more (Pro103) than any of the bLys derived from stomach. Furthermore, unlike any of the known bLys genes, our sequence reveals the copy of a bovine retroposon element in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA approximately at the same position where an Alu-retroposon element resides within the human copy of the gene. As a further distinction from bLys expressed in stomach, we identified a segment within the 3' UTR of the mRNA which is conserved between the bovine and human blood cell variants of the Lys, but does not have significant sequence homology to any of the bovine lysozyme genes known so far. By sequence comparisons, we present evidence that this segement has been deleted during evolutionary divergence of the stomach Lys. Hence, we describe the sequence of a heretofore unknown bLys, being expressed in granulocytes. Bearings of our observations on the understanding of Lys evolution are discussed, as well as the possibility that the product of this gene may be responsible for the functional Lys activity in bovine milk.