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‘Alternative foods’ and community-based development: Rooibos tea production in South Africa's West Coast Mountains

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Abstract

Rooibos tee (red bush tea) (Aspalathus linearis, Fabaceae), which is indigenous only to the Cedarberg and neighbouring mountains of South Africa, has become popular internationally as a result of its apparent health-giving properties. Situated within the broader contexts of alternative food networks, alternate economic spaces and local/community-based development, this paper examines how two marginalised communities have successfully penetrated international markets by supplying organically produced rooibos tea which is certified by the international Fairtrade system. Focusing on the cases of Wupperthal and Heiveld, the paper explores the dynamics of the production and marketing process and the key variables involved. Success has been achieved through active NGO support, which has engaged with local skills and social capital, and has led to significant social and economic upliftment among the participating communities. The experience illustrates how, given the right conditions, poor communities in the South might participate successfully in global alternative food networks.

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... alternative food provisioning. The studies analyzed various aspects of these AEs, such as the strategies of or relationships within producer companies and cooperatives (Nel et al., 2007;Daya and Authar, 2012); initiation and initial development (Rover et al., 2017); the introduction of new operation practices, standards, and principles (Cody, 2019;Wang et al., 2015;Zhang and Qi, 2019); and the multifunctionality of agricultural landscapes (Schneider et al., 2016). In addition, three studies focused on barter networks, community currencies, and community credit systems. ...
... A related but distinct way in which AEs are conceptualized can be referred to as "the livelihood adaptations" that emerge and function in spaces not occupied or created by the mainstream (e.g., King et al., 2013;Machado, 2018;Bellante, 2017;Ferguson, 2018;Schneider et al., 2016;Renkert, 2019;Nel et al., 2007;Milgram, 2010;Carnegie, 2008). Here, the mainstream is represented by large-scale profit-oriented commercial activities or top-down development models and interventions, including those in the colonial past. ...
... By contrast, the objectives and motivations of some of the other AEs examined were less transformative and more compatible with mainstream practices. For instance, in some studies we encountered efforts to improve access to national and international markets through AEs (Milgram, 2010;Melo and Hollander, 2013;Nel et al., 2007) or the idea of including the poor by providing them more buying options (Gomez, 2010). Also, a local exchange trading system in Argentina analyzed in one paper was supposed to offset the exclusionary mechanisms of regular markets rather than replace or transform them (Powell, 2002). ...
Article
Research of alternative economies (AEs) has been portrayed as a mission of spreading visionary hopes for progressive change toward more sustainable and equitable economic systems. Despite its increasing popularity, it is less clear how it has been supported by empirical evidence. Therefore, we systematically searched for primary research studies on AEs (comprising alternative, diverse, community, or heterodox economies, and alternative food networks) published in recognized journals. We analyzed the patterns of the literature and characterized the examined AEs. We also overviewed methods and theories, and how the literature on AEs in the Global South conceptualizes both AEs and mainstream economic practices. We found that research of AEs has increased rapidly driven by an explosion of interest in alternative food networks. The published research of AEs has largely been a Western project signifying another example of the hierarchy of knowledge production. We argue that two general directions are worth to follow. First, the cultivation of empathy toward ontological diversity can make the research on AEs more pertinent to non-Western audience. Second, increased scope and epistemological rigor can make this research project more credible. We believe that these two directions can be followed without compromising the normative appeal of this scholarly programme.
... These can be separated into two broad categories; firstly where SFSC situated in the global South extend into international markets, and secondly, where SFSC are geared more towards local, domestic markets. For the first category, Nel et al. (2007) and Binns et al. (2007) have conducted extensive research into the global supply chain dynamics and marketing of rooibos tea production in Wupperthal, located in the Cedarberg region of rural Western Cape, South Africa. Rooibos tea grown in the region is unique to the region and as such, has been granted organic and Fair Trade status. ...
... Yet Nel et al. (2007) and Binns et al. (2007) have found that these spatially extended supply chains have "undoubtedly had a significant impact in addressing local development needs and in improving the overall socio-economic well-being of a marginalised region" (Nel et al. 2007: 122), increasing the number of (traditionally marginalised non-white) farmers from 25 to 170 and thus providing a viable livelihood strategy for them in an otherwise harsh economic landscape. ...
... The Kenyan box scheme case study, the type of which is lacking within the agrifood literature, highlights the importance of context when attempting to instigate direct marketing initiatives, and that 'models' of SFSC as known in Western Europe and North America are not easily transferable. However, the preceding case studies that have been reviewed by Binns et al. (2007) and Nel et al. (2007) refer specifically to spatially extended SFSC, whilst Freidberg and Goldstein (2011) focus more on 'face-to-face', direct SFSC through their box scheme aimed at individual urban consumers or households. What is lacking is a focus on proximate SFSC, where locally produced food is sold on to other local/regional institutions such as farm shops, restaurants and hospitality industries, rather than being solely geared towards individual, 'face-to-face' retail. ...
... In addition to the potential for protection of traditional knowledge and the products thereof by legal means, complementary market-oriented alternative avenues to facilitating greater return of benefit to traditional custodians from the utilisation of their cultural heritage must be considered. Such approaches as ethical trade schemes, closed-loop marketing, branding, certification systems and the like (Nel et al. 2007; Smallacombe et al. 2007; Cunningham et al. 2009a; Holcombe 2009; Merne Altyerre-ipenhe Reference Group et al. 2011; Spencer and Hardie 2011; White 2012) focus more on protecting identified products from the market perspective. Niche-marketing approaches, applied in Australia (Cunningham et al. 2009b), and other countries (Nel et al. 2007; Antons 2010; Martins 2011), while involving some limitations, may provide useful models for Indigenous people's enterprises. ...
... Such approaches as ethical trade schemes, closed-loop marketing, branding, certification systems and the like (Nel et al. 2007; Smallacombe et al. 2007; Cunningham et al. 2009a; Holcombe 2009; Merne Altyerre-ipenhe Reference Group et al. 2011; Spencer and Hardie 2011; White 2012) focus more on protecting identified products from the market perspective. Niche-marketing approaches, applied in Australia (Cunningham et al. 2009b), and other countries (Nel et al. 2007; Antons 2010; Martins 2011), while involving some limitations, may provide useful models for Indigenous people's enterprises. Both legal and mutual strategies may be employed in market-based protection of products which involve cultural content. ...
... Developing the means of so doing (most notably judicial, paralegal instruments and legislation) is an extremely complex process; yet it is to the credit of the individuals and organisations, such as those whose work is cited in this review, that progress is slowly being made. Nonetheless, a risk remains to the interests of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, that their inclusion and acknowledgement may simply be overlooked by an inconsiderate and ill-informed dominant Western culture (even if well intentioned) keen to create enterprises based on Indigenous cultures anywhere (Nel et al. 2007; Yates 2009; Walsh and Douglas 2011; White 2012). Until such time as formal protective measures are enacted, the task of educating and influencing the wider community will rest on the shoulders of the likes of the Cooperative Research Centre for Remote Economic Participation and similarly motivated organisations as cited herein. ...
Article
New crops are regularly being introduced into cultivation, typically accompanied by a very small agricultural knowledge base. Often, there is a lack of agronomic research information or production experience upon which to rely, nor plant varieties optimised for an agricultural system. The challenges of a new industry may be compounded by a lack of consumer awareness of the new product and value-chain models need to be developed to suit the product. Frequently the plant species being developed into a new crop is one traditionally used as a food source or for medicinal or other applications by Indigenous people. Thus a complex series of additional factors comes into play - consent of the original custodians, respect and acknowledgement of their traditional knowledge that may be exploited, and totemic, kinship and spiritual associations that may be impacted. Establishing benefit sharing for the hereditary stewards, and protection of traditional collective intellectual property is an important ethical consideration. In the 21st century, the previous unjust exploitation of the traditional knowledge of the original custodians without acknowledgement or benefit sharing, is no longer accepted. However, prevailing strategies to safeguard intellectual property and traditional knowledge associated with native plants, for instance, to ensure that benefit is captured for Indigenous hereditary custodians may be lacking or may contravene Indigenous customary law. Where scientific, cultural, ethical, legal and commercial issues interact at the emergence of a new crop industry, stakeholders from various perspectives will bring critical, sometimes conflicting, impediments to resolve. The challenges that arise in the commercial exploitation of the Australian Bush Tomato, Solanum centrale, and its horticultural development, are reviewed and the approaches to their resolution are discussed.
... Rooibos is a legume and part of the genus Aspalathus (Wilson, 2005). Rooibos Tea (Aspalathus linearis, Fabaceae) is a shrub of half a meter to two meters in height with bright green, needle-shaped leaves which turn a rich reddish-brown colour upon fermentation and occurs in different ecotypes: the domesticated or "Nortier" cultivar, which is planted by producers, and secondly, a range of "wild" or naturally occurring ecotypes (Nel et al., 2007). ...
... Originally, the term "rooibos" was locally used but nowadays, due to sophisticated marketing strategies different terms exist, especially at the German market. The tea is said to have certain health giving properties-it is caffeine free and contains compounds which act as antioxidants (Nel et al., 2007). ...
... The products, certified by the EU (public standard), Naturland (private standard) and by the Fair Trade Labelling Organization (FLO), are sold as organic and fair trade on the international market (Gerz et al. 2006). During 2005/06, 42 farmer members produced 36 tonnes of organic rooibos achieving a financial turnover of R 1.5 million (Nel et al. 2007) The Wupperthal Rooibos Associations ...
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This report presents 7 case-studies of Geographical Indications in various parts of the world. Each case-study is presented according to a common template in order to highlight similarities and differences. KEY WORDS Geographical Indications, typicality, supply chain, marketing challenges, social and environmental side effects. * Nadja El Benni is assistant and Sophie Reviron is senior researcher for ETH Zurich in the agricultural Economics – Agri-food and Agri-environmental Economic group (Institute for Environmental for Environmental decisions-IED) NCCR TRADE WORKING PAPERS are preliminary documents posted on the NCCR Trade Regulation website ( ) and widely circulated to stimulate discussion and critical comment. These papers have not been formally edited. Citations should refer to a "NCCR Trade Working Paper", with appropriate reference made to the author(s).
... These herbal medicinal products (HMPs) are often prescribed for inflammatory and immunerelated illnesses 2 . Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) tea is a commercialized popular health drink from SA well known for its numerous health benefits including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects 3,4,5 . Artemisia afra remains one of the most popular SA herbal medicines used for a variety of immune related illness conditions 6 . ...
... This suggests that Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) possess pro-oxidant potential at these concentrations in absence of a stimulus. These findings are contrary to several studies who reports on the antioxidant effects of Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) in vitro and in vivo 3,4,5,8,9 . However, these findings agrees with Persson et al., who reported increased NO production of Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) in vitro on cultured human umbilical veins endothelial cells at doses of 0-730µg/ml 39 . ...
... IL-6 production at concentrations of 500µg/ml and 1000µg/ml in unstimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These findings are contrary to most of the previous studies which reports on the anti-inflammatory properties of Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) in vitro and in vivo 3,4,5,8,9 . Most of these in vitro studies were conducted using similar concentrations of Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) (0-1000µg/ml) as this study however within different models which may account for variations in findings. ...
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Objective: Herbal immunomodulatory preparations are increasing in popularity. In vitro, in vivo and clinical trial studies are needed to ensure safety, quality and efficacy of these herbal medicines. SeptilinTM, a proprietary herbal medicinal product has been reported to have immunomodulatory effects. Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) is a commercialised South African (SA) tea recognised for its phytopharmaceutical potential. Artemisia afra is a well known SA herbal medicine used for various inflammatory conditions. This study assessed the effects of Artemisia afra, Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) and SeptilinTM on inflammatory biomarkers using RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line.Materials and Methods: RAW 264.7 cells and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated RAW 264.7 cells were treated with various concentrations of the above mentioned samples after which the culture supernatants were assayed for specific inflammatory biomarkers namely, IL-6 and nitric oxide (NO).Results: Artemisia afra, Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) and SeptilinTM were shown to be non-cytotoxic on unstimulated RAW 264.7 cells across all concentrations tested (31-1000μg/ml). Addition of Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) to unstimulated RAW 264.7 cells significantly up regulated (P<0.001) NO and IL-6 production at concentrations of 500μg/ml and 1000μg/ml when compared to the control, whilst SeptilinTM and Artemisia afra had no effect. Artemisia afra and Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) were shown to be noncytotoxic on stimulated RAW 264.7 cells across all concentrations tested (31-1000μg/ml). However, SeptilinTM significantly (P<0.001) decreased metabolic activity at the highest concentration tested (1000μg/ml). Addition of Artemisia afra to stimulated RAW 264.7 cells significantly down regulated (P<0.001) NO and IL-6 production when compared to the control. Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) and SeptilinTM samples had no effect on the synthesis of NO and IL-6 in stimulated RAW 264.7 cells when compared to the controls.Conclusion: Artemisia afra has anti-inflammatory effects while Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) up regulated the immune system. This study also shows that SeptilinTM had no effects on RAW 264.7 cells.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 03 No. 03 July’19. Page: 134-145
... The democratic era saw the lifting of sanctions and the opening up of the rooibos tea industry to new producers, distributors and investors (Wynberg et al., 2007). With limited access to capital and skills, the market niche for small-scale producers was not immediately opened; this only came when they were targeted for support through LandCare and NGOs such as the Environmental Monitoring Group (EMG) and A-SNAPP (see Nel et al., 2007 for a detailed overview of this process). ...
... The opening up of international markets not only solidified large companies' stake in the industry, but also provided opportunity for the small-scale farming cooperatives in previously disadvantaged communities (Ives, 2014). Organic, wild rooibos tea is still harvested in the north of the species' distribution range, with two small-scale producers supplying wild-harvested rooibos to the international market as a fair trade product (Nel et al., 2007;Malgas et al., 2010), but less than 5% of the total output of rooibos is gathered from the wild (Gerz & Bienabe, 2006;Patrickson et al., 2008). Wild-type rooibos differs markedly from the standard cultivated form and it is possible that multiple ecotypes exist within Aspalathus linearis. ...
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In 1945, the Royal Society of South Africa published a wide-ranging report, prepared by a committee led by Dr C.L. Wicht, dealing with the preservation of the globally unique and highly diverse vegetation of the south-western Cape. The publication of the Wicht Committee’s report signalled the initiation of a research programme aimed at understanding, and ultimately protecting, the unique and diverse ecosystems of the Cape Floristic Region. This programme has continued for over 70 years, and it constitutes the longest history of concerted scientific endeavour aimed at the conservation of an entire region and its constituent biota. This monograph has been prepared to mark the 70th anniversary of the Wicht Committee report. It provides a detailed overview of the circumstances that led up to the Wicht Committee’s report, and the historical context within which it was written. It traces the development of new and substantial scientific understanding over the past 70 years, particularly with regard to catchment hydrology, fire ecology, invasive alien plant ecology, the harvesting of plant material and conservation planning. The Wicht Committee’s report also made recommendations about ecosystem management, particularly with regard to the use of fire and the control of invasive alien plants, as well as for the establishment of protected areas. Subsequently, a combination of changing conservation philosophies and scientific conservation planning led to the creation and expansion of a network of protected areas that now covers nearly 19% of the Cape Floristic Region. We also review aspects of climate change, most of which could not have been foreseen by the Wicht Committee. We conclude that those responsible for the conservation of these ecosystems will face many challenges in the 21st century. These will include finding ways for effectively managing invasive alien plants and fires, as foreseen by the Wicht Committee. While the protected area network has expanded beyond the modest targets proposed by the Wicht Committee, funding has not kept pace with this expansion, with consequences for the ability to effectively manage protected areas. The research environment has also shifted away from long-term research conducted by scientists embedded in management agencies, to short-term studies conducted largely by academic institutions. This has removed a significant benefit that was gained from the long-term partnership between research and management that characterised the modis operandus of the Department of Forestry. Growing levels of illegal resource use and a changing global climate also pose new challenges that were not foreseen by the Wicht Committee.
... Moreover, for nearly 40 years (from 1954), the rooibos tea industry operated as a government monopoly, serving as the sole buyer from producers and the sole seller to approved exporters and tea processors (Hayes, 2000). While the abolition of both apartheid and this system in the early 1990s opened the door to coloured producers, about 200 of whom now trade rooibos tea as South Africa's only indigenous fair trade product (Nel et al., 2007), most of these farmers remain marginalized, and will continue to be so-physically, because of their remote location; environmentally, thanks to the harsh, drought-prone conditions under which they farm; and economically, on account of their limited marketing capacity and continued struggles to gain access to extension services, credit and land. Inequality continues to characterize the industry: less than 7% of rooibos tea lands are today controlled by coloured farmers, who produce about 2% of rooibos tea volumes, with white farmers cultivating about 93% of the planted area (Wynberg, 2002b;Sandra Kruger and Associates, 2009). ...
... The emergence of a democratic state saw increased support to small-scale black and coloured rooibos farmers and the opening up of ethical trade opportunities. Farmers residing in the mountainous areas surrounding Wupperthal and the Suid Bokkeveld (Fig. 6) became the first marginalized producers to trade rooibos tea through fair trade organizations (Nel et al., 2007). In both of these areas, farmers had been harvesting wild "veldtee" 10 long before commercial planting of rooibos commenced in the 1930s. ...
Article
Over the past decade, a series of controversies has arisen about equity and justice in the rooibos industry, centred both on the biological resource and on the traditional use and knowledge that fostered the growth of this lucrative trade. Accusations of biopiracy, meaning the misappropriation and patenting of genetic resources and knowledge without consent, have taken centre stage, leading to a reassessment of the conditions under which rooibos is traded. Claiming to be the primary holders of traditional knowledge relating to rooibos, indigenous San and Khoi have also launched demands—to date unmet—for a stake in rooibos benefits. Meanwhile, small-scale coloured rooibos producers, despite their involvement in fair trade, remain marginalized. All remain embedded in a political history of rooibos that is characterized by dispossession and adversity, having been propped up by the South African apartheid system.
... These different quality attributes have given rise to diverse product differentiation strategies which underlie the segmentation of the market. Some of the players in these differentiation strategies are benefiting from a significant price premium (e.g. according to Nel et al. (2007) the producer price of the two cooperatives which sell Rooibos as organic and fair-trade is 23 rand/kg. compared with the conventional producer price of 14 rand/kg). ...
... Dancheng promoted effective actions on dealing with rural hollowing. Plenty of conventional villages in this county have experienced a local-based and self-organized RRLCA with basic characteristics of community-based development (Mansuri and Rao, 2004;Nel et al., 2007;Bryden and Geisler, 2007), which was in accordance with local physical conditions and socio-economic strength. Their adaptabilities could be mainly showed as follows: ...
... Dancheng promoted effective actions on dealing with rural hollowing. Plenty of conventional villages in this county have experienced a local-based and self-organized RRLCA with basic characteristics of community-based development (Mansuri and Rao, 2004; Nel et al., 2007; Bryden and Geisler, 2007), which was in accordance with local physical conditions and socio-economic strength. Their adaptabilities could be mainly showed as follows: (1) Self-organized village development practices. ...
... Wild rooibos regained prominence as a source of income in recent years. Small-scale producer organisations in the Cederberg (Wupperthal) and Southern Bokkeveld (Heiveld) supply wild-harvested rooibos under organic and fair trade certi�cation to niche markets abroad [66]. Wild rooibos comprises about 2%-5% of the annual production of 40 tons rooibos by the Heiveld Cooperative [67]. ...
Article
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There is a growing interest in natural plant-based remedies as a source for commercial products. Around 80% of the South African population use traditional medicines to meet their primary health care needs; however, only a few South African medicinal plants have been exploited to their full potential in terms of commercialization. The opportunity for bioprospecting of plant compounds for novel pharmaceuticals remains largely untapped. Certain renowned medicinal plants of international acclaim including buchu and rooibos are currently contributing to local enterprise; however, other exciting opportunities exist for commonly used plants which have not yet reached the international arena. This paper focuses on the key research and development contributions of 10 commercially important medicinal plants of South Africa. Traditional uses, scientific validation, commercialisation developments, as well as both potential opportunities and setbacks are discussed.
... Such values contribute to the achievement of shared social, economic and environmental goals (Doherty and Meehan, 2006;Ronchi, 2002). This conclusion is supported by many studies on the impact of Fair Trade on producers, where the fair wage/price, social premium, and investment in skills benefit producers and producer organisations (Bacon, 2005;Becchetti and Constantino, 2005;La Cruz, 2006;Le Mare, 2008;Lyon, 2007;Nel et al., 2007;Nigh, 2002;Ronchi, 2002). Although there have been critiques of the limitations of Fair Trade (Bassett, 2010;Poncelet, 2005;Scherer-Haynes, 2007;Utting-Chamorro, 2005), there is some consensus that Fair Trade has contributed to reducing poverty (Baumann et al., 2012) and achieving a range of social goals (Le Mare, 2008) with "the incorporation of its objectives into dominant political discourses" (Wilkinson, 2007, p. 220). ...
Article
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Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to explore the meanings and business practices of four Southern Fair Trade enterprises (SFTEs). Design/methodology/approach ‐ The paper is based on research with four SFTEs in Bangladesh, taking an ethnographic approach with qualitative methodologies such as semi-structured interviews, recorded meetings, informal discussions, analysis of grey literature, and observation with managers, staff, field workers and artisans of the organisations. Findings ‐ The meanings of Fair Trade are located in personal, family, business and national understandings of fairness and development. Such meanings inform the business practices of the SFTEs, used to achieve both commercial success and social goals, confirming the role of SFTEs in creating and maintaining ideals of fairer trade. Research limitations/implications ‐ There is a need for more research on Fair Trade from the perspective of SFTEs. Practical implications ‐ The research draws attention to the key roles and business practices of the SFTE, increasing the understanding of what happens in the name of Fair Trade, and also provides lessons for other socially responsible enterprises. Social implications ‐ The research highlights the importance of Southern meanings and practices, which should be included in the conceptualisation of Fair Trade, thus facilitating both informed debate and understanding the possibilities for the promotion and extension of fairer trade. Originality/value ‐ This research is unusual in concentrating on the central role played by the SFTE, particularly in the handicraft sector and with businesses rather than cooperatives. The business practices and decisions of SFTEs are often hidden in representations of Fair Trade.
... The participatory action research process would also require the involvement of competent community workers that can help to resolve the social and economic challenges within the small communities as a precondition for fruitful cooperation. Cooperative management can improve the economic situation and strengthen empowerment of small-scale farmers as experiences from other projects in Namaqualand have shown (Nel et al. 2007, Oettlé 2005, Oettlé et al. 2009). ...
... To regenerate the marginalized conventional villages, more consideration should be given to local-based and market-oriented agricultural product processing industry, and thus agriculture and rural areas would benefit more from the strengthened agro-food chain (Nel et al. 2007;Marsden 2010). As a premise, villagers should be empowered and encouraged to make full use of the affluent forestland resources and build new forest economy sustainably. ...
Article
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China has promulgated a series of policies including the Western Development Program, the Grain for Green Project, agricultural support policies and building a new countryside strategy to eliminate east-west differences and urban-rural disparities since the late 1990s. This paper gives a holistic examination on local responses to the four typical macro socio-economic development policies and their effects on rural system based on a case study of a mountainous village in southern Sichuan Province. The results showed that the policies have not moved the case study village from its historically marginal status. To some extent, its socio-economic situation might have been worsened by accelerated out-migration of the youth, loss of agricultural land due to afforestation and industrial plants, increased fire hazard due to afforestation and reforestation, increased environmental pollution due to industrial enterprises attracted to the village and a steep decline in agricultural production due to loss of and inefficient use of cultivated land. Factors causing local villages’ dilemmas include the nonuniformity of actors’ objectives, finiteness of villagers’ abilities, and the imperfect incentive and restraint mechanism for local government’s activities under existing policy framework composed of uncoordinated one-size-fits-all policies. We suggest that China’s rural policy in the new period should gradually shift from a sectoral to a place-based one, from top-down incentives to the development of bottom-up projects, and fully recognize the diversity of rural space, so as to lift local capacities and make good use of the knowledge shared by different actors. Moreover, it is also necessary to integrate the various sectoral policies, and improve the interministerial and interdepartmental coordination of rural policies at regional and local levels.
... Cedar Estates farm workers have benefitted from 14 Total Rooibos production has doubled over recent years and the share exported has risen from 30% to 50% (Wilson, 2005). 15 For more on the history and characteristics of the Wupperthal and Heiveld cooperatives see Binns et al. (2007) and Nel et al. (2007). 16 Between 2004 and Rooibos prices for Wupperthal members went up from US$ $3.80 to $7.45 per kilo (SERRV, 2006). ...
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This article analyzes the recent growth and configuration of Fair Trade networks connecting South African Rooibos tea producers with American consumer markets. As we demonstrate, Fair Trade’s growth in the Rooibos sector engages key issues of black empowerment, land reform, and sustainable development in post-Apartheid South Africa. Fair Trade networks provide small-scale black Rooibos producers with critical markets. Most significantly, the Wupperthal and Heiveld cooperatives have upgraded into processing and packaging and their jointly owned Fairpackers facility now exports shelf-ready Rooibos tea. Analyzing the nature of US Fair Trade Rooibos buyers and their South African sourcing arrangements, we identify key variations in Fair Trade commitment and engagement between mission-driven and market-driven distributors. While mission-driven buyers engage small-scale Rooibos cooperatives in multifaceted partnership networks, market-driven buyers pursue conventional sourcing strategies favoring purchases from large plantations and exporters. We conclude that tensions between a radical and commercial orientation toward Fair Trade in Rooibos tea networks in many ways mirror those in the broader movement.
... Although sales of Rooibos were only worth around 600 million SA Rands 3 and 14.500 tons in 2013 (Vink, Bergh, & Novak, 2014), they account for 10% of the global herbal tea market and Rooibos is one of SA's most famous exports. Its production provides unique livelihood opportunities for rural communities in an economically marginalized area (Nel, Binns, & Bek, 2007). Overall, 350-550 farmers produce this very labor intensive crop, and the farms or in processing plants employ more than 5,000 people, making the Rooibos sector one of the biggest rural employers (Raynolds & Ngcwangu, 2010). ...
Article
Geographical Indications (GIs) are increasingly conceived as a development tool. However there are insufficient empirical and conceptual grounds to fine tune their institutionalization. This paper investigates the need for and the role of State intervention in GIs using comparative analysis of the trajectories of Basmati rice and Rooibos tea, emblematic products respectively from India and South Africa. The social relevance of GIs depends on the State’s conception and examination of the link to the origin embodied in the GI. Institutionalization should consider GI as a hybrid between a public quality standard and a specific IPR to protect a heritage-based reputation.
... Perhaps inevitably for plants such as these legume teas, which can grow naturally on very poor soils, there is a niche market for organic production. Since this market tends to be relatively small volume, it is well suited to community-based production and can be important for sustaining local developments (Nel et al., 2007). ...
... operational activity was very successful. The following year all the members were marketing their tea through the cooperative, and the cooperative realized a substantial surplus. The Heiveld Cooperative realised a profit of R104 000 in 2002 and R140 000 in 2003.(Nel: 2006) ...
Thesis
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Historically, the poor have always been socially, politically and economically marginalized in society. The South African Government’s Cooperative Act 2005 presents a promising step in the right direction towards addressing poverty and unemployment in rural areas. The research looks at two case studies and site relevant findings. This study gives a brief introductory account of cooperatives with regard to their history and existence, particularly in South Africa. The research report focuses on two case studies, where the organisational structures and business operations will be examined and compared. Finally the report will draw lessons to indicate the possible social and economic viability of these cooperatives and their place in rural development. Based on the findings and conclusions, a number of recommendations are made on cooperatives in the rural sector. The research utilizes secondary data, such as documents, records, the internet, books and literature on the subject of cooperatives and related aspects of unemployment and poverty, forming a background of cooperatives in the South African rural sector. Primary data takes the form of structured (personal one on one) and semi-structured (group discussion) interviews. The primary and secondary data present the basis for the report findings and conclusions. Where possible, the relevant recommendations are made.
... Progressive industry actors have sought to assist emerging farmers through these diffi culties by supporting their market access. However, most emerging producers reside on marginal land where scant rainfall and regional conservation protocols limit farming potential Nel et al., 2007). Some own land but most do not, and because rented parcels are insufficient, farmers must locate other income, with many turning to tourism. ...
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This chapter analyzes Fair Trade's contributions and challenges in developing alternative production and marketing networks. We focus particularly on movement and market dynamics as they relate to Africa since this region is currently experiencing the most rapid growth in the production of Fair Trade certified commodities. Our analysis highlights the dynamic tensions driving fair market divergence and convergence at transnational and regional levels. We ground our discussion with a case study of the South African rooibos tea sector, where Fair Traders are striving to increase farm ownership and capacity building among "emerging" farmers of color who historically have been denied access to agricultural land and markets. While Fair Trade offers opportunities for combating acute agriculture inequalities, production growth is increasingly being dominated by large hired-labor estates. We argue that while Fair Trade's production and marketing networks are not immune from mainstream market pressures, there are dynamic openings for emerging farmers and their organizations to refashion Fair Trade in South Africa and to shape alternative market networks at regional and international levels.
... . 14: Comparison of mean concentration and isotope ratio of barium between commercial tea, raw rooibos tea leaves and freshpack tea brand. ------------------86 (Bek et al., 2007) and parts of Northern Cape Province, which provide a suitable environment for its cultivation (Rooibos limited, 2012). This traditional herbal tea was discovered by Carl Thurnberg when he saw the Khoi San people making drinks from rooibos plant during his visit to Africa in 1772 (Joubert & Schulz, 2006). ...
... Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) tea also known as Redbush tea has several health benefits which includes antioxidant effect. Due to its low tannin content, zero caffeine and potent antioxidant properties, Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) has been gaining popularity globally as much more than a health beverage and accepted as a nutraceutical 14 . The potent antioxidant action of Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) tea has been attributed to its rich and unique polyphenol content 15 . ...
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Post‐apartheid South Africa is characterized by considerable spatial and social inequality and high levels of poverty and unemployment, particularly among historically disadvantaged groups. Since 1994, there has been much attention given to fostering local economic development (LED) to promote empowerment, job creation, economic growth and community development, with a primary focus on broad‐based Black Economic Empowerment. However, LED initiatives have achieved mixed success, with many projects foundering after optimism in their early stages. Focusing on South Africa's Western Cape Province, with its species‐rich Cape Floristic Region, this paper examines LED experience in relation to the concept of the ‘biodiversity economy’, which has received considerable attention recently among South African environmental bodies. The paper focuses specifically on operationalizing the biodiversity economy concept through the implementation of a ‘sustainable wild flower harvesting code of practice’ on the Agulhas Plain, where local communities, supported by transnational companies, are harvesting and marketing wild flowers to retailers in South Africa and the UK. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
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One of the most dominant strands of research within cultural geography's ‘materialist turn’ is that of commodity stories. Through everything from phones to flowers, geographers have attempted to reveal the myriad connections between (Northern) consumers and (Southern) producers. Following commodities and tracing their networks, this research tends to privilege consumption as the primary site of social and cultural meaning within the global economy. Where producers are the focus, the theoretical framework for understanding their lives is typically a developmentalist one, foregrounding exploitation and/or empowerment. Thus, we learn little from commodity stories about the ordinary lives of Southern producers and the co-production of the sociocultural and the economic through their everyday practices. This paper argues that deeper sociocultural analysis of the processes of production is necessary to balance the current dominance of consumption-led commodity stories and, more importantly, to open up space for a re-imagining of Southern producers. Through the personal accounts of fourty beadwork producers in Cape Town, I explore how the everyday practices of craft production sustain existing social relations, generate new networks, and help to shape both a sense of belonging and a sense of self. This commodity story reveals Southern producers' lives to be both richer and more mundane than dominant constructions suggest.
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This Campbell systematic review examines the effectiveness of certification schemes in improving the welfare of farmers and workers. The review summarises findings from 43 quantitative studies, and 136 qualitative studies. There is not enough evidence on the effects of CS on a range of intermediate and final socioeconomic outcomes for agricultural producers and wage workers. There are positive effects on prices. But workers? wages do not seem to benefit from the presence of CS. Income from the sale of produce is higher for certified farmers, but overall household income is not. Context matters substantially for the causal chain between interventions of certification schemes and the well being of producers and workers. Generally, the quality of the studies is mixed, with a significant number of studies that are weak on a number of methodological fronts. Plain language summary Certification schemes have unclear impact on the well being of farmers and workers Certification schemes (CS) set and monitor voluntary standards to make agricultural production socially sustainable and agricultural trade fairer for producers and workers. The evidence base is very limited and inconclusive. Certification increases prices and income from produce, but not wages or total household income. Certification agencies should adopt simpler programmes adapted to local context and rigorously test their impact. What did the review study? Certification sets and monitors voluntary standards, and can encompass systems engaging in a wider range of activities in policy, advocacy, and capacity building, and in building markets and supply chains, to make agricultural production socially sustainable and agricultural trade fairer. Certification is meant to affect a wide range of socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, to improve the well being of farmers and agricultural workers employed by corporate plantations or individual producers. Certification schemes use a combination of standard‐setting actions, training, different types of market interventions, and the application of adequate labour standards. This review assesses whether certification schemes work for the well being of agricultural producers and workers in low‐ and middle‐income countries. What studies are included? Included studies evaluate the effects of CS on socioeconomic outcomes for agricultural producers and workers. Eligible CS are based on second‐ (industry‐level) or third‐party certifications, and exclude own‐company standards. For the effectiveness review, studies must use experimental or non‐experimental methods demonstrating control for selection bias. Qualitative studies are included to answer questions about barriers, facilitators and contextual factors; these report on relevant outcomes, have sufficient reporting on methods, and provide substantive evidence on relevant themes. The review includes 43 studies used for analysing quantitative effects, and 136 qualitative studies for synthesizing barriers, enablers and other contextual factors. What is the aim of this review? This Campbell systematic review examines the effectiveness of certification schemes in improving the welfare of farmers and workers. The review summarises findings from 43 quantitative studies, and 136 qualitative studies. What are the main findings of this review? There is not enough evidence on the effects of CS on a range of intermediate and final socioeconomic outcomes for agricultural producers and wage workers. There are positive effects on prices. But workers’ wages do not seem to benefit from the presence of CS. Income from the sale of produce is higher for certified farmers, but overall household income is not. Context matters substantially for the causal chain between interventions of certification schemes and the well being of producers and workers. Generally, the quality of the studies is mixed, with a significant number of studies that are weak on a number of methodological fronts. What do the findings of this review mean? For farmers and workers the results show there is no guarantee that living standards improve through certification. To have a positive impact, CS need favourable conditions and the support of other factors. Some of these conditions depend on deeply rooted socioeconomic factors that, in the short to medium run, will not likely be altered substantially by certification. For CS practitioners and businesses, there are several lessons to learn. Claims about impact should match what is achievable and verifiable. Standards and interventions could be revised, away from multiple standards with fewer overlaps between systems and rationalisation of interventions. Impact evaluation standards should be given more attention. CS need to develop a deeper understanding of context, and adapt and pre‐test the type and range of interventions. Researchers and evaluators should consider using a range of methods for different kinds of research questions, and have a clear understanding of what kind of design is more appropriate for each question. They should also use a more consistent, rigorous approach in reporting methods and results. How up‐to‐date is this review? The review authors searched for studies published until July 2016. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in February 2017. Executive summary BACKGROUND The rise of voluntary standards and their associated certification for agricultural products is a well‐established phenomenon in the contemporary dynamics of agricultural trade. Supply chain management is increasingly influenced by a proliferation of standards, and by the organisations setting and monitoring them over a growing number of products. While the objectives of standards and certification schemes (CS) vary, the focus of this review is on social sustainability standards, which are closely related to ethical trading and to schemes that focus on socio‐economic outcomes of participants, essentially agricultural producers (particularly smallholders) and wage workers, whether employed by corporate plantations or individual agricultural producers. OBJECTIVES This systematic review addresses the extent to which, and under what conditions, CS for agricultural products result in higher levels of socio‐economic well being for agricultural producers and workers in low‐ and middle‐income countries (L&MICs). The primary review question is: What are the effects of certification schemes for sustainable agricultural production, and their associated interventions, in terms of endpoint socio‐economic outcomes for household/individual well being in low and middle income countries? The subsidiary review question is: Under what circumstances and why do certification schemes for agricultural commodities have the intended and/or unintended effects? What are the barriers and facilitators to such certification's intended and/or unintended effects? SEARCH METHODS We systematically searched for available literature from a wide range of sources. Several bibliographical databases were consulted. A very significant amount of time was devoted to a systematic search for relevant items through hand searching in targeted databases and websites, including consultation with relevant stakeholders in the community of standard‐setting organisations. In this field the ‘grey’ literature is very important. Thus, the standard bibliographic databases would not be enough to find all relevant material. Papers in English, French, Spanish, German and Portuguese were considered. The references retrieved for this review are up‐to‐date as of November 2015. Some key references were added in July 2016 as a result of consultations with the ISEAL Alliance. Selection criteria We included studies that evaluated the effects of CS on socio‐economic outcomes for agricultural producers and workers. We defined eligible CS as those based on second (industry‐level) or third‐party certifications thereby excluding own‐company standards. We examined the main types of interventions usually implemented by CS, organized around four groups: (a) capacity building, (b) market interventions (including price interventions, credit support, guaranteed market outlets, etc.); (c) premium‐funded social investments, and (d) labour standards. In most cases CS adopt combinations of these groups of interventions. We included studies that report at least one intermediate or final outcome of interest. For the effectiveness review, we selected studies that use experimental and quasi‐experimental methods, and other studies that demonstrated control for selection bias and sufficient confounders. We selected studies that provided relevant comparisons with non‐certified groups. For questions on barriers and facilitators and contextual factors we searched for and screened qualitative studies that reported on relevant outcomes, that had sufficient reporting on methods, and provided substantive evidence on key selected themes to complement the effectiveness review. We used a combination of single screening with substantial piloting and supervision in initial stages, and double screening with arbitration for disagreements in coding and inclusion/exclusion decisions for full‐text review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We developed separate coding tools according to the requirements of our two review questions. To compare effects on variable outcomes across studies we calculated standardised mean differences. The quantitative results were synthesised using inverse variance‐weighted random effects meta‐analysis. Only one effect size per outcome per study was included in any given synthesis. The analysis of qualitative material was organised around three main thematic areas: barriers and enablers in implementation dynamics; distributional dynamics, including gender equity issues; other internal and external contextual factors and barriers and enablers. RESULTS The initial search returned 10,753 studies, which, after dropping duplicates, a large number of irrelevant papers, and applying the selection criteria, were reduced to a final sample of 43 studies from 44 papers for review question 1 (effectiveness), and 136 studies from 114 papers for review question 2. All were published between 1990 and 2016. The majority of our material comes from research reports, working papers, book chapters, and theses. The included studies for the quantitative and qualitative syntheses provide evidence on a range of rural settings in L&MICs, with dominance of cases from Latin America. Despite the fact that there are many CS operating with agricultural commodities, included studies only cover a group among them (12 CS), which have attracted more research in the form of impact evaluations. Fairtrade certification is particularly well represented in the literature, with over half of the total number of included studies. Several agricultural products are covered by the included studies but coffee (38%) and fruits (17%) combined account for more than half of studies. In terms of population, a large majority of studies (77%) focus on agricultural producers, whereas the research on employment outcomes is rather limited. The quality of the included studies is mixed. The proportion of quantitative studies with high risk of bias ratings was relatively large. There are no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) but there is a range of quasi‐experimental designs employing different techniques of data analysis. Given the paucity of calculable effect sizes per outcome and the variety of methods used in different studies the meta‐analysis encountered difficulties, and the number of studies with low or moderate risk of bias included for the synthesis of effects for each outcome is very small. Although there are many included qualitative studies of high quality, especially ethnographic research, the overall quality of this group is mixed as well. Several studies, especially non‐ethnographic contributions, are only borderline in terms of minimum reporting standards. In terms of quantitative results, we find that the available quantitative evidence does not give a clear picture of the impact – or lack there of – of certification schemes. The synthesised effects for our key intermediate and final outcomes are summarised below. For each outcome we present the difference between certified groups and control groups in standardised percentages, with a central estimate and a likely range around the estimate, which reflects the uncertainty inherent in the estimate, added in parentheses.1 • Yields: We found no clear effect on yields. While certification is associated with a decrease in yields of 20%, the overall effect is not statistically significant (central estimate ‐20%, range from ‐52% to 19%; SMD ‐0.42, 95%‐CI from ‐1.23 to 0.39). The five studies synthesised for this outcome range from negative to positive in their effect sizes. One study was rated as having low risk of bias, and two studies each were rated as moderate and high, respectively. • Price: Prices for certified producers were 14% higher than for non‐certified producers (range from 4% to 24%; SMD 0.28, 95%‐CI from 0.09 to 0.49). Three of the four studies we synthesised for this outcome provided positive effect sizes. One study was rated has having high risk of bias while the other three were rated as moderate. The overall effect is statistically significant. • Income from certified production: Incomes from the sale of produce were 11% higher if the produce was certified (range from 2% to 20%; SMD 0.22, 95%‐CI from 0.03 to 0.41). For this outcome we synthesised ten studies whose individual effect sizes ranged from negative to positive, though none of the negative effect size estimates were statistically significant. Half of the studies were rated as having moderate risk of bias and the other half as high. The overall effect is statistically significant. • Wages: We find that wages for workers engaged in certified production were 13% lower than for workers working uncertified employers (central estimate ‐13%, range from ‐22% to ‐3%; SMD ‐0.26, 95%‐CI from ‐0.46 to ‐0.06). Of the eight studies synthesised all but two provide negative effect size estimates and the positive effect size estimates are not statistically significant. One of the studies was rated as having low risk of bias, while five were rated as moderate and two as high risk. The overall effect is statistically significant. • Total household income: Effects on the total household income of farmers are unclear. While household incomes of farmers engaged in certified production were 6% higher than those of households not engaged in certified production, the overall effect is not statistically significant (range from ‐3% to 16%; SMD 0.13, 95%‐CI from‐0.06 to 0.32). The effect size estimates for individual studies range from negative to positive, though all statistically significant studies provided positive estimates. Four of the studies synthesised were judged to be of moderate risk of bias, while the other four were rated has high risk. • Assets/wealth: We found no statistically significant effect on wealth. Certified producers on average had slightly higher wealth levels than uncertified producer who had been selected to be similar to them, and the overall effect was a 3% increase in assets, but this effect was not statistically distinguishable from zero (range from ‐7% to 13%; SMD 0.05, 95%‐CI from ‐0.15 to 0.26). For this outcome we had just two studies, both of which provided positive effect sizes. One study was rated has having high risk of bias, the other as moderate. • Illness: We also found no clear effect on producer's health. Pooling the included studies suggests a 7% lower incidence of illness in certified producers compared to non‐certified producers, but the overall effect is not statistically significant (central estimate ‐7%, range from ‐16% to 2%; SMD ‐0.15, 95%‐CI from ‐0.32 to 0.03). Please note that, as these findings concern illness, a negative synthesised effect means an improvement in health. Just two studies provided estimates for this outcome, both of which pointed towards a lower incidence of illness. Both studies were rated as having high risk of bias though. • Schooling: Children in households of certified producers receive 6% more schooling than children in households of non‐certified producers (range from 0% to 12%; SMD 0.12, 95%‐CI from 0.01 to 0.24). The individual effect sizes provided by included studies range from negative but not statistically significant to positive. Three of the five studies synthesised for this outcome were rated as having high risk of bias, the other two as moderate. The overall effect is statistically significant. In most cases, disaggregation by type of CS did not yield conclusive results, although for some CS results were more mixed than for others. Such is the case of Fairtrade for yields and income measures. The qualitative synthesis discussed a wide array of factors affecting the causal chain in different nodes along the chain, such as: producer organisations (POs) and their characteristics, particularly heterogeneity and power relations within them; relations with buyers and exporters; business models linking buyers and producers (whether open spot markets, contract farming or a mix); national institutions shaping the dynamics of agricultural trade and labour relations; barriers imposed by direct and indirect certification costs, which negatively affect adoption or the size of benefits accruing to producers; availability of additional external support, often critical for adoption and sustained maintenance of standards; inconsistency in monitoring and auditing practices; heterogeneity of participant groups and the effects of inequality on POs management and the sharing of benefits; difficulties in addressing deep‐rooted structures of inequality based on gender; the relative invisibility of large segments of agricultural wage workers, Not ably those employed by small farmers. The mixed and inconclusive quantitative effects, combined with the wide range of contextual factors to take into consideration, underline that CS operate in complex environments with multiple interventions, goals, actors and contexts, and as such they do not operate in a social, institutional and economic vacuum. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS Overall, we found mixed results and a dominance of weak or not statistically significant effects. There were both positive and negative effects for different outcomes. Even within a given CS there is substantial variation in effects across different outcomes. Thus, it is hard to conclude anything about whether any particular CS performs better compared to others over a range of outcomes. Without more systematic high‐quality quantitative evidence on intermediate and final outcomes it is difficult to draw meaningful conclusions with actionable findings. Context hugely matters, as the range of contextual factors and barriers and enablers is vast. This is not surprising and most Theories of Change developed for selected CS acknowledge the centrality of context specificity. Nonetheless, the reviewed qualitative research reveal a number of key barriers and facilitators or contextual features that seem important to understanding the impact of CS. Practitioners can extract some lessons about the kinds of contextual factors that seem prominent in mediating the impact of their interventions, such as the characteristics of POs with which they partner, the deep‐rooted social relations of inequality, including gender dynamics, in rural areas of L&MICs; the direct and indirect certification costs, and their determinants; the specificities of each supply chain and especially existing relations between established buyers and producers; and the national and local contexts of regulation and economic development. There are various implications for researchers. First, there is scarcity of high‐quality impact evaluations, and a disproportionate attention to some CS and almost no attention to several other CS. The volume of research with rigorous study designs has fortunately expanded in the last 10 years but this review calls for more studies and on more outcomes, especially on employment effects, which have received less attention so far. Second, mixed‐methods theory‐based evaluations with appropriate counterfactual designs are likely to generate more valuable findings, given the importance of context and the need to link effects with barriers and facilitators in each study. Third, reporting standards must be improved, so published papers should devote more space and attention to reporting details of how research was conducted, limitations and all the relevant statistical information. Many studies had to be excluded from this review or from effect size calculations because of basic reporting gaps.
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ScopeSeveral epidemiological studies have shown that tea consumption is associated with higher bone mineral density in women. Flavonoids in tea are recognized as potential estrogen mimics and may positively influence bone metabolism in estrogen-deficient women. Luteolin and orientin, flavonoids from rooibos tea, are of particular interest as rooibos tea contains no caffeine that can be detrimental to bone health. This study analyzed changes in mineral content when luteolin or orientin was added to a human osteoblast cell line and the potential mechanisms involved. Measurements included alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, cell mitochondrial activity, toxicity, and changes in regulatory proteins involved in osteoblast metabolism.Methods and resultsMineral was significantly elevated in Saos2 cells treated with orientin (0.1-1.0 μM, 15-100 μM) or luteolin (5.0 μM) and was associated with increased ALP and mitochondrial activity, as determined by the production of p-nitrophenol and the reduction of 2-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, respectively. Greater mineral content was also associated with lower toxicity as determined by lactate dehydrogenase activity and lower expression of TNF-α, IL-6, sclerostin, osteopontin, and osteoprotegerin.Conclusion Orientin and luteolin, flavonoids in rooibos tea, enhance mineral content in Saos2 cells. These findings provide guidance for doses to be studied in well-established animal models.
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Cooperatives are member-run organizations focused on combined social and economic goals. Based on surveys and interviews with agricultural and energy cooperatives in Canada, we explore the range of cooperatives’ ethical orientations and trajectories within the context of environmental sustainability. We develop a new typology of environmental performance and identify market, institutional, and strategic drivers that underscore the typology. Our findings suggest that whereas younger and smaller cooperatives are the most inclined to embrace integrated environmental principles, other outlier cooperatives have resisted ethical dilution by cultivating a progressive localism rather than focusing on broadening and widening their markets.
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With democratic rule in South Africa, policies were introduced to redress the extreme inequalities in income, wealth and livelihoods engendered by apartheid rule. There was the expectation that enhanced access to productive resources such as land and technical support would translate into increased agricultural productivity for the black farmers who make up the bulk of the smallholders in the country.
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In Africa, the world's poorest continent, community-based development has a key role to play in ensuring human survival and uplifting livelihoods. This article, presented in two parts, examines some of the key factors that can affect the success and failure of community-based development initiatives. Drawing upon 30 years of field-based research in and experience of small towns and rural areas in a number of African countries, the article critically examines the extent to which seven key criteria might impinge, both individually and collectively, upon the success of local development initiatives. The importance of achieving a detailed understanding of relationships between people and environment is identified as a prerequisite for project success.
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Private standards increasingly play a major role in creating sustainable practices in international trade relations. This paper presents the results of an impact study in tea produced for export in India and it compares a group of certified tea estates with non-certified farms. It aims to determine changes in time and differences between the two groups. The study reveals differences between certified and non-certified tea suppliers. These are partly rooted in a longer history of the certified farmers. The study shows that certified farms have a better economic performance and produce ecological and social benefits. Still their practices face some major challenges for the near future. The study also reveals that a part of the control group farms may be receptive for a move towards complying with standards set in the international market. It also discusses limitations of what private standards can achieve, especially in the area of socio-economic impact and living wages.
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Smallholders in developing countries tend to sell their products at local markets because of their proximity and the fact that they are immediately paid for the produce delivered. Increasingly, they also perceive opportunities in both national or international markets or supply chains to sell their surpluses. They tend, however, to encounter several constraints. A first challenge regards the availability and accessibility of resources and competences which are required to deliver the products that consumers demand (Ingenbleek and Van Tilburg, 2009). Another challenge is the manner in which farmers can be organised to meet the quantities and qualities that their supply chain partners or the consumer market need. A third challenge regards the limited access smallholders have to market information and necessary services such as working capital to manage their operations properly.
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‘A hopeful but nonetheless hard-hitting analysis of alternative economic spaces proliferating in the belly of the capitalist beast. In this book Leyshon, Lee and Williams convene fascinating studies of exchange, enterprise, credit and community. They invite us onto a new and promising discursive terrain where we can analyze, criticize and above all recognize actually existing economies of diversity in the wealthy countries of the West’ - J K Gibson-Graham, Australian National University and University of Massachusetts, Amherst. In the context of problems in the ‘new economy’ - from dot.com start-ups, high-technology, and telecoms - Alternative Economic Spaces presents a critical evaluation of alternatives to the global economic mainstream. It focuses on the emergence of alternative economic geographies within developed economies and analyzes the emergence of alternative economic practices within industrialized countries. These include the creation of institutions like Local Exchange and Trading Systems, Credit Unions, and other social economy initiatives; and the development of alternative practices from informal work to the invention of consumption sites that act as alternatives to the monoply of the ‘big-box’, multi-chain retail outlets. Alternative Economic Spaces is a reconsideration of what is meant by the ‘economic’ in economic geography; its objective is to bring together some of the ways in which this is being undertaken. The volume shows how the ‘economic’ is being rethought in economic geography by detailing new economic geographies as they are emerging in practice.
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This article reviews recent research into alternative systems of food provision. It considers, first, what the concept of`alternativeness' might mean, based on recent discussions in economic geography. Informed by this, it discusses food relocalization and the turn to `quality' food production, arguing that both are `weaker' alternative systems of food provision because of their emphasis on food. It then examines some `stronger' alternative systems of food provision, which emphasize the networks through which food passes. Lastly, the paper reflects on the concept of alternativeness in the context of food supply chains, and suggests some possible directions for future research.
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A recurring theme across the social sciences is that there is a natural and inevitable shift towards commodification. In this linear view of the trajectory of economies, ‘non-commodified’ economic activities are rapidly vanishing as the commodity economy, in which goods and services are produced by capitalist firms for a profit under conditions of market exchange, becomes ever more victorious, powerful and hegemonic. Until now, few have questioned this meta-narrative. Here, however, the intention is to evaluate critically the penetration of commodification. Investigating the depth and speed of the permeation of the advanced economies by the commodity economy, it is revealed that the non-commodified sphere has far from disappeared. Indeed, over the past 40 years, it has grown relative to the commodity economy and is now equal in size when the time spent working in these spheres is measured. Explaining this in terms of both the inherent contradictions embedded in the pursuit of commodification as well as the existence of ‘cultures of resistance’, the paper concludes that commodification is not only far from inevitable but the possibility of alternative futures for work beyond the all-conquering on-going advance of capitalism.
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Purpose – Recently, the recurring narrative that capitalism is stretching its tentacles ever moe widely and deeply into every crevice of daily life across the globe has been challenged in the context of Western economies and the Third World by an emerging post-development corpus of thought. The aim here is to extend this critique of market hegemony by investigating the so-called “transition” economies of East-Central Europe. Design/methodology/approach – The paper analyses the extent to which market practices penetrated the “transition” economies of East-Central Europe in the years following the collapse of the socialist bloc, first through a review of the post-development literature and then by examining the nature of work and trajectories of the “transition” economies. Findings – Analysis highlights not only the shallow permeation of market practices but also the multiplicity of development trajectories being pursued at both the household and societal levels. Originality/value – The outcome is to provide additional evidence from the post-socialist East-Central European bloc to support the critique of market hegemony and open up the future to alternative possibilities beyond marketisation.
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This paper argues that the pressures for fair trade to substantially increase market access for marginalized producers in the global South and subsequently move fair trade out of niche into mainstream markets is reshaping the boundaries of the movement. We suggest that going mainstream carries with it the danger of appropriation of the more convenient elements of fair trade by the commercial sector and loss of the more radical edges. This paper examines the changing discourse surrounding fair trade, critically reflecting on the movement's history to understand how its evolution to date might influence its possible futures. The paper concludes by exploring how various elements within the fair trade movement are trying to retain a radical edge in order to continue to provide a critique of the dominant paradigm of business and trade. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
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Abstract  Fair trade is typically understood as an alternative market system that aims to right historically inequitable terms of trade between the geopolitical North and South and foster more direct producer/consumer linkages. We suggest that a more expansive application of the term “fair trade” to encompass agro-food initiatives within the North and South has considerable analytic and practical utility. We profile five such initiatives in the United States and two in Mexico. The U.S. undertakings are best understood as “proto-” fair trade projects that frame their work principally as an effort to preserve “family farming” rather than as an exercise to achieve fairness in the marketplace. The Mexican initiatives more explicitly embrace the certification-criteria-labeling model of international fair trade. Both, we conclude, hold potential to harness fair trade's “moral charge” to improve conditions for small producers and laborers in North and South experiencing most directly the negative effects of economic globalization.
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Alternative food initiatives are appearing in many places. Observers suggest that they share a political agenda: to oppose the structures that coordinate and globalize the current food system and to create alternative systems of food production that are environmentally sustainable, economically viable, and socially just. This paper examines the potential of these initiatives through the lens of the concepts of ‘alternative and oppositional’ social movements and ‘militant particularism and global ambition’ developed by Raymond Williams and David Harvey. The three sections of this paper review (1) the current discussion of common themes and strategies in agrifood initiatives within the academic literature; (2) the history of these initiatives in California; and (3) results of our interviews with 37 current leaders of California organizations. We suggest that further understanding these initiatives, and success in the goals of the initiatives themselves, requires us to look past their similarities to examine their differences. These differences are related to the social forms and relations that have been established in the places from which these initiatives arise. ‘Social justice,’ in particular, may be difficult to construct at a ‘local’ scale.
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Keywords: Lagging rural regions; Rural development dynamic; Food supply chains; Delphi technique; The UK Endemic problems in EU ‘lagging rural regions’ (LRRs) are well documented and various support mechanisms have long been in place to help overcome structural difficulties. Nevertheless, new rural development architectures are now being sought and some scholars have posited that LRRs may benefit from the ‘quality (re)turn’ in food and a relative shift from long to short food supply chains. The ways in which this ‘new agriculture’ relates to rural development in lagging regions sound fine in theory. However, in practice it is far from clear what will actually happen, where and how. This paper attempts to answer some of these questions and, using a Delphi technique, to forecast those factors likely to influence supply chain development and performance in two LRRs in the UK: West Wales and the Scottish–English Borders. The findings suggest that while most experts willingly accept the socio-economic values that can be gained by localising, shortening and synergising the food chain in LRRs, there are also important barriers that question the emergence of such an agrarian based rural development dynamic. These include the small number and size of ‘alternative’ producers in both locales, with most still locked into industrial forms of production; the restrictive influence of bureaucracy; the shortfall of key intermediaries in both regions’ food chains; and the poor provision of key physical infrastructures (e.g. roads, railway and telecommunications). The Delphi method also reveals how expert opinions about rural development in LRRs are contingent and contested, with contradictions emerging within, as well as between, rounds.
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Newly emerging ethical trade practices in the South African wine industry are examined as a way of engaging with debates about the ability of alternative trade approaches to facilitate meaningful opportunities for socioeconomic development in the global South. The South African wine industry has undergone rapid restructuring since the end of apartheid in order to meet the demands of international markets. However, transforming racially skewed ownership and skill patterns is proving a particular challenge. In this paper we outline some of the initiatives that have been introduced to stimulate socioeconomic change within the industry. By utilising analytical tools such as commodity chains, networks, and cultural approaches we demonstrate that a complex array of forces is driving change on the ground. Such forces include national imperatives derived from the legacy of apartheid and the concerns of consumers in the global North. We conclude by considering the types of local and global constraints that need to be challenged if these initiatives are to be successful in facilitating meaningful socioeconomic transformation within the wine industry.
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The war against poverty is threatened by friendly fire. A swarm of media-savvy Western activists has descended upon aid agencies, staging protests to block projects that allegedly exploit the developing world. The protests serve professional agitators by keeping their pet causes in the headlines. But they do not always serve the millions of people who live without clean water or electricity.
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This article highlights the development and emerging significance of nongovernmental organizations, as well as their relevance to the future of social work. It provides the practicing social worker with an introduction to NGOs and illustrates the opportunity they offer for applyingthe strengths perspective.
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This paper explores what happens when corporations engage explicitly in practices of organisational learning not only to become better capitalists by generating ever more innovative ways of maintaining profitability, improving competitiveness and maximising shareholder value, but also to become more responsible corporate citizens in their business practices. In particular, I evaluate the ways in which UK food and clothing retailers are learning to develop their ethical trading programmes in response to political calls for more responsible trading. Thrift’s [Thrift, N., 2005. Knowing Capitalism. Sage, London] notion of ‘knowledgeable, or soft, capitalism’ is adopted to understand the creative and experimental ways in which retailers and their mentors (ethical consultancies, social auditors and multi-stakeholder organisations) are learning to trade ethically. Two specific examples of formal learning spaces experienced by UK food and clothing retailers are examined: (i) training courses on social auditing and (ii) corporate awareness-raising courses on ethical trade. These courses are shown to encompass various participative and affective practices of learning. And while particular limits to the success of these courses are argued to exist, ethical learning practices discussed in this paper are nonetheless suggested to play a role in the making of new, albeit moderate, forms of responsible capitalism.
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Although the concept of sustainable communities is often referred to as being closely allied to environmental sustainability, it also embodies notions of sustainable development, empowerment and increase in community autonomy. The concept of sustainability assumes a process of social and/or economic development that has as a high priority the needs of the future generation. However, models of social and economic development employed in developing countries must rely heavily on political, social and psychological empowerment techniques being employed at the community level, in order to warrant any type of sustainability becoming apparent. Two case studies taken from Kingston, Jamaica, demonstrate the process of community economic development (CED) employed and provide a source for analysis of one writer's criteria for sustainable development. Conclusions are subsequently drawn as to the usefulness of this particular CED model in contributing to sustainable community-driven action. The analysis also points to improvement in the quality of life, acceptance of a 'third-party' support mechanism, the creation of an atmosphere for continued community decision making and continued visible government support as important factors in the struggle to maintain a responsible, viable community which will be acceptable to present and future generations. A pesar de que con frecuencia se refiere al concepto de las comunidades autosuficientes como muy vinculadas con mantenimiento del medio ambiente, tambien contiene nociones de desarollo sustentable, transferencia de poder y aumento de la autonoma de la comunidad. El concepto de la sustentabilidad asume un proceso de desarollo social y/o económico que tiene como su maxima prioridad las necesidades de la generación futura. Sin embargo, los modelos del desarollo social y económico empleados en los paises en desarollo, deben depender en gran medida de que las técnicas del autorizamiento póltieo, social y sicológico esten implementadas al nivel de comunidad para garantizar que cualquier tipo de sustentabilidad sea aparente. Dos estudios, hechos en Kingston, Jamaica demuestran que el proceso del desarollo económico de la comunidad (CED) emplearon y facilitaron un fuente para el análisis de los criterios de un escritor sobre el desarollo sustentable. En consecuencia, se han extrá´ do concluciones referentes a la utilidad de este modelo espeć fico (CED) para contribuir a la acción originada por la comunidad sustentable. El análisis tambien apunta a una mejora de la calidad de vida, la a ceptación de un mecanismo de apoyo a terceros, la creación de un ambiente para la toma de decisiones comunitanas y el continuo apoyo gubernamental visible como factores importantes en la lucha para mantener una comunidad viable y responsable que sea aceptable para las generaciones presentes y futuras.
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The purpose of this article is to stimulate and inform discussion about the community role in sustainable development and to broaden our understanding of the opportunities for sustainable community development activity. It begins with an overview of sustainable development, questioning its focus on poverty as a major source of environmental degradation, and suggesting instead that both poverty and environmental degradation result largely from wealth. It next examines the concepts of natural capital and social capital, whether (and if so, how) they are linked, and explores their implications for sustainable development at the community level.Chapter 3 examines planning theory and sustainable development, finds that while planning theory is, or should be, relevant to sustainable development, planners concerned with key aspects of sustainable development will have to look to “greener” pastures for relevant theoretical guidance.Chapter 4 considers the implications for achieving sustainable development in communities, particularly regarding the future of work and community economic development. Chapter 5 details a framework for sustainable community development. Chapter 6 concerns questions of governance for sustainable community development and it focuses on public participation, decision-making, the role of local government, and planning for action. Chapter 7 examines relevant policy instruments and planning tools. Finally, Chapter 8 explores the challenge ahead for sustainable community development.
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This paper explores the role of short food supply chains in rural development. By developing a theoretical perspective, it seeks to contribute to debates on the generalized theory of rural development. It argues that in order to more fully understand their role and potential we need to move beyond descriptions of product flows to examine how supply chains are built, shaped and reproduced over time and space. Consideration is given to the definition of short food supply chains, and a three level typology is presented. The paper examines the dimensions and evolution of short food supply chains, and identifies four types of evolution: temporal, spatial, demand and associational or institutional. Case studies from the impact research programme are positioned within this framework, and it is argued that we need conceptualizations that reflect the dynamic and evolutionary nature of supply chains and the businesses they involve. A case study of the Llyn Beef Producers Co-operative in Wales is expanded to illustrate the evolution of supply chains and their role in rural development, both at the farm level and within the wider rural economy.
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Community-based development strategies are gaining in credibility and acceptance in development circles internationally and notably in post-apartheid South Africa. In parallel, the concept of social capital and the role of supportive nongovernmental organizations are receiving attention as key catalytic elements in encouraging and assisting community-based initiatives. In this paper, a well-documented initiative, the Hertzog Agricultural Co-operative in Eastern Cape province, is re-examined after the passage of several years to assess the impact of social capital and the involvement of a particular non-governmental organization in ensuring the sustainability and economic survival of the project. While both elements have proved critical to the project's life-cycle, particularly in recent years, concerns over possible dependency and project sustainability exist.
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Fair trade and ethical trade have traditionally had quite different aims, scope and modalities, the former principally focused on terms of trade with small scale producers and the latter on working conditions in mainstream production. Global value chain analysis suggests that this coincided with different forms of governance in the chain: fair trade reflecting relational governance based on trust and mutual dependence, while ethical trade was incorporated into the industrial coordination of buyer-driven, modular value chains. This paper explores the potential for greater synergy between the two as a result of recent developments, taking UK supermarket value chains as a case study. We conclude that convergence may occur in some supermarket chains, in a context of relational governance, while in others ethical trade and fair trade will remain inherently different. Whether and how convergence occurs will depend largely on the prevailing culture, values and strategies of the supermarket concerned. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
Article
This article analyzes the multifaceted connections linking consumers and producers in expanding North/South Fair Trade coffee networks. I develop a commodity network framework that builds on the commodity chain tradition, integrating insights from cultural studies, actor–network theory, and conventions approaches. This framework illuminates how material and ideological relations are negotiated across production and consumption arenas. In the case of Fair Trade, progressive ideas and practices related to trust, equality, and global responsibility are intertwined with traditional commercial and industrial conventions. As I demonstrate, the negotiation of these divergent conventions shortens the social distance between Fair Trade coffee consumers and producers. I conclude that by re–linking consumers and producers, commodity network analysis provides a robust entré for academic inquiry and engagement in alternative food politics.
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This research examines the relationship between features of community social organization and the existence of two contrasting types of economic development, self-development and industrial recruitment in rural places. Self-development is an endogenous form of development relying primarily on entrepreneurism and local resources. Industrial recruitment is an exogenous form of development that seeks outside investors and firms to locate in the community. Using data collected in a statewide sample of 99 Iowa communities, we hypothesize that social infrastructure, the group-level interactive aspects of community organizations and institutions, is more strongly related to the existence of self-development than industrial recruitment. A key finding is that social infrastructure, measured by the existence of active community organizations, businesses that support local community projects, community-wide fund-raising capacity, and extra-local linkages to peer communities and state government, is positively associated with the existence of self-development. The relationship between social infrastructure and industrial recruitment is also significant but more modest. Findings indicate that a community's social organization can be a resource for development, but may be more appropriate for endogenous development efforts than exogenous ones.
Article
This article analyses Fair Trade, its evolution and the challenges it faces, in the light of the convention theory and its application to the ambit of agro-food.The article reviews the different meanings and models of what has come to be called Fair Trade, since its beginning as alternative trade, considered as the prototype of a “civic coordination”, to its insertion into the large distribution channels through the labeling strategy, that is, when it is reinforced by “market coordination”. It discusses the possibility of Fair Trade being re-absorbed by the market logic and captured by the dominant actors of the food system who, attracted by its success, have already adopted strategies to win the promising niche market for themselves, while producers preoccupied with the struggle for survival and looking for the possibility of increasing sales volumes, require to move beyond the limits of marginal distribution circuits and to enter the market full steam.To counter this risk, one key element in strengthening Fair Trade is to empower the label as a base for network legitimacy and a product of social interaction. This means to reinforce the civic coordination by public authority through the state recognition and the institutionalization of their symbol. On the other hand, it is important not to lose sight of the social interactions on which Fair Trade was built and of the importance of mobilizing them, since those who control the mechanisms of this social interaction have the power to impose their legitimate vision of the quality. In this sense, the article integrates the issue of power largely forgotten in the studies on quality.
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This article examines governance changes and shifting power relations within the fair-labelling network. These shifts are framed analytically by reference to broader changes in the agrofoods sector tied to the increasingly key role played by quality relations and standards in the production and marketing of food. The author argues that evident trends such as a growing complexity of fair-labelling markets, the centralization of its regulating bodies, and the normalization of certification processes have altered power relations to the detriment of small producers. In addition, and at the same time, this ‘fair’ market niche has become more desirable to dominant market actors leading to a combination of factors that has triggered a broad debate within fair trade with respect to the definition and mission of the fair-trade network.
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Incl. abstract and bibl. references The evaluation of development NGOs has seldom considered their impact on social capital and local organisational learning. Deeply intertwined, both are key dimensions of the long-term impact of development interventions. Studies have highlighted the relative success of NGOs in poverty reduction, but have been critical of the sustainability of the benefits and of NGOs' failure to strengthen institutions. This paper analyses the experience of a sustainable natural resources management project coordinated by CARE in Villa Serrano, Bolivia, between 1993 and 2000. The article compares the outcome of a traditional evaluation with that of an impact evaluation, which allows us to identify significant flaws. The article concludes by reflecting on the limitations of traditional intervention approaches and on the need to rethink the strategic role of NGOs.The evaluation of development NGOs has seldom considered their impact on social capital and local organisational learning. Deeply intertwined, both are key dimensions of the long-term impact of development interventions. Studies have highlighted the relative success of NGOs in poverty reduction, but have been critical of the sustainability of the benefits and of NGOs' failure to strengthen institutions. This paper analyses the experience of a sustainable natural resources management project coordinated by CARE in Villa Serrano, Bolivia, between 1993 and 2000. The article compares the outcome of a traditional evaluation with that of an impact evaluation, which allows us to identify significant flaws. The article concludes by reflecting on the limitations of traditional intervention approaches and on the need to rethink the strategic role of NGOs.
Article
Incl. bibl., index, biographical notes on the contributors, list of abreviations
Article
This article examines, within a livelihoods framework , what social capital does for communities living in rural areas and the potential it holds for improving rural living conditions. It concludes by making suggestions on how this all&hyphen;important form of capital can be drawn upon and fully utilized to fast track the fight against poverty through community economic development , and promote sustainable livelihoods. It is hoped that the information summarized in this article will be helpful to agencies implementing community development initiatives or attempting to conduct research in the field.
Article
Approaching maturity, Fair Trade faces challenges at both ends of the supply chain, reflecting the dual roles of Fair Trade as a business and development instrument. Who should supply the Fair Trade market, what support do producers require and what is the impact of the relationship between Fair Trade organisations and producers? How can Fair Trade continue to assert its unique selling point in the market place and what messages should it be transmitting to the consumer? What does the Fair Trade movement need to do to substantiate its claims regarding benefits to producers? The paper draws on research, consultancy and engagement with the Fair Trade movement to explore issues of producer development, accountability, and competition in the consumer market and to look forward to potential strategies for the movement, especially as other approaches to trading ethically are becoming more active in the market place.
Article
In this paper, we develop the burgeoning research agenda on alternative food networks in Europe. Through the concept of 'embeddedness', we argue for a much more nuanced and complex understanding of the relationships between conventional and alternative food chains--and, by extension, of their implications for rural development. Rather than viewing alternative and conventional food networks as separate spheres, we see them as highly competitive and as relational to one another and argue for the need to examine the links more critically. In particular, we highlight the need to explore the competitive relationships that alternative food networks have with the conventional sector to expose power imbalances and the effect these may have on wider rural development processes. Copyright 2006, Oxford University Press.
Article
Cape Natural Tea Products was a young herbal products company based in South Africa. Rooibos tea was the strongest component of their product portfolio. In South Africa, rooibos was a commodity product and a direct competitor of coffee and tea. Antioxidants and other nutrients made rooibos a functional food. The American market developed interest in functional foods; however, the diverse opinions and knowledge of American consumers of functional foods made marketing difficult. Could the company benefit from the American market? With strong competition at home and marketing challenges abroad, what would be the best path of success for the company?
Cape Town: Oxford University Press for Southern Africa Winds of change blow over rooibos fields
  • Van
  • J Walt
United Nations Human Development Programme (UNHDP). (2004). South Africa human development Report 2003. Cape Town: Oxford University Press for Southern Africa. van der Walt, J. (2006). Winds of change blow over rooibos fields, /www.capetimes.co.za/general/ print_article.php?fArticleId=3453898S. Accessed 27/10/2006.
Debates in local economic development policy and practice Local economic development in the developing world: the experience of Southern Africa Activities: Agriculture and agro industries
  • Article In Press Bond
ARTICLE IN PRESS Bond, P. (2003). Debates in local economic development policy and practice. In E. Nel, & C. Rogerson (Eds.), Local economic development in the developing world: the experience of Southern Africa. Transactions Press: New Brunswick. Casidra. (2005). Activities: Agriculture and agro industries, /www.casidra.co.za/activities_agriculture.shtmlS.
Capitalising on local knowledge: Community knowledge exchange: Toolkit 1
  • N Oettle
  • B Kolle
Oettle, N., & Kolle, B. (2003a). Capitalising on local knowledge: Community knowledge exchange: Toolkit 1, Washington, World Bank (2003).
Everybody's cup of tea
  • N Furniss
Furniss, N. (2002). Everybody's cup of tea. WSSD News, August 2002, www.scienceinafrica.co.za/2002/august/tea.htm. Accessed 5 March 2005.
Connecting economic growth with poverty alleviation: South Africa's LED challenge
  • Hindson
Hindson, D. (2003). Connecting economic growth with poverty alleviation: South Africa's LED challenge, Hologram 1 (2003) (1), pp. 2-7.
Justice, nature and the geography of difference. Blackwell: Cambridge. Heiveld Co-operative, n.d. Heiveld organic rooibos tea: produced with pride, Heiveld Co-operative: Nieuwoudtville. Heiveld small farmers co-operative History of the Heiveld co-operative
  • D Harvey
Harvey, D. (1996). Justice, nature and the geography of difference. Blackwell: Cambridge. Heiveld Co-operative, n.d. Heiveld organic rooibos tea: produced with pride, Heiveld Co-operative: Nieuwoudtville. Heiveld small farmers co-operative. (2005). History of the Heiveld co-operative, /www.indigo-dc.org/ history.htmlS. Accessed: 24 March 2005.
Understanding 'Local Economic Development' and the South African Case Unpublished paper SA 2002–3: South Africa at a Glance Food security hearings: Submission by Environmental Monitoring Group Rooibos Tea
  • K Cox
Cox, K. (2004). Understanding 'Local Economic Development' and the South African Case. Unpublished paper, Department of Geography, Ohio State University. Editors Inc. (2002). SA 2002–3: South Africa at a Glance. Johannesburg: Editors Inc. EMG (Environmental Monitoring Group). (2003). Food security hearings: Submission by Environmental Monitoring Group, /www.pmg.org.za/docs2003/appendices/030311emg.htmS. Accessed 5 March 2005. Equal exchange. (2004). Rooibos Tea, /www.equalexcange.co.uk/products/roibos_1.htmlS. Accessed 9 January 2006.