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Abstract

Ghee is produced mainly by indigenous methods in Asia, the Middle-East and Africa and the methods of manufacture and characteristics vary. Some ambiguity in the definition of ghee occurs mainly due to regional differences and preferences for the product, commonly used for culinary purposes but also for particular social functions and therapeutic purposes. The characteristic flavour of ghee is its major criterion for acceptance. Flavour is greatly influenced by the fermentation of the cream or butter and the heating processes. Carbonyls, lactones and free fatty acids are reported to be the key ghee flavouring compounds. Ghee is fairly shelf-stable largely because of its low moisture content and possible antioxidative properties. Ghee may contain high amounts of conjugated linoleic acid, a newly reported anticarcinogen. However, it is also reported that, under certain circumstances, it may contain certain amounts of cholesterol oxidation compounds (COPS) which may cause adverse health effects.
... Geleneksel olarak Ghee üretiminde Desi yöntemi kullanılırken, endüstriyel üretiminde çoğunlukla tereyağının ısıtılması veya kremanın doğrudan ısıtılması yöntemleri kullanılmaktadır. Desi yöntemiyle üretilen Ghee'nin endüstriyel olarak üretilen Ghee'den daha zengin bir aromaya sahip olduğu bildirilmekte olup tüketicilerin Desi yöntemiyle üretilen Ghee'yi daha fazla tercih ettikleri ve daha yüksek ücrete satıldığı bildirilmektedir Ghee yağı, en az %96 süt yağı, en fazla %0,3 nem, en fazla %0,3 serbest yağ asitleri ve 1'den az peroksit değerine sahiptir [51,52]. ...
... Bu şeklide spontan fermentasyona bırakılan süt daha sonra yayıklanmakta ve Desi tereyağı elde edilmektedir. Desi tereyağı açık kaplarda ortamdaki süt proteinlerinin tamamen yanması engellenerek kaynatılmakta ve fazla su uzaklaştırılmaktadır. Erimiş haldeki Ghee toprak kaplara doldurularak saklanmaktadır [8,52,53]. Etiyopya'da özellikle geleneksel Ghee yağının üretim aşamasında kurutulmuş otlar, yeşil yapraklı sebzeler ve baharatlar da kullanılabilmektedir [54]. ...
... Söz konusu bileşikler fermentasyon ve ısıtma aşamasında protein parçalanma ürünleri, laktoz ve mineral maddelerin etkileşimleri, süt yağının hidroliz ve lipolizi sonucunda oluşmaktadır. Özellikle serbest yağ asitleri, karbonil bileşikler ve laktonlar Ghee'nin temel aroma bileşenleridir [51,52]. Wadodkar ve ark. ...
... It is consumed in different parts of the under different names, viz., maslee and samna in the middle-east; roghan in Iran; meshho in Aramea; samin in Sudan; samuli in Uganda. It is used for preparation of sweetmeats; cooking and frying of different products, topping for sauces and coffee, feeding children, etc. (Sserunjogi et al. 1998). India is one of the larger producer and exporter of ghee. ...
... Flavour is one of the major acceptability parameter of ghee and it is greatly affected by various factors, such as cream or butter fermentation and the extent of thermal conditions employed during the ghee boiling step. Yadav and Srinivasan (1992) and Sserunjogi et al. (1998) reported that ghee should have rich nutty, pleasant and slightly caramelized flavour. Heat treatment during the ghee boiling step results into thermal decomposition of lactose, fat, proteins and amino acids. ...
... Whitfield et al. (1992) reported about the interaction between FFA and Maillard's reaction products, which results into removal of rancid compounds from the product, primarily because of the interaction between the two. Sserunjogi et al. (1998) reported that ghee boiling not only results into development of characteristic ghee flavor, but also drives out the off-flavour which might have developed in the white butter during storage. ...
Article
Ghee (clarified butter fat) is a well relished traditional fat rich dairy product. Ghee preparation involves concentration of milk fat using of different techniques, followed by heat treated at 110–120 °C for 10–20 min. During this process, moisture evaporates from the system with simultaneous changes in protein, lactose, fat and minerals. Interaction among these thermally altered species results into the development of characteristic ‘ghee’ flavor. But, the presence of unsaturated free fatty acids makes it highly susceptible to oxidative spoilage. Efforts have been made to increase the shelf life and functionality of ghee by adding many functional ingredients and natural antioxidants from different sources. This review deals with the different process employed for ghee preparation and the attempts made in the past two decades years to increase the functionality and shelf life of ghee. Also, the changes taking place during ghee preparation and flavour generation has been discussed in this review.
... Additionally, the digestibility of ghee (99%) is reported to be higher than other vegetable fats (91% in palm oil and 86% in sunflower oil) (Boateng et al. 2016;Kumar et al. 2016). Ghee is also utilised in other parts of the world since equally ancient time by other names such as samna (Egypt) (Abou-Donia and El-Agamy 1993), samin (Sudan) (Dirar 1993), samin (Middle East) and rogan (Iran) (Urbach and Gordon 1994) and samuli (Uganda) (Sserunjogi and Abrahamsen 1998). Characterisation of proteins, peptides and fat of camel milk and milk products has been extensively carried out, while the FA profiling and overall composition of camel milk ghee with breed-specific differences have not been documented so far. ...
... No significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in the peroxide value of the ghee samples, indicating that all the ghee samples were prone to oxidation and rancidity (if any) at the same rate throughout the time. The peroxide value of ghee should be less than 1, and free FAs should not exceed 0.3% in ghee (Sserunjogi et al. 1998). Reichert Meissl (RM) values varied significantly (P < 0.05) and ranged between 14.29 in MEW ghee and 16.76 in KAC ghee, while RM values obtained for BIK (15.84) and JAI ghee (15.33) differed nonsignificantly (P > 0.05). ...
Article
This work explored the differences in the fatty acid profile and physico‐chemical composition of ghee prepared from the milk of different camel breeds using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Bikaneri ghee was observed to contain 11 individual fatty acids. Chemometric analysis identified the breed‐specific differences among various groups. The higher concentration of medium‐ and long‐chain fatty acids along with fatty acid indices (n‐3/n‐6 ratio, Atherogenic index and Thrombogenic index) in Kachchi ghee established its superiority in terms of nutritional values. Correlation network indicated the strong interdependence of different fatty acids with similar physiological and molecular characteristics, while positions of transmittance peaks confirmed significant differences in the fatty acids. Characterization of Ghee from Milk of Indian Camel Breeds.
... The GR possess large number of flavouring components such as carbonyls, lactones and FFA ( Galhotra and Wadhwa, 1993 ), which are generated during the ghee preparation and remains in GR after filtering out the fat ( ghee ). Different pathways for flavor development during ghee preparation are provided by Sserunjogi et al. (1998) . The authors reported that heat treatment (boiling) during ghee preparation not only result into generation of flavour compounds through various pathways, but it also eliminates the off-flavour (putrefactive odours) which might have developed during the prolonged storage of white butter Kumbhare et al. (2021) . ...
Article
Increasing global population has tremendously increased the pressure on existing food systems to feed the larger set of people. With limited food resources, contemporary food industries are focusing various approaches to increase their production capacity. Utilization of by-products for various food applications is one such approach. Although, by-products like whey and buttermilk have gained much attention and are commercially used for food applications, but the same is not true for other by-products, particular ghee residue. Ghee residue is a by-product obtained during the ghee (clarified butter fat) preparation. It arises as a result of the serum part of milk solids and acts as a major source of flavour and color development in ghee. It is a rich source of fat, protein and minerals. Further, the thermal treatment during ghee boiling step makes it a rich source of flavouring and antioxidant compounds. This makes it an economically and nutritionally important food resource. However, its direct application is limited to products which have dark colour and cooked flavour, such as bakery, confectionary and certain dairy products. It has also been increasingly used for non-food applications, such as production of lipases, biodiesel, etc. This review aims to provide comprehensive information about the ghee residue relating to its composition, flavouring and antioxidant attributes. In addition, fat recovery methods from ghee residue and utilization have also been included in this review.
... In addition, it is used in the preparation of a number of formulations for treating allergy, skin and respiratory diseases and is considered to induce many beneficial effects on human health (Jacobson, 1987;Mariod et al., 2010). Because of low moisture content, smen has better shelf-life than other indigenous dairy products (Sserunjogi et al., 1998). However, it undergoes deterioration which spoils its appetizing flavor, making it unpalatable and toxic (Mariod et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Open Access Physicochemical characteristics and storage stability of clarified butter fat « smen » produced from pasteurized and non-pasteurized milk Objectives of this work were studying physicochemical characteristics and oxidative stability of clarified butter fat "smen" produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized cow's milk. A sensorial evaluation was applied to select more appreciate "smen" by consumers. An oxidative procedure was applied to test the stability of smen. Samples were kept in glass bottles and heated at 100°C. The resistance to oxidation of smen samples was studied by measuring Peroxide value (PV), Thiobarbitu-ric acid (TBA), Free Fatty Acid (FFA), Specific absorptivity at 232 and 270 (K232 and K270) values and change in fatty acid composition, color, polyphenol contents and oxidation induction time in the Rancimat. When compared, smen produced from pasteurized milk has higher thermal stability than smen produced from non-pasteurized milk. All studies indicated that, smen produced from non-pasteurized cow's milk was more prone to oxidation than smen produced from pasteurized cow's milk. Regarding these specificities, the value of this product in food formulation may be justified.
... Ruminant milk is an emulsion of water-based milk fat globules (MacGibbon & Taylor, 2009) and is the main source for ghee manufacturing. Ghee, often recognised as clarified butter, is manufactured by heating milk cream or butter above 120 C (Sserunjogi, Abrahamsen, & Narvhus, 1998) and removing accumulated solid not fat (Parmar, Mehta, & Aparnathi, 2018). The resultant product is the most complex of all-natural fats with a great diversity of fatty acids (>400) (Kontkanen et al., 2011). ...
Article
Nutritional quality of ghee samples prepared from cattle, buffalo and goat milk was evaluated based on fatty acid profiling. Short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids were highest (P < 0.05) in goat ghee indicating higher digestibility. Besides lower saturated fatty acids (55.10 g 100 g⁻¹), Sahiwal ghee had highest (P < 0.05) oleic acid (35.40 g 100 g⁻¹) and conjugated linoleic acid content (0.52 g 100 g⁻¹), thus proving its potential health attributes. Nutritional indices including atherogenic index and thrombogenic index were lowest for Sahiwal (1.38 and 2.05) and Tharparkar (1.51 and 2.33), while desirable fatty acids and hypercholesterolaemic fatty acids were highest in both of these breeds and buffalo breed, respectively. FT-IR spectra revealed vibrational motions that confirmed dissimilarities in cholesterol levels, saturated fatty acids and β-carotene, triacylglycerols and aliphatic chains. A proper separation of fatty acid clusters among different samples was obtained by OPLS-DA test and heat maps.
... However, previous studies have shown that ghee from other ruminants such as buffalo and cow milk comprise a moisture to fat ratio of 0.09-0.50%:96.00-99.50% [28,[30][31][32]. Thus, the moisture and fat contents of FG0 and GG0 agreed with previous studies. ...
Article
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As the oxidation of yak ghee is inevitable and as consumer demand for natural products continues to increase, this study aimed to enrich yak ghee with goji berry carotenoids by means of green solvent extraction and determined changes in the oxidative stability and fatty acid profiles of yak ghees during microwave heating (MW-heating) and accelerated storage. An enriched ghee (GG0) was prepared by high shear dispersion and ultrasound-assisted extraction, while a control ghee (FG0) was prepared by heating and filtration; both ghees were stored at 65 °C for 30 days and were microwave-heated (MW-heating) at 180 °C (15 and 30 min) and 200 °C for 30 min. The results showed that the carotenoid enrichment increased the oxidative stability of yak ghee during MW-heating and storage. The initial CLA and PUFA values of GG0 were not significantly different from those of FG0; SFA increased, and MUFA and TFA decreased. There was a faster rate of UFA loss and an increase in SFA and TFA in FG0 during MW-heating and storage. This indicated a protective effect of carotenoid enrichment on yak ghee. Therefore, the findings in this study support the use of goji berry carotenoids as a natural colorant and antioxidant in yak ghee. This study provides vital information for dairy processors and marketers.
... Then, the EDPF was left to cool and allow particles to settle at the bottom of the pan. After that, the EDPF was filtered carefully using cheesecloth until it became transparent (Sserunjogi et al., 1998). The same procedures were applied to extract fat from hard cheese. ...
Article
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Many dairy products are discarded and useless after end of shelf-life, which causes economic and environmental challenges. The objective of this study was to study the compositional characteristics of some dairy products before and after shelf-life, and develop a process to utilize those dairy products after end of shelf-life in non dairy applications (cosmetic cream and soap). Several dairy products, such as sterilized milk, yogurt, soft cheese, hard cheese, cream, and butter were collected from markets in Egypt before and after three months of shelf-life. Electrophoresis analysis was conducted to estimate the changes in the protein fractions of protein products (sterilized milk, yogurt, and cheese) before and after expiration. Also, gas chromatography (GS) was performed to compare the fatty acids of fat products (cream and butter) before and after end of shelf-life. Sterilized milk, yogurt, soft, and hard cheese were turned into powder (Expired dairy products powder; EDPP) to be used as a raw material in manufacturing of cosmetic creams. The fat was separated from cream, butter, and hard cheese (Expired dairy products fat; EDPF) to be utilized in making soap. The formulated cosmetic creams were examined in vitro. Functional properties of cream were determined, such as appearance, spreadability, irritancy, and pH. Additionally, the soap quality was tested after manufacture. We found that dairy products, such as milk, yogurt, and cheese after shelf-life can be utilized as raw materials for the production of cosmetic creams, as well as production of soap from butter and cream. The produced products were similar to those in commercial markets. This study is an endeavor to conquer the dairy industry challenges, which are considered a huge loss from the economic and environmental aspects.
Chapter
Milkfat-based products have been very popular in Indian subcontent, the Middle East, and Africa for several centuries and they are primarily used in cooking, frying, and the manufacture of snacks and sweets. In western countries, milkfat is used mostly as an ingredient in prepared foods. The milkfat products, anhydrous milkfat (AMF) and butter oil, are produced from either cream or butter using a process where centrifugal separators are essential. An important application of AMF is the production of recombined liquid milk, but it can also be used in the production of blends, low-fat dairy spreads, blended spreads, ice cream, and bakery and confectionary industry. Ghee is similar to anhydrous milkfat and butter oil except the higher processing temperature leads to a typical flavor in the final product that is important for its acceptability among consumers. The major purpose of converting milk into these milkfat products is to increase shelf life at ambient temperature. The AMF and Ghee normally have a shelf life of several months at room temperature. The removal of water from milk extends the keeping quality of these milkfat-based products substantially. However, deterioration can still be caused by oxidation of milkfat if product is not packaged and stored in a protective environment.
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Ghee residue is a nutritional by product obtained during ghee production. Due to lack of awareness of its nutritional property and the methods of its effective utilization it was discarded to the waste stream by most of all the dairy industries. The project was done with an objective of finding the effectiveness in utilization of ghee residue in production of cookies and biscuit at an industrial level. Trials were done to incorporate the ghee residue in biscuit and cookies using different states (squeezed and washed) of ghee residues at different proportions.The sensory quality and shelf life of treatments were compared with that of control sample. Ghee residue cookies prepared with washed ghee residue (E samples) were rejected based on shelf life study and sensory evaluation due to the hydrolytic rancidity development. In samples prepared using squeezed ghee residue (C samples) with Batter: Ghee residue in the ratios, C1; 90:10, C2; 85:15, C3; 80:20and C4; 70; 30 where C1 scored high while C2, C3, C4 were rejected in sensory evaluation due to the poor body and texture profile. Based on the economic analysis and chemical analysis done on ghee residue utilization at an industrial level revealed that utilization of ghee residue will always bring economic benefit for the industries along with reducing environment pollution. The standardized ghee residue biscuit had 28.25% fat, 60.39% total carbohydrate, 5.73% protein and 506 Kcal/ 100g.
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Various methods to assess lipolytic as well as oxidative degradation of milk fat are discussed. For the determination of free fatty acids, extraction titration method, Bureau of Dairy Industry method and autoanalyzer give better results of lipolysis. Among various methods to evaluate oxidative rancidity of milk fat, determinations of peroxide value (by both iodometric and ferric thiocyanate methods) and carbonyl content are more useful.
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Formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in ghee during deep-frying was studied, as they were reported to cause arteriosclerotic lesions. COPs were formed, when ghee was used for deep-frying for 15 min. The level of COPs increased with frying time. Ghee residue, being a good antioxidant, delayed the formation of COPs during deep-frying.
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Conjugated dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid (CLA), shown to be anticarcinogenic in several animal models, are present in many natural food sources. However, few quantitative data on CLA in food are available. An improved method for quantifying CLA was developed. The method was used to produce a data base of more than 90 food items including meat, poultry, seafood, dairy products, plant oils, and infant and processed foods. The principal dietary sources of CLA are animal products. In general, meat from ruminants contains considerably more CLA than meat from nonruminants, with veal having the lowest and lamb the highest (2.7 vs 5.6 mg CLA/g fat). Foods derived from nonruminant animals were far lower in CLA content except for turkey. Seafood contained low amounts of CLA, ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 mg CLA/g fat. By contrast dairy products (milk, butter, and yogurt) contained considerable amounts of CLA. Natural cheeses were also high in CLA. Among cheeses, those which were aged or ripened more than 10 months had the lowest CLA content. CLA concentrations in an assortment of processed cheeses did not vary much (avg 5.0 mg CLA/g fat). Plant oils contained far less CLA, ranging from 0.1 mg CLA/g fat (coconut oil) to 0.7 mg CLA/g fat (safflower oil). Processed, canned, and infant foods were comparable in CLA content to similar unprocessed foods. Values for foods that contained beef, lamb, and veal were generally high in CLA. However the c-9,t-11 CLA isomer, believed to be the biologically active form, tended to be lower in cooked meats. In animal and dairy products the c-9,t-11 CLA isomer accounted for 75 and 90%, respectively, of the total CLA; in plant oils less than 50% of the total CLA was the c-9,t-1 I CLA isomer. The results show that considerable differences occur in the CLA content of common foods and indicate the possibility of large variations in dietary intakes of CLA.
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Phenol, o-methoxyphenol, m- and p-cresol, indole and skatole have been isolated from good quality butter oil by cold-finger molecular distillation, and separated into phenolic and indolic fractions by solvent extraction and silicic-acid column chromatography. The individual compounds were quantitatively estimated by gas chromatography. When phenol, o-methoxyphenol, m- and; p-cresol, indole and skatole were added to volatile-free butter oil, their recoveries were 94, 47, 90, 75, 71 and 61% respectively. The technique, when applied to fresh butter oil, gave the following ranges of values for the natural levels of these compounds: phenol 0·005–0·022, o-methoxyphenol 0·002–0·10, m-cresol 0·002–0·010, p-cresol 0·002–0·004, indole 0·07–0·13, skatole 0·16–0·22 ppm of butter oil. The results, when compared with flavour threshold studies, showed that indole and skatole are important contributors to the natural flavour of butter oil, but that phenolic compounds are of only borderline significance.