Interception in a mountainous declining spruce stand in the Stenbach catchment (Vosgues, France)
Centre de Géochimie de la Surface (CGS), CNRS, 1 rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, FranceJournal of Hydrology (Impact Factor: 3.05). 04/1993; 144(1-4):273-282. DOI: 10.1016/0022-1694(93)90175-9
In a over-mature (declining) 90-year-old Norway spruce stand (Picea abies) in the Vosges mountain area, gross precipitation, throughfall, stemflow and meteorological variables have been measured for three periods in the summers of 1988, 1989 and 1990; transpiration was measured from June to August 1989. Throughfall, interception and stemflow represent, respectively, 65.3%, 34.2% and 0.5% of the incident rainfall. A semi-logarithmic relationship between interception and gross precipitation is given. Transpiration of the stand determined by sap-flow measurements represents only 27% of the potential evapotranspiration. Evaporation of water intercepted by the vegetation is the major component of the evapotranspiration.
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- "This was due to the low field capacity (coarse soil texture), evapotranspiration and the impact of interception. According to Viville (1993), spruce forests are able to store up to 7.0 mm of precipitation. Thus, a high proportion of precipitation in the days before the DRI experiments was stored in the canopy and did not contribute to a soil moisture increase. "
ABSTRACT: This study presents an adaptation of the double-ring infiltrometer (DRI) device, which allows several infiltration experiments to be conducted at the same location. Hence, it becomes possible to use the DRI method to investigate infiltration behaviour under different initial soil moisture conditions. The main feature is the splitting of the inner ring into two parts. While the lower part remains in the soil throughout the investigation period, the upper part is attached to the lower one just before the infiltration experiment. This method was applied to eight test sites in an Alpine catchment, covering different land-use/cover types. Results demonstrated the applicability of the adapted system and showed correlations between total water infiltration and initial soil moisture conditions on pastures, independent of the underlying soil type. In contrast, no correlation was found at forest sites or wetlands. Thus, the study emphasises the importance of paying special attention to the impact of initial soil moisture conditions on the infiltration—and consequently the runoff behaviour—at managed areas. Given the differences in the total infiltrated water of between 30 and 1306 mm, consideration of the interplay between initial soil moisture conditions, land-use/cover type, and soil properties in rainfall-runoff models is a prerequisite to predict runoff production accurately.
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- "The crosses depict sampling setups of selected empirical interception studies (Asdak et al., 1998; Blume et al., 2008; Brauman et al., 2010; Cao et al., 2008; Carlyle-Moses et al., 2004; Dietz et al., 2006; Elsenbeer et al., 1994; Häger and Dohrenbusch, 2011; Huber and Iroumé, 2001; Jackson, 1971; Johnson, 1990; Krämer and Hölscher, 2009; Macinnis-Ng et al., 2012; Manfroi et al., 2006; Marin et al., 2000; McJannet et al., 2007; Oyarzún et al., 2011; Ponette-González et al., 2010; Schrumpf et al., 2011; Veneklaas and Van Ek, 1990; Viville et al., 1993), interception modeling studies (Bruijnzeel and Wiersum, 1987; Carlyle-Moses et al., 2010; Cuartas et al., 2007; Deguchi et al., 2006; Dykes, 1997; Fleischbein et al., 2005; Gash, 1979; Gash and Stewart, 1977; Gash et al., 1980; Germer et al., 2006; Gerrits et al., 2010; Herbst et al., 2008; Hölscher et al., 2004; Holwerda et al., 2010, 2012; Jetten, 1996; Lankreijer et al., 1993, 1999; Limousin et al., 2008; Link et al., 2004; Lloyd et al., 1988; Loustau et al., 1992; Murakami, 2007; Niedzialek and Ogden, 2012; Price and Carlyle-Moses, 2003; Pryet et al., 2012; Pypker et al., 2005; Schellekens et al., 1999; Takahashi et al., 2011; Vernimmen et al., 2007; Vrugt et al., 2003; Wallace and McJannet, 2008; Zhang et al., 2006), and studies which investigated solute fluxes (Chuyong et al., 2004; Clark et al., 1998; Crockford et al., 1996; Currie et al., 1996; Dezzeo and Chacón, 2006; Filoso et al., 1999; Hofhansl et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2003; McDowell, 1998; Moreno et al., 2001; Olson et al., 1981; Tietema et al., 1993; Uyttendaele and Iroumé, 2002). For more information on the sampling schemes of these studies we refer to Supplementary material S1. 3.4.7. "
ABSTRACT: A wide range of basic and applied problems in water resources research requires high-quality estimates of the spatial mean of throughfall. Many throughfall sampling schemes, however, are not optimally adapted to the system under study. The application of inappropriate sampling schemes may partly reflect the lack of generally applicable guidelines on throughfall sampling strategies. In this study we conducted virtual sampling experiments using simulated fields which are based on empirical throughfall data from three structurally distinct forests (a 12-yr old teak plantation, a 5-yr old young secondary forest, and a 130-yr old secondary forest). In the virtual sampling experiments we assessed the relative error of mean throughfall estimates for 38 different throughfall sampling schemes comprising a variety of funnel- and trough-type collectors and a large range of sample sizes. Moreover, we tested the performance of each scheme for both event-based and accumulated throughfall data. The key findings of our study are threefold. First, as errors of mean throughfall estimates vary as a function of throughfall depth, the decision on which temporal scale (i.e. event-based versus accumulated data) to sample strongly influences the required sampling effort. Second, given a chosen temporal scale throughfall estimates can vary considerably as a function of canopy complexity. Accordingly, throughfall sampling in simply structured forests requires a comparatively modest effort, whereas heterogeneous forests can be extreme in terms of sampling requirements, particularly if the focus is on reliable data of small events. Third, the efficiency of trough-type collectors depends on the spatial structure of throughfall. Strong, long-ranging throughfall patterns decrease the efficiency of troughs substantially. Based on the results of our virtual sampling experiments, which we evaluated by applying two contrasting sampling approaches simultaneously, we derive readily applicable guidelines for throughfall monitoring.
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- "Acid atmospheric pollutants deposited on sensitive ecosystems like forested granitic catchments cause increasing acidification of surface waters and soils (Chapman et al., 2008; Nakano and Tanaka, 1997; Reuss and Johnson, 1986; Vogt et al., 2007). The sensitivity of silicate soils in the forested Strengbach catchment observatory (Vosges mountains; http://ohge.u-strasbg.fr) to acid deposition has been confirmed by several isotope and trace element studies (Aubert et al., 2001, 2002a,b; Dambrine et al., 1998; Probst et al., 2000; Viville et al., 1993). The neutralization of acid atmospheric depositions in silicate-rich soils is, at a short timescale, mainly controlled by ion exchange processes because they are more rapidly compared to chemical weathering (Norton and Vesely, 2003). "
ABSTRACT: The combination of the Sr, Nd and Pb isotope systems, recognized as tracers of sources, with the Ca isotope system, known to reveal biology-related fractionations, allowed us to test the reliability of spruce (Picea abies) growth rings as environmental archives through time (from 1916 to 1983) in a forest ecosystem affected by acid atmospheric deposition. Sr and Pb isotopes have already been applied in former tree-ring studies, whereas the suitability of Nd and Ca isotope systems is checked in the present article. Our Sr and Nd isotope data indicate an evolution in the cation origin with a geogenic origin for the oldest rings and an atmospheric origin for the youngest rings. Ca isotopes show, for their part, an isotopic homogeneity which could be linked to the very low weathering flux of Ca. Since this flux is weak the spruces' root systems have pumped the Ca mainly from the organic matter-rich top-soil over the past century. In contrast, the annual growth rings studied are not reliable and suitable archives of past Pb pollution. (c) 2012 Academie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
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