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Sensation seeking and music preference

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Abstract

A Musical Preference Scale was devised from factor analyses of preference ratings for established categories of music based on divisions in the recording industry in the U.S.A. The scales of the Sensation Seeking Scale form V were correlated with rated likings of each of the categories derived from the factor analysis. Total Sensation Seeking correlated positively with liking for all types of rock music and negatively with liking for bland, soundtrack music. In addition to a liking of rock music, those having high scores of the Thrill and Adventure Seeking and Experience Seeking subscales liked folk and classical music. High scorers on the Disinhibition subscale liked rock and disliked religious and soundtrack music. The results are consistent with the theory that high sensation seekers have a high optimal level of stimulation and thus tolerate and like high intensity and/or complexity in music, and stimulation in general.

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... All five publications included in Table 3 were quantitative studies that examined the relationship between sensation-seeking and musical preference in different areas, aside from one, which examined other sensory processes, such as resting arousal (McNamara & Ballard, 1999). The literature included studies that aimed to replicate findings from previous studies that reported positive correlations between sensation-seeking and musical preference (Litle & Zuckerman, 1986). Other studies specified that there were significant differences between men and women in sensation-seeking and musical preference (Heydari, Mohammadi, & Rostami, 2013;McNamara & Ballard, 1999) or the preferences of people with conservative attitudes (Glasgow, Cartier, & Wilson, 1985). ...
... The results point to two types of associations: between music and the sensory system and between sensation-seeking and musical aspects. Some studies reported a positive correlation between sensation-seeking and a preference for rhythmic music such as rock, hip-hop, and the like (Litle & Zuckerman, 1986), which could have mainly been driven by higher boredom susceptibility ( Vuust et al., 2010). This link was suggested to be stronger ...
... Whether focusing on musical training ( Kuchenbuch et al., 2014;Landry & Champoux, 2017), active music making (Perry, 2015), or passive listening (Esteves et al., 2009;Hall & Case-Smith, 2007;Kantono et al., 2016;Schoen et al., 2015), the studies reviewed here also suggest that both playing or listening to music had a significant influence on the sensory system. Both children and adults manifesting arousal through sensation-seeking showed specific musical preferences ( Glasgow et al., 1985;Heydari et al., 2013;Litle & Zuckerman, 1986;McNamara & Ballard, 1999;Nater et al., 2005) which may also affect musical career choice (Vuust et al., 2010). All of the above is indicative of the influence of the sensory system on musical factors. ...
Article
Sensory processing disorder (SPD) is a disruption in the organization of sensory input that affects appropriate responses to the demands of the environment. The consequences of SPD in children may include a developmental lag as well as behavioral and emotional problems. Music therapy is particularly suitable for children with a sensory processing disorder because music and the sensory system are both linked to the nervous system. This suggests there is a need to better understand the relationship between the sensory system and the characteristics of music. An integrative review method was chosen here, given the small number of published articles on music and SPD. This integrative review covers 17 articles published between 1985 and 2017. A search was carried out in five major databases, eight music therapy journals, and grey literature. To assess the quality of a study, the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias was used when possible. The results point to two types of associations: between music and the sensory system, and between sensation-seeking and features of music. Studies have also shown that therapeutic listening programs improved the sensory profiles of children with SPD. These findings lead to the practical conclusion that music is a suitable therapy for children with SPD. The benefits include improvement in the plasticity of the sensory system, motivation, self-confidence, communication and social skills.
... Concerten van Ariana Grande, Bruce Springsteen, The Afghan Whigs, Underworld, The Unthanks en Metallica 'trekken' ander publiek. De vraag is of de verschillen tussen deze publieksgroepen alleen van doen hebben met leeftijd en inkomen of dat muziekvoorkeuren ook samenhangen met nog andere aspecten zoals leefstijl (Litle & Zuckerman, 1986;North & Hargreaves, 2007a/b/c;Schäfer, 2008). ...
... De resultaten waren echter niet reproduceerbaar en betrouwbaar (Langmeyer, Guglhör-Rudan & Tarnai, 2012). Litle & Zuckerman (1986) ontwikkelde de MPS (Music Preference Scale) om de relatie van muziekvoorkeuren met sensation seeking te onderzoeken. De MPS vraagt naar voorkeuren voor 60 muziekgenres op een Likert-type schaal van 'dislike' tot 'like very much'. ...
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Glastonbury, het theaterfestival in Avignon, North Sea Jazz, Sensation White, de Duitse oktoberfeesten, het carnaval in Rio en Venetië of de Mardi Gras in New Orleans, de lancering van de nieuwste smartphone of gameconsole, de Fiesta in Pamplona, plaatselijke talentenjachten, de May Day Cooper’s Hill Cheese Rolling and Wake, waarbij het de bedoeling is om van een steile heuvel achter een rollende Gloucester kaas aan te rennen... Het kost tegenwoordig aanzienlijke moeite om op een vrije dag niet ondergedompeld te worden in allerlei festiviteiten en evenementen. Festivals zijn hierin prominent aanwezig. Maar wat is een festival eigenlijk? Deze studie formuleert hier een antwoord op door het rijke landschap van festivals te schetsen en hoe dit te ontleden is in motivaties voor bezoek, de specifieke bouwstenen van een festival, het festivalDNA, en de plek waar het allemaal gebeurt: de festivalscape. Ondanks dat de laatste decennia het onderzoek naar festivals aanzienlijk is toegenomen is de bezoekersbeleving van festivals een onderwerp waar relatief weinig onderzoekers zich diepgaand mee bezig hebben gehouden. In het tweede gedeelte van dit boek staat beleving centraal, waarbij emotietheorieën worden besproken en allerhande belevingsmodellen en meet- methoden de revue zullen passeren om de weg vrij te maken voor een gerichte en onderbouwde analyse van de bezoekersbeleving, zoals de beleving van sfeer.
... Concerts by Ariana Grande, Bruce Springsteen, The Afghan Whigs, Underworld, The Unthanks and Metallica draw different audiences. The question is whether the differences between these audiences are only related to age and income or whether music preferences are also related to other aspects such as lifestyle (Litle & Zuckerman, 1986;North & Hargreaves, 2007a/b/c;Schäfer, 2008). ...
... However, the results were not replicable and reliable (Langmeyer, Guglhör-Rudan & Tarnai, 2012). Litle & Zuckerman (1986) developed the Music Preference Scale (MPS) to investigate the relationship between music preferences and sensation seeking. The MPS asks for preferences for 60 music genres on a Likert-type scale ranging from "dislike" to "like very much". ...
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Why do people go to festivals? That is an important question. The answer enables event organizers to tailor their festivals to what visitors want and expect. This increases the likelihood that visitors will enjoy the festival, give the festival a positive rating, talk about it in positive terms with others and possibly attend the festival again. During the past 30 years, various scientific studies have addressed the topic of the motivations of festival visitors. These studies are discussed and analyzed in this chapter. This is necessary because these studies are often treated only superficially in handbooks on events, such as in that of Berridge (2007). As far as the analysis is concerned, it is important to know that the research on festival motivations stems from, and is embedded in, the broader field of research on events and tourism. The latter field focuses on research questions such as why people go on holiday and how they arrive at a choice of destination. Festivals are seen as a way to enhance the attractiveness of a holiday location. However, festivals have now become an important field of research of their own within the general field of event studies, with a substantial body of literature (see, for example, Getz, 2010). As an introduction, this chapter begins with two studies into the motivations of visitors to events and festivals (3.1). After that, international research into festival motivations is introduced, from which a number of generic motivations are derived (3.2). The problems that arose in this process are explained. A specific problem concerns the theoretical interpretation of these motivations, which has led to some confusion in recent years (3.3). This confusion can be removed by making a distinction between motivations as the internal drivers of people and the specific focus that these motivations are given by certain festival characteristics, such as the program and location. These festival characteristics, which I refer to as the ‘FestivalDNA’, are discussed in the next chapter. Festival visitors bring more to the festival than just their motivations. These additional aspects include demographic variables, 'festigraphic' variables (3.4) and lifestyles (3.5). Because music festivals are by far the most common type of festival, at least in the Netherlands (see Chapter 2), specific attention is paid to the relationship between music preferences and lifestyle (3.6). Finally, other relevant characteristics of festival visitors are briefly mentioned and explained (3.7).
... Groundbreaking work by Rentfrow and Gosling (2003) and subsequent analyses by Rentfrow, Goldberg, and Levitin (2011) suggest that musical preferences can be analyzed using a five-dimension model: Mellow (e.g., pop, soft rock, and soul/R&B); Unpretentious (e.g., country and singer-songwriter); Sophisticated (e.g., classical, jazz, and world); Intense (e.g., heavy metal, punk, and rock); and Contemporary (e.g., rap and electronica music). Music listeners also tend to prefer songs that correspond to their emotional state (Rentfrow & Gosling, 2003 other arousing music tend to have higher resting arousal (e.g., resting heart rate and blood pressure), tend to be more sensation seeking, and are more likely to have antisocial personality traits (Litle & Zuckerman, 1986;McNamara & Ballard, 1999). Similarly, when listening to heavy metal, fans of this genre show increasing arousal levels beyond those of country music fans (Gowensmith & Bloom, 1997). ...
... Rentfrow et al. (2011);Rentfrow and Gosling (2003);Litle and Zuckerman (1986);McCown et al. (1997);McNamara and Ballard (1999);Vuoskoski et al. (2012) ...
... In this context, we also note a number of studies which show that the apparent relationships between musical taste and various undesirable outcomes are also modified by personality factors, particularly sensation-seeking. Litle and Zuckerman (1986) argued that high sensation-seekers have an elevated optimal level of arousal and thus seek high intensity and/or complexity via their behaviours, experiences, and preferences. As such, it is unsurprising that several studies should show that sensation- seeking correlates positively with various indices of recklessness and liking for music that is dynamic and sensational (see review by North & Hargreaves, 2008;and Litle & Zuckerman, 1986;Zuckerman & Kuhlman, 2000). ...
... Litle and Zuckerman (1986) argued that high sensation-seekers have an elevated optimal level of arousal and thus seek high intensity and/or complexity via their behaviours, experiences, and preferences. As such, it is unsurprising that several studies should show that sensation- seeking correlates positively with various indices of recklessness and liking for music that is dynamic and sensational (see review by North & Hargreaves, 2008;and Litle & Zuckerman, 1986;Zuckerman & Kuhlman, 2000). For instance, Arnett (1992) found that sensation-seeking mediated the relationship between liking for anti-authoritarian music and reckless behaviour. ...
Article
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While previous research has established relationships between perceived parenting styles and children’s deviant behaviours, and links between these behaviours and liking for intense and rebellious music, no research has explored the associations between perceived parenting styles and children’s liking for different music styles. Whereas previous research has considered musical taste by looking at a small number of individual difference variables in isolation from one another, the present research used a cross-sectional correlational design to investigate whether parenting styles, the big five personality traits, sensation-seeking, age, and gender were associated with liking for different music styles. Three hundred and thirty-six Australians completed an online, self-report questionnaire. Analyses demonstrated that there were relationships between five of the six parenting style variables and five of the music styles considered. This indicates that various parenting styles were associated with musical taste, and that the nature of these associations extends well beyond those concerning rebellious music and neglectful parenting that have been identified by previous research.
... Research on musical genre and feature preference has established that humans show individual music preferences (e.g. Rentfrow, Goldberg, & Levitin, 2011), which in turn are related to various personality traits, such as Sensation Seeking (Litle & Zuckerman, 1986), the Big Five personality dimensions (Rentfrow & Gosling, 2003), and their facets (Zweigenhaft, 2008;Greenberg et al., 2016). Besides its social implications, such as acting as a conveyor for social affiliation (North & Hargreaves, 1999), music preference thus can also be construed as an idiosyncratic personality characteristic. ...
... For instance, research on the relationships with Sensation Seeking (e.g. Litle & Zuckerman, 1986) could be relived with music feature preference, or research could examine relationships with other constructs that are likely related to musical preference, such as Need for Uniqueness or Hypersensitivity. ...
Article
This paper explores the measurement of individual music feature preference using human- and computer-rated music excerpts. In the first of two studies, we correlated human ratings of song excerpts with computer-extracted music features and found good accordance, as well as similar criterion validity with preference for musical styles (the MUSIC model, mean r = 0.88). In a second online study (N = 2118), using PCA and Procrustes analysis, we found that measured music preference showed the same established three-component structure from previous research (Arousal, Valence, Depth), regardless of whether the music pieces were rated by humans or the ESSENTIA music analysis software. Our results suggest that computer-extracted music features can be used to assess individual music preference.
... Aside from the research into extroversion, several studies have been carried out into the relationship between Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking dimension (1979) 2 and music preferences. Studies have shown that this trait is positively correlated with preferences for rock, heavy metal and punk music, while being negatively correlated with preferences for film music and religious music (Litle & Zuckerman, 1986). Sensation Seeking is therefore positively correlated with highly arousing music (McNamara & Ballard, 1999). ...
... It is worth bearing in mind that the SE and MO scales are moderately correlated with extroversion and the seeking of sensation (Strelau & Zawadzki, 1998). The results obtained also accord with those of the research into extroversion and sensation-seeking presented at the beginning of the article (see Daoussis & McKelvie, 1986;Litle & Zuckerman, 1986;Mc-Cown et al., 1997;McNamara & Ballard, 1999;Rentfrow & Gosling, 2003). From these results it can be seen that high-extroversion and sensation-seeking individuals prefer music that is more arousing -and therefore of greater stimulative value -similarly to individuals with high scores on the SE and MO scales. ...
Article
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The objective of the research was to check the relationship between temperament traits as classified by Pavlov and preferences for works of music containing specified musical elements. 145 students aged 19-26 took part in the study. The respondents completed the Pavlovian Temperament Survey and a Music Preferences Form. Statistical analysis showed that all the temperament traits classified by Pavlov were related to musical elements contained in the subjects’ chosen pieces of music. The following proved to be significant in regard to the subjects’ musical preferences: Tempo, Changes in Tempo, Rhythm Values in Relation to Metrical Basis, Number of Melodic Themes, Scale of Performance, and Meter. The results are consistent with studies indicating the impact of temperament traits (related to the need for stimulation) on music preferences.
... Kabul görmüş tek bir tanım olmamasına rağmen, çoğu teori (psikanalitik yaklaşım, ayırıcı özellik yaklaşımı, insancıl yaklaşım, davranışsal yaklaşım, bilişsel yaklaşım vb.) kişiliğin motivasyon ve çevreyle olan psikolojik etkileşimleri üzerine odaklanmaktadır (Burger, 2006, s.23 (Chamorro-Premuzic ve Furnham, 2007;Furnham ve Allass, 1999;Schellenberg ve ark., 2008). Yine bazı çalışma bulgularında, heyecan arayışı yüksek ve dışadönük bireylerin tercihi caz ve hard-rock ile olumlu ilişkilenirken, soundtrack ve dini müzikle olumsuz ilişkilenmiştir (Dollinger, 1993;Little ve Zuckerman, 1986). Benzer şekilde dışadönük bireylerin iyimser-geleneksel ve enerjik-ritmik müziği daha çok dinleme eğilimindeyken, deneyime açık bireylerin karmaşık-komplex ve şiddetli-yoğun-asi müzikleri daha fazla tercih ettiğini saptayan araştırmalar mevcuttur (Rentfrow ve Gosling, 2003;Vella ve Mills, 2017). ...
Article
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The present study is the second extended version of a previous study conducted between 2017 and 2018. The present study aimed to assess the daily music-listening habits and subsequent emotional reactions of young adults (N = 1457) studying at various universities in Turkey according to their immediate mood and introvert (n = 247) or extrovert (n = 282) personality traits according to certain variables. The study group was composed of 794 women (54.5%) and 663 men (45.5%), with a mean age of 22.33 (SD = 2.54, range = 17–35) years. The study was carried out online. To assess the natural tendencies and reactions with reference to the relationship among mood, music, and emotion, participants were asked to use their smartphones at a time when they felt the need to listen to music during their daily living. Music classifications were categorized under the MUSIC model developed by Rentfrow, Goldberg, and Levitin. As regards gender, women preferred the mellow and energetic music category more than men, and men preferred the intense music category more than women. By contrast, the sense of tension felt by men after listening to music was higher than that of women. While introverts preferred both the mellow and energetic music less than extroverts, they preferred the intense music category more. Extroverts are more oriented toward energetic and conventional types than introverts. When the music categories preferred depending on their positive and negative moods before listening to music were compared, the positive emotion scores of those who preferred sophisticated music were higher than those who preferred mellow and unpretentious ones. All findings indicate that mood was one of the determining factors of music preferences of introverts and extroverts, and data discussed were within the framework of music psychology literature.
... It can therefore be contrasted with rock/pop music, as music that is close to informal youth culture (Vogt, Heß, & Brenk, 2014). Apart from these culture-related aspects, music preferences may surely also differ depending on personality traits (Litle & Zuckerman, 1986;McCown, Keiser, Mulhearn, & Williamson, 1997;Rentfrow & Gosling, 2003;Schwartz & Fouts, 2003) and positive or negative momentary affects (Getz, Chamorro-Premuzic, Roy, & Devroop, 2012). ...
Article
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There is a discrepancy between a high inherent value of extracurricular music classes and a low proportion of low-socioeconomic status (SES) male participants. However, evidence on how to match out-of-school music classes to students’ preferences is lacking. Thus, we assessed the attractiveness of different versions of such classes via an experimental video vignette study featuring a 2 × 2-factor (setting × music; each with high vs. low proximity to informal youth culture) between-subjects design with N = 244 students (Grade 5–10). We assessed the intention to participate as criterion, and gender, age, and SES (highest International Socio-Economic Index [HISEI] quartile) as control variables. A hierarchical regression showed a positive effect of music associated with youth culture on intention and no effect of the setting. Female (and older) students displayed higher intention than male (and younger) students. The single effect involving HISEI was a significant interaction of music and SES, which resulted from high-SES adolescents being especially motivated for classes with music associated with youth culture. Thus, to motivate boys and older students in particular, special consideration should be given to the appropriate design and marketing of music classes. However, music close to youth culture might be especially beneficial for adolescents with high rather than low SES.
... La música es una de las herramientas que utilizan los individuos para establecer sus posiciones sociales, contribuyendo a la definición de una identidad. Varios estudios sobre la relación entre las preferencias musicales de los jóvenes y su personalidad muestran que eligen estilos musicales que refuerzan y reflejan rasgos de su personalidad, expresando su identidad personal o social (Little and Zuckerman, 1986;McCown et al., 1997;McNamara and Ballard, 1999;DeNora, 2000;Tarrant, Hargreaves et al., 2001;Tarrant et al., 2002;Rentfrow y Gosling, 2003). Para DeNora (2000), los temas musicales, las imágenes que evocan o las emociones que producen determinados estilos musicales son importantes para los individuos en la medida que estos se encuentren representados por ellos (Alaminos-Fernández, 2014). ...
Article
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Las producciones audiovisuales, como las series televisivas, utilizan estereotipos juveniles que reflejan tanto la realidad como la construyen difundiendo modelos simplificados que son usados como herramientas de etiquetado social. Los personajes son caracterizados con un conjunto de rasgos personales, ambiente social, vestuario, estilo de vida, forma de expresarse, etc. En la caracterización de los personajes se ha estudiado en menor medida el uso de recursos musicales. La serie Stranger Things destacó especialmente por la utilización de música diegética y extradiegética tanto en la ambientación de época como en la caracterización de personajes. En la caracterización de personajes, ha sido pionera en el empleo de recursos transmedia que los humaniza e intensifica la conexión emocional con las audiencias. Netflix y Spotify diseñaron y publicaron playlists de sus personajes atribuyéndoles gustos musicales. Analizamos aquí las playlists de los adolescentes y jóvenes en Strange Things explorando, mediante análisis de correspondencias, qué estilos los caracterizaban y a qué tipo de adolescente y joven describen. El análisis triangula operativamente la caracterización audiovisual con la musical. Las tipologías de jóvenes se articulan en dos cleavages: la primera es la raza (define dos tipos) y la segunda el grado de ajuste social (define cuatro tipos de joven adolescente).
... Për shumë studiues (Little dhe Zuckerman 1986, McCown et al. 1997, Gowensmith dhe Bloom 1997, McNamara dhe Ballard 1999) muzika është jo vetëm e lidhur ngushtë me personalitetin e atyre që e dëgjojnë, por edhe një formë shprehjeje e identitetit social. "Kjo lidhje e muzikës me identitetin është përkrahur edhe më tej nga Knobloch-i dhe Mundorf-i (2003) që nënvizojnë se preferencat muzikore janë në fakt një mjet për të komunikuar dhe shprehur identitetin." ...
Article
Gjuhësia e korpuseve dhe Analiza Kritike e Diskursit (së këndejmi AKD) kanë nisur të konsiderohen si dy disiplina të cilat mund të ndërthuren më së miri, për të analizuar varietete të ndryshme gjuhësore. Nga njëra anë korpusi shërben si "një përmbledhje tekstesh gjuhësore, të përzgjedhura për të karakterizuar një gjendje ose një varietet të një gjuhe" (Sinclair 1991), ndërsa nga ana tjetër, për AKD-në çdo varietet gjuhësor "është historik dhe mund të kuptohet vetëm në lidhje me kontekstin, ndaj AKD-ja iu drejtohet koncepteve jashtëgjuhësore si kultura, shoqëria dhe ideologjia." (Wodak, Meyer 2002) Ky studim synon të hetojë gjurmët e ideologjisë në tekstet e këngëve të dashurisë, të shkruara e kënduara në dy kohë e në dy realitete të ndryshme sociale e politike. Për mbledhjen e të dhënave u ndërtuan dy korpuse, njëri prej të cilit me tekste këngësh dashurie, të paraqitura në Festivalin e Këngës në RTSH, gjatë periudhës së komunizmit në Shqipëri dhe tjetri, me tekste këngësh dashurie të post-komunizmit, të paraqitura në Festivalin "Kënga Magjike". Të dhënat sasiore që vijnë nga krahasimi i frekuencave të fjalëve në dy korpuset e lartpërmendura tregojnë qartësisht se ndonëse këngët e dashurisë i referohen të njëjtit realitet ndjesor, i cili në thelb është i pandryshueshëm, për sa kohë ndjenjat dhe përjetimi i tyre janë universale, prapëseprapë tekstet e këngëve të dashurisë bartin gjurmë të ideologjisë së kohës kur janë kënduar. Për AKD-në ideologjia e diskursi janë ngushtësisht të lidhur (Fowler et al., etj.) dhe të gjitha diskurset janë të formësuara nën ndikimin e ideologjisë. Ky argument na shpie në hullinë e pohimit determinist se "gjuha e bën njeriun", duke i ofruar atij një prerje të caktuar realiteti, këtu nën ndikimin e ideologjisë dhe se ndonëse realiteti i ndjenjave si dashuria, në mos "objektiv", është realitet universal, ai gjuhësohet ndryshe në dy kohë e dy kontekste politiko-shoqërore të ndryshme.
... Zweigenhaft (2008) required subjects to complete the NEO-PI and a version of the Short Test of Music Preferences (STOMP; Rentfrow & Gosling, 2003), which were then correlated with one another. In Dollinger (1993), subjects completed the NEO-PI (Costa & McCrae, 1985) and a musical-preference scale developed by Litle and Zuckerman (1986); similarly to Zweigenhaft (2008), these measures were then correlated. Zweigenhaft investigated the degree to which all Big Five personality factors correlated with preference for certain genres, whereas Dollinger focused solely upon extraversion and openness. ...
Article
Studies reveal consistent relationships between personality and preferred musical genre. This article explores these relationships using a novel methodology: genre dispersion among people’s mobile-phone music collections. By analyzing the download behavior of genre-based user subgroups, we investigated the following questions: (1) do genre-based subgroups exhibit different levels of genre exclusivity; and (2) does genre exclusivity relate to Big Five personality factors? We hypothesized that genre-based subgroups would vary in genre exclusivity, and that their degree of exclusivity would be associated with the personality factor of openness (if people have open personalities, they should be open to different musical styles). Consistent with our hypothesis, results showed that greater genre inclusivity, that is, many genres in people’s music collections, positively correlated with openness and (unexpectedly) agreeableness, suggesting that individuals with high openness and agreeableness have wider musical tastes than those with low openness and agreeableness. By demonstrating an association between personality and patterns of music consumption, this research serves to corroborate previous work linking genre preference and personality. The practical implications of this research may be useful in the implementation of music-recommendation systems.
... The present study has provided insight into the intersections of contemporary youth music and youth behaviour within the Nigerian environment. The allure of sexual and violent contents is however not strange, since young people have always been fascinated by songs with such themes (Litle and Zuckerman 1986). Interestingly, various moralistic dimensions have shaped responses to these realisations. ...
Article
Most linguistic studies on Nigerian hip hop (NHH) are textual in orientation, focusing on language use in lyrics. However, the social manifestations of the genre have mainly been discussed from the sociological perspective, ignoring the linguistic influences on the youthful audience. With a focus on violence and sexuality, the present study combines qualitative and quantitative research methods in fulfilling its objectives. This involves the analysis of the linguistic presentation of violence and sexuality in 20 selected lyrics. In addition, a structured questionnaire and focus group discussions administered to students from a Nigerian university supplement the examination of the interactivity of Nigerian hip hop on communicative practices. Sexual and violent slang, expressions, and their graphic representations are rife in NHH and are also reflected in students’ communicative practises. While the relationship between NHH and youth linguistic behaviour may not be causal—revealing instead the democratisation of expressions within the Nigerian environment—it is observed that NHH is still influential in the linguistic expression of sexuality and violence among Nigerian university students.
... They have even been dubbed pejoratively "problem music" (Bodner & Bensimon, 2015), particularly when the lyrics include messages of hate or violence. Intense/rebellious music preferences have been linked to psychoticism (North, Desborough, & Skarstein, 2005), sensation seeking (Litle & Zuckerman, 1986), low conscientiousness, extraversion, and emotional stability (George, Stickle, Rachid, & Wopnford, 2007), and antisocial behavior (e.g., North & Hargreaves, 2007). Thus, intense/rebellious music and violent/horror visual media preferences appear to have similar nomological links to maladaptive personality. ...
Article
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We link modern conceptualizations of maladaptive personality and psychopathy dimensions to music and movie genre preferences. Participants, N = 379, completed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), and music and movie preferences questionnaires. The structure of some, but not all, music preferences factors aligned with previous reports. Overall, maladaptive traits had meaningful, albeit modest links to entertainment media preferences, but not to the kinds of intense or rebellious music genres sometimes labeled as “problem” entertainment in prior literature. Support emerged for several a priori hypotheses, but some predictions based on the three- and five-factor normal personality trait and entertainment preferences literature did not generalize to a five-factor formulation of maladaptive personality. We discuss the findings’ implications and several likely sources of inconsistencies in the literature on music and movie preferences and personality.
... Rentfrow et al. [4] concluded that people used preferred music to convey their personalities to others. Little and Zuckerman [5] noted that preferred music style of people could reinforce and reflect their personalities. In addition, Rentfrow et al., [6] claimed that music preference was also related to a wide variety of personality aspects, self-views (e.g., political orientation), and cognitive abilities (e.g., verbal IQ). ...
Preprint
With the booming development and popularity of mobile applications, different verticals accumulate abundant data of user information and social behavior, which are spontaneous, genuine and diversified. However, each platform describes user's portraits in only certain aspect, resulting in difficult combination of those internet footprints together. In our research, we proposed a modeling approach to analyze user's online behavior across different social media platforms. Structured and unstructured data of same users shared by NetEase Music and Sina Weibo have been collected for cross-platform analysis of correlations between music preference and other users' characteristics. Based on music tags of genre and mood, genre cluster of five groups and mood cluster of four groups have been formed by computing their collected song lists with K-means method. Moreover, with the help of user data of Weibo, correlations between music preference (i.e. genre, mood) and Big Five personalities (BFPs) and basic information (e.g. gender, resident region, tags) have been comprehensively studied, building up full-scale user portraits with finer grain. Our findings indicate that people's music preference could be linked with their real social activities. For instance, people living in mountainous areas generally prefer folk music, while those in urban areas like pop music more. Interestingly, dog lovers could love sad music more than cat lovers. Moreover, our proposed cross-platform modeling approach could be adapted to other verticals, providing an online automatic way for profiling users in a more precise and comprehensive way.
... Furthermore, adjusting states of excitation belongs in this category. People use music as a stimulus to excitation or relaxation or as a damper for excitation, i.e" to help work off frustration or to relax (Gembris, 1985;Flath-Becker, 1987;Flath-Becker & Koneni, 1984;Hafen, 1997;Karrer, 1999;Litle & Zuckerman, 1986). Particularly for young people and iµ the context of parties and discos, music plays a big role activating individuals (Ebbecke & Lüschper, 1987). ...
... Finally, there are a number of scales that focus a priori on specific functions of music listening, such as affect regulation (Saarikallio, 2008;Hewston, Lane, Karageorghis, 2009;, specific musical experiences such as absorption (Sandstrom & Russo, 2013), or related facets of the music listening experience like musical sophistication (Müllensiefen, Gingras, Musil, & Stewart, 2014) and preferences (Litle & Zuckerman, 1986). Existing sensory-motor behaviour, mood regulation, musical seeking, social reward, and musical memory). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The current thesis involves three studies employing qualitative, quantitative and experimental methods to examine the relationship between music listening and wellbeing. Study 1 used the collective intelligence methodology, Interactive Management (IM), to identify the functions of music listening (FML). Four IM sessions were conducted, two with younger adults (N = 24, 18-29 years, M = 22.49, SD = 2.25, 8 males) and two with older adults (N = 19, 60-75 years, M = 65.86, SD = 4.47, 10 males). Participants generated, clarified, and structured FML they believed were most significant for enhancing wellbeing. Four structural models were generated highlighting potential interdependencies between FML in the context of wellbeing enhancement. Age differences emerged in the FML considered adaptive, with younger adults highlighting social connection and affect regulation and older adults highlighting more eudaimonic functions of music (e.g., transcendence and personal growth). Study 2 reports on the development of a new measure of music listening functions: The Adaptive Functions of Music Listening Scale. In a sample of 1191 participants (17-66 years, M = 22.04, SD = 6.23, 326 males) tests of dimensionality revealed a 46-item scale with 11 factors. Namely, Stress Regulation, Anxiety Regulation, Anger Regulation, Loneliness Regulation, Rumination, Reminiscence, Strong Emotional Experiences, Awe and Appreciation, Cognitive Regulation, Identity, and Sleep FML. Reliability of the scale and its subscales was high. Consistent with the view that adaptive FML are positively related to wellbeing, a number of factors were significantly positively correlated with subjective, psychological, and social wellbeing measures. Study 3 evaluated the efficacy of self-chosen music listening for the function of affect regulation with a sample of both younger and older adults. Forty younger (18-30 years, M = 19.75, SD = 2.57, 14 males) and forty older (60-81 years, M = 68.48, SD = 6.07, 21 males) adults visited the laboratory and were randomised to either the intervention (10 minutes of listening to self-chosen music) or the active control condition (10 minutes of listening to a radio documentary). Negative affect (NA) was induced in all participants using the Trier Social Stress Test, followed by the intervention/control condition. Measures of self-reported affect were taken at baseline, post-induction and post-intervention. Examining reduction in induced NA as the dependent variable: a 2 (group: control, intervention) x 2 (age: younger, older adult) ANCOVA controlling for baseline affect and reactivity to the NA induction found significant main effects of group, with the music listening group experiencing greater reductions in NA across a range of discrete measures including Stress Regulation, Nervous Regulation, Upset Regulation, Sadness Regulation and Depressed Affect Regulation. Analyses also found significant main effects for age, with older adults experiencing greater reductions of NA than younger adults, regardless of condition. Together these studies suggest a positive role for music listening in wellbeing enhancement, particularly with regard to the regulation of affective experiences.
... This is in line with recent research that suggests older adults prefer reflective and complex music, while younger adults prefer intense and rebellious music (Clark & Giacomantonio, 2015). In contrast to a previous study that suggests that people who score higher in impulsivity/sensation-seeking prefer music that is more stimulating (Litle & Zuckerman, 1986), we found no relationship between impulsivity/sensation-seeking scores and a preference for stressful music. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that person-based dispositional factors, as well as properties of the music, influence a person's musical taste. In this study, we examined the possibility that the interaction between the stressfulness of the music and a listener's capacity for handling stress contributes to that listener's musical preferences. The key prediction relating fitness to musical preference is that the stressfulness of the music should tend to reflect the person's capacity for handling stress, including his or her physical fitness. The study method made use of an online questionnaire to assess physical fitness, impulsivity and sensation-seeking tendencies, and musical preferences. To create an independent index for estimating musical stressfulness, a parallel study was conducted, where an independent group of judges assessed the stressfulness of the music identified by participants in the main study. The stressfulness of the music was predicted using the survey-based dispositional factors in two regression models, where sex, current age, education, current fitness, and age at the time of musical preference were found to predict the stressfulness of the preferred music. The results suggest that males, younger participants, people with fewer years of education, and those who are more physically fit tend to prefer more stressful music.
... Preferred music is associated with the problem of the development and verification of one's social and personal identity (Tarrant, North & Hargreaves, 2004), differences in the styles of music perception (Hargreaves & Colman, 1981, Smith, 1987, social influence factors (Inglefield, 1972;Hargreaves 1986). In addition, much attention has been paid to the relationship between music preferences and perceived adequacy of music listened to, depending on situational context (Koneĉni, 1982), but also on emotional needs (Roe, 1985;Little & Zuckerman, 1986;Behne, 1997). The term "music preferences" denotes such reactions to music which show the degree of liking or not liking certain songs or types of music, and these reactions are not necessarily based on the cognitive analysis of music being the object of a personal disposition (Finnäs, 1989). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To emphasize the substantial impact of both cognitive and emotional processes on the development of music preferences, such definitions are formed which define preferences as a set of emotional-rational attitudes, which in turn affect the perception of a piece of music. It can be assumed that music preferences are dependent on the current situational and emotional aspects. Accepting this assumption, the absolute stability of the preferences of particular musical genres will be relatively low. As an alternative to the above reasoning, it can be assumed that the high temporal stability of the musical genres preferences may indicate deeper than, for instance, related to the current mood determinants of music preferences. The current study analyzed the temporal stability of musical preferences as measured with the Short Test of Music Preferences (Rentfrow, Gosling, 2003), which was tested within five months in a group of 88 people aged 20 to 58 years. Studies have shown that the Short Test of Music Preferences (STOMP) allows for a relatively stable measurement of music preferences in a period of 5 months. The analyzes revealed that the stability of the results of music preferences is high and constant. With the awareness of the limitations of the method to research the stability of results over time, you can assume with some caution that the high temporal stability of the music factors preferences may indicate deeper conditionings of music preferences than, for example, those connected to the current mood or situation.
... According to this theory high sensation seekers tend to have a high level of stimulation [58]. The findings of Litle et al [59] (based on music genres) indicated that high sensation seekers "tolerate and like high intensity and/or complexity in music". The introduction of Sensation Seeking should help to better understand the subjects' enjoyment of music. ...
Book
How do music playback spatiality and audio quality affect the felt emotions when listening in everyday life? In an experiment 49 German speaking subjects aged between 20 and 30 (mean=24.18, SD=2.62) were sorted into four stimuli groups which are the four combinations of stereo vs. mono and CD quality (.wav, 44.1kHz) vs. Youtube quality (AAC, 128kbps). They heard four different musical pieces of the same stimulus type and filled in M-DAS questionnaires on felt emotions. The data were analyzed with three GLMs. The results are: Music playbacks 1) in stereo and 2) in Youtube quality could trigger stronger emotions. While the first result about spatiality is in line with the research literature, the unexpected latter finding might be explained by the assumption that the subjects are more used to this playback quality.
... Zuckerman (1994) reported that sensation seekers drove at higher speeds, overtake vehicles in areas of limited visibility, tailgate cars by keeping shorter headways, and more often than not drive when intoxicated. Moreover, and as might be expected, sensation seekers prefer prototypical highly dynamic music genres such as Classic Rock and Hard Rock styles (Litle & Zuckerman, 1986;Nater, Krebs, & Ehlert, 2005). Arnett not only supported Zuckerman's findings regarding music preferences among sensation seekers, but also demonstrated that "Metalheads" reported a host of reckless driving behaviors that were not seen for a matched group who preferred a wider array of popular music styles. ...
Article
Full-text available
Few empirical studies have targeted the links between media delinquency or risk-promoting popular culture (specifically aversive music genres) with negative affective states and aggressive driving. Yet for over a decade, drivers have reported that they commit traffic violations while listening to loud fast-beat aggressive music styles. The current investigation seeks to explore aggressive driving behavior while considering the genre of music background. Most specifically, we look at aversive music styles and songs with violent lyrics. The article outlines the testimonials by drivers (N = 6,058) from six recent commercially solicited surveys with drivers which demonstrate “proof of concept” for driver aggression subsequent to driving with music accompaniment. Further, the article details a study (N = 50) employing a driving simulator with 30 paired music exemplars of 4 music genres. Half consisted of songs with hostile aggressive lyrics and half with neutral lyrics—both performed in the same music styles by the same artists. The results demonstrate that energetic music boosted excitement resulting in decreased lateral control, increased excursions from the lane, and an increased tendency to stray onto the hard shoulder. Drivers who were exposed to hostile music with violent content on the other hand demonstrated increased cruising speeds and a higher percentage of time exceeding speed limits. These differential effects of music on drivers can be referred to as either music-generated driver distraction or music genre induced driver aggression.
... The Disinhibition (DIS) component of sensation seeking is related to the intensity dimension of stimulation, and hence it might be expected to be sensitive to differences in level of appreciation of NON. It is assumed, that high disinhibitions tolerate stimulation by highly nonsensical stimuli as they tolerate intensive stimulation by other objects (Litle & Zuckerman 1986). Boredom Susceptibility (BS) indicates an intolerance for repetitive experience of any kind, including routine work and boring people. ...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals differ in their appreciation of jokes and cartoons with respect to the structure of the humorous material (e.g., whether the jokes and cartoons are can be categorised in terms of incongruity-resolution or in terms of nonsense), as well as content (e.g., whether they contain sexual themes or not). While the 3WD (3 jokes dimensions) test allows for the measurement of such differences in a paper-pencil test of verbal jokes and visual cartoons, humour transported by other media, such as TV advertisements, has not been included so far. The current study aimed at assessing the appreciation of jokes and cartoons alongside the appreciation of humorous TV ads that were pre-categorized according to the structure and content factors of the 3WD. Moreover, relationships to personality and willingness to buy were also assessed. A sample of 134 adult participants completed the study. A joint factor analysis of the 3WD scores and humour appreciation in TV ads shows a five-factor structure, with three factors denominating the appreciation of incongruity-resolution humour, nonsense humour and sexual humour, a fourth factor denominating the liking of incongruity resolution humour with sexual themes (in both ads and jokes) and an advertisement specific factor. Thus, the 3WD dimensions can also be verified in humorous ads. Psychoticism and sensation seeking correlated negatively with the perceived funniness of incongruity resolution humour, replicating findings for the 3WD and additionally showing that the relationships are similar with respect to humour appreciation in TV advertisements. Moreover, the appreciation of humour predicted the willingness of the individual to buy the product or use the service. To conclude, the structure of humour appreciation is generalizable across media. Yet, there is also some advertisement specific variance and future studies may address the question of whether the 3WD covers all aspects of humour appreciation across media types. Moreover, knowing the target group of a product (and personality features of this group) may help to tailor the humour of the advertisement to match the “humour taste” of potential customers.
... Via survey, we attempted to gauge whether there is a positive relationship between sex, drugs, and rock and roll (SDRR) Evidence does indirectly support connections between the components of this triumvirate. People with increased sensation seeking (a personality trait marked by a preference for risky, intense experiences) prefer rock music (Little & Zuckerman, 1986), and sensation seeking is strongly connected to substance use (Wagner, 2001). Some studies (Chen et al., 2006;Forsyth, Barnard, & McKegany, 1997;Miller & Quigley, 2012) have demonstrated that listeners of particular musical genres (e.g., rap, rock) were more likely than others to have engaged in substance use. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sex, drugs, and rock and roll (SDRR) is a storied trilogy in popular culture. However, in scientific literature, there is little empirical evidence to determine if there is a positive relationship between these three phenomena, despite biological, psychological, and social reasons that would suggest they are connected. Via questionnaire, we asked participants to self-report alcohol and drug use, sexual behaviors and attitudes, and musical ability and preference. Although evidence was limited, there was some support for an SDRR connection, particularly among male performers and female listeners of rock and “harder” music. Interestingly, this mimics patterns of several bird species where males are the producers and females are the consumers of song. Ethological considerations and future directions are discussed.
... Burada sözü edilen 'sensation seeking', değişime, alışılmışın dışında olana, karmaşık deneyimlere olan ihtiyacı ve birtakım fiziksel ve sosyal risklere rağmen bu deneyimler içinde olma isteğini ifade eder. Little & Zuckerman (1986) heyecan arayışında yüksek değer alanların, müziği günlük hayat aktivitelerinin arka plan unsuru olarak değerlendirmediklerini, müzikle duygusal boyutta iç içe olmayı sevdiklerini ortaya koymuşlardır. Aynı araştırmada rock, heavy-metal ve punk müzik tercihi heyecan arama (sensation seeking) ile pozitif ilişkili, dini müzik tercihi ise negatif ilişkili bulunmuştur. ...
... Sociology and musicology are great allies, because the interrogation and audience research methods (Roose, Lievens, & Waege, 2007) generally practiced, are particularly well-suited for both research fields and entail the same methodological considerations when for instance dealing with demographic information by means of internet questionnaires (Gosling et al., 2004) or survey evaluation tests (Presser et al., 2004). Within the fields, a great deal of attention is given to musical preferences (Litle & Zuckerman, 1986;Pearson & Dollinger, 2004), how these correlate to personality traits Zweigenhaft, 2008) and how music preferences steer interpersonal relations (Rentfrow & Gosling, 2006) and self-perception (Ross & Shulman, 1973). The relation between cultural 'habitus' and musical preferences then seeks to explain such concepts as cultural omnivorousness and highbrow taste patterns (Van Eijck & Lievens, 2008), horizontal and vertical boundaries of cultural hierarchies (Berghman & Van Eijck, 2009), the impact of mediation (Hennion, 2003), participation levels , evidence-based and data-driven genre classifications and taxonomies (Pachet & Cazaly, 2000), as well as the attitudes, dispositions and social homogeneity of audiences (Roose, 2008). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This research project deals with the user-experience related to embodied music mediation technologies. More specifically, adoption and policy problems surrounding new media (art) are considered, which arise from the usability issues that to date pervade new interfaces for musical expression. Since the emergence of new wireless mediators and control devices for musical expression, there is an explicit aspiration of the creative industries and various research centers to embed such technologies into different areas of the cultural industries. The number of applications and their uses have exponentially increased over the last decade. Conversely, many of the applications to date still suffer from severe usability problems, which not only hinder the adoption by the cultural sector, but also make culture participants take a rather cautious, hesitant, or even downright negative stance towards these technologies. Therefore, this thesis takes a vantage point that is in part sociological in nature, yet has a link to cultural studies as well. It combines this with a musicological frame of reference to which it introduces empirical user-oriented approaches, predominantly taken from the field of human-computer-interaction studies. This interdisciplinary strategy is adopted to cope with the complex nature of digital embodied music controlling technologies. Within the Flanders cultural (and creative) industries, opportunities of systems affiliated with embodied interaction are created and examined. This constitutes an epistemological jigsaw that looks into 1) “which stakeholders require what various levels of involvement, what interactive means and what artistic possibilities?”, 2) “the way in which artistic aspirations, cultural prerequisites and operational necessities of (prospective) users can be defined?”, 3) “how functional, artistic and aesthetic requirements can be accommodated?”, and 4) “how quality of use and quality of experience can be achieved, quantified, evaluated and, eventually, improved?”. Within this multi-facetted problem, the eventual aim is to assess the applicability of the foresaid technology, both from a theoretically and empirically sound basis, and to facilitate widening and enhancing the adoption of said technologies. Methodologically, this is achieved by 1) applied experimentation, 2) interview techniques, 3) self-reporting and survey research, 4) usability evaluation of existing devices, and 5) human-computer interaction methods applied – and attuned – to the specific case of embodied music mediation technologies. Within that scope, concepts related to usability, flow, presence, goal assessment and game enjoyment are scrutinized and applied, and both task- and experience-oriented heuristics and metrics are developed and tested. In the first part, covering three chapters, the general context of the thesis is given. In the first chapter, an introduction to the topic is offered and the current problems are enumerated. In the second chapter, a broader theoretical background is presented of the concepts that underpin the project, namely 1) the paradigm of embodiment and its connection to musicology, 2) a state of the arts concerning new interfaces for musical expression, 3) an introduction into HCI-usability and its application domain in systematic musicology, 4) an insight into user-centered digital design procedures, and 5) the challenges brought about by e-culture and digitization for the cultural-creative industries. In the third chapter, the state of the arts concerning the available methodologies related to the thesis’ endeavor is discussed, a set of literature-based design guidelines are enumerated and from this a conceptual model is deduced which is gradually presented throughout the thesis, and fully deployed in the “SoundField”-project (as described in Chapter 9). The following chapters, contained in the second part of the thesis, give a quasi- chronological overview of how methodological concepts have been applied throughout the empirical case studies, aimed specifically at the exploration of the various aspects of the complex status quaestionis. In the fourth chapter, a series of application-based tests, predominantly revolving around interface evaluation, illustrate the complex relation between gestural interfaces and meaningful musical expression, advocating a more user- centered development approach to be adopted. In the fifth chapter, a multi-purpose questionnaire dubbed “What Moves You” is discussed, which aimed at creating a survey of the (prospective) end-users of embodied music mediation technologies. Therefore, it primarily focused on cultural background, musical profile and preferences, views on embodied interaction, literacy of and attitudes towards new technology and participation in digital culture. In the sixth chapter, the ethnographical studies that accompanied the exhibition of two interactive art pieces, entitled "Heart as an Ocean" & "Lament", are discussed. In these studies, the use of interview and questionnaire methodologies together with the presentation and reception of interactive art pieces, are probed. In the seventh chapter, the development of the collaboratively controlled music-game “Sync-In-Team” is presented, in which interface evaluation, presence, game enjoyment and goal assessment are the pivotal topics. In the eighth chapter, two usability studies are considered, that were conducted on prototype systems/interfaces, namely a heuristic evaluation of the “Virtual String” and a usability metrics evaluation on the “Multi-Level Sonification Tool”. The findings of these two studies in conjunction with the exploratory studies performed in association with the interactive art pieces, finally gave rise to the “SoundField”-project, which is recounted in full throughout the ninth chapter. The integrated participatory design and evaluation method, presented in the conceptual model is fully applied over the course of the “SoundField”-project, in which technological opportunities and ecological validity and applicability are investigated through user- informed development of numerous use cases. The third and last part of the thesis renders the final conclusions of this research project. The tenth chapter sets out with an epilogue in which a brief overview is given on how the state of the arts has evolved since the end of the project (as the research ended in 2012, but the research field has obviously moved on), and attempts to consolidate the implications of the research studies with some of the realities of the Flemish cultural- creative industries. Chapter eleven continues by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of the conceptual model throughout the various stages of the project. Also, it comprises the evaluation of the hypotheses, how the assumptions that were made held up, and how the research questions eventually could be assessed. Finally, the twelfth and last chapter concludes with the most important findings of the project. Also, it discusses some of the implications on cultural production, artistic research policy and offers an outlook on future research beyond the scope of the “SoundField” project.
... A vast body of research has confirmed a positive relation between sensation seeking and a preference for apparently arousing, defiant music. Findings indicate that sensation seekers tend to like "hard" forms of music like all types of rock music (i.e., rock, heavy metal, grunge, and punk music) and dislike "soft-popular" forms such as "easy listening," religious music, top-40, and (film and TV) soundtrack music (Little and Zuckerman 1986). These results are consistent with the theory that high sensation seekers have a high optimal level of stimulation and thus tolerate and like high intensity and/or complexity in music, and stimulation in general. ...
... Since then, research has focused on more explicit links between music preferences and personality (Getz, Chamorro-Premuzic, Roy & Devroop, 2011). For example, Little and Zuckerman (1986) found a positive link between sensation seeking and preference for rock, heavy metal, and punk music, and McCown et al. (1997) found a positive correlation between extraversion, psychoticism, and preference for rap and dance music. ...
Article
Full-text available
A number of studies in the west indicate a relationship between music listening preferences, personality and gender. The literature, which is reviewed here found no such study in the Indian context. Therefore, the present study was conducted on 445 under- and post- graduate students of Amity University, Lucknow Campus. The study examined the basic underlying dimensions of music preferences, the links between music preferences and Big-Five personality characteristics, and gender differences in music preferences. The factor analysis revealed the presence of five major factors named as - Intense and Electronic; Devotional and Cultural; Emotional and Melodious; Spiritual and Reflective; and Contemporary and Rhythmic, underlying the 23 genres. Results showed that except for contemporary and rhythmic dimensions of music preference, all other music preference styles were related to one or the other personality dimensions (for example, intense and electronic music preference is significantly and positively correlated with openness and negatively correlated with agreeableness personality dimensions). Further, gender differences in music preferences were also found. Boys tend to listen to Devotional and Cultural songs more than girls, whereas, girls enjoy listening to Emotional and Melodious songs more than boys.
... Since then, research has focused on more explicit links between music preferences and personality (Getz, Chamorro-Premuzic, Roy & Devroop, 2011). For example, Little and Zuckerman (1986) found a positive link between sensation seeking and preference for rock, heavy metal, and punk music, and McCown et al. (1997) found a positive correlation between extraversion, psychoticism, and preference for rap and dance music. ...
Article
Full-text available
Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is an employee's discretionary behaviour, which influences the organizational effectiveness and employee well-being by lubricating the social machinery of the organization. Several studies have been conducted to identify the consequences and antecedents of this kind of extra-role behaviour. In this line of research, the present study is an effort to explore the relationship of trait emotional intelligence and work-family culture with organizational citizenship behaviour. The study was carried out on 117 front level executives of Indian organizations. Three standardized psychometric measures namely TEIQue-SF, Work- Family Culture Scale and OCB Scale were used for data collection. Obtained data was analyzed by using correlation and regression analysis. Results of the correlational analysis indicate that trait emotional intelligence was significantly and positively associated with OCB and its dimensions. Managerial support was significantly and positively correlated with courtesy and altruism whereas career consequences and organizational time demand was significantly and negatively associated with all the dimensions and overall OCB except sportsmanship dimensions. Results of Regression analysis (simultaneous) supported the results of the correlational analysis in terms of directions, but not exactly in the terms of degree of relationship.
... Since then, research has focused on more explicit links between music preferences and personality (Getz, Chamorro-Premuzic, Roy & Devroop, 2011). For example, Little and Zuckerman (1986) found a positive link between sensation seeking and preference for rock, heavy metal, and punk music, and McCown et al. (1997) found a positive correlation between extraversion, psychoticism, and preference for rap and dance music. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was conducted to translate and validate the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (Taylor, Bagby & Parker, 1994) for the purpose of having a culturally equivalent, linguistically accurate Urdu version with theoretically replicable factor structure to use in Pakistan. The forward-backward translation method was used for translation of this scale. Urdu translated version of the scale was applied on 300 participants of different age groups (M= 35.5, SD= 12.1). Based on a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), results confirmed that a three-dimensional model with the factors difficulty describing feelings, difficulty identifying feelings and externally oriented thinking, provided an excellent fit to the data. Its Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was .82. The cross-language validity determined on a sample of 60 participants showed highly satisfactory validity indices. Convergent validity of the scale was proved by finding positive correlation of Toronto Alexithymia Scale with anxiety (r = .51, p < .001) and negative relationship with emotional intelligence (r = -.35, p < .001), which revealed its divergent validity.
... Sociology and musicology are great allies, because the interrogation and audience research methods (Roose, Lievens, & Waege, 2007) generally practiced, are particularly well-suited for both research fields and entail the same methodological considerations when for instance dealing with demographic information by means of internet questionnaires (Gosling et al., 2004) or survey evaluation tests (Presser et al., 2004). Within the fields, a great deal of attention is given to musical preferences (Litle & Zuckerman, 1986;Pearson & Dollinger, 2004), how these correlate to personality traits Zweigenhaft, 2008) and how music preferences steer interpersonal relations (Rentfrow & Gosling, 2006) and self-perception (Ross & Shulman, 1973). The relation between cultural 'habitus' and musical preferences then seeks to explain such concepts as cultural omnivorousness and highbrow taste patterns (Van Eijck & Lievens, 2008), horizontal and vertical boundaries of cultural hierarchies (Berghman & Van Eijck, 2009), the impact of mediation (Hennion, 2003), participation levels , evidence-based and data-driven genre classifications and taxonomies (Pachet & Cazaly, 2000), as well as the attitudes, dispositions and social homogeneity of audiences (Roose, 2008). ...
Thesis
Dit onderzoeksproject handelt over de gebruikerservaring van muzikale bemiddelingstechnologieën die aspecten benutten van lijfelijkheid. Meer specifiek worden problemen behandeld die bestaan rond het toepassingsgebied en het beleid aangaande nieuwe (artistieke) mediatoestellen in de culturele en creatieve sector, ten gevolge van de beperkte ergonomische kwaliteiten van de bemiddelaars die op heden nog steeds een vlotte ingebruikname bemoeilijken. Sedert de opkomst van nieuwe draadloze bemiddelaars en besturingstoestellen voor muzikale expressie is er een uitdrukkelijke wens van de creatieve sector en diverse onderzoekscentra om dergelijke technologie in verschillende deelgebieden van de culturele sector binnen te loodsen. Het aantal toepassingen en het gebruik ervan is in het laatste decennium dan ook exponentieel toegenomen; anderzijds hebben veel van de toepassingen ernstige gebruiksvriendelijkheidsproblemen, waardoor niet enkel de culturele sector maar ook veel cultuurparticipanten vaak een afwachtende, eerder terughoudende of zelfs negatieve positie innemen ten aanzien van de betreffende technologieën. Binnen een referentiekader van de systematische muziekwetenschap, eigent deze thesis zich daarom naast een sociologisch uitgangspunt, ook het perspectief van de ‘cultural studies’ toe. Daarenboven worden empirische benaderingswijzen en gebruikersonderzoeksmethodes ontleend aan het veld van de computerwetenschappen (meer specifiek, de studie van de mens-systeem-interactie). Deze interdisciplinaire strategie wordt aangenomen om in staat te zijn het hoofd te bieden aan de uitermate complexe natuur van digitale lijfelijke muziek-mediërende technologieën. Binnen de realiteit van de Vlaamse cultureel-creatieve industrie worden opportuniteiten, gelieerd aan lijfelijke muziekbemiddelingstoepassingen, geobserveerd en gecreëerd. Binnen deze methodologische puzzel wordt bekeken 1) “welke belanghebbenden verschillende vormen en gradaties van betrokkenheid, interactief potentieel en artistieke mogelijkheden veronderstellen”, 2) “hoe artistieke aspiraties, culturele veronderstellingen en operationele benodigdheden als noodzakelijk voor de gebruiker kunnen worden gedefinieerd”, 3) “hoe aan functionele, artistieke en esthetische vereisten tegemoet kan worden gekomen”, en 4) “hoe de kwaliteit van de interactie en de kwaliteit van de gebruikservaring bij deze toestellen kan worden gegarandeerd, gekwantificeerd, geëvalueerd en uiteindelijk verbeterd”. Binnen dit gelaagde probleem is het de uiteindelijke bedoeling om het toepassingsgebied van de besproken technologie vanuit een theoretisch en empirisch gefundeerde basis vast te stellen, en het gebruik ervan te verbreden en te verbeteren. Methodologisch wordt hiernaar gestreefd aan de hand van 1) toegepaste experimenten, 2) interviewtechnieken, 3) zelf-rapportering en survey-onderzoek, 4) ergonomie-onderzoek van bestaande bemiddelaars, en 5) methodieken ontleend aan de mens-systeem-interactie, toegespitst en aangepast aan lijfelijke muziekbemiddelings-technologieën. Binnen dit studiegebied worden concepten ontwikkeld en getest die verwant zijn aan bruikbaarheidsonderzoek, flow, presence, doelstellingsinschatting en vermaak. Deze worden binnen het referentiekader van de vigerende technologieën getest en onderzocht, zowel aan de hand van taak-gebaseerde als ervaringsgeoriënteerde heuristieken en meetinstrumenten. In het eerste deel van de thesis, dat drie eerste hoofdstukken behelst, wordt de algemene context gegeven. In het eerste hoofdstuk wordt een inleiding tot de onderwerpen gepresenteerd en worden de problemen die de ontwikkeling op heden domineren op een rij gezet. In het tweede hoofdstuk wordt een breder theoretisch kader geschetst van de concepten waarop de thesis steunt, namelijk 1) het paradigma van het lijfelijkheidsonderzoek en de implicaties ervan voor de muziekwetenschap, 2) een overzicht van de gangbare technologieën die gebruikt worden voor het maken van lijfelijke muziekbemiddelingstoepassingen 3) een overzicht van de voor musicologisch onderzoek beschikbare en toepasbare mens-computer-interactie en bruikbaarheids-methodologieën, 4) een introductie in gebruikersgebaseerde digitale ontwikkelingsprocedures, en 5) enkele inzichten betreffende de aardverschuivingen die digitalisering en e-cultuur in het cultureel-creatieve landschap teweegbrengen. Na de voorstelling van deze concepten, worden in het derde hoofdstuk 1) de voor deze thesis beschikbare methodologieën behandeld, worden 2) de uit de literatuur gehaalde ontwerprichtlijnen opgesomd, en wordt van daaruit 3) een conceptueel model opgebouwd dat in zijn volledigheid wordt ontplooid en toegepast in de bespreking van het “SoundField”-project (zie hoofdstuk 9). De daaropvolgende hoofdstukken, vervat in deel twee, geven een quasi-chronologisch gestructureerd overzicht van hoe de methodologische concepten stelselmatig werden toegepast doorheen een reeks van empirische casestudies, specifiek toegespitst op de exploratie van verschillende aspecten van de complexe status quaestionis. Het vierde hoofdstuk beschrijft een reeks applicatie-gebaseerde tests, die voornamelijk op de evaluatie van de gebruikte bemiddelaars focussen, illustreert de complexe relatie tussen bewegings-gebaseerde interfaces en zinvolle muzikale expressie en vormt een pleidooi voor een meer gebruikersgeoriënteerde ontwikkelingsprocedure. In het vijfde hoofdstuk wordt een vragenlijst van een surveyonderzoek besproken, genaamd “Wat beweeg(t) je”. De vragenlijst had meerdere doelstellingen en was gericht op het verwerven van een overzicht van de belangrijkste eigenschappen van de eindgebruikers van lijfelijke muziekbemiddelingstoepassingen. De vragen doelden voornamelijk op culturele achtergrond, muzikaal profiel en muzikale voorkeuren, opinies over lijfelijke interactie, kennis van en attitudes met betrekking tot nieuwe technologie en participatie in de digitale cultuur. In het zesde hoofdstuk worden twee kleinschalige etnografische studies gepresenteerd die samen met de voorstelling van twee interactieve kunstwerken, “Heart as an Ocean” & “Lament”, werden uitgevoerd. In deze studies werden interviews en vragenlijsten gebruikt om te peilen naar de perceptie van interactieve kunstwerken binnen de context waarin ze gepresenteerd worden. In het zevende hoofdstuk wordt de ontwikkeling van een collaboratief controleerbaar muziekspel uit de doeken gedaan en worden interface-vergelijking, presence, spelvermaak en doelstellingsinschatting als voornaamste thema's naar voor geschoven. In het achtste hoofdstuk worden twee bruikbaarheidsstudies voorgesteld die werden uitgevoerd op systeem-prototypes, namelijk een heuristische evaluatie van de “Virtuele Snaar” en een bruikbaarheidsanalyse van de “Multi-niveau Sonificatie Applicatie”. De bevindingen uit deze bruikbaarheidsstudies in combinatie met de exploratieve studies die de interactieve installatie-kunstwerken begeleidden, gaven aanleiding tot het op touw zetten van het “SoundField”-project, dat uit de doeken wordt gedaan in het negende hoofdstuk. Het volledig geïntegreerde participatieve ontwerp en de evaluatiemethode, die werd gepresenteerd in het conceptuele model, werd integraal gebruikt als basis voor de gehele duur van het “SoundField”-project, waarin technologische mogelijkheden aan ecologische validiteit en artistieke toepasbaarheid worden afgetoetst aan de hand van de gebruikers-gestuurde ontwikkeling van veelvuldige casestudies. Het derde en laatste deel van de thesis geeft de finale conclusies van het onderzoeksproject weer. Hoofdstuk tien begint met een korte epiloog over hoe de status quaestionis sinds het einde van het onderzoeksproject is geëvolueerd (gezien dat reeds in 2012 afliep, maar het onderzoeksveld sindsdien geenszins ongewijzigd is gebleven). Voorts worden pogingen ondernomen om de implicaties van de geschetste studies te consolideren met het cultureel-creatieve landschap in Vlaanderen. Het elfde hoofdstuk vervolgt het verhaal met een opsomming van de sterke en zwakke elementen van het conceptuele model doorheen de verschillende stadia van het onderzoek. In dit hoofdstuk worden ook de hypothesen opnieuw onder de loep genomen, wordt geëvalueerd hoe goed de gemaakte veronderstellingen overeind blijven, en hoe de onderzoeksvragen uiteindelijk dienen te worden beantwoord. In het twaalfde en laatste hoofdstuk, wordt tenslotte een overzicht gegeven van de belangrijkste conclusies, bevindingen en de implicaties voor cultuurproductie gegeven. Bovendien worden mogelijke beleidsaanbevelingen van deze soort artistiek onderzoek beschouwd, en wordt een blik geworpen op een bredere context van toekomstig artistiek onderzoek, maar voortbouwend op de verworvenheden van het “SoundField”-project.
... Since the 1960s and the dissemination of elaborate theories of personality and personality inventories (above all, the five-factor approach, e.g., Costa & McCrae, 1992;John & Srivastava, 1999), research on the association between personality traits and music preferences has intensified, though revealing unclear and inconsistent results due to a large inconsistency in the measurement of both personality traits and music preferences. Standardization was reached only by the introduction of scales to measure music preferences more reliably, for instance, by Zuckerman (e.g., Litle & Zuckerman, 1986) and Rentfrow and Gosling (2003). Yet, the use of more standardized instruments did not much improve the general picture of results. ...
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The book is available for free download in: https://itunes.apple.com/br/book/m%C3%BAsica-educa%C3%A7%C3%A3o-e-cultura/id1262963052?mt=11 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ O livro completo está disponível gratuitamente no seguinte link: https://itunes.apple.com/br/book/m%C3%BAsica-educa%C3%A7%C3%A3o-e-cultura/id1262963052?mt=11
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We investigated contributors of undergraduate nonmusic majors’ preferences for world musics, specifically those from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Drawing upon the reciprocal feedback model as a theoretical framework, we determined the extent to which predictor variables (familiarity with the music, personality, and music absorption) were related to music preference. Participants were 401 undergraduate nonmusic majors from South Korea (n = 208) and the USA (n = 183). Participants took an online survey via Qualtrics that included demographic information, the World Musics Preference Rating Scale, the Big-Five Inventory, and the Absorption in Music Scale. Results indicated that, familiarity, followed by openness to experience, was the strongest predictor of participants’ preferences for world musics. For the U.S. participants, familiarity, followed by openness to experience, was the strongest predictor of participants’ preference for musics from each continent. By contrast, for the South Korean participants, although familiarity was also the strongest predictor for African, Latin American, and Asian musics, openness to experience was not consistently the second strongest contributor. For African music, openness to experience was ranked second; for Latin American and Asian music, agreeableness and music absorption were ranked second, respectively.
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A comparative method of studying the biological bases of personality compares human trait dimensions with likely animal models in terms of genetic determination and common biological correlates. The approach is applied to the trait of sensation seeking, which is defined on the human level by a questionnaire, reports of experience, and observations of behavior, and on the animal level by general activity, behavior in novel situations, and certain types of naturalistic behavior in animal colonies. Moderately high genetic determination has been found for human sensation seeking, and marked strain differences in rodents have been found in open-field behavior that may be related to basic differences in brain neurochemistry. Agonistic and sociable behaviors in both animals and humans and the trait measure of sensation seeking in humans have been related to certain common biological correlates such as gonadal hormones, monoamine oxidase (MAO), and augmenting of the cortical evoked potential.The monoamine systems in the rodent brain are involved in general activity, exploratory behavior, emotionality, socialization, dominance, sexual and consummately behaviors, and intracranial self-stimulation. Preliminary studies have related norepinephrine and enzymes involved in its production and degradation to human sensation seeking. A model is suggested that relates mood, behavioral activity, sociability, and clinical states to activity of the central catecholamine neurotransmitters and to neuroregulators and other transmitters that act in opposite ways on behavior or stabilize activity in the arousal systems. Stimulation and behavioral activity act on the catecholamine systems in a brain–behavior feedback loop. At optimal levels of catecholamine systems activity (CSA) mood is positive and activity and sociability are adaptive. At very low or very high levels of CSA mood is dysphoric, activity is restricted or stereotyped, and the organism is unsocial or aggressively antisocial. Novelty, in the absence of threat, may be rewarding through activation of noradrenergic neurons.
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Wilson-Patterson Conservatism (C) and Zuckerman's Sensation-seeking (SS) scores were investigated in relation to music preferences in a group of 43 students. High C scorers preferred familiar pieces of music relative to low C scorers (r = 0.30, P < 0.05). A tendency for conservatives to prefer simple music just failed to reach significance. Relationships between SS scores and music preferences were non-significant with the present sample, though SS scores were inversely related to C scores (r = –0.48, P < 0.01).
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Compared the factor structure of the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) in English and American samples, and constructed a new form of the SSS, applicable to both groups. The English Ss consisted of 254 males and 639 females from the Maudsley Twin Register, ages 15–70 yrs. The American sample included 97 male and female undergraduates. Three of the 4 factors showed good cross-national and cross-sex reliability (i.e., significant and reasonably high resemblance between the 4 national and sex symbols). English and American males did not differ on the total SSS score, but American females scored higher than English females. Males in both countries scored higher than females on the total SSS score and on the Thrill and Adventure-Seeking and Disinhibition subscales. Significant age declines occurred for both sexes, particularly on Thrill and Adventure Seeking and Disinhibition. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The experiment was designed to establish the relationship between the Sensation Seeking Scales (SSS) and cortical augmenting-reducing. Forty-nine male undergraduate Ss were used. Ss were presented with five intensities of light flashes in randomly presented blocks of trials at each intensity. Averaged evoked response (AER) amplitudes were measured at each intensity of light. Augmenting-reducing was measured for each S as the slope of the relationship between stimulus intensity and amplitude of response. This slope measure correlated very significantly (r= .59) with the Disinhibition subscale of the SSS and positively, but not significantly, with other subscales. Comparing the low and high scorers on the Disinhibition scale, a significant interaction between groups and stimulus intensities was found but no main effects of stimulus intensity or groups were found. The high Disinhibitors did not differ from the lows at the low stimulus intensities but did differ significantly at the highest intensity where the lows showed a marked reducing tendency. The results show an interesting convergence between the Disinhibition type of sensation seeking, manic tendencies, and the AER.
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In different individuals alcohol abuse may be caused by varying contributions of psychological, social or biological factors. Genetic factors seem to be of etiological importance in some alcoholics. Evidence supporting this view has emerged from studies of children adopted at an early age and raised apart from their alcoholic biological parents (Goodwin et al., 1973, Bohman, 1976). Thus, the study of personality characteristics, especially genetically determined ones, in individuals with alcoholism appears to be a useful approach.
Preservation Hall Jazz Band) Big band.Swtnp (Glenn \ltller
  • Dixieland
Dixieland (Preservation Hall Jazz Band) Big band.Swtnp (Glenn \ltller. Duke Ellington).
Progressive jazz (Mtles Daws Herbie Hancock) West coast style (Buddy Rtch. Don Ellis) East coast style (Urbie Gwen. Grover Washington) Btg band jazz, pop (&la)nard Ferpuson
  • Charlie Bebop
  • Parker
Bebop (Charlie Parker). Progressive jazz (Mtles Daws. Herbie Hancock). West coast style (Buddy Rtch. Don Ellis). East coast style (Urbie Gwen. Grover Washington). Btg band jazz, pop (&la)nard Ferpuson. Lou Rawls) 44. Soul or rhythm & blues tn perteral J5. Rhythm &-blues (Manhattans. James Brown).
Sensation seeking in England and America: cross-cultural, age, and sex comparisons
  • Zuckerman
Auditory augmenters are sensation seekers if they attend the stimuli
  • Mullins