ArticlePDF Available

Antioxidant activities of several Chinese medicine herbs


Abstract and Figures

The antioxidant activity (AA) of ethyl acetate extracts of Caesalpinia sappan, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Paris polyphylla and Illicium verum were tested in refined peanut oil at 60 ± 0.5 °C. The concentrations of the extracts added were 0.20% (w/w). The rate of oxidation was assessed by the measurement of peroxide value (PV) and calculation of such characteristics as induction period (IP), when PV reaches 20 meq kg−1, protection factor (PF), which is the ratio of `IP of the sample with additive' and `IP of the sample without additive', and AA (the ratio of `IP increase of the sample with extract' and `IP increase of the sample with butylated hydroxytoluene'). All of C. sappan, L. erythrorhizon extracts and their combinations were found to be high effective in peanut oil. But the extracts of A. asphodeloides, P. polyphylla and I. verum slightly decrease the formation of peroxides in peanut oil as compared with pure oil.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Antioxidant activities of several Chinese medicine herbs
Pan Yingming
, Liang Ying
, Wang Hengshan
, Liang Min
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi Normal University, 15 Yucai Road, Guilin 541004, PR China
The Eighth Department, Guilin Institute of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004, PR China
Received 14 November 2003; received in revised form 9 February 2004; accepted 12 February 2004
The antioxidant activity (AA) of ethyl acetate extracts of Caesalpinia sappan,Lithospermum erythrorhizon,Anemarrhena as-
phodeloides,Paris polyphylla and Illicium verum were tested in refined peanut oil at 60 0.5 °C. The concentrations of the extracts
added were 0.20% (w/w). The rate of oxidation was assessed by the measurement of peroxide value (PV) and calculation of such
characteristics as induction period (IP), when PV reaches 20 meq kg1, protection factor (PF), which is the ratio of ÔIP of the sample
with additiveÕand ÔIP of the sample without additiveÕ, and AA (the ratio of ÔIP increase of the sample with extractÕand ÔIP increase of
the sample with butylated hydroxytolueneÕ). All of C. sappan,L. erythrorhizon extracts and their combinations were found to be high
effective in peanut oil. But the extracts of A. asphodeloides,P. polyphylla and I. verum slightly decrease the formation of peroxides in
peanut oil as compared with pure oil.
Ó2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Caesalpinia sappan;Lithospermum erythrorhizon;Anemarrhena asphodeloides;Paris polyphylla;Illicium verum; Extracts; Antioxidant
activity; Peanut oil
1. Introduction
Governmental medical authorities and consumers are
concerned about the safety of their food and about the
potential effect of synthetic additives on their health.
During the last few decades an intensive testing of the
safety of synthetic food additives has been carried out
and many of them have been found to possess some
toxic activity (Bandoniene, Pukalskas, Venskutonis, &
Gruzdiene, 2000). As a result, search of natural substi-
tutes which in most cases are considered as generally
recognised as safe (GRAS) substances has increased
Such a tendency can also be applied to synthetic an-
tioxidants, such us butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT),
butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), etc. BHA has been
shown to cause lesion formation in the rat forestomach.
Moreover, several studies have shown that BHT may
cause internal and external haemorrhaging at high doses
that is severe enough to cause death in some strains of
mice and guinea pig (Shahidi & Wanasundara, 1992).
Accordingly, there is a strong argument for the effective
isolation of organic antioxidants from natural sources as
alternatives to prevent deterioration of foods (Kikuzaki
& Nakatani, 1993). The number of reports about iso-
lation and testing of natural, mainly of plant origin,
antioxidants has increased during the last twenty im-
mensely(Mallet, Cerrati, Ucciani, Gamisons, & Gruber,
1994; Scartezzini & Speroni, 2000; Xiong, Yang, Zhang,
& Xiao, 2001). These attempts have led to the devel-
opment of very effective natural antioxidants from
rosemary (Rosmarimus officinalis) and sage (Salvia offi-
cinalis), which are now available commercially and are
safe in food (Bishov, Masuoka, & Kapsalis, 1977;
Djarmati, Jankov, Schwirtlich, Djulinac, & Djordjevic,
1991; Pokorny, Nquyen, & Korczak, 1997).
A great number of different spices and aromatic herbs
have been tested for their antioxidant activity (AA),
however. there are still many plants, which were not
examined on this matter or the knowledge about their
antioxidative properties are very rarely. Caesalpinia
sappan,Lithospermum erythrorhizon,Anemarrhena
Corresponding author. Tel.: +86-773-584-6279; fax: +86-773-581-
E-mail address: (P. Yingming).
0308-8146/$ - see front matter Ó2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Food Chemistry 88 (2004) 347–350
asphodeloides,Paris polyphylla and Illicium verum are
among such plants. These plants were investigated from
some other points of view, mostly regarding their me-
dicinal properties, pigment, essential oil and flavonoid
composition(Fukui, Feroj Hasan, Ueoka, & Kyo, 1998;
Niranjan Reddy, Ravikanth, Jansi Lakshmi, Suryan-
arayan Murty, & Venkateswarlu, 2003; Sy & Brown,
1998; Tuan & Ilangantileke, 1997; Zhang et al., 1999;
Zhou, Yang, Li, Wang, & Wu, 2003).
The present study was undertaken to perform the
screening of antioxidant properties of several Chinese
medicine herbs, C. sappan,L. erythrorhizon,A. asphod-
eloides,P. polyphylla and I. verum. For this purpose
ethyl acetate extracts obtained from these plants were
added to the peanut oil and oxidative deterioration
(formation of peroxides) of it was measured at different
time periods during storage in an oven at 60 0:5°C.
BHT established strong antioxidant effects, which were
used for comparison reasons.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Materials
The following reagents were used: synthetic antioxi-
dant 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) (C.P.,
Shanghai Huayuan Fine Chemical Industry CO.,LTD,
China), ethyl acetate (A.R., China National Medicine
Group, China), chloroform (A.R., China National
Medicine Group, China), acetic acid (A.R., pure, Gu-
angzhou Chemical Reagent Factory, China), potassium
iodide (A.R., China National Medicine Group, China),
sodium thiosulfate (A.R., China National Medicine
Group, China), starch soluble (A.R., China National
Medicine Group, China), potassium dichromate (A.R.,
Guangzhou Chemical Reagent Factory, China), sulfuric
acid (A.R., 98%, China National Medicine Group,
C. sappan,L. erythrorhizon,A. asphodeloides,P. po-
lyphylla and I. verum were obtained from Guilin Phar-
maceuticals Group of China.
The fresh peanut oil was bought from Guilin country
market, and deeply refined. It contained no synthetic
antioxidants (acid value 3.2 mg KOH g1, linoleic acid
6% and peroxide value (PV) 0.85 meq kg1).
2.2. Methods
2.2.1. Preparation of plant extracts
The herbs were ground (max particle size 0.4 mm)
and 50 g of comminuted material extracted with 500 mL
ethyl acetate (A.R., China) in a Soxhlet apparatus dur-
ing 24 h. Solvent was vaporated in a RE-52AA rotav-
apour (Shanghai Yarong Biochemistry Instrument
Factory, China) by using a water bath (60 °C) and a
SHB-bA water-circulation multifunction vacuum pump
(Zhengzhou Great Wall Scientific Industry and Trade
CO., LTD, China). The extracts were finally dried in a
DZF-1B vacuum drier (Shanghai Yuejin Medical In-
strument CO., LTD, China) at 30 °C and 0.07 MPa. Dry
extracts were stored in a freezer until use. The yields of
the plant extracts were as follows: C. sappan (CE) –
10.32%, L. erythrorhizon (LE) – 13.42%, A. asphodelo-
ides (AE) – 16.57%, P. polyphylla (PE) – 11.70%, I. ve-
rum (IE) – 12.89%.
Then, they were mixed to form combinations of an-
tioxidants, L1C1E(MLE:MCE ¼1:1), L2C1E(MLE:MCE ¼
2:1), L3C1E(MLE:MCE ¼3:1), L1C2E(MLE:MCE ¼1:2),
L1C3E(MLE:MCE ¼1:3), L1C1A1E(MLE:MCE :MAE ¼1:
1:1), L2C1A1E(MLE:MCE :MAE ¼2:1:1), L3C1A1E(M
MCE:MAE ¼3:1:1), L1C2A1E(MLE :MCE :MAE ¼1:2:1),
L1C3A1E(MLE:MCE :MAE ¼1:3:1).
2.2.2. Introduction of extracts into the oil
Calculated amounts of the extracts (0.2% of the oil
weight) were added to the 50 g peanut oil. The additive
was mixed into the oil with a magnetic stirrer. Synthetic
antioxidant BHT were used as reference substances for
comparative purposes.
2.2.3. Methods of assessment of oil oxidation and stability
The oil samples (50 g each) were placed in open 100
mL volume beakers. The oxidative deterioration of
samples was studied by Schaal oven test as described by
Economou, Oreopoulou, and Thomopoulos (1991). The
experiments were repeated twice. When the differences
between the replicates were rather big, then the mea-
surements were repeated. However, such cases were ex-
ceptionally rare. In all cases standard deviation was in
the range of 2–8% from the mean. A blank sample was
prepared under the same conditions, without adding any
additives. The rate of autoxidation of peanut oil was
estimated according to the increase of its PV, which was
determined by the method as described by Bandoniene
et al. (2000).
The changes of the induction period (IP) of oil after
the addition of each extract, was determined as a func-
tion of its concentration in oil. The IP was considered as
the number of hours needed for the PV of the sample to
reach the value of 20 meq kg1(Wanasundara &
Shahidi, 1994). Protection factor (PF) values of peanut
oil and antioxidant activities (AA) of the extracts were
calculated by the following formulas:
where: IPX– induction period of sample with additive,
h; IPK– induction period of sample without additive, h;
348 P. Yingming et al. / Food Chemistry 88 (2004) 347–350
IPBHT – induction period of sample with added synthetic
antioxidant BHT, h. The following scale is proposed for
the PF values: 1.0–1.5 (very low), 1.5–2.0 (low), 2.0–2.5
(medium), 2.5–3.0 (high), >3.0 (very high) (Ahmad,
Hakim, & Shehata, 1983). Actually, PF is defined as a
stability value with additive divided by that of the blank
3. Results and discussion
The data for peanut oil autoxidation, measured as a
changes of PV, at 60 0:5°C after addition of extracts
of C. sappan,L. erythrorhizon,A. asphodeloides,P. po-
lyphylla,I. verum and their combinations are presented
in Table 1. The concentrations of the extracts in oil,
calculated on a dry weight basis, is 0.20% (w/w). It is
evident that all extracts and their combinations in gen-
eral showed some oil stabilising effect.
The extracts obtained from C. sappan,Lithospermum
erythrorhizon and their combinations were found to be
the most effective natural antioxidants. The effect of C.
sappan and L. erythrorhizon extracts and some of their
combinations on the stability of peanut oil during ac-
celerated oxidation storage conditions was better than
the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at the
same concentration. The most important finding of this
study was the strong activity of C. sappan and Litho-
spermum erythrorhizon extracts which was according to
our knowledge revealed for the first time. For instance,
PV of peanut oil with 0.20% of CE and LE after 20
days of storage was 22.50–24.10 meq kg1, whereas in
blank samples it increased to 114.78 meq kg1only
after 10 day of storage, in the samples with the extracts
from other herbs to 102–108 meq kg1. Having in mind
that BHT is a pure compound while the extracts are
complex mixtures containing ineffective substances in
terms of their antioxidative activity or even some
amounts of pro-oxidative compounds, it could be sug-
gested that C. sappan and L. erythrorhizon contains
very strong constituents retarding lipid peroxidation.
Therefore, the structures of these constituents in C.
sappan and L. erythrorhizon are target for further
The relative antioxidant efficiencies of C. sappan, L.
erythrorhizon,A. asphodeloides,P. polyphylla and I. ve-
rum and their combinations are compared in Fig. 1
where IP of peanut oil is presented after the addition of
extracts in oil.
Data provided in Fig. 1 also show that C. sappan,L.
erythrorhizon extracts and their combinations are much
more effective in stabilizing peanut oil than other extracts
used in this experiment. The effectiveness of the other
plant extracts decreased followed this order: Anemarrhena
asphodeloides >Paris polyphylla >Illicium verum at a
concentration of 0.20%.
PFs and AAs of the extracts are presented in Table 2.
The effectiveness of antioxidants was compared accord-
ing to their stability values and PFs. The effectiveness of
antioxidants under the conditions used is ranged in the
following descending order: L2C1A1E>L
C. sappan,L. erythrorhizon extracts and their com-
binations exhibited a ‘‘very high’’ AA (PF > 3), A. as-
phodeloides,P. polyphylla,I. verum exhibited ‘‘very low’’
AA (PF of 1–1.5). The structures of isolated constituents
Table 1
Effect of various extracts and their combinations (0.20%) on the formation of peroxides in peanut oil at 60 0:5°C
Additive PVs (meq kg1) after different storage time (days)
Blank 0.92 2.10 3.82 21.2 54.61 84.46 114.78
BHT 0.92 2.29 2.88 4.34 6.08 8.07 11.13 15.06 19.50 22.88 26.52
LE 0.92 1.98 2.25 3.28 5.66 8.96 10.35 14.00 16.83 18.96 22.58
CE 0.92 2.04 2.76 4.33 6.24 8.45 11.42 14.23 16.46 19.98 24.08
AE 0.92 2.30 2.66 13.00 27.50 45.75 55.49 64.35 79.87 91.62 107.55
PE 0.92 2.51 3.13 14.23 29.65 46.22 58.67 72.44 81.65 90.12 103.50
IE 0.92 2.63 4.65 15.14 29.23 48.22 52.01 64.55 77.3 88.97 102.97
L1C1E 0.92 1.58 1.87 3.00 4.69 8.28 10.62 17.67 21.92 33.46 43.67
L2C1E 0.92 2.03 2.25 3.05 4.28 7.23 9.59 14.05 18.66 21.28 28.55
L3C1E 0.92 1.55 1.81 3.06 4.15 6.37 9.00 12.64 15.22 18.36 21.05
L1C2E 0.92 1.97 2.06 3.41 4.71 9.29 11.03 15.17 21.97 31.94 38.63
L1C3E 0.92 1.64 2.04 3.46 5.62 9.80 12.40 14.31 17.84 20.05 23.59
L1C1A1E 0.92 1.7 1.93 2.94 4.3 6.91 9.84 11.76 13.50 16.74 20.26
L2C1A1E 0.92 1.87 2.04 3.51 4.38 6.03 8.64 10.34 12.02 15.33 18.65
L3C1A1E 0.92 1.76 2.05 3.29 4.13 6.78 9.31 11.16 15.31 17.88 20.62
L1C2A1E 0.92 1.71 1.80 3.19 4.94 8.54 11.95 13.99 16.14 18.15 20.83
L1C3A1E 0.92 1.94 2.10 2.83 5.35 10.79 13.22 16.81 20.35 23.65 27.54
P. Yingming et al. / Food Chemistry 88 (2004) 347–350 349
need to be elucidated and assessed in order to obtain
more precise results.
4. Conclusion
The results of this study suggest that C. sappan,L.
erythrorhizon extracts and some their combinations were
more efficient than BHT at a similar concentration in
peanut oil at 60 0:5°C.
Strong AA of C. sappan,L. erythrorhizon extracts has
been reported for the first time, which gives a strong
impact for expanding the investigations of constituents
responsible for the protection of oil against oxidation.
This study was supported by the ’’foundation for
scholars come back from abroad’’ of Guangxi province
(No. 0009007).
Ahmad, M. M., Hakim, S. H., & Shehata, A. A. Y. (1983). The
behavior of phenolic antioxidants, synergist and their mixtures in
two vegetable oils. Fette Seifen Anstrichmittel, 85, 479–485.
Bandoniene, D., Pukalskas, A., Venskutonis, P. R., & Gruzdiene, D.
(2000). Preliminary screening of antioxidant activity of some plant
extracts in rapeseed oil. Food Research International, 33, 785–791.
Bishov, S., Masuoka, Y., & Kapsalis, J. (1977). Antioxidant effect of
spices, herbs and protein hydrolysates in freeze-dried model-
systems: Synergistic action with synthetic phenolic antioxidants.
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 1, 153–166.
Djarmati, Z., Jankov, R. M., Schwirtlich, E., Djulinac, B., &
Djordjevic, A. (1991). High antioxidant activity of extracts
obtained from sage by supercritical CO2extraction. Journal of
the American Oil ChemistsÕSociety, 68, 731–734.
Economou, K. D., Oreopoulou, V., & Thomopoulos, C. D. (1991).
Antioxidant activity of some plant extracts of the family Labiatae.
Journal of the American Oil ChemistsÕSociety, 68, 109–115.
Fukui, H., Feroj Hasan, A. F. M., Ueoka, T., & Kyo, M. (1998). Formation
and secretion of a new brown benzoquinone by hairy root cultures of
Lithospermum erythrorhizon.Phytochemistry, 47, 1037–1039.
Kikuzaki, H., & Nakatani, N. (1993). Antioxidants effects of some
ginger constituent. Journal of Food Science, 58, 1407–1410.
Mallet, J. F., Cerrati, C., Ucciani, E., Gamisons, J., & Gruber, M.
(1994). Antioxidant activity of plant leaves in relation to their
alpha-tocopherol content. Food Chemistry, 49, 61–65.
Niranjan Reddy, V. L., Ravikanth, V., Jansi Lakshmi, V. V. N. S.,
Suryanarayan Murty, U., & Venkateswarlu, Y. (2003). Inhibitory
activity of homoisoflavonoids from Caesalpinia sappan against
Beauveria bassiana.Fitoterapia, 74, 600–602.
Pokorny, J., Nquyen, H. T. T., & Korczak, J. (1997). Antioxidant
activities of rosemary and sage extracts in sunflower oil. Nahrung,
3, 176–182.
Scartezzini, P., & Speroni, E. (2000). Review on some plants of Indian
traditional medicine with antioxidant activity. Journal of Ethno-
pharmacology, 71, 23–43.
Shahidi, F., & Wanasundara, P. K. J. P. D. (1992). Phenolic
antioxidants. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition,
32, 67–103.
Lai-King, L. S., & Brown, G. D. (1998). A seco-cycloartane from
Illicium verum.Phytochemistry, 48, 1169–1171.
Tuan, D. Q., & Ilangantileke, S. G. (1997). Liquid CO2Extraction of
Essential Oil from Star Anise Fruits (Illicium verum H.). Journal of
Food Engineering, 31, 47–57.
Wanasundara, U. N., & Shahidi, F. (1994). Canola extract as an
alternative natural antioxidant for Canola oil. Journal of the
American Oil ChemistsÕSociety, 71, 817–825.
Xiong, H. P., Yang, W. L., Zhang, Y. S., & Xiao, W. J. (2001). Recent
advances in natural plant antioxidants. Natural Product Research
and Development, 13(5), 75–79.
Zhang, J. Y., Meng, Z. Y., Zhang, M. Y., Ma, D. S., Xu, S. X., &
Kodama, H. R. (1999). Effect of six steroidal saponins isolated
from Anemarrhenae rhizoma on platelet aggregation and hemolysis
in human blood. Clinica Chimica Acta, 289, 79–88.
Zhou, L. G., Yang, C. Z., Li, J. Q., Wang, S. L., & Wu, J. Y. (2003).
Heptasaccharide and octasaccharide isolated from Paris polyphylla
var. yunnanensis and their plant growth-regulatory activity. Plant
Science, 165, 571–575.
Table 2
AA of extracts (0.20%) and their effect on the stability of peanut oil
Additive PFaAAb
Without additive 1.00
BHT 3.75 1.00
LE 4.80 1.38
CE 4.53 1.28
AE 1.40 0.51
PE 1.23 0.08
IE 1.33 0.12
L1C1E 3.53 0.92
L2C1E 4.27 1.19
L3C1E 5.07 1.48
L1C2E 3.67 0.97
L1C3E 4.56 1.29
L1C1A1E 5.31 1.56
L2C1A1E 5.80 1.74
L3C1A1E 5.27 1.55
L1C2A1E 5.24 1.54
L1C3A1E 3.69 0.98
PF is the ratio of IP of the sample with additive with IP of the
sample without additive.
AA was calculated in comparison with BHT at the concentration
Fig. 1. Changes of the IP of peanut oil after the addition extracts and
BHT at concentrations 0.20%.
350 P. Yingming et al. / Food Chemistry 88 (2004) 347–350
... As one of the world's top three beverages, tea not only has a good taste and low calorie content but also has many health functions, such as antioxidant [2,3], antiatherosclerosis [4,5], and neuroprotective [6]. Tea leaves and its extracts have good antioxidant capacity [7], but most of the research has focused on the water-soluble fraction [8], and less on its alcoholic extracts. The extracts of tea leaves can be made through a certain process to enhance their health benefits, and the functional components in tea can be further investigated by making full use of low quality tea materials such as tea powder and tea grinds through the extraction process. ...
Full-text available
The introduction of the concept of big data has provided considerable convenience in all walks of life, and the field of tea research is no exception. With the rapid development of Internet technology and economic aspects, the traditional methods of functional tea research can no longer meet the growing demand, and it is necessary to change the concept to learn the latest biological activity research methods. In this paper, we use Mao Jian tea from the Lvliang Mountains as an example and use the big data method to collect and analyze data. The main functional components of Mao Jian tea were studied, and some of the functional components and biological activities in Mao Jian tea from the Lvliang Mountains were compared with those of Pu’er tea, black tea, and green tea using UV spectrophotometry. The results showed that the maximum amount of flavonoids in the tea broth reached 43.29 mg/g when the brewing temperature was 90°C, the ratio of tea to water was 1 : 120, the brewing time was 20 min, and the Lvliang Mao Jian tea brewed under this condition had the highest activity, in which the flavonoid health function played the most effective role.
... Many researchers have closely observed that phenolic compounds have biological activity because of their potential antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity [23]. The antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds plays a decisive role in scavenging and neutralizing free radicals, quenching singlet, and triplet oxygen, or decomposing peroxides [24]. ...
Full-text available
The health-promoting properties and chemical profiles of 30 Jew’s ear mushroom varieties were investigated. The antioxidant properties were determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging, and metal chelating ability (MCA) assays, while phenolic profiles were determined by total phenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) colorimetric assays. Total carbohydrate, β-glucan, and melanin contents were determined by colorimetric methods. 5'-Nucleotides, vitamin D2, ergosterol, and ergothioneine contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Anti-inflammation activities of Jew’s ear were evaluated by the colorimetric protease inhibitory method. The results showed that Jew’s ear mushrooms possessed substantial phenolics and antioxidant properties. All the Jew’s ear varieties contain high amount of total carbohydrate, β-glucan, reducing sugar, melanin, pectin, vitamin D2, ergosterol, and ergothioneine. The current findings could provide scientific information for breeders to nurture desired varieties and for food industry to develop new health promoting products.
... The perusal of available literature indicates a clear link between the radical scavenging ability of plant extracts and phytochemical contents (Arumugam et al., 2019(Arumugam et al., , 2020Namvar et al., 2017). The current findings also support the view of Yingming et al. (2004), who found that extracts with a high phenolic content were more effective in scavenging free radicals. Nonetheless, other extracts with lower phenolic levels demonstrated considerable activity, suggesting that other secondary metabolites may contribute to the scavenging activity. ...
Full-text available
The emerging microbial infections and their resistance to the existing antibiotics lead to discovering novel compounds, primarily from medicinal plants with secondary metabolites having several bioactive potentials, including antioxidants. The current investigation aims to measure the antioxidant and antibacterial efficacy of ethanolic extracts from roots, stems, leaves and seeds of Cleome rutidosperma . The extracts were subjected to quantitative (total phenolic and flavonoid), qualitative phytochemical studies, and functional groups identification by FT-IR analysis. The extract of leaves showed the highest total antioxidant (54.21±1.56 mg ABAE/g), DPPH (62.92±1.94 mg GAEs/g), and FRAP (71.64±2.02 mg GAEs/g) activity among the all-tested parts. The antibacterial efficacy of extracts was determined by the microdilution bioassay method, which demonstrated that G(+ve) bacteria appear to be more susceptible to the crude extracts than G (-ve) bacteria. The qualitative phytochemical screening-detected alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, sugars, proteins, saponins, sterols, tannins, and terpenoids. The leaves have the highest levels of phenolics (70.451.23 mg GAE/g DW) and flavonoids (32.261.12 mg RE/g DW) among the all-tested parts. The extracts' functional group was validated using the FT-IR spectra. Polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins were identified in the crude extracts. These findings imply that C. rutidoserma could be a promising candidate for further research into infectious illness treatment and as a resource of novel antioxidants in nutraceutical and biopharmaceutical industries as a functional additive.
... Studies have shown that antioxidant supplements are in use to boost the activity of the built-in antioxidant system in order to combat oxidative stress [9,13]. Unfortunately, some of these synthetic antioxidants are reported to be involved in several diseases and their use had been discontinued in many developed countries [14], promoting the need for health professionals to search for alternative sources of antioxidants based on natural origin, which may be safer, more effective and economical, preferably from plant materials based on indigenous resources [15]. ...
Oxidative stress overwhelms the antioxidant mechanisms of living systems, with active involvement in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Natives of Gangnim in the Plateau State of Nigeria may be unknowingly endowed with some protective advantages against oxidative stress for their habitual consumption of Artemisia annua tea. The antioxidant activities of A. annua extracts were determined using in vitro methods and the inhibitory potentials of twenty-nine (29) bioactive compounds of the plant against oxidative stress target proteins were assessed through molecular docking analysis. These extracts showed significantly high activities in scavenging nitric oxide, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing ferric (Fe3+) to ferrous (Fe2+) iron. Virtually, none of the bioactive compounds binds to the active site of the antioxidant protein targets. Rather, 72.41, 93.10 and 75.86% of these compounds bind with high binding affinity to the activator binding sites of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) respectively. 7,8-dimethylalloxazine (-8.10 kcal/mol) ranked highest as a prospective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (XOX). The antioxidant activity exhibited by the extracts of the locally cultivated A. annua and the molecular interactions of its bioactive compounds against the protein targets used predict that oxidative stress inhibition could be effectively achieved with these phytochemicals.
... The above result correlates with Thangavel et al. and Pratima et al. [31,32] . Phenolic content of the plant is directly proportional to the antioxidant activity [33] as it absorbs the free radicals by decomposing peroxide [34,35] . Our results confirmed the above said statement. ...
This review gives, for the first time, a systematic presentation and discussion on the chemistry and use of brazilein in foods. Processes of isolation, purification and quantification of this alternative pigment are firstly reviewed. Molecular structure and color stabilities as well as ways to enhance stability of the pigment are then discussed. Selected applications of the pigment in foods are given. Based on the review of the literature, future studies should focus on the isolation and purification of the pigment prior to its use in foods. Extraction yield and purity of brazilein obtained from the different methods should also be compared. Since the pigment is very sensitive to pH change, its stability should be enhanced prior to its use. Co-pigmentation is among the methods that exhibits potential for stability enhancement of the pigment.
The essential oil of wampee [Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels] fruit pericarp (WEO) has excellent biological activities. However, it is highly volatile and in poor solubility, limiting its application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. This study aimed to synthesize the inclusion complex of WEO and β-cyclodextrin (WEO–β-CD-IC) to overcome its shortcomings. Prepared by using the freeze-drying method, the obtained inclusion complex was characterized by several analytical methods: FT-IR, SEM, TG-DSC, and XRD. Effects of three elements on the WEO extraction yield using the ultrasound-assisted hydrodistillation (UAHD) method were also measured. The results of FT-IR and XRD demonstrated the encapsulation of WEO into β-CD. TG-DSC was used to probe the thermostability of WEO obviously improved and the water-solubility of WEO was distinctly enhanced by 14 times after complexing. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging ability of encapsulated WEO demonstrated that the antioxidant capacity was well preserved. These data support further development of making better use of wampee fruit peel essential oil.
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Milk is often contaminated with many toxins, with aflatoxins being the most prominent of them. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a toxin of high risk in milk, due to its carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity and immunosuppressive effects on humans. The worldwide occurrence and prevalence of aflatoxins in milk products has raised the need for strict legislation to regulate these toxins at safe levels for human consumption. The carryover of aflatoxin B1 from feed to aflatoxin M1 in milk is a great concern for vulnerable age groups such as infants and the elderly. Currently, the European Union and the US Food and Drug Administration have set legal limits for the presence of aflatoxins in dairy products. Nevertheless, the incidence of aflatoxins in milk and milk products is reported in levels higher than the regulatory limits. This paper reviews some of the analytical methods used to detect aflatoxins and various strategies for the control and decontamination of aflatoxins in milk products.
Tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), hydroquinone (HQ), propyl gallate (PG), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) had much higher antioxidant activity in crude safflower oil than in a commercial brand vegetable oil (Bint oil). The following active oxygen (AOM, hours at 97.8° C) and storage stability (days at 45° C) values for each antioxidant in safflower oil were; (27.9, 105.0), (21.2, 44.8), (15.3, 45.5), (9.8, 36.8) and (7.9, 33.5) respectively compared with (6.8, 31.5) for the control. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP), ascorbic acid (AA) and citric acid (CA) were found to improve the AOM stability of both oils. The same values in Bint oil were: (9.0, 34.3), (9.0, 28.3), (9.4, 41.0), (7.3, 28.5) and (6.2, 2.5) respectively compared with (5.3, 23.3) for the control. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP), ascorbic acid (AA) and citric acid (CA) were found to improve the AOM stability of both oils. AP was more effective and CA least effective in safflower oil, whereas the reverse was true in Bint oil. The five antioxidants were individually blended with the three synergists (0.01 % of each) and the 15 combinations added to each oil and compared with the antioxidant controls at 0.02 %. Safflower oil stability was greater with pure TBHQ, HQ and PG than with any of the synergist mixtures whereas the BHA, BHT‐synergist mixtures were found equal or superior to that treated with BHA or BHT alone. Bint oil treated with CATBHQ or CA‐HQ mixtures showed improved stability compared to oils treated with these antioxidants alone. However, the AOM method alone suggested CA‐PG, CA‐BHA and CA‐BHT mixtures improved the stability compared to the oil‐antioxidant controls. Chelation of metals by CA was assumed to be the primary cause of this synergism, whereas AP and AA behaved more like weak antioxidants.
The dichloromethane extract of the leaves of Illicium verum yielded the ring A-cleaved seco-cycloartane: 3,4-seco-(24Z)-cycloart-4(28),24-diene-3,26-dioic acid, 26-methyl ester, which is the 26-methyl ester of nigranoic acid. The structure of the new compound was deduced by 2D-NMR spectroscopy, which demonstrated conclusively that it is isomeric with the 3-methyl ester of nigranoic acid recently reported from Illicium dunnianum.
Investigation of natural antioxidant and synergistic activity of some food ingredients included twenty spices, herbs and plant protein hydrolyzates. Of the spices tested, clove, cinnamon, sage, rosemary, mace, oregano, allspice and nutmeg were highly antioxidant and when coupled with BHA, these spices acted as strong synergists. Autolyzed yeast proteins (AYP), when combined with some of these spices, significantly extended the stability of the model food system. Results of tests of freeze-dried model systems consisting of corn oil and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stored at 65°C suggest possible applications for stabilizing oxygen sensitive foods against quality deterioration.
Hairy roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon in Murashige-Skoog medium produce a new brown benzoquinone derivative instead of red naphthoquinone (shikonin) derivatives as the main secondary metabolites. The structure of the new quinone was elucidated to be 2-[4-(E-4-hydroxymethyl-3-pentenyl)-furan-2-yl]-1,4-benzoquinone (called hydroxyechinofuran B) based on spectroscopic data. Its biosynthesis may be via geranylhydroquinone, a key biosynthetic intermediate of shikonin.
The nonvolatile fraction of the dichloromethane extract of ginger rhizomes exhibited a strong antioxidative activity using linoleic acid as the substrate in ethanol-phosphate buffer solution. The fraction was purified by chromatographic techniques to provide five gingerol related compounds and eight diarylheptanoids. Among them, 12 compounds exhibited higher activity than alpha-tocopherol. The activity was probably dependent upon side chain structures and substitution patterns on the benzene ring.
The antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of oregano, dittany, thyme, marjoram, spearmint, lavender and basil were tested in lard stored at 75°C. The concentration of extracts in lard varied from 0.01 to 0.20%. Oregano extract was found to be the most effective in stabilizing lard, followed by thyme, dittany, marjoram and lavender extracts, in a decreasing order. The induction period of lard increased with antioxidant concentration. After the induction period, peroxide formation proceeded rapidly, following pseudo-zero order reaction kinetics. The rate of the reaction decreased slightly with increasing plant extract concentration. Combined addition of plant extracts in lard showed a low synergistic action between thyme extract and spearmint extract.