The chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of three common Australian Eucalyptus species, namely E. olida, E. staigeriana and E. dives were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the agar disc diffusion method, respectively. A total of 24 compounds were identified from the essential oil of E. dives, with the dominant compounds being piperitone (40.5%), α-phellandrene (17.4%), p-cymene (8.5%) and terpin-4-ol (4.7%). For E. staigeriana, 29 compounds were identified with 1,8-cineole (34.8%), neral (10.8%), geranial (10.8%), α-phellandrene (8.8%) and methyl geranate (5.2%) being the dominant ones. In contrast, a single compound, (E)-methyl cinnamate, accounted for 99.4% of the essential oils of E. oilda, although 20 compounds were identified. The essential oils displayed a variable degree of antimicrobial activity with E. staigeriana oil showing the highest activity. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive to the essential oils than Gram-negative bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive strain while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most resistant.