Article

The role of majority attitudes toward out-group in the perception of the acculturation strategies of immigrants

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine host group members ‘towards immigrants’ acculturation strategy preferences and the relationship between these attitudes and the level of prejudice towards immigrants. A questionnaire containing different prejudice scales was administered to 160 Italian participants living in Rome. In addition respondents were presented with vignettes depicting different acculturation strategies: Assimilation, Integration, Separation, or Marginalization. Respondents received a vignette each describing only one acculturation strategy. Results showed that prejudice towards immigrants affected the evaluation of acculturation strategies. The more prejudice the respondent was, the more negative was his or her attitude towards Separation and Marginalization and the more positive was his or her attitude towards Assimilation.

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... Most of the research on acculturation strategies have focused more attention on exploring the outcomes of acculturation strategies, most commonly in student populations, than on understanding the factors that influence the adoption and implementation of acculturation strategies (Choy et al., 2021;Hajro et al., 2019;Zagefka et al., 2009). For example, some studies have explored antecedents for acculturation strategies in the wider population (e.g., Zagefka et al., 2009) and majority attitudes that lead to preferred acculturation strategies for immigrants (Kosic et al., 2005). In a related vein, few studies have examined the predictors of acculturation strategies of immigrant employees such as newcomer adjustment (Hommey et al., 2020), contextual factors (Hajro et al., 2019), acculturation strategies as a determinant of job outcomes (Wang & Jing, 2018), and dispositional and situational factors (Samnani et al., 2013). ...
... In response to this power imbalance which may lead to their maltreatment in the host culture, members of the minority identity group may work toward reconstructing their identity (Alam, 2018;Ward et al., 2021). Previous research has found that immigrants who attempt to reconstruct their identity may engage in avoidance behaviors to maintain their self-concept, while others may adapt their values, norms, and behaviors to those of the majority group (Alam, 2018;Gürlek, 2021;Kosic et al., 2005;Sam & Berry, 2010;Samnani et al., 2012). ...
... Based on Berry's (1997) acculturation framework, there are likely benefits to immigrant employees who match their acculturation strategies to what is generally expected and accepted in the host culture. Research shows that native-born individuals would ideally like immigrants to integrate into the host culture and there are substantial benefits to both the organization and immigrant worker when acculturation strategies are accepted (Alam, 2018;Kosic et al., 2005;Zagefka & Brown, 2002). Hence, immigrant employees who marginalize are likely to experience a significant loss in both cultures. ...
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There has been growing interest among organizational researchers in the relationship between acculturation strategies and organizational outcomes of immigrant employees. However, what is noticeably missing from the literature on acculturation strategies is how cultural values such as heritage cultural identity salience affect an immigrant employee’s acculturation strategy and subsequent work attitude and behaviors. Drawing on Berry’s (1997) acculturation strategy and framework, we examined heritage cultural identity salience, harmony enhancement, integration and marginalization acculturation strategy, turnover intention, and affective commitment among immigrant employees in the USA. In this time-lagged study, we found that heritage cultural identity salience was negatively related to marginalization and positively related to integration. Harmony enhancement significantly buffered the relationship between heritage cultural identity salience and marginalization and integration, respectively. Heritage cultural identity salience had significant indirect effects on affective commitment via marginalization and both affective commitment and turnover intention via integration. Lastly, results from the moderated mediated analysis showed that the indirect effect of heritage identity salience on affective commitment and turnover intention via integration was significantly different at varying levels of harmony enhancement. Our study affirms existing research on acculturation strategy and extends the literature by introducing harmony enhancement as a moderator. The use of Berry’s (1997) framework and the results of this study provide useful insights into the inclusion and retention of immigrant employees in the US workforce. Practical implications, as well as theoretical contributions, are discussed.
... Assimilation is said to have occurred when migrants opt not to maintain and practice customs of their cultural heritage, but adopt the cultural practices and traditions of the host community. Assimilation strategy has been found to be the acculturation approach most preferred by host communities (Horverak et al., 2013;Kosic et al., 2005). On the other hand, when migrants choose to keep values and customs of their cultural heritage and avoid interactions with indigenes of the host community, that is referred to as separation. ...
... While strong bonding and strong bridging (i.e. integration) may be considered ideal (Kosic et al., 2005), it may carry its own demerits. Although research has shown that when migrants have more social contacts at the destination, they are more likely to integrate (Buijs et al., 2006), it has also been found that they become more susceptible to discrimination; an incongruity referred to as "integration paradox" (van Doorn et al., 2013). ...
... This finding was unexpected, but it mirrors findings in the literature that assimilation is the most preferred acculturation strategy by host populations (Horverak et al., 2013). The holding on to and practices of migrants' customs in the indigenous community, although the preferred strategy among migrants (Kosic et al., 2005), may not be appreciated. The emergent themes from the open-ended questions on the explanation of the customs migrants hold on to and practice are (1) marriage rites, (2) child-naming customs, (3) celebration of festivals, (4) funeral rites, and (5) food and delicacies. ...
... In recent years, attitudes towards immigrant employees have been more openly hostile and xenophobic, leading to more incidents of workplace ostracism (Hainmueller & Hopkins, 2015;Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005;Sniderman, Peri, de Figueiredo Jr, & Piazza, 2000). Generally, members of a group are likely to ostracize another group or a member itself if they perceive that group or member to be burdensome (Robinson et al., 2013). ...
... While exploring the relationship between majority attitudes toward out-group perceptions of acculturation strategies, Kosic et al. (2005) found negative behaviors towards immigrants who chose separation and marginalization strategies. Using vignettes of different immigrant acculturation strategies, assimilation, marginalization, integration, and separation, participants reported limiting interpersonal encounters with immigrants who adopted separation and marginalization strategies than those who adopted assimilation and integration strategies. ...
... Studies have shown that native-born employees prefer immigrant employees to adopt assimilation and integration acculturation strategies (Bourhis, Moise, Perreault, & Senecal, 1997;Jasinskaja-Lahti, Liebkind, Jaakkola, & Reuter, 2006;Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005;Van Oudenhoven, Prins, & Buunk, 1998;Zagefka & Brown, 2002). For example, in a study of Turkish immigrants in Belgium, Van Acker and Vanbeselaere (2012) social support outside of the workplace, it may prove difficult for immigrant employees to avoid feeling ostracized (Fiset et al., 2017). ...
Chapter
The U.S. labor force is diverse in terms of employees’ racial/ethnic identities and countries of origin. The growing race/ethnicity- and nationality-based diversity in the workplace has had different outcomes. On the one hand, racial/ethnic minorities and immigrants contribute to wide-ranging and diverse workplaces. On the other hand, past and present prejudices sustain an environment that marginalizes minoritized workers. Perceived ostracism produces a negative interpersonal experience for which the consequences and ambiguous motives have been broadly and frequently studied. In this chapter, we provide an overview of perceived ostracism patterns among members of minority groups. First, we describe the demographic profile of the U.S. labor force. Second, we review equal employment laws and company policies that may impact how minority employees experience mistreatment. Third, we describe research on experiences of workplace ostracism, focusing on minority and immigrant workers. In specific, we examine buffers to the harmful effects of workplace ostracism, including cultural identity salience, social support, and individual differences in harmony enhancement. Furthermore, we offer suggestions to organizations to reduce the incidence of ostracism of racial/ethnic minority and foreign-born employees. We conclude by discussing ostracism and COVID-19 and directions for future research.
... Recent theoretical frameworks increasingly highlight the need to approach the study of acculturative processes through an ecological perspective, taking into account cultural/contextual as well as personal influences on immigrants' adaptation (Ward & Geeraert, 2016;Zhou et al., 2012). Consistent with this view, the current study evaluates parent-child cultural orientation gaps and externalizing problems among Chinese immigrant families living in Italy, a recently receiving society that generally encourages immigrants' assimilation rather than integration (Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005). Italy currently hosts approximately five million legally residing migrants, who make up 8.5% of the total population (ISTAT, 2018). ...
... Migration fluxes to Italy have grown substantially starting from the 1990s and therefore are a relatively recent phenomenon in comparison with other countries with a long history of immigration, such as the United States. Moreover, ethnocultural diversity in Italian society has historically been low as opposed to traditionally multicultural societies (e.g., Australia, Canada), leading to an overall assimilationist model with regard to immigration policies (Colombo & Sciortino, 2004;Kosic et al., 2005). Italian public opinion, initially tolerant toward immigrants, has become more overtly hostile partly because of the lack of clarity of immigration policies as well as the inefficiency of the public administration, therefore undermining the integration of the diverse immigrant communities (Kosic et al., 2005). ...
... Moreover, ethnocultural diversity in Italian society has historically been low as opposed to traditionally multicultural societies (e.g., Australia, Canada), leading to an overall assimilationist model with regard to immigration policies (Colombo & Sciortino, 2004;Kosic et al., 2005). Italian public opinion, initially tolerant toward immigrants, has become more overtly hostile partly because of the lack of clarity of immigration policies as well as the inefficiency of the public administration, therefore undermining the integration of the diverse immigrant communities (Kosic et al., 2005). ...
Article
The current study aimed to investigate whether the expected association between parent–child cultural orientation gaps and externalizing problems was moderated by impulse control (IC) among Chinese early adolescents in immigrant families. Ninety-one first- and second-generation Chinese immigrant youths (58% girls) aged between 11 and 13 years and their parents completed independent measures of mainstream and heritage cultural orientations. IC was evaluated via a computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task, while externalizing problems were assessed via parental report. Regression analyses indicated that low levels of IC represented a risk factor for externalizing adjustment among early adolescents who were less oriented toward the mainstream culture than their parents. In addition, high levels of IC were protective for early adolescents who were less oriented toward their heritage culture than their parents. The findings suggest that IC plays an important role in Chinese early adolescents’ behavioral adjustment. Implications of the results are discussed.
... On the other hand, a receiving community member's preference for an integration orientation would expect Syrians to retain their culture while simultaneously adapting to American culture. Previous research shows that majority group members often desire for minority group members to assimilate or integrate into their societies (rather than separate or marginalize), and this varies as a function of how prejudiced the majority group members are (Horenczyk, 1996;Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005;Van Oudenhoven, Prins, & Buunk, 1998). For instance, Kosic et al. (2005) found that Italians with stronger prejudice wanted immigrants to assimilate, whereas people with lower levels of prejudice wanted immigrants to integrate. ...
... Previous research shows that majority group members often desire for minority group members to assimilate or integrate into their societies (rather than separate or marginalize), and this varies as a function of how prejudiced the majority group members are (Horenczyk, 1996;Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005;Van Oudenhoven, Prins, & Buunk, 1998). For instance, Kosic et al. (2005) found that Italians with stronger prejudice wanted immigrants to assimilate, whereas people with lower levels of prejudice wanted immigrants to integrate. On the other hand, in a study where Pakistani minority members indicated their cultural preferences, British participants favored integration more when it was in line with the minority preference; however, this was also moderated by the level of prejudice such that participants preferred integration when prejudice was low (Zagefka, Tip, Gonzalez, Brown, & Cinnirella, 2012). ...
... Unlike previous studies that used prejudice as a moderator or a predictor in the context of acculturation (e.g., Kosic et al., 2005;Zagefka et al., 2012), we conceptualized a different causal link testing whether perceived acculturation orientation would affect prejudice. We found that perceived assimilation orientation would decrease social distance as compared to integration orientation. ...
Article
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The number of asylum seekers and refugees across the world is rapidly increasing. Negative attitudes towards these groups are globally prevalent and typically hostile because most receiving country citizens perceive them to be a security threat and an economic burden. This paper aims to understand the antecedents of negative attitudes toward a large refugee group currently garnering a great deal of attention – Syrian refugees, and experimentally test ways to ameliorate negative attitudes. In Study 1 (N = 122), we investigated predictors of social distance—as a proxy for prejudice—and found right-wing authoritarianism and intergroup anxiety to be significant predictors. In Study 2 (N = 162), we tested whether perceived acculturation orientation would predict social distance, and found that Americans were less prejudiced toward Syrians who preferred to assimilate rather than integrate. Finally, in Study 3 (N = 153), we tested if a form of vicarious contact could reduce social distance via reduced intergroup anxiety; we found initial evidence for this mediation link. We discussed the potential for the vicarious contact intervention to foster positive intergroup relations, and contribute to refugee wellbeing.
... Lisaks on Eesti venekeelse elanikkonna akulturat sioonistrateegiate väljaselgitamisel selgunud, et ainus riigi ühiskondlikus elus osalemise suhtes aktiivse hoiakuga grupp on see, keda iseloomustavad separatsiooni tunnused, näiteks tugev etniline eneseteadvus ning negatiivne hoiak Eesti riigi poliitika suhtes (Kruusvall, Vetik, & Berry, 2009). Samas on teada, et koolikaaslaste toetav või vähemalt salliv suhtumine sisserända jatest õpilastesse võib olla kohanemise seisukohast väga oluline (Isac, Maslowski, & van der Werf, 2012;Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005). Sisserändajate peredest pärit õpilaste hariduslikku lõimimist mõjutavad paljud tegurid, sealhulgas võimalikud läbielatud psüühilised traumad ja emotsionaalne stress (McCarthy, 1998), sisserännanud õpilaste ja kohalike akulturatsioonihoiakute sarnasus või erinevus (Bourhis, Moïse, Perreault, & Senécal, 1997;Verkuyten, Thijs, & Sierksma, 2014) ning ka põlisrahvu sest kaasõpilaste akulturatsioonihoiakud (Aronson & Brown, 2013;Isac et al., 2012;Kosic et al., 2005). ...
... Samas on teada, et koolikaaslaste toetav või vähemalt salliv suhtumine sisserända jatest õpilastesse võib olla kohanemise seisukohast väga oluline (Isac, Maslowski, & van der Werf, 2012;Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005). Sisserändajate peredest pärit õpilaste hariduslikku lõimimist mõjutavad paljud tegurid, sealhulgas võimalikud läbielatud psüühilised traumad ja emotsionaalne stress (McCarthy, 1998), sisserännanud õpilaste ja kohalike akulturatsioonihoiakute sarnasus või erinevus (Bourhis, Moïse, Perreault, & Senécal, 1997;Verkuyten, Thijs, & Sierksma, 2014) ning ka põlisrahvu sest kaasõpilaste akulturatsioonihoiakud (Aronson & Brown, 2013;Isac et al., 2012;Kosic et al., 2005). Vastuvõtva riigi elanike hoiakute muutmisel on sekkumisvahenditena kasutatud nt kontakti kujutlemist, sisserändajaid soodsas valguses näitavate tekstide lugemist (Vezzali, Capozza, Stathi, & Giovannini, 2012) ning kriitiliste juhtumite analüüsi (Herfst, van Ouden hoven, & Timmerman, 2008), ent tulemused on olnud mitmeti tõlgen datavad. ...
... Schoolaged refugee children form a significant part of the educational system and pose many challenges for the recipient countries. Attitudes and acculturation preferences of peers from the majority population have been found to be an important factor in improving education for students from immigrant families (Isac et al., 2012;Kosic et al., 2005). Previous stud ies have demonstrated that gamebased learning can have positive effects on students' motivation and attitudes. ...
Article
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Euroopa põgenikekriis nõuab Eesti koolisüsteemilt valmisolekut sisserändajatest õpilaste vastuvõtmiseks. Elanikkonna hoiakud mõnest muust religioossest või kultuurilisest grupist pärinevate sisserändajate suhtes pole alati pooldavad (Beilmann, 2016; Laineste, Raus, Timmi, Vetik, & Vihalemm, 2011), ent sisserändajate peredest pärit õpilaste kohanemist kooliga mõjutab ka kaasõpilaste suhtumine. Koolikaaslaste suhtumise ja hoiakute kujundamisel on mitmes valdkonnas edukalt rakendatud mänge, ent pole teada, kuivõrd mõjutavad nende käigus omandatud kogemused õpilase hoiakuid väljaspool mängu (Chin, Dukes, & Gamson, 2009; Wouters, van Nimwegen, van Oostendorp, & van der Spek, 2013). Praegune uuring võimaldab hinnata mängu mõju põlisrahvusest osalejate akulturatsioonihoiakute muutumisele. Uuringus kasutati sekkumisvahendina mudeldusmängu „Allikad” (Männamaa, 2015; Männamaa, Vetik, & Liiv, 2011), akulturatsioonihoiakuid hinnati 12 väitest koosneva küsimustiku abil. Analüüs näitas erinevust mängus osalenud õpilaste eel- ja järeltesti tulemustes (p < 0,05). Tulemused osutavad sellele, et eesmärgipäraselt loodud mäng võib aidata kaasa õpilaste akulturatsioonihoiakute muutumisele. Summary
... The role of assimilationism and multiculturalism (or integrationism) as host nationals' acculturation preferences (Berry, 2006;Matera et al., 2015) in intergroup relations was highlighted by the Interactive Acculturation Model (Bourhis et al., 1997) and the FRAMING THE INCLUSIVENESS OF THE NATIONAL INGROUP 5 Concordance Model of Acculturation (see, e.g., Rohmann et al., 2006). Notably, preference for assimilation (i.e., hosts' refusal to accept immigrants' desire to maintain their cultural identity) versus integration (i.e., hosts' acceptance of immigrants' desire to maintain their heritage culture) (Piontkowski et al., 2002) was related to more negative outgroup attitudes (Kosic et al., 2005;Roblain et al., 2016). Thus, this literature underscores how assimilationism and multiculturalism (as hosts' attitude orientations) influence intergroup relations and outgroup prejudice. ...
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Paper accepted for publication in IJIR in on December 4, 2022 This between-subject survey experiment, conducted in two waves using a German sample (N=1,166 in Wave 1, N=829 in Wave 2), examined the hypothesis that identity-related frames – specifically, assimilation versus multicultural – affect outgroup prejudice and admission policy preferences by increasing the salience of different national identity representations (NIR). Participants were exposed to identical articles (except for the manipulations) framing information about Syrian refugees in Germany in either assimilation or multicultural terms. As predicted, exposure to assimilation versus multicultural frames led to higher ethnocultural NIR salience and, in turn, to higher outgroup prejudice and preference for more restrictive admission policies. Still, findings pointed to the defining role of frame content and valence perception in these effects, as perceiving the frame as more assimilationist and anti-immigration was related to higher ethnocultural NIR salience. Furthermore, frame perception explained a larger portion of variation in ethnocultural NIR salience than treatment alone. Additionally, ethnocultural NIR salience fostered intergroup threat perception leading to higher outgroup prejudice and preference for restrictive asylum policies. In contrast, civic NIR salience was unaffected by the experimental manipulation. We discuss the impact of identity-related frames on ethnocultural NIR salience and the role of exclusionary national identities on outgroup prejudice and preference for restrictive admission policies. We also highlight the benefits of using multicultural frames to frame information about refugees and asylum to foster positive intergroup perceptions.
... Researchers have long recognized the importance of religion, culture, social patterns, and professional values in describing people's behavior, particularly immigrants and minorities (Hitlin and Piliavin 2004;Inglehart and Baker 2000;Norris and Inglehart 2012;Schwartz and Sagie 2000;Wedeen 2002). Some claim that immigrants acculturate by gradually adapting to the host country's culture, values, and norms to avoid marginalization, isolation, and external stresses (Kosic et al. 2005). However, Norris and Inglehart (2012) argue that immigrants' values are shaped by collective histories, common languages, and religious traditions, so that migrant populations are unlikely to abandon their cultural roots when they settle in another country (Norris and Inglehart 2012, p. 228). ...
Article
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Many believe religion has no place in modern medical and professional fields. Nevertheless, recent studies show that religion remains integral to many people’s lives and professional practices, such as physicians. This study addresses the significance that American Muslim physicians (AMPs) attribute to their religious values in shaping their identity; and examines how the values held by self-identified Muslim physicians affect their medical practice, specialization, public roles, and civic engagement. This paper also discusses how complex lives may not be adequately addressed by theories of value derived from modernization theory and more normatively conceived Muslim ethical principles. Individual interviews were conducted with 62 AMPs. Grounded thematic analysis guided the processing of qualitative interview data. The results suggest that many of the AMPs’ religious values converge with shared cultural and professional values in the United States and elsewhere. The authors suggest that focusing on how AMPs articulate their values will lead to more humane professional, community, and healthcare settings. Regardless of the religious beliefs of professional providers, they should not ignore the impact of religion on their medical practice, especially since religion is still a vital part of many patients’ lives.
... The acculturation preferences of minority groups, however, do not always match those of the larger society. Although immigrants and ethnic minorities generally prefer integration (Berry et al., 2006), there are differences across countries in expectations regarding how people should acculturate (Kosic et al., 2005;Montreuil & Bourhis, 2001;Ward & Masgoret, 2008;Zick et al., 2001). The Interactive Acculturation Model (IAM; Bourhis et al., 1997) postulates that convergence or mismatch in attitudes and preferences leads to positive (consensual) or negative (problematic or conflictual) acculturation outcomes. ...
Chapter
Acculturation refers to the process of change that arises from sustained intercultural contact between cultural groups and their individual members. Although these changes can occur at the group level, this article focuses on the changes that individuals experience as they negotiate recurring intercultural encounters over time; their pathways to positive development; and their psychological, sociocultural, and intercultural adaptation. Berry’s (1980) acculturation framework is the foundation of current theory and research. It identifies two dimensions, cultural maintenance and intergroup contact, as the defining features of acculturation attitudes and describes how these factors combine in different ways to result in one of four acculturation strategies: integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalisation. Over time Berry’s bidimensional model of acculturation has been broadened and reframed in terms of orientations to heritage and contact cultures, and has been extended to include not only attitudes, but also identities, values, and behaviours. Moreover, increasing emphasis has been placed on contextual factors and the interplay between the acculturation expectations held by majority group members and the preferences of acculturating minorities as highlighted in the Interactive Acculturation Model and Concordance Model of Acculturation. More recently, globalisation has created new experiences of acculturation that transcend national boundaries. The article describes the challenges posed by transnationalism, superdiversity, cosmopolitanism, and remote acculturation, and the subsequent emergence of tri-dimensional and polycultural models of acculturation. It also focuses on the implications of acculturation theory and research in everyday life, particularly in community, educational, and organisational settings.
... However, one of the shortcomings associated with Berry's model is that it disregards policies and ideologies of the host-culture that can exert a greater pressure on how immigrants undergo the acculturation processes (Kosic et al., 2005). Similarly, the attitudes of the host members play a significant role in shaping the migrants' acculturation. ...
Article
Purpose This article intends to explore the Sub-Saharan African students' perceptions on their cross-cultural adaptation to the Moroccan society by probing into their adaptive strategies adopted in order to overcome day-to-day challenges as well as factors impeding their adaptation processes. To this end, three central research questions are advanced: (1) what are the factors that influence Sub-Saharan students' cross-cultural adaptation to the Moroccan society? (2) How do Sub-Saharan students perceive the role of host communication competence, host interpersonal relationship, ethnic proximity, host receptivity and personality type in facilitating or hindering their adaptation? And (3) how do they undergo their cross-cultural adaptation to the Moroccan society? Design/methodology/approach The main aim of this article is to explore African Sub-Saharan students' perceptions on their adaptation to Moroccan society as well as factors affecting their adaptive experiences. Due to the complex nature of this research, opting for mixed-methods research, the combination of both qualitative and quantitative, would best serve the objective of this study. For this purpose, qualitative methods (interviews) are used to collect non-numerical data about factors that facilitate or hinder the cross-cultural adaptation of Sub-Saharan students in Morocco in the first phase, and then quantitative methods (questionnaires) are used to collect numerical data about their perceptions of their adaptation in the Moroccan society in the second phase. Findings The results of the present study revealed that a large number of Sub-Saran African students are well adapted to the Moroccan culture, but with discrepant degrees. Their adaptation is mainly influenced by an array of intersected factors. Firstly, the participants showed that the more they were aware of the Moroccan culture and language, the more likely they would be able to function properly and effectively in different social settings. Secondly, it was found that establishing social ties with the host members was perceived as significant for easing their adaptation due to the cultural, emotional and academic support these ties provided. Thirdly, host receptivity was perceived as an important factor that facilitated the students' cross-cultural adaptation. With the case of some participants, host receptivity, however, hindered their adaptation because they were subject to different types of discriminatory and racist behaviours by some Moroccans. Lastly, intercultural personality traits displayed in flexibility, prior cross-cultural move and intercultural empathy were found to contribute to the students' overall functional fitness in the Originality/value This is the first research to tackle the issue of Sub-Saharan African students' cultural adaptation in Morocco.
... The individual and community tend to assimilate more those who are similar to them but not different and marginal (Duck & Barnes, 1992). For example, Kosic, Mannetti & Sam (2005) concluded in their research that individuals who had a high prejudice to refugees considered that refugees must be assimilated. This is where intercultural strategies of society become important. ...
Chapter
Immigration increasingly becomes a more critical problem day by day. Every year, millions of people are forced to leave their home and set off on new quests due to wars, conflicts, poverty, scarcity and climatic changes. The immigration has various consequences including justice, education, social, psychological, cultural, economic and political consequences. Moreover, this does not only affect the individuals who migrate and the regions they live but also the whole world. Almost half of the asylum-seekers and refugees includes individuals who are at the educational age. The refugees must be both psychologically and academically supported to help them adapt to the community they migrate. This is only possible through a multicultural, well-designed curriculum that respect the individual culture and values, and an educational system that is supported by qualified social services. This research addresses the effect of media on the perception of refugee in education of refugee children, education of refugee children and supporting, attitude towards refugee, and language-related misunderstandings. The research also includes the citations from opinions of two teachers, who work with the refugee children. The research concludes that media has an influence on the education of refugee children, and there are different approaches to education of refugee children, but a multicultural education is needed for a firm adaptation of children to society. It is observed that Turkish children’s negative attitude towards refugee children is caused by the family or social environment and disappears in time through interaction. Finally, learning the local language by refugee children is an important factor for them to express themselves in the school and society as well as for social acknowledgment. As a recommendation, the media should avoid prejudice and using an exclusionary language, multicultural programs should be used for education of refugee children to meet their needs, and supports should be provided to contribute to improvement of children’s language.
... Studies have shown that migrants prefer integration in their public lives and fancy the separation strategy in their private circles (Arends-Tôth and van de Vijver 2003). Whereas an assimilation preference is understood to be the acculturation approach most preferred by host communities (Horverak et al. 2012;Kosic et al. 2005). Marginalization occurs when a migrant is disinterested in practicing and performing both the customs of their cultural heritage and the customs and beliefs of the receiving population. ...
Article
The impact of acculturation on health status has been a subject of debate for over three decades. In this exploratory study, we use cross-sectional data to examine the relative effects of acculturation inclinations on self-rated health statuses among migrants in a poor, urban neighborhood in Accra. Much emphasis is placed on the role of the urban environment in disease outbreaks within the city, the patterns of communicable and non-communicable diseases, spatial health inequalities, and the distribution of sexual and reproductive illness risks in Accra. However, the ways by which acculturation inclinations and dimensions may exert positive or negative influence on health outcomes in such contexts have not been examined. We developed proxies for four main acculturation elements: assimilation, separation, integration , and marginalization. We used results from a semi-structured survey questionnaire with 296 migrants. After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and social capital, indicate that the acculturation predictors of subjective health status are assimilation and marginalization. This study is the first step in understanding the possible tra-jectories by which acculturation affects health in the internal migration context in Ghana.
... Balancing these often-contrasting cultural systems proves difficult for them [2]. Furthermore, adolescents' attempts to explore alternatives are occasionally impeded by familial obligations or by the prejudices of the host society [13]. ...
Article
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The adolescent’s identity achievement is a complex task, even more so if they are migrants living in a particular context of ethnic ghettoization. Hotel House is an enormous, isolated condominium situated on the outskirts of Porto Recanati, a small Italian town. It is a unique reality poorly studied from a social psychological perspective. The present paper aims to measure the perceived levels of self-concept clarity, self-determination, ethnic group identification, relationship with parents, depression and life satisfaction in a group of 91 adolescents (11–19 years; 30% females; 1.5 immigrant’s generation) living in this context. The analysis shows low levels of self-concept clarity and self-determination, especially in female adolescents, quite satisfactory relationships with their parents and medium levels of group identification and life satisfaction. The identification with their ethnic subgroups seems to provide a third transitional identity which works as a temporary link between native country values and host country values. The regression analysis shows significant associations: self-determination is negatively associated with depression and positively associated with the perception of life satisfaction; the father’s closeness is a negative predictor for depression and a positive predictor for life satisfaction; mother’s closeness is negatively associated with depression.
... They consider the host country as their new home and try to rebuild their lives and to re-construct or adjust their ethnic identity with this perspective. Based on their personal characteristics (Crocetti et al., 2011), intergenerational conflict (Idema and Phalet, 2007), and the attitude of the host society (Verkuyten and Kinket, 2000;Triandis, 2001;Kosic et al., 2005), migrants' children may form a new identity which falls somewhere along the spectrum and in between the two contrasting options. Even in traditional families, migrants' children are generally inclined to move further away from the original identity that their parents exhibit due to the following reasons. ...
Article
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Approximately a quarter of Chechnya's population left the republic due to the Russo-Chechen wars and the brutality of the regime established after them. Many of the Chechen migrants settled in Europe where cultural, religious, and social differences compelled them to go through the daunting process of identity negotiation. Although most of the first-generation Chechen migrants managed to preserve their original identity, this was not always the case for their children. This article aims to identify the factors that determine the identity preferences of second-generation Chechens in Europe. The paper presents three cases which illustrate very different outcomes of the identity formation and negotiation processes. This ethnographic study concludes that home education impacted the identity choices of the migrants' children the most.
... I manipulate the migration background of the fictitious candidate by presenting a name that is either typically Italian (Giuseppe Martinelli) or foreign (Ahmed Haddou). An Algerian name was chosen for the foreign name because (1) I expect that the name can be easily identified as foreign and (2) people from northern Africa make up a significant share of the immigrant-origin population in Italy, which has resulted in individuals from this group being referred to as the prototypical immigrant (Kosic, Mannetti and Sam 2005). In recent years, such individuals have started to gain access to both national and regional parliaments (Vintila and Morales 2018). ...
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Scholars have examined the role that negative stereotypes play in electoral discrimination against minority candidates. Incorporating literature on in-group favoritism, the author argues here that some degree of this discrimination can be explained instead by voters holding positive stereotypes of majority candidates and discriminating in their favor. Based on the results of an original moderation-of-process survey experiment carried out in Italy, the study provides evidence of electoral discrimination pertaining to immigrant-origin candidates, concentrated among right-wing citizens. It finds that stereotypes have little mediating effect on discrimination against candidates with a migration background; rather, the primary role played by stereotypes is in discrimination in favor of majority candidates, that is, positive bias that reserves electoral benefits to them. The relevance of in-group favoritism is corroborated by the finding that large segments of the Italian voting population hold distinctively positive stereotypes of majority candidates without also negatively stereotyping immigrant-origin candidates.
... These impacts include economic benefits in terms of increased revenue from tourism together with increased social capital (see e.g., [4]), endogenous group formation among visitors (see e.g., [5]), and network resources for communities, locals and tourists, as well as cultural benefits in term of cultural encounter and maintenance of cultural heritage (see e.g., [6]). In this context, ethnic cultural festivals that are arranged by or for ethnic groups in Western multicultural societies have been touched by the research that has considered such festivals as a means for faster social and cultural integration of immigrant groups in these societies (see e.g., [7][8][9][10]). A new research area on cultural festivals is research on those festivals that have a link to UNESCO's list of protected Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity (see e.g., [11,12]); a list with high international recognition. The following festival study has a link to UNESCO's list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity on one side, and on the other a link to international migration and ethnic issues in Western multicultural societies. ...
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This exploratory research seeks to gain insight into the visitors of Persian Fire Festival in Stockholm, their motivation, level of satisfaction and loyalty to the festival. The overall methodology is mixed methods consisting of participant observation and 280 completed online surveys including close-ended and open-ended questions. A Grounded theory analysis has been employed. The most important reason behind the participation has been to strive for the recognition of ethnic cultural identity; to keep the ancient culture alive; to maintain their ancestors' legacy and transfer it to the next generation. Most of the visitors experienced positive feelings, showed satisfaction and loyalty, believed that the festival fulfilled their expectations and it should be celebrated officially every year. A minority showed dissatisfaction mostly due to the lack of accessibility to the event venue and might are not loyal to the festival. The first conclusion here is that these motivators are totally different than those mentioned by earlier research (e.g., escape, socialization, novelty, rest, prestige, excitement). Even though the desire to preserve the ancient culture and tradition is very strong, a lack of accessibility to the venue would constitute disloyalty and a barrier to re-attend in such a festival.
... Societal climate. A fourth conceptual aspect is that of the current societal climate, which also speaks to the effects of macrosystem influences (Kosic et al., 2005). For example, there are unique regional reactions to the lesbian, gay, and bisexual community, which influence the degree to which such individuals are even welcome to acculturate within the dominant culture. ...
Article
This article is an attempt to integrate existing conceptual knowledge on acculturation as well as to expand the use of the construct, which has traditionally had race and ethnicity as its focus, to also include cultural identities such as sexual orientation, gender identity, nationality, and disability. The article begins with a review of existing theoretical contributions from both the United States and Europe. We then propose a model to update and expand the use of acculturation. Finally, we provide an assessment framework. Este artículo es un intento de integrar los conocimientos conceptuales existentes sobre la aculturación además de expandir el uso de este constructo, que tradicionalmente se ha enfocado hacia la raza y la etnicidad, para incluir también identidades culturales tales como la orientación sexual, la identidad de sexo, la nacionalidad y la discapacidad. El artículo comienza con una revisión de las contribuciones teóricas existentes tanto de Estados Unidos como de Europa. A continuación, proponemos un modelo para actualizar y expandir el uso de la aculturación. Por último, proporcionamos un marco de evaluación.
... It is often the case, however, that the acculturation preferences of immigrants and minorities do not match the acculturation expectations of members of the receiving society. There is strong international evidence that immigrants consistently prefer integration Ward & Leong, 2006), but the preferences of members of the host community are more variable (Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005;Rohmann, Florack, & Piontkowski, 2006;Ward & Masgoret, 2008;Zick, Wagner, van Dick, & Petzel, 2001). The significance of the match-mismatch of acculturation preferences and expectations is highlighted in the Interactive Acculturation Model (IAM; Bourhis, Moïse, Perreault, & Senécal, 1997) that links state policies to the dynamic interplay of immigrant and receiving community approaches to acculturation. ...
Chapter
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This chapter reviews current theory and research on acculturation. It is an update and expansion of the 2001 chapter in this handbook, entitled the “ABCs of Acculturation” (Ward, 2001). Reflecting the evolution of the field, here we add to the “alphabet of acculturation,” supplementing models that highlight affect, behaviors, and cognitions to include a developmental perspective on acculturation processes and outcomes. Theory and research on cultural contact have increased exponentially over the past two decades and have been advanced not only by cultural and cross- cultural psychologists, but also by scholars in related fields such as communication, management, and public health. The overarching framework that is used to describe the major theoretical approaches to “cultures in contact” in the remainder of this chapter simplifies the ways in which psychologists have tried to understand and interpret the phenomena. Affect, behaviors, and cognitions operate interactively rather than in isolation. Responses to cultural contact can be examined in terms of outcomes, with a snapshot at one point in time, or longitudinally as a process with an emphasis on development. Nevertheless, the framework we offer can provide a useful taxonomy of theoretical approaches based on the emphasis placed on various acculturative outcomes and investigative approaches adopted to understand acculturative phenomena. We describe and review four approaches: stress and coping, with its emphasis on the emotional responses to cross- cultural transition; culture learning, with its emphasis on the acquisition of culture- specific skills and appropriate behaviors; cultural orientations and intercultural relations, with their emphasis on cognitions, how one sees one’s cultural self, one’s cultural group and other cultural groups, and the psychological and social consequences of these perceptions and cognitions; and developmental processes, with an emphasis on process- in- context, including how cultural orientations are learned and experienced. In each case we discuss key conceptual and measurement issues, present a summary of current research, and suggest ways to advance theory and to move forward with new lines of research.
... Acculturation preferences for both minority and majority groups are influenced by factors such as prejudice, ingroup bias, permeability of group boundaries and intergroup similarity (Piontkowski et al., 2000;Zick et al., 2001). Majority and minority acculturation preferences also influence each other Kosic et al., 2005;Van Acker & Vanbeselaere, 2011;Zagefka et al., 2007;Zagefka, et al., 2011). Moreover, how well they fit together has consequences for intergroup relations (Bourhis et al., 1997). ...
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This paper presents two cross-sectional survey studies, both conducted in Britain, which focus on how different cultural identities are managed in multicultural settings. Specifically, the studies explored the extent to which essentialism moderates the perceived compatibility of acculturation orientations, heritage culture maintenance and majority culture adoption. In study 1, participants (N = 198) were Somali minority members living in the UK. It was found when minority members essentialized Britishness themselves, and when they perceived that British people essentialized Britishness, they saw a desire to maintain the culture of origin and a desire adopt the majority culture as conflicting with each other. In study 2, participants (N = 200) were white British majority members living in the UK. Findings showed that when white British majority members essentialized Britishness, they too perceived the two acculturation preferences as being incompatible with each other. Taken together, these studies show that essentializing British identity can lead to a view that the majority and minority cultures are mutually exclusive. Implications for intergroup relations and integration into British society are discussed.
... A este respecto, algunos trabajos han encontrado que, tanto en poblaciones mayoritarias como en los grupos minoritarios o de inmigrantes, las puntuaciones más bajas en prejuicio hacia el exogrupo se relacionan de forma positiva con la preferencia por la integración y las puntuaciones más altas con la preferencia por la marginación (Navas, García, Rojas, Pumares, & Cuadrado, 2006;Zick, Wagner, Van Dick, & Petzel, 2001). En la misma línea, la concordancia o discordancia entre la sociedad de acogida y los grupos de inmigrantes en las preferencias sobre las opciones de aculturación influiría en sus relaciones intergrupales, en los posibles conflictos e incluso en la elección de unas u otras opciones de aculturación por parte del grupo minoritario (Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005;Piontkowski, Rohmann, & Florack, 2002). ...
... In order to test how recalling experiences of positive and negative contacts impacts on the language used in descriptions of migrant people, we conducted two studies in which we examined the language used by Italian respondents in describing their recall of real interactions with migrant people living in Italy. Focusing on the Italian context is interesting since the ongoing refugee crisis across EU countrieswhich is particularly challenging for Italy due to its geographical positionis reinforcing xenophobic and anti-immigrant feelings in the country (Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005;Sniderman, Peri, de Figueiredo Jr, & Piazza, 2002). In both studies, we coded the abstraction and valence of the terms used in recalling two interactions with migrants, and we tested the effects of the sequential position of recalling differently valenced contact episodes on linguistic representations of migrant people encountered in the second interaction recalled. ...
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The present research aims to test whether varying the sequential position in which majority members recall positive and negative contacts with migrants affects the linguistic descriptions of these episodes - in terms of abstraction and valence - provided by majority group members. We also tested whether participants' prior contact with migrants and distance in time of the recalled contact experiences moderated the effect of the recall on linguistic discrimination. Across two experimental studies, evidence consistently showed that participants who recalled first positive and then negative interactions expressed less linguistic discrimination against migrants in the second event recalled, compared to those who recalled two negative interactions. Moreover, participants who reported having fewer positive intergroup experiences expressed less linguistic discrimination against migrants in recalling negative and then positive interactions, compared to recalling two positive interactions. Findings of Study 2 also revealed an effect of the temporal distance of the recalled events, with more beneficial effects of positive-negative sequences of contact when participants retrieved temporally recent compared to distant intergroup encounters. Overall, this research highlights the key role of positive contact in counteracting the effects of negative contact, leading to a reduction in linguistic discrimination.
... The acculturation strategy immigrants are perceived to adopt seems to play a major role in shaping intergroup attitudes (Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005;Van Oudenhoven, Prins, & Buunk, 1998;Zagefka & Brown, 2002). Experimental evidence has shown that majority members' attitudes are more influenced by immigrants' desire for intergroup contact than culture maintenance (Matera, Stefanile, & Brown, 2011;Olsson, Matera, Tip, & Brown, 2019). ...
Article
A 2 × 2 × 2 experiment examined the role of immigrants’ religion and perceived acculturation strategy on majority members’ attitudes. Acculturation strategies were manipulated along the two dimensions of contact and culture maintenance. Italian majority members (N = 247) read fictitious but seemingly real interviews with Arab immigrants, in which the immigrants’ religion (Muslim vs. Christian) and acculturation preferences (desire for contact and for culture maintenance) were manipulated. MANOVA showed a main effect of contact: majority members associated immigrants who were perceived to favour contact with more positive attitudes, empathy, trust, positive stereotypes and metastereotypes, and lower levels of threat. MANOVA also showed a main effect of culture maintenance: when immigrants were perceived to abandon their culture, majority members reported lower levels of symbolic threat and greater empathy towards them. A significant Religion x Culture maintenance interaction effect emerged on majority members’ stereotypes and contact intentions: Muslim immigrants who were perceived to abandon their heritage culture elicited more favourable responses than Muslim immigrants who were perceived to maintain their heritage culture. Taken together, these findings suggest that desire for intergroup contact amongst immigrants, independently of their religion, can promote harmonious intergroup relations with the majority group. https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1aDXJXTj04hyv
... Several studies have revealed that most of the host culture tend to demand that immigrants are assimilated to their culture, leaving their own cultural heritage behind (Florack, Piontkowski, Rohmann, Balzer, & Perzig, 2013;Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2015;Shamai & Ilatov, 2015). Such demands may result in increased cultural confusion and isolation as immigrant individuals and groups attempt to hold on to their sense of cultural identity while trying to connect to their host community and create a home for themselves and their children. ...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of culture shock on the psychosocial adjustment among refugees and asylum seekers in Kawangware area, Nairobi County, Kenya. The study was guided by Maslow's theory on the hierarchy of needs and Deprivation theory by Samuel Stouffer. The study employed the descriptive survey design. The target population comprised of 395 refugees and the staff members of organizations dealing with refugees' welfare in Kawangware area, Nairobi Kenya. A total sample of 80 participants (75 refugees and 5 staff members) out of 395 refugees and staff members were selected using simple stratified random sampling. The study used a questionnaire and interview guides to collect primary data from refugees and the staff members respectively. Quantitative data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. Both descriptive (frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviation) and inferential (correlation) analyses were conducted. The study established that there was a strong negative correlation between culture shock and psychosocial adjustment among refugees. The study recommended that humanitarian services among refugees should include psychosocial support and that counsellors needed to focus on culture shock as a major mental health issue among refugees.
... The more negative the attitudes people express toward immigrants and immigration, the more value they place on immigrants' resemblance to themselves: they prefer that immigrants who settle in the community be as similar to native-born residents as possible, speaking Norwegian and adapting to Norwegian values. This finding is in line with previous literature (e.g., Kosic et al. 2005) indicating that individuals with high levels of prejudice toward immigrants seem to expect immigrants to assimilate into the host society, whereas individuals with low levels of prejudice more easily accept a multicultural society that allows immigrants to maintain aspects of their culture of origin. ...
Article
Successful integration of immigrants is vital for rural areas facing population decline and labour shortage. Yet little is known about the role civil society plays in this process and about the factors that promote or hamper acceptance of immigrants by the local population. By using data from a national survey of the Norwegian population, this paper examines rural‐urban differences in attitudes toward immigrants and immigration, and what characteristics rural and urban residents consider important for immigrants who may settle in their locality. The results indicate that people living in rural areas express more negative attitudes toward immigrants and immigration compared to people living in urban areas. Additionally, rural residents place greater importance than their urban counterparts do on immigrants’ participating in local events, speaking the native language, and being willing to adapt to Norwegian values. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The related literature uses additional concepts to define the settlement and reception process of displaced persons in and by host countries. These concepts can be divided into acculturation (Berry & Sabatier, 2010;Gerhards & Hans, 2009;Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005; ...
... The related literature uses additional concepts to define the settlement and reception process of displaced persons in and by host countries. These concepts can be divided into acculturation (Berry & Sabatier, 2010;Gerhards & Hans, 2009;Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005; ...
... Differently from the North American context, the Italian context is considered to promote assimilation rather than integration of immigrants (Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005). Contrary to Chinese immigration to the United States, Chinese immigrants in Italy are not a "model minority" and do not report high academic performance. ...
Article
The current study aimed to examine whether executive functioning (EF) moderates the expected association between poor parental supervision and emotional-behavioral problems among early adolescents with and without a migration background in Italy. In total, 97 Chinese immigrant and 165 Italian nonimmigrant early adolescents, aged 11 to 13 years (52% girls), completed a series of performance and computer-based tasks assessing their EFs, whereas primary caregivers rated their own parental supervision and their offspring’s emotional-behavioral problems. Regression analyses indicated that in both groups, a better working memory capacity was associated with fewer problems. Moreover, low levels of inhibitory control strengthened the association between poor parental supervision and emotional-behavioral problems. In addition, among Chinese immigrant youth, higher levels of cognitive flexibility enhanced the link between poor parental supervision and emotional-behavioral problems. Results underscore the importance of parental supervision and EF processes for Chinese immigrant youths’ psychological functioning.
... The related literature uses additional concepts to define the settlement and reception process of displaced persons in and by host countries. These concepts can be divided into acculturation (Berry & Sabatier, 2010;Gerhards & Hans, 2009;Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005; ...
Article
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This research analyzed the literature on integration, assimilation, and other concepts related to displaced persons and refugees as experienced in their host countries. The author conducted a computer-assisted content analysis of related articles appearing in the Social Sciences Citation Index, Arts and Humanities Citation Index, Science Citation Index – Expanded, and Emerging Sources Citation Index and published from January of 1998 to September of 2018. The results of this research revealed that sociological articles comprised 11% of the academic studies (298 of 2,673). The results indicate that academic work regarding the integration of displaced persons encompasses many different concepts, dimensions, and approaches in a diverse collection of countries. Currently, there is no commonly held view of the meaning of integration or other related concepts. The current body of research focuses primarily on organizational and structural topics like housing, health, education, the labor force, identity, and language, instead of human-based topics such as social capital, community participation, and networks of displaced persons that recognize them as public actors (49 of 298 sociological articles). Integration studies of displaced persons almost doubled in number after 2015, the time of the most recent migrant crisis. This review argues that a common conceptual and theoretical framework needs to be put forward that expands the current body of research on human-based topics.
... No statistically significant interaction emerged among discrimination, cultural orientations and ethnic background, suggesting that the relation between perceived discrimination and cultural orientations in links with externalizing problems does not vary as a function of ethnicity. We may postulate that the impact of cultural differences on the discrimination-cultural adaptation link becomes less salient in the Italian assimilationist society, due to the common perception of ethnic minority youth and of their cultural orientation strategies by the mainstream society regardless of ethnic origin (Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005). ...
Article
Objective: Although discrimination is a common stressor in the everyday life of immigrant youth, individuals are not equally susceptible to its adverse effects. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine whether cultural orientation preferences and impulse control (IC) moderate the association between perceived discrimination and externalizing problems among Moroccan- and Romanian-origin early adolescents in Italy. Method: The sample included 126 Moroccan and 126 Romanian youths (46% girls, 42% first-generation) aged 11-13 years and their parents. Perceived discrimination and cultural orientations were assessed using self-report questionnaires, while IC was evaluated via a computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task. Externalizing behaviors were assessed via parental report. Results: Cluster analysis identified separated, assimilated, and integrated early adolescents. Regression analyses revealed that when facing discrimination, youths who endorsed separation and exhibited low levels of IC were more vulnerable to externalizing problems. In contrast, among assimilated adolescents the discrimination-externalizing difficulties link was significant at high levels of IC. Furthermore, low levels of IC were associated with more externalizing problems for Romanian, but not for Moroccan early adolescents. Conclusions: Findings underscore the need to consider both cultural orientation processes and early adolescents' ability to control their impulses when developing interventions aimed to reduce discrimination-related problem behaviors in immigrant youth. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
... Individuals who preferred the marginality strategy perceived negative societal attitudes or felt discriminated against. This finding reflects those of other studies (Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005), which have found that immigrants who are discriminated against or who perceive prejudice are more likely to choose marginality. They have less contact with the host nationals and interact with others only at work. ...
Article
This study aims to understand the acculturation experiences of Asian immigrants to Singapore. A qualitative exploratory study using focus group discussions was conducted among 40 permanent residents and new citizens. Each of the seven focus groups had an average of six participants and lasted 1–2 hours. Immigrants described Singaporean culture as a blended culture featuring multiracialism. Their acculturation strategies were influenced by the way they were perceived and treated by the host society, based on their country of origin and whether they had been members of a minority community there. Although the respondents valued multiracialism, they also faced challenges in maintaining interethnic contacts. Implications for further enhancing existing acculturation models are discussed.
... , UK (Meertens & Pettigrew, 1997;Mummendey et al., 2001;Vrij, Akehurst, & Smith, 2003), France (Meertens & Pettigrew, 1997), Belgium (Dhont et al., 2012;Dhont, Roets, & Van Hiel, 2011, 2013Franssen, Dhont, & Van Hiel, 2013;Gordijn, Koomen, & Stapel, 2001;Onraet et al., 2011;Onraet & Van Hiel, 2013;Saroglou et al., 2009;Van Hiel et al., 2007;Van Hiel & Mervielde, 2005), Norway (Horverak et al., 2012), the Netherlands (Bijleveld, Scheepers, & Ellemers, 2012;Pettigrew, 1997), Italy (Azevedo et al., 2013;Castelli, Arcuri, & Zogmaister, 2003;Castelli, Zogmaister Tomelleri, 2009;Castellini et al., 2011;Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005;Kosic, Phalet, & Mannetti, 2012;Manganelli, Rattazzi, Bobbio, & Canova, 2007;Passini, 2013;Prezza et al., 2008;Voci & Hewstone, 2003), Spain (Gonzalez-Castro et al., 2009;. ...
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Ethnic prejudices is a crucial factor affecting the relationship between ethnic groups. To measure blatant ethnic prejudice questionnaires are used which include questions and statements that reflect different aspects of negative attitudes towards ethnic groups. Since most of these techniques were created in North America and Western Europe, they reflect the content of ethnic prejudices prevalent in these regions, and need cultural adaptation. The aim of this study is to adapt the scale of blatant and subtle prejudice by Pettigrew and Meertens (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995) for a Russian sample. The study included a pilot phase and a main phase. Participants of the pilot phase (N = 354) filled out the original version of the questionnaire translated into Russian, evaluating migrants who arrived in Russia from Central Asia and the Caucasus. The results showed the low structural validity of the original version of the scale. Participants of the main phase of the study (N = 402) filled out a modified version of the questionnaire, which included 28 statements that form six scales. The results showed that the highest structural validity is exhibited by a five-factor model, which includes the following scales: the perceived economical threat, the perceived physical threat, the avoidance of close contact, the perceived problems in adaptation, the exaggeration of cultural differences. The results demonstrated that Russian prejudices against migrants from Central Asia and the Caucasus are associated with relative deprivation, ethnic identity and the intensity of intergroup contact. The structure of the methodology is universal and the link between individual factors and variables depend on the group that serves as the object of prejudice. In particular, relative deprivation and the number of contacts are more tightly linked to prejudice against migrants form Central Asia than prejudice against migrants from the Caucasus.
... A small number of studies have operationalized appraisal of community or individual attitudes toward acculturation strategies, and none have explicitly investigated how those attitudes shape acculturation trajectories or modify the relationship between acculturation and health. One strategy that has been employed is to present respondents with a vignette to read that describes different acculturation strategies, and assess their evaluation of the vignette (Kosic, Mannetti, and Lackland Sam 2005;Van Oudenhoven, Prins, and Buunk 1998). Others have directly questioned respondents about their opinion regarding acculturation strategies (Sommerlad and Berry 1970). ...
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Acculturation represents an important construct for elucidating the determinants and consequences of health disparities in minority populations. However, the processes and mechanisms underlying acculturation's effects on health are largely undetermined and warrant further study. We integrate concepts from anthropology and statistics to describe the role of sociocultural context as a putative modifier of the relationship between acculturation and health. Sociocultural context may influence the extent to which exposure to host culture leads to internalization of host cultural orientation and may influence the extent to which acculturation leads to stress and adoption of unhealthy behaviors. We focus on specific aspects of sociocultural context: (1) neighborhood ethno-cultural composition; (2) discrimination; (3) discrepancy between origin and host environments; (4) discrepancy between heritage and host cultures; (5) origin group, host group, and individual attitudes toward assimilation; (6) variation in targets of assimilation within host community; (7) public policy and resources; and (8) migration selection bias. We review and synthesize evidence for these moderation effects among first- and later-generation immigrants, refugees, and indigenous populations. Furthermore, we propose best-practices data-collection and statistical-analysis methods for this purpose, in order to improve our understanding of the complex, multilevel aspects of the relationship between acculturation and health. [acculturation, minority health, health disparities, sociocultural context, effect moderation, statistical interaction].
... The current studies were conducted in Australia, a country built on immigration. Often, nations that are relatively new to immigration or not accustomed to accommodating many disparate cultures prefer assimilation as an acculturation strategy for immigrants (Kosic, Manetti, & Sam, 2005). Australia held a policy of assimilation until the 1970s when its immigration policy became one of multiculturalism. ...
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We investigated the effects of race and different acculturation strategies on perceptions of immigrants in Australia, an immigrant-based nation with a multicultural policy. Two experimental studies presented participants with scenarios that systematically varied racial group (African, Asian, and European) and acculturation strategy (assimilation, integration, separation, marginalisation), then assessed responses to immigrant targets using measures of warmth, competence, affect, and cultural distance. Attitudes were significantly more positive towards targets who either integrated or assimilated, and negative towards targets who separated. This was regardless of the racial group being assessed, supporting the prediction that acculturation strategy is a stronger influence than race on perceptions of immigrants.
... In addition, recent research findings have reported how already during adolescence, individual levels of endorsement of aggressive behaviors and thoughts may play a significant triggering role for the development of negative attitudes toward members of the most rejected out-groups (Piumatti, Marengo, Mosso, & Rabaglietti, 2015). That is the case of immigrants, which are portrayed as a threat for public safety from mass media and political speeches and, thus, considered as undesirable outgroup from the host group (Kosic, Mannetti, & Sam, 2005). ...
Article
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The current study explored how individual differences in endorsement of aggressive behaviors and thoughts relate to individual levels of tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants and established prejudice correlates such as social dominance orientation (SDO) and ethnic out-groups ratings among adolescents. Participants (N = 141; Age M = 16.08, 68% girls) completed the Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression Inventory, the Tolerance and Prejudice Questionnaire, and measures of SDO and ethnic out-groups ratings. Results indicated that higher individual endorsement of aggression was related to higher prejudice and SDO and lower tolerance and ethnic out-groups ratings. Patterns of endorsement of aggression related to habitual and socially determined aggressive acts or stable needs to hurt others as a source of satisfaction were significantly correlated with prejudice. Conversely, the relationship between prejudice and endorsement of impulsive actions lacking of emotional control resulted was less marked. The results highlight how in the cognitive spectrum of prejudice, individual levels of endorsement of aggression may play a significant triggering role during adolescence. These findings may have implications for future studies and interventions aimed at reducing prejudice already in young ages.
... Studies have shown that migrants prefer integration in their public lives and fancy the separation strategy in their private circles (Arends-Tôth and van de Vijver 2003). Whereas an assimilation preference is understood to be the acculturation approach most preferred by host communities (Horverak et al. 2012;Kosic et al. 2005). Marginalization occurs when a migrant is disinterested in practicing and performing both the customs of their cultural heritage and the customs and beliefs of the receiving population. ...
Article
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The impact of acculturation on health status has been a subject of debate for over three decades. In this exploratory study, we use cross-sectional data to examine the relative effects of acculturation inclinations on self-rated health statuses among migrants in a poor, urban neighborhood in Accra. Much emphasis is placed on the role of the urban environment in disease outbreaks within the city, the patterns of communicable and non-communicable diseases, spatial health inequalities, and the distribution of sexual and reproductive illness risks in Accra. However, the ways by which acculturation inclinations and dimensions may exert positive or negative influence on health outcomes in such contexts have not been examined. We developed proxies for four main acculturation elements: assimilation, separation, integration, and marginalization. We used results from a semi-structured survey questionnaire with 296 migrants. After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and social capital, findings from Ordinal Logistic Regression models indicate that the acculturation predictors of subjective health status are assimilation and marginalization. This study is the first step in understanding the possible trajectories by which acculturation affects health in the internal migration context in Ghana.
Article
This between-subject survey experiment, conducted in two waves using a German sample (N=1,166 in Wave 1, N=829 in Wave 2), examined the hypothesis that identity-related frames – specifically, assimilation versus multicultural – affect outgroup prejudice and admission policy preferences by increasing the salience of different national identity representations (NIR). Participants were exposed to identical articles (except for the manipulations) framing information about Syrian refugees in Germany in either assimilation or multicultural terms. As predicted, exposure to assimilation versus multicultural frames led to higher ethnocultural NIR salience and, in turn, to higher outgroup prejudice and preference for more restrictive admission policies. Still, findings pointed to the defining role of frame content and valence perception in these effects, as perceiving the frame as more assimilationist and anti-immigration was related to higher ethnocultural NIR salience. Furthermore, frame perception explained a larger portion of variation in ethnocultural NIR salience than treatment alone. Additionally, ethnocultural NIR salience fostered intergroup threat perception leading to higher outgroup prejudice and preference for restrictive asylum policies. In contrast, civic NIR salience was unaffected by the experimental manipulation. We discuss the impact of identity-related frames on ethnocultural NIR salience and the role of exclusionary national identities on outgroup prejudice and preference for restrictive admission policies. We also highlight the benefits of using multicultural frames to frame information about refugees and asylum to foster positive intergroup perceptions.
Chapter
After a brief history of acculturation as a concept and an integral component of the migration phenomena, a definition and eventual links with different causal factors are presented. Acculturation is both, a process that responds to needs of adaptation in new environments to achieve a reasonable establishment of psychosocial boundaries and/or constructive connections, and an encounter of groups and individuals facing a variety of circumstances and existential sequences. Hispanic immigrants into the United States, particularly, are the subject of a variety of experiences with different levels of physical and mental health repercussions (i.e., acculturative stress) that require specific attention and care management from individual and collective perspectives. The sequelae of varying outcomes of acculturation among Hispanic immigrants demand increased international collaborative research efforts to channel and materialize positive, constructive outcomes.KeywordsAcculturationAdaptationMental healthAcculturative stressRacismDiscrimination
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Introducción. El estudio explora cambios producidos en el ejercicio parental percibidos por las familias latinoamericanas tras la migración a Canarias. Se parte de una perspectiva ecológica-sistémica y de los modelos teóricos sistémicos de la aculturación por ser enfoques claves en la comprensión del fenómeno. Metodología. Se ha utilizado una metodología cualitativa. Se realizaron tres grupos de entrevistas en profundidad a nueve padres y madres migrantes con al menos un hijo/a menor de doce años residiendo con ellos en Canarias, procedentes de Cuba, Venezuela y Colombia, usuarios/as de servicios comunitarios (ONG y Servicios Sociales de base) de Tenerife. Resultados. Los resultados han revelado la presencia de tres constructos principales en el discurso: la familia, los sistemas formales de apoyo y el ajuste cultural divididos en once temas. En la familia, se destacan diferencias en las pautas educativas, considerándose estrictos y rígidos en la educación de sus hijos/as, problemas de conciliación de la vida laboral y familiar, desempleo, precariedad económica y vivienda, necesidad de regular su situación administrativa, falta de apoyos informales (e.g. de la familia extensa) y la resiliencia familiar adquirida tras la migración. En los apoyos formales de sanidad, educación, servicios sociales y comunitarios perciben barreras de acceso, pero buena calidad en la atención tanto para ellos como para sus hijos e hijas. Finalmente, se ha constatado el choque cultural en las figuras parentales, la socialización bicultural en los hijos e hijas y la sensación de seguridad del entorno en el país de acogida. Discusión. Se manifiesta en el discurso la relación de interdependencia e influencia bidireccional que existe entre los sistemas y el proceso de aculturación. Se confirma que la experiencia migratoria produce modificaciones en el sistema familiar, la relevancia de las redes apoyos institucionales en su bienestar social y los ajustes culturales de los progenitores como de sus hijos/as para la adaptación de ambas culturas. Conclusiones. Se destacan cambios en el ejercicio parental en los distintos sistemas tras la migración, la necesidad de mejoras en la implicación institucional y el apoyo profesional a las familias migrantes en su función parental tras experimentar un proceso migratorio, destacándose para ello el papel fundamental del Trabajo Social.
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Yeni bir ülkeye göç; anavatanı terk etme, ev sahibi bir ülke bulup oraya taşınma ve orada yeni bir yaşam kurma konusunda çok sayıda pratik, ekonomik ve duygusal zorlukları içeren karmaşık ve zorlu bir süreçtir. Bu zorluklar, yeni ülkeye gelmeden önce veya geldikten sonra savaş, kıtlık, yoksulluk, hastalık, mülteci kampları, sığınma talep etme, ayrımcılık vb. uygulamalara maruz kalan göçmenler için özellikle zorlu süreçler olabilir. Küreselleşme, savaşlar ve iklim değişikliği nedeniyle göç arttıkça, yerli ve göçmen nüfus arasında daha fazla etkileşim veya daha fazla çatışma yaşanacaktır. Göçmenlerin göç ettikleri yerin normlarına uyumu olarak açıklanan kültürel bütünleşme; önyargıyı azaltır, ancak ortadan kaldırmaz. Bu makale, Erzincan’da yaşayan bireylerin Afgan göçmenlere yönelik tutum ve algılarını belirlemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Örneklem seçiminde 400 kişi örneklem grubuna dahil edilerek anket uygulanmıştır. Anket yoluyla toplanan veriler SPSS.20 programında analiz edilmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda Afgan göçmenlere yönelik sosyal dışlanma ve ayrımcılığa yönelik tutumun ön plana çıktığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
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Acculturation has played an important role in understanding the behaviours, intergroup relations and adjustment of cultural minorities in their mainstream national culture. Additionally, organizational research has shown that acculturation is associated with a range of work‐related variables. Prior reviews on acculturation have not approached the literature from this angle, which we termed a nonwork–work spillover perspective on acculturation. To fill this gap, we conducted a content analysis of quantitative empirical research to examine how acculturation from a nonwork–work spillover perspective has been studied in terms of its conceptualization and operationalization and what has been studied per its association with work‐related variables. This review is especially important given the complexity associated with the conceptualization and operationalization of acculturation, which may affect the validity of the interpretation of research results in this area. We also offer recommendations for addressing the extant research limitations and provide guidance for future research on acculturation in organizational settings.
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(Abstract in French below) Human species is today facing a multidimensional crisis (global warming, disappearance of natural species, non-decent working conditions, etc.). To deal with the ecological aspects of this crisis, the UN adopted in 2015 a resolution defining standards for assessing human activities. So: those of psychologists. Some of them have started to develop works guided by the following question: By what interventions, based on what knowledge, can we contribute to a global, equitable and sustainable development, based on decent active lives? However, the contribution of psychologists to the achievement of the UN objectives is still modest. Probably because of the way their research is financed, of the organization of their disciplinary field, and of the jobs available to them. L’humanité est aujourd’hui confrontée à une crise multidimensionnelle (réchauffement climatique, disparition d’espèces naturelles, conditions non-décentes de travail, etc.). Pour faire face aux aspects écologiques de cette crise, l’ONU a adopté en 2015 une résolution définissant des normes permettant d’évaluer les activités humaines. Donc : celles des psychologues. Certains d’entre eux ont commencé à développer des travaux guidés par l’interrogation suivante : Par quelles interventions, fondées sur quels savoirs, pouvons-nous contribuer à un développement mondial, équitable et durable, reposant sur des vies actives décentes ? Cependant, la contribution des psychologues à l’atteinte des objectifs de l’ONU est encore modeste. Probablement à cause des modes de financement de leurs recherches, de l’organisation de leur champ disciplinaire, et des emplois qui leur sont offerts.
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Background Acculturation process has taken up a relevant place in cross-cultural psychology by demonstrating the strong relationships between cultural context and individual behavioral development. Aim The purpose of this study is to analyse acculturation strategies and attitudes in different life domains of native and immigrant adults living in Italy, following the Relative Acculturation Extended Model (RAEM). Methods The participants were 250 Italian native and 100 immigrant adults who completed a questionnaire with items to measure their acculturation strategies (real plane) and attitudes (ideal plane), in general and related to different life domains (peripheral and central). Results Results revealed that the acculturation attitude of immigrants is integration, whereas Italians prefer their assimilation. Conclusion However, when different life domains are taken into account, immigrants claim to put in practice and prefer integration in most of the domains, whereas Italians perceive immigrants are separated but they prefer their assimilation or integration, depending on the specific domain.
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Using adolescents' narratives and survey data presented in earlier studies, we draw upon Berry's model of four acculturation strategies (2015) to examine adolescents’ narratives regarding the future orientation domains of education‐and‐career and marriage‐and‐family (Seginer, 2009) by three groups of nonimmigrant minority adolescents in Israel: Muslim, Druze, and ultra‐Orthodox Jewish. The narratives of adolescents from the three communities studied here illustrate modified assimilation for education‐and‐career and separation for marriage‐and‐family, indicating both cultural transition and continuity. Quantitative analyses mapped domain‐specific links from education‐and‐career and marriage‐and‐family to adolescents’ academic achievement.
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In this study of minority groups, destigmatization strategies are revealed when it comes to ethnic stratification, socio-economic segregation and the possible courses of second-generation immigrants’ adaptation. Although Germany – with its restrictive citizenship policies, exclusionary public discourses and socio-economic segregation – is characterized by robust ethnic boundaries, the destigmatization strategies of its minorities have been ignored so far. Using a case study of Turkish second-generation immigrant youth in Germany, this article aims to fill this gap in the literature. My findings illustrate that this group of youth mainly assert the moral inferiority of the dominant group through normative inversion, while a few of them appropriate equalizing strategies such as universalizing and contingent detachment. I argue that the reason for different destigmatization strategies can be explained by different degrees of exposure to ethnic boundaries, due to biographical scripts and individual resources. My findings empirically substantiate Lamont’s and Wimmer’s theoretical arguments within the understudied German context.
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This paper assesses the relative effects of acculturation preferences (assimilation, separation, integration, and marginalization) on migrants’ perception of acceptability in James Town, a traditional urban neighborhood in Accra, Ghana. There is a paucity of academic work on the relationship between migrants’ acculturation inclinations and their assessment of the hosts’ attitude towards them in Ghana. Cognizant of the fluidity of acculturation strategies, the study focuses on individual inclinations towards acculturation. To examine migrants’ perception of acceptability by the host, we use perceived personal discrimination. We utilize results from a semi-structured questionnaire administered to 301 migrant individuals from different migrant households in James Town. Our findings suggest that migrants with assimilation preferences are less likely to have a higher rating on the extent to which they are discriminated against by the host population. Such an exploratory study is pertinent to understanding relationships (conflicts or “togetherness in difference”) in poor multi-ethnic settings.
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Finding ways to reduce prejudice and discrimination is the central issue in attacking racism in our society. Yet this book is almost unique among scientific volumes in its focus on that goal. This important book combines critical analysis of theories about how to reduce prejudice and discrimination with cutting-edge empirical research conducted in real-world settings, as well as in controlled laboratory situations. This book's outstanding contributors focus on a common set of questions about ways to reduce intergroup conflict, prejudice, and stereotyping. They summarize their own research, as well as others, interpret the conclusions, and suggest implications concerning the practical methods that have been, or could be, used in programs aimed at reducing intergroup conflict. The chapters present solidly based critical analyses and research findings in clear, reader-friendly prose. This book evolved from the Sixteenth Annual Claremont Symposium on Applied Social Psychology. Each Symposium in the series concentrates on a single area in which social psychological knowledge is being applied to the resolution of a current social problem. Ideal for teachers, social workers, administrators, managers, and other social practitioners who are concerned about prejudice and discrimination, this book will also serve as a valuable foundation of knowledge in courses that examine this topic.
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Allport's The Nature of Prejudice is a social psychological classic. Its delineation of the components and principles of prejudice remains modern, especially its handling of cognitive factors. The volume's cognitive contentions are outlined, and then extended with an application from attribution theory. An "ultimate attribution error" is proposed: (1) when prejudiced peonle perceive what they regard as a negative act by an outgroup member, they will more than others attribute it dispositionally, often as genetically determined, in comparison to the same act by an ingroup member: (2) wlhen prejudiced people perceive what they regard as a positive act by an outaroup member, they will more than others attribute it in comparison to the same act by an ingroup member to one or more of the following: (a) "the exceptional case," (b) luck or special advantage, (c) hig,h motivation and effort, and (d) manipulable situational context. Predictions are advanced as to which of these responses will be adopted and under which conditions the phenomenon will be magnified.
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1. Introduction Part I. Similarities and Differences in Behavior across Cultures: 2. Individual development: infancy and early childhood 3. Individual development: childhood, adolescence and adulthood 4. Social behavior 5. Personality 6. Cognition 7. Emotion 8. Language 9. Perception Part II. Relationships between Behavior, Culture and Biology: 10. Contributions of cultural anthropology 11. Contributions of evolutionary biology 12. Methodology and theory Part III. Applying Research Findings across Cultures: 13. Acculturation 14. Intercultural relations 15. Intercultural communication and training 16. Work and organizations 17. Health 18. Culturally informed and appropriate psychology Epilogue Glossary of key terms.
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The first part of this paper proposes a continuum of ideological premises that seeks to account for the broad range of immigrant integration policies adopted by Western democratic states. In the second part, a review of Social Psychological models of immigrant acculturation strategies demonstrates the need to explain more clearly the interactive nature of immigrant and host community relations. The Interactive Acculturation Model (IAM) presented next proposes that relational outcomes are the product of the acculturation orientations of both the host majority and immigrant groups as influenced by state integration policies. The model makes predictions regarding the acculturation combinations most likely to produce consensual, problematic, and conflictual relational outcomes between immigrants and members of the host community. Social psychological research is needed to test the validity of the IAM model empirically. La premiere partie de cet article propose un continuum des premisses ideologiques qui animent les etats democratiques dans la formulation de leurs politiques dintegration envers les immigrants. En deuxieme partie, un survol des modeles proposes par la Psychologie Sociale pour decrire les modes d'acculturation des immigrants demontre la necessite de tenir compte de l'interactionentre les aspirations culturelles des groupes d'immigrants et celles de la communaute d'accueil. Le modele d'acculturation interactif (MAI), presente en troisieme partie, propose que les rencontres interculturelles seront consensuelles, problematiques ou conflictuelles, selon les permutations des modes d'acculturation des immigrants et des membres de la communaute d'accueil. Les assises theoriques du MAI sont a verifier dans des recherches empiriques a venir.
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address issues of acculturation, or culture change, among members of ethnic groups in multicultural societies / propose an expanded framework of acculturation that integrates aspects of both the biculturalism and identity frameworks / [examine] theories of psychological acculturation / [describe] the biculturalism and identity frameworks . . . in the context of the distinctive population whose acculturation they were designed to address / [present] the proposed differentiated model of acculturation (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This paper develops, measures, and tests two types of intergroup prejudice—blatant and subtle. Blatant prejudice is the traditional, often studied form; it is hot, close and direct. Subtle prejudice is the modern form; it is cool, distant and indirect. Using data from seven independent national samples from western Europe, we constructed 10-item scales in four languages to measure each of these varieties of prejudice. We report the properties, structure and correlates of both scales across the seven samples, and make initial checks on their validity. The cross-nationally consistent results support the value of the blatant-subtle distinction as two varieties of prejudice. While they share many correlates, their distinctive differences suggest better specification of these correlates of prejudice. And the blatant-subtle distinction also aids in more precise specification of the effects of prejudice on attitudes toward immigrants. The paper closes with a normative interpretation of Subtle Prejudice.
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Dans les sociétés culturellement diversifiés, les individus peuvent présenter des attitudes relatives à leurs relations avec les autres et les groupes. Ces attitudes (dites “attitudes d'acculturation”) sont liées à des prises de position sur deux problèmes généraux posés à toute personne en acculturation: la préservation culturelle de son propre groupe et le contact avec les autres groupes. On définit les attitudes d'assimilation, d'intégration, de séparation et de marginalisation, puis on les mesure dans plusieurs groupes en acculturation d'Australie et du Canada (les indigènes, les immigrants et les groupes ethniques implantés). On donne la validité et la fidélité des échelles d'attitude, puis on analyse les relations des échelles entre elles par rapport aux deux problèmes sous-jacents que sont la préservation et le contact. Enfin, quelques-unes des applications pratiques des attitudes d'acculturation sont envisagées.
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The presumptions, terminology, psychometrics, statistical analyses, and ethics of the fourfold acculturation paradigm are criticized in detail. Illustrative data came from Iranian refugees in Norway (N = 80) answering: 1) the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), 2) Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSRDS), 3) ipsative fourfold scales of Integration, Assimilation, Separation, and Marginalization, 4) orthogonal scales of attitudes towards Norwegian and Iranian cultures, measured independently and using balanced reverse-keying, and 5) ipsative forced-choice preferences for cultural practices of Norway, Iran, both, or from other societies as well. Iranians in Norway favored global multiculturalism and, as a group. did not show distress. The SWLS and ZSRDS were correlated, but the measures of acculturation failed to replicate one another. As unconstrained ipsative measures, the fourfold scales showed acquiescence response bias contamination and doubtful operationalization of scale constructs. Recommendations are discussed for improving acculturation research.
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In 2 national surveys, one with 280 and the other with 1,008 respondents, Ss ascribed personality traits to prominent national politicians and reported the feelings that the politicians elicited. It was found that summary scores of good feelings and bad feelings were nearly independent of each other, much more so than were good and bad trait judgments. Affective registrations, in short, were less semantically filtered and less subject to consistency pressures. Summary scores of affect strongly predicted political preference. This effect was independent of and more powerful than that for personality judgments. Thus, affective registrations were not at all redundant with semantic judgments. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Cross-cultural psychology has demonstrated important links between cultural context and individual behavioural development. Given this relationship, cross-cultural research has increasingly investigated what happens to individuals who have developed in one cultural context when they attempt to re-establish their lives in another one. The long-term psychological consequences of this process of acculturation are highly variable, depending on social and personal variables that reside in the society of origin, the society of settlement, and phenomena that both exist prior to, and arise during, the course of acculturation. This article outlines a conceptual framework within which acculturation and adaptation can be investigated, and then presents some general findings and conclusions based on a sample of empirical studies.
Chapter
America is a country of paradoxes. The American ideology is strongly egalitarian, and yet the history of our country includes centuries of institutionalized inequality. Even today, persistent racial in justice in the face of democratic ideals truly remains the “American Dilemma” (Myrdal, 1944).
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With the assumption that a stereotype is in part, a collection of associations that link a target group to a set of descriptive characteristics, the present research engaged high-and low-prejudice scoring white subjects (19 males, Experiment 1; 9 males and 12 females, Experiment 2) in a lexical decision task patterned after Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971, 1976). The task yields a measure of associative strength between two words (e.g., BLACK:LAZY; WHITES:LAZY) based upon the amount of time subjects take to decide whether or not they are both words. Meyer and Schvaneveldt reported that high associates (NURSE:DOCTOR) yielded faster reaction times than low associates (DOCTOR:BUTTER). The results of the present research indicated that subjects, regardless of prejudice score, responded reliably faster when positive attitudes (e.g., SMART) were paired with WHITES than when they were paired with BLACKS (Experiment 1) or with NEGROES (Experiment 2). Nevertheless, negative attributes paired with BLACKS or NEGROES were responded to as quickly as when they were paired with WHITES. These results, together with Experiment 3, which involved the ascription of these characteristics more directly, suggest that white college students, no longer differentially associate or ascribe negative characteristics, but continue to differentially associate and ascribe positive attributes to black and to whites.
Article
Studying Italian immigration policy gives the author a chance to reconsider public policy making patterns, particularly ones concerning social issues. Innovative measures addressed to low social strata – at least in Italy – often originate in benevolent illegal practices introduced by sympathetic civil servants and social workers, pressed and supported by voluntary sector associations, charities and unions. Practices promoted by lobbying are, step by step, embodied in local administration and social services directives and circulars, and then diffused and standardized over the national territory by central government circulars. Senior public administrators and expert committees eventually filter and integrate these practices in the light of comparative policy studies and with a view to possible political outcomes; also they polish, adapt, and correct the practices to translate them into bills of law. Parliament will discuss and amend them according to party and intra-party alignments. The actual legislation will be the outcome of fights and compromises; even so, a good share of enlightment (expert committees) and benevolence (low strata lobbying) will still be present in the final product. Legislation originating from benevolent illegal practice will in turn be partially eroded by malevolent illegal practice, by circulars and decrees illegally used in fields constitutionally protected by law. A remarkable share of the decision making process takes place sheltered from party conflicts, from parliamentary action or from public opinion. This sort of ‘extra-political’ policy tends to greater significance when new party elites come to power, and to lesser when the new elite becomes established.
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During the last two decades, in particular since the annus mirabilis 1989, Italy has been faced with increasing migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe and the Third World. Immigrants, although in their vast majority illegal, have settled in the country thus challenging the political and cultural order of the nation-state.The hypothesistested in this paper is that their presence activates a process of re-definition of the Italian identity in an exclusionary way so as to raise symbolic, if not material, boundaries between Us and Them. The study is divided into three sections. First, the main features that characterise Italian identity will be examined and the civic or ethnic character of the nation will be highlighted. Second, recent migratory flows towards Italy will be described and the developmentof xenophobic attitudes in the country will be assessed. Third, the hypothesis regarding the transformation of national identity will be tested through the analysis of the press discourse on immigration in the period 1990-95. The study will concentrate on the use of national identity features in the press as a means to emphasise the distinction between Us and Them and exclude the latter from the host society.
Article
This study examined how social (group size: two, three, or four persons), appearance (similar or dissimilar dress), and affective (positive or neutral mood) factors can influence social categorization and, consequently, intergroup bias. As expected, positive affect increased the extent to which subjects formed inclusive group representations, anticipating that the members of two groups would feel like one, superordinate group. Also as predicted, subjects in dissimilarly dressed groups expected the memberships to feel less like one group. Consistent with the common in-group identity model, stronger superordinate group representations, in turn, predicted more positive out-group evaluations and lower levels of intergroup bias. The conceptual and applied implications of affect and social representations for improving intergroup relations are considered.
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Three hundred sixty undergraduates participated in small groups in an experiment that tested 2 strategies, based on the social categorization approach, for reducing intergroup bias. Both strategies involved recategorizing members' conceptual representations of the aggregate compared with a control condition designed to maintain initial group boundaries. The recategorization treatments induced members of 2 3-person groups to conceive of both memberships as 1 6-person group or as 6 separate individuals. The findings revealed that the one-group and separate-individuals conditions, as compared with the control condition, reduced intergroup bias. Furthermore, these recategorized conditions reduced bias in different ways consistent with M. B. Brewer's (see record 1979-25967-001) analysis and J. C. Turner's (1985) self-categorization theory. Specifically, the 1-group representation reduced bias primarily by increasing the attractiveness of former out-group members, whereas the separate-individuals representation primarily decreased the attractiveness of former in-group members. Implications for the utility of these strategies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In 2 national surveys, one with 280 and the other with 1,008 respondents, Ss ascribed personality traits to prominent national politicians and reported the feelings that the politicians elicited. It was found that summary scores of good feelings and bad feelings were nearly independent of each other, much more so than were good and bad trait judgments. Affective registrations, in short, were less semantically filtered and less subject to consistency pressures. Summary scores of affect strongly predicted political preference. This effect was independent of and more powerful than that for personality judgments. Thus, affective registrations were not at all redundant with semantic judgments. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Assessed attitudes toward aspects of multiculturalism (Multicultural Ideology, Perceived Consequences of Multiculturalism, and Multicultural Program Attitudes) and toward ethnic and immigrant groups, as well as Tolerance and Canadianism with 3,325 Ss. Attitudes toward multiculturalism were moderately positive, and tolerance moderately high; there was also a relatively high sense of attachment and commitment to Canada. Immigrant and ethnic groups of European origin were more positively evaluated than those of non-European origin. Variations in these attitudes by region of residence and ethnic origin revealed significant differences, as Ss of French origin living in Quebec tended to be less supportive than Ss of British and other origins living outside Quebec. Despite some signs of ethnocentrism, there are good prospects for achieving a diverse and tolerant society in Canada. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Assessed attitudes toward 14 specific ethnic groups by asking how comfortable 3,325 adult Canadians would feel being around them. The ethnic origin of Ss was also measured by ascertaining the ethnic or cultural group to which their ancestors belonged. Comfort ratings were individually centered within each S by subtracting the mean rating of all groups given by an S from the rating of a particular group by that S. These relative comfort ratings of Ss from the 12 most numerous ethnic origin groups were aggregated. There were 9 groups who were both holders and objects of attitudes. Attitude matrices of attitude holders toward attitude objects were analyzed regarding three issues. First, groups rated themselves more highly than they rated other groups, indicating the existence of ethnocentrism. Second, there was a high degree of consensus among groups with regard to the relative comfort levels for various other groups. Third, the mutual attitudes of pairs of groups were reciprocated. These findings suggest degree of stability in the organization of interethnic attitudes in Canada, despite changes in demography, the groups included in the analysis, and the attitude measures used in the survey. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article explores the connections between prejudice and specific attitudes toward acculturation in Germany. Results of surveys confirm the hypothesis that prejudice is related to ideologies of assimilation and segregation among majority- group members. Moreover, experimental and correlational studies indicate that these attitudes are linked to discriminatory behavior. Further analyses of studies with ethnic minorities prove that prejudice and acculturation are linked within minority groups as well. Additionally it is shown that prejudice is functional in order for minorities to acculturate. These studies confirm the impression that there is a close link between macrosocial and microsocial levels of coping with migration.
Article
In two studies, one among 94 Moroccan and 203 Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands and one among 1844 people of the Dutch majority, we examined how these groups react to four different adaptation strategies of people with a Moroccan and a Turkish background. These strategies are: assimilation (original culture is considered unimportant whereas contact with the majority is considered important), integration (both the original culture and contact with the majority are important), separation (original culture is considered important whereas contact with the majority is not), and marginalization (both the original culture and contact with the majority are considered unimportant). The respondents were confronted with a scenario (a fictitious newspaper article) representing one of the four strategies. Moroccans and Turks had to indicate whether they identified themselves with the person in the scenario. Their affective and normative reactions towards that person were also measured. Both Moroccans and Turks appeared to react most positively to integration and to identify themselves most with an integrating person. Dutch majority members were asked to estimate the percentage of Moroccans or Turks that use a particular adaptation form, and were also asked to give their affective and normative reactions towards the person in the scenario. The Dutch have positive attitudes towards assimilation and integration. Remarkably, they believe that separation, which is the least liked strategy by them, is the one chosen most frequently by the immigrants. Copyright © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
La psychologie interculturelle a montré qu'il existait des rapports étroits entre le contexte culturel et le développement comportemental de l'individu. Cette relation établie, l'effort des recherches interculturelles a de plus en plus porté sur ce qu'il advenait des individus quand ils tentaient de refaire leur vie dans une culture différente de leur culture d'origine. Les conséquences psychologiques à long terme de ce processus d'acculturation sont très variables, dépendant de variables sociales et personnelles qui renvoient à la société de départ, à la société d'accueil et à des phénomènes qui existent avant, mais qui émergent pendant la période d'acculturation. Cet article esquisse un schéma conceptuel à partir duquel acculturation et adaptation peuvent ětre étudiées, puis présente quelques conclusions et résultats généraux tirés d'un échantillon de travaux empiriques. On envisage des applications possibles à la politique et aux programmes d'insertion en prenant en considération les couts et les bénéfices sociaux et psychologiques émanant de l'adoprion d'une orientation pluraliste et intégrationniste.
Article
In this article three approaches to define and explain negative ethnic attitudes are discussed: the anthropology of cultural misunderstanding, the sociology of how differences in group positions are justified ideologically, and the social psychology of maintaining self‐esteem through intergroup differentiation. The‐ aim is to integrate these approaches into an interdisciplinary model. Social identity theory is used as a frame for this integration. The argument developed is that ingroup values are used for intergroup differentiation and evaluation. This leads to the development of stereotypes. Stereotypes reflect misunderstanding, but also anchor social representations of a hierarchy of group positions (ethnic hierarchy). Depending on the ethnic composition of the larger society, majority and minority groups will differ in their ethnic hierarchies. Discrepancies between ethnic hierarchies will lead to ethnic tension. From the perspective developed, a number of hypotheses is derived about how changes in the socio‐economic position of minority groups will affect intergroup evaluations. Hypotheses based on the category differentiation model and the social identity model are specified with respect to the expected changes in stereotypes and intergroup discrimination of the ethnic majority and minority groups.
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