Article

Engaging Multiple Perspectives: A Value-based Decision-making Model

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Abstract

In some decision contexts, such as a crisis or when confronted by a new or novel set of circumstances, people may be forced to make decisions with limited information or time available for analysis. In such contexts, the set of alternative solutions developed may be greatly affected by the personal values and the perspective those values precipitate. Being able to view the decision environment from multiple perspectives enhances the decision-maker's ability to make better-informed choices. This article introduces the value-based decision-making model that suggests that multiple perspectives may be achieved by considering a foundation of individual values. Empirical testing indicates that this model provides a viable framework that decision-makers and researchers can use to better understand and facilitate multiple perspectives in decision-making.

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... Indeed, decision-making is a part of problem solving, which emerges while choosing between alternatives. Yet, values, moral, and ethical issues are more common in decision-making research (e.g., Keeney, 1994;Verplanken & Holland, 2002;Hall & Davis, 2007;Sheehan & Schmidt, 2015). Though, research by Shepherd, Patzelt, & Baron (2013), Baron, Zhao, & Miao (2015) has affirmed that contemporary business decision makers rather often leave aside ethical issues and moral values. ...
... According to Argandoña (2003), values can change due to external (changing values in the people around, in society, changes in situations, etc.) and internal (internalization by learning) factors affecting the person. The research by Hall & Davis (2007) indicates that the decision-makers' applied J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f value profile temporarily changed as they analyzed the issue from multiple perspectives and revealed the existence of a broader set of values. The study by Kirkman (2017) reveal that participants noticed the relevance of moral values to situations they encountered in various contexts. ...
... Such analysis, according to Linstone (1989), 'forces us to distinguish how we are looking from what we are looking at' (p.312; italic in original). Hence, the problem solver broadens the understanding of various perspectives and develops the capability to see the bigger picture (Hall & Davis, 2007). ...
Article
The paper aims to introduce the conceptual framework of problem solving through values. The framework consists of problem analysis, selection of value(s) as a background for the solution, the search for alternative ways of the solution, and the rationale for the solution. This framework reveals when, how, and why is important to think about values when solving problems. A consistent process fosters cohesive and creative value-based thinking during problem solving rather than teaching specific values. Therefore, the framework discloses the possibility for enabling the development of value-grounded problem solving capability.The application of this framework highlights the importance of responsibility for the chosen values that are the basis for the alternatives which determine actions. The 4W framework is meaningful for the people’s lives and their professional work. It is particularly important in the process of future professionals’ education. Critical issues concerning the development of problem solving through values are discussed when considering and examining options for the implementation of the 4W framework in educational institutions.
... The freedom that this approach affords might enable managers, even when embedded within the same institutional framework, to make different decisions from one another (Hill, 2003). This suggests that the PM also makes value judgements and executes decisions based on personal values (Hall & Davis, 2007). ...
... Previous research about values among street-level bureaucrats also supports the findings that value orientations have a significant impact on project management (Lipsky, 1980;Hall & Davis, 2007;Aggestam, 2013). The diversity of value orientations regarding stakeholder participation is further reflected in the range of definitions that were provided for a stakeholder analysis. ...
... The most apparent way to improve the implementation of stakeholder participation policy is through more stringent regulations and guidelines, such as tighter control over budgets and implementation practice (control-and-command), not only by the organisation charged with implementation but also by EU and international policy. The problem could also be addressed through increased awareness-raising and education campaigns that confront the managers' negative value orientations associated with stakeholder participation through, for example, reframing (Dewulf et al., 2004), value attunement (Hall & Davis, 2007), or alternative dispute resolution (Creighton et al., 1998). This would require a more structured and transparent strategy that addresses ambiguities in policy and support for stakeholder participation (Hare & Pahl-Wostl, 2002;Raymond et al., 2010). ...
Article
Managers who implement stakeholder participation often have to navigate a complex subsystem of actors, policy-making institutions, and varying problem definitions. This paper examines how these managers’ values affect decision-making and the operationalisation of stakeholder participation, and how the institutional framework in which the managers are embedded affects these values. It is based on the inside views of 23 managers and expert consultants involved in nine projects implemented by international organisations. Their values and preferences were captured through a review of project documents and interviews. The results demonstrate that the managers’ personal value orientations affect the participatory process when there is a lack of control and support from their commissioning organisation, and also in cases where policy is ambiguous. The decision-making freedom accorded to the project manager defines whether they design stakeholder participation in accordance with personal value orientations, the organisation or policy. This study suggests that more stringent regulations and guidelines, as well as improved educational and awareness-raising activities, are required to resolve this problem. It is also suggested that evaluation tools should be improved to account for the impact that stakeholders have. This may encourage managers to become more actively involved in the use of stakeholder input.
... Post (2005) concludes that for experiencing ultimate love, happiness and holistic health in lives, one should inculcate altruism in personal lives and help others without expecting reputation or reciprocal gains. Hall and Davis (2007) have emphasized on inculcating individual values that directly impacts the decision-making behaviour. The paper further explores the value profile of individuals which is based on theoretical, social, political, religious, aesthetic and economic values. ...
... A few other researchers have chosen design students as subjects and experimental set ups have been developed. Analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance have been performed to assess the statistically significant effects of problem types and constraint conditions and their interactions on the number Maintainability of mechanical systems of iterations, frequency of iterations, and percentage of each type of iteration loops ( Jin and Chusilp, 2006;Desmet et al., 2008;Hall and Davis, 2007). In such experiments, some researchers have applied Think-aloud method in which subjects are supposed to speak out loud while they are thinking. ...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on design for maintainability with emphasis on psychology and cognitive sciences and suggest possible gaps from the point of view of researchers and practitioners. Design/methodology/approach – The paper systematically reviews the published literature and then analyzes it methodically. Findings – The paper discusses a new shift in engineering design, in general, and design for maintainability (DFM) of mechanical systems, in particular. Practical implications – Literature on DFM of mechanical systems with psychological factors has so far been very limited. This paper reviews a number of papers from the field of mechanical engineering and other related branches of engineering, along with important papers from the field of psychology and cognitive sciences. Subsequently, various merging trends in the field of DFM are identified to help researchers specifying gaps in the literature and direct the research efforts suitably. Originality/value – The paper contains a comprehensive listing of publications in the field of maintainability from the psychology point of view. The paper will be useful to researchers, designers, maintenance professionals and others concerned with maintainability of a system. This paper is equally useful for the researchers and design professionals from the domain of engineering design irrespective of their field of application.
... Accepting sensemaking as part of decision-making means accepting the assumption that the start of decision-making requires a connection between an event and the frame of an actor (Hutton, Klein, & Wiggins, 2008). This puts frames and their contentvaluesin the midst of decision-making (Hall and Davis, 2007;Keeney, 1994). Understanding strategic decision-making as an emerging pattern of interactions means paying attention to the cognitions of actors, individuals or groups that are either formally or informally involved in decision-making Senge, 1996;Weick, 1995). ...
... Strategic decisions involve multiple practitioners (Amason, 2006;Jarzabkowski, 2004) Few researchers focus on identification of objectives and values (Keeney, 1992(Keeney, , 1994, and development of multiple frames and values for collective decisionmaking (Beder, 2006;Courtney, 2001;Fritszche & Oz, 2007;Hall et al., 2003Hall et al., , 2007Mitroff & Linstone, 1993). ...
... A decision-making model based on values was propose by Hall and Davis (2007) to support the development of decision support systems, to make them consider personal perspectives. Different from this proposal, who intends to support the development of decision-support systems, our research aims at transferring knowledge, which requires that the decision-making process' instance be created only after the decision had already been made. ...
... Similarly, Steiger and Steiger (2009) ask only for the key factors in decision-making and their respective weight, they do not even describe what they are. Proposals of Steiger and Steiger (2009), Hall and Davis (2007), Cabrerizo, Pérez and Herrera-Viedma (2010) are interested in representing the decision-making process, however, they do not discuss which individual's values are considered. ...
Article
Business process success depends on how its participants perform their tasks. A participant's ability, knowledge and experience of a participant are decisive to carry out one's tasks and deal with eventual changes. Understanding each business process activity, it is also relevant to understand the contextual information in particular situations. However, contextual information should be available to promote this understanding. In this sense, cognitive decision-making process is an important contextual element, as it could help to describe how an activity has been performed. Nevertheless, making this contextual information available still represents a challenge for the difficulty in expliciting an individual mental process or the rationale of a decision. We present an approach for capturing and representing cognitive decision-making process as contextual knowledge involving business process activities and discuss case study results.
... The second stage is to Generate Alternatives. Brainstorming possible choices or directions can increase both the number and quality of alternatives (Hall & Davis, 2007). This can be accomplished by taking into account others' recommendations for the best solution to the dilemma. ...
... ACED IT stands for Assess, Create, Evaluate, Decide, Implement and Test (Kreitler, Dansereau, Barth, & Ito, 2009;. Two frameworks have been combined in the development of ACED IT to guide individuals through effective decision-making and action planning: ethical decision stages (Toren & Wagner, 2010;Robbins & Judge, 2007) and multiple perspective taking (Atha-Weldon & Dansereau, 2006;Hall & Davis, 2007). ...
Article
Numerous examples of unethical organizational decision-making highlighted in the media have led many to question the general moral perception and ethical judgments of individuals. The present study examined two forms of a straightforward ethical decision-making (EDM) tool (ACED IT cognitive map) that could be a relatively simple instrument for organizations to improve the moral and EDM of its members. Results revealed that participants utilizing either form of ACED IT were more likely to identify a moral dilemma than were control participants. Additionally, participants in the modified condition responded differently to the situation. Implications and other findings are discussed.
... In the context of design for maintainability of mechanical system/product, it is also observed that when maintainability requirements are being established, particularly with regard to the human element, often important psychological factors are ignored (Blanchard et al., 1995). It is also apparent from the reviews of psychology related research papers (Rokeach, 1979;Elizur et al., 1991;Schwartz, 1992;Schwartz, 1994;Meglino and Ravlin, 1998;Roe and Ester, 1999;Rohan, 2000;Schwartz and Bardi, 2001;Schwartz et al., 2001;Schwartz, 2006;Pakizeh et al., 2007;Fritzsche and Oz, 2007;Hall and Davis, 2007;Davidov et al., 2008) that the performance and decisions taken (in this case, at design stage) by personnel are significantly affected by the psychological orientation of individuals, especially by their espoused/adopted human values. Human values theory defines values as desirable, transsituational goals, varying in importance, that serve as guiding principles in people's lives (Schwartz, 1992;Rokeach, 1973). ...
... This paper reviews the work of notable researchers/authors on Maintainability (Blanchard et al., 1995;Tjiparuro and Thompson, 2003;Blanchard, 2006;Blanchard, 2008;Kumar et al., 2011) and engineering design (Pahl et al., 1999;Jin and Chusilp, 2006;Wilpert, 2007;Howard et al., 2008) who have made an attempt to understand and incorporate psychological aspects in the process of design. The paper also reviews some prominent psychology of human values related research papers (Rokeach, 1979;Elizur et al., 1991;Schwartz, 1992;Schwartz, 1994;Meglino and Ravlin, 1998;Roe and Ester, 1999;Rohan, 2000;Schwartz and Bardi, 2001;Pakizeh et al., 2007;Fritzsche and Oz, 2007;Hall and Davis, 2007) and comes out with a theoretical framework for psychology-based system/product maintainability. This paper has made an attempt to bridge the gap between the technical and non-technical world in the context of psychology based maintainability of mechanical systems. ...
Article
Full-text available
The challenges of global market continue to inspire companies to consider all prominent attributes of system/product including maintainability to develop reliable, safe, maintainable and novel systems/products. Moreover, system/product maintainability involves human beings in almost all important maintainability affecting activities like design, maintenance, operation and support. Thus, maintainability of the product/system does depend on the performance and psychological orientations of human beings involved in these activities. The paper reviews the published literature and extends it further in the context of system maintainability. With the purpose of signifying the role of psychology of personnel on system's maintainability, the psychological perspectives on planning, organization and design for maintainability have been presented in this paper. This paper presents a framework to incorporate the prominent aspect of human psychology in the maintainability and design of systems. The paper highlights a new orientation in the total design of systems, in general, and mechanical systems, in particular. Limitation and future scope associated with this paper are mentioned in the last section.
... Within the IS literature, Widmeyer [33] examined the design issue of optimization by aligning a decision maker's actions and values. The effect of various types of computer feedback on individual values has been studied in the psychology and IS literature [34][35][36]. In an exploratory study, Hosack [37] found some initial support for a decision support system moderating the effect of values on decision-making behavior. ...
... A subject's strongest value(s) was selected based on the rank ordering of the mean value score. The use of rank ordering means for determining the importance of a value has been used in psychology and IS research [26,29,35,53,54,56]. The distribution of values among the ten value constructs, indicate that only 38 out of the 170 subjects had two or more values tied and only eleven out of the 38 had three tied values. ...
Article
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The Theory of Universals in Values (TUV), a reliable and validated conceptualization of personal values used in psychology, is used to examine the effect of system feedback delivered by a Decision Support System (DSS) on personal values. The results indicate that value-based decision-making behavior can be influenced by DSS feedback to address value congruence in decision-making. User behavior was shown to follow the outcomes expected by operant theory when feedback was supportive and to follow the outcomes of reactance theory when feedback was challenging. This result suggests that practitioners and Information System (IS) researchers should consider user values when designing computerized decision feedback to adjust a system’s design such that the potential user backlash is avoided or congruence between organizational and personal values is achieved.
... Saaty [1,2] introduces the AHP which is a multicriteria decision-making approach in which factors are arranged in a hierarchic structure. Hall and Davis [3] introduce a valuebased decision-making model which suggests that multiple perspectives may be achieved by considering a foundation of individual values. Zhang et al. [4] present a method for solving the stochastic MCDM problem and propose a new concept of stochastic dominance degree (SDD). ...
Article
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Threat evaluation is extremely important to decision makers in many situations, such as military application and physical protection systems. In this paper, a new threat assessment model based on interval number to deal with the intrinsic uncertainty and imprecision in combat environment is proposed. Both objective and subjective factors are taken into consideration in the proposed model. For the objective factors, the genetic algorithm (GA) is used to search out an optimal interval number representing all the attribute values of each object. In addition, for the subjective factors, the interval Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is adopted to determine each object’s threat weight according to the experience of commanders/experts. Then a discounting method is proposed to integrate the objective and subjective factors. At last, the ideal of Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) is applied to obtain the threat ranking of all the objects. A real application is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.
... The multiple views approach has been drawn on in various disciplines including Information Systems (IS). For example to understand social problems during efforts to address poverty in developing country contexts [25]; to elicit multiple perspectives during requirements gathering [26]; in bringing out individual values attached to decisions in new business environments [27]; to assist students to think deeper and reflectively [28]. The multiple views approach offered the capability for handling the complexity associated with communication of decision-making according to the PAJA. ...
Conference Paper
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Governments in developing countries (DC) are constantly under pressure to achieve participatory governance using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Although many articles have appeared that clearly underscore the potential of ICT to achieve participatory governance, e-governance, most are focused on how e-governance will lead to democratic reforms. It is hard to find articles that consider how e-governance makes administrative decision-making more efficient. Administrative decision-making refers to the continual process through which government administrators make fair, impartial and just decisions. This paper based on interpretive field research experiences from South Africa proposes an ICT facilitated decision-making approach between government administrators and DC communities for participatory e-governance. The findings make a contribution to government practice and to the Information Systems field of e-governance. For government practice, the theoretically informed approach indicates encouraging results for participatory feedback on existing government services and for strengthening communication channels and capabilities during the process of reaching mutually agreeable decisions with DC communities. For e-governance, the paper proposes an approach that considers the greater antecedents of the occasional democratic participation, the essential day-to-day necessity of administrative decision-making using ICT.
... Once the common understanding is reached, heterogeneous teams can integrate diverse member skills and abilities more actively than can homogenous teams, which lack technical or functional diversity. Homogeneous teams may also be constrained in their ability to conceptualize and execute novel project-related ideas [34,33]. Thus, we posit: ...
... The decision making process has become more complex when integrated with personal values. Lee (1971);Beal et al. (2005) and Hall and Davis (2007) refer to investments being made out rational choices and deliberated from personal values. This can be questioned from the aspect of SRI being strongly connected to personal values (Hudson, 2005). ...
... ACED IT is a cognitive tool denoted by an acronym that stands for Assess, Create, Evaluate, Decide, Implement and Test (Kreitler, Dansereau, Barth & Ito, 2009;Kreitler, Dansereau, Barth, Repasky, & Miller, in press).Two frameworks have been combined in the development of ACED IT to guide individuals through effective decisionmaking and action planning: ethical decision stages (Toren & Wagner, 2010;Robbins & Judge, 2007), and multiple perspective taking (Atha-Weldon & Dansereau, 2006;Hall & Davis, 2007). The structured tool prompts individuals to examine a number of potential solutions, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each option, by using a "fill-in-the-space" format to organize the written information (Dansereau, 2005). ...
Article
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the impact of a decision-making "tool" and an expressive writing task on moral perception, utilizing an ethical vignette. In prior research, both strategies have proven beneficial for improving coping and problem solving; the present research sought to extend these results to the arena of ethical decision making. Results revealed that participants utilizing a cognitive tool or writing task before assessing the moral perception of an ethical dilemma reported enhanced moral judgment and social pressure identification versus no treatment group. Implications of the findings and areas for future research are discussed. Considerable evidence shows that individuals are at great risk for unethical decision making (for reviews, see O'Fallon & Butterfield, 2005; Tenbrunsel & Smith-Crowe, 2008; Treviño, Weaver, & Reynolds, 2006). During the last decade, emphasis placed upon ethics in various capacities (e.g., decisions involving individual conduct in the context of workplace, political, religious, academia, etc.) has dramatically increased. Indeed, this enhanced emphasis on ethics and increased scrutiny of decision making by those in power has led many to question the general moral perception and ethical judgment of individuals. In order to prevent the negative consequences frequently announced in headline news captions, however, it is essential to prevent unethical decisions in the first place. Indeed, if unethical decision making is to be ameliorated, the creation of accessible and helpful cognitive tools that assist individuals in ethical decision making processes is of great importance. Much of research in the area of ethics has focused on numerous models to better comprehend why and how individuals make ethical decisions (e.g., McMahon & Harvey, 2007; Sweeney & Costello, 2009; Yang & Wu, 2009), very little has explored and tested tools and resources available to assist decision making. Indeed, to the knowledge of the authors, the only strategy published in the scientific literature is an intervention based upon counter explanation (Chung & Monroe, 2007). This is a technique often described in the cognitive psychology literature and used to counter the negative effect of an explanation.
... While much research indicates that both breadth and depth of information is necessary for good decision outcomes (e.g., Kim, Hahn, & Hahn, 2000), there is also a need to structure the information available to the decision maker in a way that supports the process without resulting in information overload. Hall and Davis (2005) propose a perspective-based decision-making model that develops and synthesizes perspectives. The model not only affects the current decision context, but grows organizational memory, and expands the organization's shared mental model. ...
... They pre-direct attention on possible causes of problems and narrow down action alternatives to appropriate and expedient, i.e. value-compatible, solutions (e.g. Mumford et al., 1993;Begley, 1996;Hall and Davis, 2007). Expert principals even compensate for a lack of problem-relevant knowledge by reflecting on their values when faced with novel or highly unstructured situations (Leithwood and Steinbach, 1995). ...
Article
Purpose – Concepts of values-based leadership posit that school principals’ professional practice must be informed by values to ensure coherently purposeful activities. Contingency models stress the contextual dependency of professional practice and the need to match activities to local opportunities and constraints. The purpose of this paper is to reconcile both positions from an integrative perspective and to illustrate examples of “values-based contingency leadership” (Day et al. , 2001). Design/methodology/approach – Analyses draw on survey data from 56 German schools in order to relate professional values stated by the principals as well as organizational features of their schools to teacher ratings on leadership behaviour ( n =910). Instead of scrutinizing singular variables in isolation, a typological approach serves to identify value profiles as well as organizational configurations. Analyses of variance are applied to examine the combined effects of both factors on leadership behaviour. Findings – Interactional effects in the sample indicate that contextual influences are not homogenous across differing value profiles of principals who operate under equal conditions. Descriptive patterns of leadership behaviour within each organizational configuration reveal how principals accentuate leadership activities according to their value profile. Research limitations/implications – Due to the low statistical power of the small sample, findings are clearly exploratory in nature. However, replication and extension studies seem fruitful, as effect sizes of value-context interactions are consistent with theoretical assumptions and not artificially inflated by common-source variance. Originality/value – This paper elaborates and exemplifies the moderating role of values in contextual influences on leadership behaviour. It also provides deeper insights into the content and structure of professional values advocated by school principals.
... Especially in situations where emotions are involved, such as crises, new situations or other emotion-evoking contexts, customers have a set of personal values on which their perspective is based. Hence, customers are forced to choose an alternative without knowing all possible alternatives and their impacts (Hall and Davis, 2007). The consumption of the service is only possible in the hotel or the place of the service, and nowhere else and due to this uno-actu principle, the degree of uncertainty is very high (Dettmer, 2005). ...
... Value-driven control design enables design optimization by providing designers with an objective function. The value based presentation of objective function includes all the important attributes of a system being designed, and outputs a score (Hall, & Davis, 2007; Castagne et al., 2009). At the whole system level, the objective function which performs this assessment of value is called a value model. ...
Chapter
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The subject of this chapter is the design of a methodology and algorithms for evaluation of expert utility (value) as analytical function that permit development of value driven control design in complex processes (and management systems) where the human choice is decisive for the final solution. The approach is demonstrated by a control design for optimal control and stabilization of the specific growth rate of fed-batch biotechnological processes. The control design is based on Monod-Wang kinetic models and their equivalent Brunovsky normal forms. The utility theory is one of the approaches to measurement and utilization of qualitative, conceptual information and permits the inclusion of the decision maker (or the technologist) in the complex model „Technologist - dynamical model” in mathematical terms. The mathematical formulations, presented here, serve as basis for the tools development. The evaluation leads to the development of preferences-based decision control in machine learning environments and iterative complex control descriptions and design.
... The norm is apparently a presence of all three perspective types in an unbalanced way (Linstone, 1999). The work by Hall and Davis (2007) reviewed in the article on problem formulation and DSS elsewhere in this volume speaks to the value of forcing decision makers to consider other perspectives. Second, even the most ardent holder of any perspective often has incomplete information relevant to that perspective, whether through lack of accessibility to all relevant information, selective reduction that considers only subsets of relevant information, or personal bias that skews how relevant information is used to formulate the problem. ...
... ced bias in the problem formulations. As the collaborative nature of work has become more widely recognized and supported, DSS researchers have begun to investigate more sophisticated means of supporting problem formulation. In the process, they have also indirectly shed some light on the least investigated phase of Simon's model: the review phase. Hall and Davis (2007) have revisited the work of Mason, Mitroff, and others. They recently report on the testing of a system designed to encourage decision makers to consider others' perspectives. Whereas Mason and his colleagues focused on Hegel's philosophy and dialectic processes, Hall and Davis have focused on Singer's philosophical concept of sweeping i ...
Chapter
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While decision choices are certainly important and warrant appropriate attention, early stages of the decisionmaking process may be even more critical in terms of needing adequate support. The alternatives from which a decision maker may be able to choose are integrally tied to the assumptions made about the problem situation. Consequently, decision support systems (DSSs) may be more effective in helping decision makers to make good choices when support for problem formulation is provided. Research validates the notion that support for problem formulation and structuring leads to better decisions. This article explores this concept and looks at opportunities in emerging software trends to continue development of problem formulation support in DSS-type settings.
... ganization's systems during these processes. While much research indicates that both breadth and depth of information is necessary for good decision outcomes (e.g., Kim, Hahn, & Hahn, 2000), there is also a need to structure the information available to the decision maker in a way that supports the process without resulting in information overload. Hall and Davis (2005) propose a perspective-based decision-making model that develops and synthesizes perspectives. The model not only affects the current decision context, but grows organizational memory, and expands the organization's shared mental model. This feeds into knowledge and databases, providing necessary information for data warehouse support of ...
Article
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This commentary examines the historical importance of decision support to the information systems (IS) field from the viewpoint of four researchers whose work spans the several decades of decision support systems (DSS) research. Given this unique "generational" vantage point, we present the changes in and impact of DSS research as well as future considerations for decision support in the IS field. We argue that the DSS area has remained vital as technology has evolved and our understanding of decision-making processes has deepened. DSS work over the last several years has contributed both breadth and depth to decision-making research; the challenge now is to make sense of it all by placing it in an understandable context and by applying our analysis to the relevant issues looming in the future. One major outcome of this commentary is the identification of future trends in DSS research and what the users of these new DSS outlets can learn from the past. Trends include the increasing impact of social and mobile computing on DSS research, as well as knowledge management DSS and negotiation support systems that shift the focus to delivering more customer-centric and marketplace support.
... Making sense of values, information and experiences can be difficult to untangle, and a range of teaching strategies may be useful to support students. Simply asking students to explicitly write a list of valued outcomes can encourage students to identify differing perspectives they hold throughout their decision-making process (Keeney, 1994;1996;Hall & Davis, 2007;Eggert & Bogenholz, 2010;Gresch, Hasselhorn,, Bogeholz, 2017). Additionally, structured decision-making (SDM) strategies can help students separately consider valued outcomes and their tradeoffs, and scientific information; both of which help them determine which potential solutions best fulfill the valued outcomes (Ratcliffe, 1997;Grace & Ratcliffe, 2002;Ratcliffe & Grace, 2003;Arvai et al., 2004;Nicolaou et al., 2009;Papadouris, 2012;Presley et al., 2013;Ashley & Dauer, 2020;Dauer, Sorensen, & Jimenez, in press). ...
Thesis
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Integrating decision-making learning goals within science classrooms has been increasingly common for science educators and researchers to help develop students’ science literacy skills. These learning goals include understanding and applying scientific information as well as recognizing tradeoffs amongst multiple perspectives when decision-making about real-world issues like socioscientific issues (SSIs). SSIs are contentious issues that require students to consider interdisciplinary evidence to explain the natural world, including the social and economic impacts of a solution to the issue. Incorporating structured decision-making (SDM) tools may help students make science-informed and value-based decisions about SSIs by breaking down the complexity of the decision-making process. In general, this study implemented qualitative and quantitative approaches to explore undergraduates’ decision-making practices as they worked through an SDM tool to reason about socioscientific issues within a science literacy classroom. This work presents frameworks that describe how students use scientific evidence and engage with tradeoffs when using an SDM tool in the context of a post-secondary required course called Science and Decision-making for a Complex World. Additionally, this study describes the development and evaluation of an instrument (Pollination Systems Knowledge Assessment) aimed at measuring students’ content knowledge of one SSI (how should we manage wild pollinators?). Our results may aid researchers in exploring how students integrate evidence in their reasoning and consider tradeoffs during structured decision-making about complex issues, as well as assess students’ understanding of pollination systems knowledge.
... As mentioned previously, the ACED IT was developed based on a standard decision-making model (Robbins & Judge, 2007), which includes five broad stages: define the issue, generate options, evaluate, select, and act. The ACED IT form guides individuals through effective decision making and action planning using decision stages (Robbins & Judge, 2007;Toren & Wagner, 2010) and multiple perspective taking (Atha-Weldon & Dansereau, 2006;Hall & Davis, 2007). This tool prompts individuals to generate potential solutions and evaluate those solutions using a "fill-in-the-space" format to organize the written information (Dansereau, 2005). ...
Article
The present study examined two forms of a cognitive tool (ACED IT map), which is designed to facilitate ethical decision making, along with expressive writing. Results demonstrated that participants completing the original ACED IT were more likely to identify (a) more steps to implementing a solution, (b) more barriers to solution implementation, and (c) more solutions to those barriers than participants who completed the modified ACED IT, those who engaged in expressive writing, and those in the control group. These findings suggest that cognitive tools such as ACED IT may be of considerable value for individuals who are presented with ethical dilemmas.
... A core characteristic of such complex problems is that they possess properties which become manifest only when examined from alternative standpoints (Paradice, 2007). Consequently, several scholars have suggested that viewing a complex decision situation from multiple perspectives can lead to better informed choices (Hall & Davis, 2007); in particular, they have called for multi-disciplinary and multi-stakeholder approaches (Beers, Boshuizen, Kirschner, & Gijselaers, 2006). ...
Article
Systems thinking and computer-based modelling systems are widely recognised as effective for solving complex problems, particularly for the potential changes they can trigger in decision-makers’ perception of where problems’ boundaries lie. Surprisingly, few studies have analysed their empirical effects on decision-making. This paper explores the effects of the use of a system dynamics-based decision support system (DSS) by decision-makers, focusing on boundary judgements, which indicate what issues and stakeholders are to be included in the decision analysis. The data were obtained from an experiment with 40 policy-makers, using a simulated case approach that focused on the complex biotechnology intellectual property system. They suggest that the use of such a DSS favours both the analysis of a greater range of perspectives and broader stakeholder participation, but does not strengthen either interdisciplinary integration or depth of stakeholder participation.
... They also assist with the identification of potential risk owners at the beginning of the planning process. They provide a pathway for negotiating trade-offs across different groups and agendas by bringing together multiple perspectives in a way that supports decision-making (Hall & Davis 2007). ...
Article
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As the risks encountered by natural hazards change and become more dynamic, so too, does the task of recovering from them. To manage natural hazards, planners must plan for the unexpected; building resilience before, during and after events. Currently, recovery funding is limited to a two-year window. Devastated communities that do not recover during this time rely on ad hoc funding to support patchy recovery beyond this. Planning for long-term recovery needs to be embedded throughout the risk assessment process to be effective. This presents a number of challenges. By identifying the longer-term risks and their consequences in advance, sustained recovery can be planned for all social, environmental and economic values (assets). This will determine what recovery interventions may be needed and when they are likely be most effective.
... This is because values are the basis of decision making, informing the beliefs that determine what is most important and what motivates action (Schwartz, 2012). Values-based approaches can provide a tangible pathway for bringing together 'multiple perspectives' (Hall and Davis, 2007) to achieve goals that are integral, and define elements of inclusion and the creation of a diverse culture. The Schwartz Theory of Basic Human Values is widely used by organisations to understand how to identify better ways to grow and manage talent. ...
... Avons-nous des intérêts communs? Vos intérêts ne doivent pas nécessairement être identiques, car vous avez des perspectives différentes (Hall et Davis, 2007). Vous devez toutefois penser à la façon d'établir un lien avec votre mentor. ...
... Your interests don't necessarily have to be identical as different perspectives can be valuable (Hall & Davis, 2007). However, consider how you may relate to the mentor coach in order to develop rapport. ...
... This is because values are the basis of decision making, informing the beliefs that determine what is most important, and what motivates action (Schwartz, 2012). Values-based approaches can provide a tangible pathway for bringing together 'multiple perspectives' (Hall and Davis, 2007) to achieve goals that are integral, and define elements of inclusion and the creation of a diverse culture. The Schwartz Theory of Basic Human Values is widely used by organisations to understand how to identify better ways to grow and manage talent. ...
Technical Report
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Although diversity and inclusion (D&I) is not a new concept or area of practice for the Emergency Management Sector (EMS), there has been little clarity of what effective D&I practice is, particularly in relation to its management and measurement. EMS organisations are complex, and increasingly, dynamic social, environmental and economic factors are driving the need for transformation in the sector. This report presents a synthesis of key findings from the organisational assessments and relevant research from the literature review (Young et al., 2018) undertaken for the project Diversity and Inclusion: Building strength and capability. Case study assessments were undertaken with three EMS organisations – Queensland Fire and Rescue, Fire and Rescue New South Wales) and South Australian State Emergency Services. These comprised a desktop study of public documents to assess their recent history, current activities and the policy context, website audits to ascertain the visual narrative in relation to D&I, and a series of interviews to capture the ‘lived experience’ of D&I from their employees. The aim of the research was to develop an understanding of the key factors influencing effective implementation, and key components needed for a draft D&I framework, which is presented in this report. Using a systemic analysis focused on decision making, this research provides insights into how past and present practice and the evolution of these organisations influences their current approaches to D&I. It also provides an analysis of the barriers, needs, opportunities and benefits collated during the interviews and key themes that arose. D&I is now a key business imperative for all EMS organisations but much work still needs to be done before effective practice in D&I can be achieved. However, these organisations also contain pre-existing strengths and knowledge that present considerable opportunities. Achieving effective D&I is a long-term proposition with many challenges, and for organisations who have the courage to persist through this process, the benefits of a more diverse and inclusive organisation are there to be realised.
... ACED IT stands for Assess, Create, Evaluate, Decide, Implement, and Test. Its development was based on theories of ethical decision stages (Toren and Wagner, 2010;Robbins and Judge, 2007) and multiple perspective taking (Atha-Weldon and Dansereau, 2006;Hall and Davis, 2007). The stages of EDM include defining the issue, generating options, evaluating the options, selecting the best option, and acting on the decision (Robbins and Judge, 2007). ...
... ACED IT stands for Assess, Create, Evaluate, Decide, Implement, and Test. Its development was based on theories of ethical decision stages (Toren and Wagner, 2010;Robbins and Judge, 2007) and multiple perspective taking (Atha-Weldon and Dansereau, 2006;Hall and Davis, 2007). The stages of EDM include defining the issue, generating options, evaluating the options, selecting the best option, and acting on the decision (Robbins and Judge, 2007). ...
... This methodology has been used to facilitate strategic change through conversations that capture what is important to individuals to establish shared understanding and agreement of a desired future (Cooperrider and Whitney, 2001). Hall et al. (2007) also reinforce that values-based approaches can be a useful tool for bringing together multiple perspectives and reducing conflict. ...
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This literature review provides the current industry context and outlines a theoretical basis to support the research project Reimagining the workforce: building smart, sustainable, safe public transport. This project is funded by the Victorian Department of Transport and the Rail Manufacturing Cooperative Research Centre (RMCRC). The project aims to understand the current needs associated with the future public transport rolling stock workforce in Victoria, and in particular, the strengths, opportunities and challenges presented in overcoming the projected skills and capability crisis it currently faces and the need for innovation. It examines the different organisations who manufacture, maintain and operate rolling stock, and the influences that shape these, such as the procurement process, culture and the community. The review is presented in five sections to provide an overview of the system in which both the issues outlined above exist in the Victorian public transport workforce. The aim of the review is to present a holistic overview of the local context, but it also draws on international literature to understand the deeper underlying issues.
... ACED-IT stands for Assess, Create, Evaluate, Decide, Implement, and Test. Its development was based on theories of ethical decision stages (Toren & Wagner, 2010;Robbins & Judge, 2007) and multiple perspective taking (Atha-Weldon & Dansereau, 2006;Hall & Davis, 2007). The stages of ethical decision-making include defining the issue, generating options, evaluating the options, selecting the best option, and acting on the decision (Robbins & Judge, 2007). ...
Article
Moral credentialing, affirming one’s prosocial values, has been demonstrated to influence ethical behavior and attitudes, but its effect on ethical cognition is yet unknown. For this study, participants analyzed an ethical dilemma using a cognitive tool, expressive writing, or a control task, and participants either engaged in a moral credentialing task or did not. Responses were analyzed to determine how ethical cognition is impacted by moral credentialing. Participants in the cognitive tool group performed better on indices of ethical decision-making than participants in the other cognitive technique groups. However, moral credentialing did not have significant impact on the cognitive processes examined, despite manipulation checks which revealed that the moral credentialing manipulation had its intended effect. Implications are discussed. http://www.psychologyandeducation.net/pae/2019/06/19/moral-credentialing-ethical-decision-making-cheryl-k-stenmark-crystal-m-kreitler-robert-miller/
... They designed the system to not only accommodate multiple individual cognitive maps that could have different perspectives but also ensure the individual maps could integrate with an organizational map (Vo, Paradice, & Courtney, 2001). Other researchers would later continue to develop approaches to properly integrate multiple perspectives of complex problems into the decision support capabilities (Hall & Davis, 2007;Paradice & Davis, 2008). The design science research stream that had now existed for over two decades began to turn toward applying the concepts learned to a larger and more general organizational setting. ...
... ACED-IT stands for Assess, Create, Evaluate, Decide, Implement, and Test. ACED-IT was developed based on theories of ethical decision stages (Robbins & Judge, 2007;Torren & Wagner, 2010) and multiple perspective taking (Atha-Weldon & Dansereau, 2006;Hall & Davis, 2007). The stages of ethical decision-making that are covered by the ACED-IT are defining the issue, generating options, evaluating the options, selecting the best option, and acting on the decision (Robbins & Judge, 2007). ...
Article
This study examined the effects of interruptions and the use of cognitive decision-making tools on ethical decision-making. Participants completed a structured cognitive tool, an unstructured decision-making technique, or no decision-making technique, and half of the participants were interrupted during the decision-making task, whereas half were allowed to complete the decision-making task without interruption. Results revealed that 1) participants who completed the structured cognitive tool (ACED-IT map) performed better on a number of markers of ethical decision-making, 2) interruptions reduced participants’ plan quality, and 3) participants who were interrupted, and who completed the structured cognitive tool exhibited perceptions that suggested that they felt better prepared to handle the ethical dilemma. These results could have important implications for professionals in jobs that experience frequent interruptions, particularly those in management positions.
... While research from different disciplines deals with the development of certain problem solving abilities and/or competency (Jonassen, 1997;Ellspermann, Evans, & Basadur, 2007;Donovan, Guss, & Naslund, 2015;Fischer & Neubert, 2015;Collins, Sibthorp, & Gookin, 2016;Yener, 2016), little is known how future professionals could cope with problems, especially those that require value-based approach. Ethical issues encompassing values is more considered in decision-making (Keeney, 1994;Verplanken & Holland, 2002;Hall & Davis, 2007). Problem-based learning proposes to develop ethical and reflective competencies (Euler & Kühner, 2017) as well as to recognize and to apply moral values in daily activities (Kirkman, 2017). ...
... This is because values are the basis of decision making, informing the beliefs that determine what is most important and what motivates action (Schwartz, 2012). Values-based approaches can provide a tangible pathway for bringing together 'multiple perspectives' (Hall and Davis, 2007) to achieve goals that are integral, and define elements of inclusion and the creation of a diverse culture. The Schwartz Theory of Basic Human Values is widely used by organisations to understand how to identify better ways to grow and manage talent. ...
... A good and assertive decision process is based on a wide variety of scenarios to analyze and determine the most appropriate solution from the available options and reduces making wrong decisions. In choice tasks involving a large number of options, the pattern of information of a decision maker can be based on attributes to reduce the set of choices, or standards-based options to make a final decision [49] where the individual and context preferences affect the way a situation is perceived [27]. For decision-making we should reduce the uncertainty that depends on the information that we have. ...
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Nowadays the technological progress allows us to have highly flexible solutions, easily accessible with lower levels of investment, which leads to many companies adopting SaaS (Software-as-a-Service) to support their business processes. Associated with this movement and considering the advantages of SaaS, it is important to understand whether work is being developed that is underutilized because companies are not taking advantage of it, and in this case it is necessary to understand the reasons thereof. This knowledge is important even for people who do not use or do not develop/provide SaaS, since sooner or later it will be unavoidable due to current trends. In the near future, nearly all decision-makers of IT strategies will be forced to consider adopting SaaS as an IT solution for the convenience benefits associated with technology or market competition. At that time they will have to know how to evaluate impacts and decide. Often, decision-makers of business strategies consider only the attractive incentives of using SaaS ignoring the impacts associated with new technologies. The need for tools and processes to assess these impacts before adopting a SaaS solution is crucial to ensure the sustainability of the information system, reduce uncertainty and facilitate decision making. This article presents a framework for evaluating impacts of SaaS called SIE (SaaS Impact Evaluation) which in addition to guidance for the present research, aims to provide guidelines for the collection, data analysis, impact assessment and decision making about including SaaS on the organizations strategic plans.
Article
Relatively few studies in MIS research have examined computerized systems to support value-based decision-making behavior using system feedback. This dissertation developed a model of value-based decision-making behavior and explored how this behavior can be influenced by value specific system feedback. The experiment also tested the effect of self-monitoring behavior and the value-choice decision frame as part of the decision-making model. Operant theory and reactance theory are used to explain behavior in response to feedback. A computerized system is developed that supports a value-laden decision-making task in which subjects allocated funds among competing organizations. The system provided cognitive feedback that included information on the decision maker’s values, previous performance and future task information. No support was found for the influence of self-monitoring behavior or the magnitude of consequence of the value-choice frame on value-based decision-making behavior. The results do indicate that value-based decision-making behavior can be influenced by the tone of the system feedback. The supporting toned feedback produced results consistent with operant theory. When subjects received challenging toned feedback, they responded with reactance to the suggested behavior from the feedback in a manner consistent with the predictions of reactance theory. This research indicates that it is important for practitioners and researchers to consider operant and reactance theories as explanatory mechanisms when developing a system component that supports a decision maker’s values. Practitioners and researchers can also benefit by using the tested and validated instruments in this study to measure the value preferences of decision makers. An updated and revised experimental value task based on current value measurement method and theory can be beneficial to researchers. Future research should explore the longitudinal aspects of feedback to determine if feedback becomes more or less effective over time. Exploring the impact of decision maker reactance and value content resistance to change to isolate the effect and provide more detail on the interplay of values and system feedback. Finally, further research into the relationship between system designer, user and organization is an important next step in this stream of research.
Thesis
This research has spaced among different disciplines and academic areas, bringing together the many pieces of the Middle East’s geopolitical history. However, drawing a complete picture of some fifteen centuries of historical and political evolution is not an easy task. For the various chapters to be clear to the reader, the research did not follow the events’ chronological order, too much a burden for such a brief dissertation. Instead, it has been structured by megatrends, providing a summary of the geopolitical configurations that have succeeded each other from the fall of Rome to that of Constantinople. In doing so, elements of political thought, modern theories of International relations, and historical references have all participated in making a transversal, multidisciplinary analysis of the Middle East’s geography of power. Presenting a few elements of political geography, the research underlined the historical complementarity between phases of political unification and disintegration in the Middle East, of which the limited number of imperial heartlands has determined several shifts in the regional order. For obvious reasons, large sections and entire chapters of the research have directly analyzed the rise and fall of the region’s ancient and medieval great powers. In some way, this is also a history of the most important political entities dominating the Middle Eastern scenario. The Roman, Persian, Islamic, and Ottoman imperial systems have all given stability to the region, building their hegemony on the successful exploitation of the Middle Eastern geopolitical drivers. On the other hand, the decline of the Byzantine Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate have both determined patterns of political turmoil and geographical fragmentation in the region. This entire research would make little sense if we considered the two powers’ decline to be merely due to either endogenous or exogenous factors. Instead, this study argues that geography constitutes the missing ring of many great powers’ rise and fall, and that geographical changes often determine political changes, with subsequent phases of geopolitical transition. In the Middle East, the regularity of the rise of hegemonic players nearby potential imperial heartlands - such as the Iran\Iraq and Anatolia\Balkans formulas - proves the predictability of the regional actors’ behavior, suggesting their eventual path of decline.
Chapter
[Context and motivation] Creating a shared understanding of requirements between all parties involved about a future software system is difficult. Imprecise communication can lead to misunderstanding of requirements. Vision videos demonstrate and visualize the functionality, use and impact of a software system before the actual development process starts. They stimulate discussions about the software system and its associated requirements. [Question/problem] Vision videos should be produced with as little effort as possible, in terms of resources and time consumption, yet with sufficient quality. This raises the questions: Does the presentation of a vision video influence its perception by the audience? Do animated vision videos offer an alternative to real videos to communicate a vision? [Principal ideas/results] We conducted an experiment with 20 participants comparing animated and real videos showing the same content. The videos illustrate the population decrease in rural areas and envision a possible solution to counteract the consequences of grocery store closings. The participants suggested own solutions for the problem of grocery store closings, rated the videos and chose their preferred type of video representation. The results of the experiment show no difference in neither the amount of solutions proposed nor the rating of the videos. Likewise, the results show no difference in the preferred type of video representation. [Contribution] Our study indicates that animated vision videos offer an adequate alternative to real videos. Thus, vision video producers have another viable option to choose for achieving a shared understanding of a future software system.
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Multiple perspectives allow organizations to view phenomena in several different ways and, when applied to studies of organizations, different theoretical perspectives can allow decision makers to choose the most appropriate course of action from a range of alternatives, under a variety of situations (Hall, 2006; Hatch, 2006). Three theoretical perspectives dominate organization theory; however, for the purposes of this paper, two of the three perspectives – modernism (M) and symbolic-interpretivism (SI) – were applied to the study of a light- manufacturing firm that is identified as Light Manufacturing Firm (LMF). The two perspectives were defined and applied to three variables that contribute to organizational effectiveness: environment, social structure and culture. Additionally, the methodical differences between these two perspectives were discussed within the framework of organizational theory. Finally, a background of the company to which these perspectives were applied was provided.
Chapter
A complex system with human participation like “human-process” is characterized with active assistance of the human in the determination of its objective and in decision-taking during its development. The construction of a mathematically grounded model of such a system is faced with the problem of shortage of mathematically precise information that presents the human activity. A solution of this problem is to seek expression of different aspects of the complex system through description of the expert's preferences as an element of the system. The presentation of human preferences analytically with utility functions is an approach for their mathematical description. The objective of the chapter is to present an innovative approach to value-driven modeling of management based on preference-oriented decision making. A decision technology that realizes measurement of human's preferences as an analytic utility function is described. The utility theory and stochastic approximation are possible solutions for this problem that results in a value-based approach to modeling of complex systems.
Chapter
Rational approaches to decision-making are classified in one of the following categories: descriptive, normative, or prescriptive. The main normative models that are presented concern value functions, expected utility and subjective expected utility. Several alternative normative frameworks that have appeared in the literature of the last thirty years particularly for attacking the problem of conflicting objectives—the analytic hierarchical process, multi-criteria decision-making movement, outranking—are described. A Framework to align decision support-driven initiatives with the decision-making vision is given in the chapter. It divides the objective-oriented systems that determine the structure of decision-making domain from the strategic actions in this domain that have to determine the decision-making process. The latter serves as the basis for defining the main objectives, which have to be achieved in the development of Decision-Making Support Systems (DMSS). A classification scheme of the main categories of such systems is suggested. The development of DMSSs depends on the accepted implementation method, architectural representation of these systems, implementation approaches and used information, communication and computer technologies. They guarantee not only the capabilities of decision-making support systems, but its characteristics as well.
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Drawing upon the theories of complexity and complex adaptive systems and the Singerian inquiring system from C. West Churchman's seminal work The Design of Inquiring Systems , the study herein develops a systems design theory for continuous auditing systems. The discussion focuses on the two foundational theories, development of the theory of Complex Adaptive Inquiring Organizations (CAIO) and associated design principles for a continuous auditing system supporting a CAIO, and instantiation of the CAIO theory. The instantiation consists of an agent-based model depicting the marketplace for Frontier Airlines that generates an anticipated market share used as an integral component in a mock auditor going concern opinion for the airline. As a whole, the study addresses the lack of an underlying system design theory and comprehensive view needed to build upon and advance the continuous assurance movement and addresses the question of how continuous auditing systems should be designed to produce knowledge – knowledge that benefits auditors, clients, and society as a whole.
Article
Self-efficacy is the assessment of one’s capacity to perform tasks. Previous research has demonstrated that self-efficacy impacts ethical behavior and attitudes but its effect on ethical cognition and perceptions has not been studied. For the present study, participants analyzed an ethical dilemma after either high or low self-efficacy was induced. Participants analyzed the dilemma using one of two cognitive problem-solving techniques (a structured cognitive tool or an unstructured cognitive technique) versus a third, control group, and what participants wrote about the problem was content-analyzed to determine how ethical cognition is impacted by self-efficacy. Additionally, perceptions of the ethical problem were examined. Results revealed that differences in self-efficacy did not lead to changes in ethical cognition, but they did lead to changes in perceptions of ethical problems. Implications of these findings are discussed.
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[Context & Motivation] Agile Requirements Engineering (ARE) is a collaborative, team-based process based on frequent elicitation, elaboration, estimation and prioritization of the user requirements, typically represented as user stories. While it is claimed that this Agile approach and the associated RE activities are effective, there is sparse empirical evidence and limited theoretical foundation to explain this efficacy. [Question/problem] We aim to understand and explain aspects of the ARE process by focusing on a cognitive perspective. We appropriate ideas and techniques from Distributed Cognition (DC) theory to analyze the cognitive roles of people, artefacts and the physical work environment in a successful collaborative ARE activity, namely requirement prioritization. [Principal idea/results] This paper presents a field study of two early requirements related meetings in an Agile product development project. Observation data, field notes and transcripts were collected and qualitatively analyzed. We have used DiCoT, a framework for systematically applying DC as a methodological contribution, to analyze the ARE process and explain its efficacy from a cognitive perspective. The analysis identified three main areas of cognitive effort in the ARE process as well as the significant information flows and artefacts. Analysis of these have identified that the use of physical user story cards, specific facilitator skills, and development of shared understanding of the user stories, were all key to the effectiveness of the ARE activity observed. [Contribution] The deeper understanding of cognition involved in ARE provides an empirically evidenced explanation, based on DC theory, of why this way of collaboratively prioritizing requirements was effective. Our result provides a basis for designing other ARE activities.
Article
This paper presents a multiple perspectives approach that can help to improve the understanding of knowledge flows in changing collaborative environments. It differs from majority of current modelling methods use analytical or reductionist approach. Our approach is adaptive in that it introduces ways to look at change from different perspectives to help identify changes in complex organisation and provides an effective solution to addressing wicked organisational problems. Our case study focused on the Australian Government's Nation Building Economic Stimulus Plan (NBESP) which involved three government agencies working together in a complex collaborative setting. In this paper we focus on organisational, social and business perspectives in addition to the knowledge perspective. Furthermore, we show that a multiple perspectives framework could play a significant role in solving wicked problems, and enabled organisations to respond to a rapidly changing environment. © (2013) by the AIS/ICIS Administrative Office All rights reserved.
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Despite many advances in the field of hydroinformatics, the policy and decision-making world is unable to use these highly technical decision support systems (DSSs) because there has been an undue emphasis on the technological aspects. The historical analysis of hydroinformatics concepts and modelling shows that the technical aspects have been incorporated far better than the social aspects. Hence, there have been calls for the development of 'socio-technical' DSSs. However, far greater effort is required to in-corporate social and political sciences into the domain of DSSs. The goal of this chapter is to elaborate on the illusive interface between science and water policy within the context of DSSs. It is an attempt to address one main question: how to link or find an interface between policy (institutional matters) and science (technical and natural environment aspects). To achieve this goal, a new paradigm for the DSS modelling approach has been envisaged based on combining multiple theoretical and analytical frameworks into a single methodological framework to attain a linkage between science and policy-making. The integrated methodological framework comprises of: (1) two 'conceptual' frameworks: (a) decision-making perspectives and (b) IWRM interface frameworks; (2) analytical frameworks: (a) DPSIR socio-technical assessment and (b) institutional analysis (IA) frameworks; (3) core engine of the DSS consisting of coupled decision support tools (DST) such as process, planning and evaluation models; and (4) a stakeholder participation interface framework consisting of (a(a multi-windowed dynamic cyber stakeholder interface (MDCSI) system and (b) DSS performance assessment (uncertainty and risk analysis) tools, within a shell of a graphical user interface (GUI). From experience, it can be concluded that DSSs are not just about software packages but they are a participatory communication platform for an interactive multi-stakeholder decision-making process. The required science-policy interface can be achieved by using a unique analytical approach in which technical, policy and institutional frameworks are combined within a DSS platform with an output framework, the MDCSI system, that facilitate policy dialogue by having a dynamic and interactive policy interface which can be linked to other technical and non-technical systems. DSSs should be integrated with institutional and socio-political frameworks to help attain both financial and institutional sustainability.
Article
In the era of economic liberalisation, institutions of higher education in the government sector, particularly universities, are facing tremendous challenges in terms of academic, general, and financial administration, which need effective governance. Recently, some of the universities are trying to adopt e-governance as a platform for such a purpose. However, the design of such a system is very much important, as it has to cater to the needs of various stakeholders in the public system. In this context, the effectiveness measurement of such an e-governance system is really necessary either to improve its performance level by re-aligning its organisational culture or by providing inputs for re-designing the system in order to make it more effective. Hence, the performance of such a system can be known if a human-centric approach with multiple criteria of evaluation is considered in the governance environment. This chapter attempts to determine those criteria by multiple factor analyses carried out for the purpose of considering multiple stakeholders. Analytic hierarchical processes as well as fuzzy analytic hierarchical processes have been then employed to measure the effectiveness of e-governance systems along those criteria, taking an Indian university as a case study.
Chapter
This chapter conceptualizes an inclusive framework for decision-making in the selection of synchronous or asynchronous technologies to enhance engagement in online learning. Technologies are discussed in light of their utilization and value for course and curriculum design and development in online environments, with the considerations of providing sustained support, and optimizing technology and teaching efficacy. The content presented in the chapter will benefit those who develop and support synchronous and asynchronous learning environments to address challenges when transferring courses to online or hybrid modes.
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Although traditional behavioral decision theory as applied to negotiation sheds light on some of the barriers encountered in negotiations, it does not fully account for many of the difficulties and failures to reach settlement in ideologically based disputes. In this article we identify a number of factors that differentiate ideologically based negotiations from other types of negotiations and advance a perspective that takes into account the value-laden and institutional contexts in which they occur. We illustrate our ideas by applying them to the organizationally relevant example of environmental disputes.
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Supplier perspective taking, whereby an internal customer adopts the perspective of an internal supplier, was investigated. Two dimensions were assessed: positive attributions and empathy. Supplier perspective taking was associated with team leader ratings of employees' contextual performance. Production ownership and integrated understanding predicted supplier perspective taking and were in turn predicted by job autonomy. Interaction with suppliers contributed to supplier perspective taking directly and indirectly. These findings suggest two ways to enhance supplier perspective taking and hence contextual performance: increase employee interaction with suppliers and enrich job content.
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This paper develops Weick's (1979) notion of "complicated" understanding by linking it with concepts of complementarity, cognitive complexity, and adult development. The paper describes a rationale for, and design elements of, management education programs aimed at increasing complicated understanding in administrators, primarily by fostering differentiation and integration of perspectives on organizational problems. It suggests several outcomes of complicated understanding and indicates ways in which these outcomes, as well as programs aimed at producing them, can be assessed.
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This paper examines the development of norms in newly formed groups. The behavior of 19 decision-making groups provided the basis for a model of norm development, in which uncertainty over appropriate behavior leads members to use their past experiences in similar social settings as scripts for choosing behaviors in the current situation. Depending on the similarity of the members' scripts, a common basis for action is either taken for granted or negotiated within the group. As the members interact they either tacitly revise their beliefs about appropriate action, implicitly agreeing with the direction being taken by the group, or overtly attempt to pull the group toward their own interpretation through challenges to the implied norm. Data from the decision-making groups is used to illustrate the model, and implications for related research domains are discussed.
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Knowledge-intensive firms are composed of multiple communities with specialized expertise, and are often characterized by lateral rather than hierarchical organizational forms. We argue that producing knowledge to create innovative products and processes in such firms requires the ability to make strong perspectives within a community, as well as the ability to take the perspective of another into account. We present models of language, communication and cognition that can assist in the design of electronic communication systems for perspective making and perspective taking. By appreciating how communication is both like a language game played in a local community and also like a transmission of messages through a conduit, and by appreciating how cognition includes a capacity to narrativize our experience as well as a capacity to process information, we identify some guidelines for designing electronic communication systems to support knowledge work. The communication systems we propose emphasize that narratives can help construct strong perspectives within a community of knowing, and that reflecting upon and representing that perspective can create boundary objects which allow for perspective taking between communities. We conclude by describing our vision of an idealized knowledge intensive firm with a strong culture of perspective making and perspective taking, and by identifying some elements of the electronic communication systems we would expect to see in such a firm.
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A sample of 203 intellectually gifted adolescents (top 1%) were administered the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey (1970) Study of Values (SOV) at age 13; 20 years later, they were administered the SOV again. In this study, researchers evaluated the intra- and interindividual temporal stability of the 6 SOV themes, namely, Theoretical (T), Economic (E), Political (P), Aesthetic (A), Social (S), and Religious (R). Over the 20-year test-retest interval, the SOV's mean and median interindividual correlations for the 6 themes were .37 and .34, respectively. Correspondingly, the mean and median of all 203 intraindividual correlations were .30 and .39. Configural analyses of the most dominant theme at age 13 revealed that this theme was significantly more likely than chance to be dominant or adjacent to the dominant theme at age 33. Adjacency was ascertained through a number of empirically based auxiliary analyses of the SOV, revealing 2 robust gender-differentiating clusters: T-E-P for males and A-S-R for females. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reflective problem solving activity presumes the existence of a problem definition or representation, often the precursor of a formal model. Although problem definition has been addressed by theorists from several disciplines, it has not been adequately conceptualized, limiting the potential value of descriptive and prescriptive research. This article places problem definition in the overall problem solving process and delineates the various ways in which problems are commonly defined. It identifies the central dilemma of problem definition and proposes a prescriptive framework responding to that dilemma.
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It is commonly believed that the user's cognitive style should be considered in the design of Management Information Systems and Decision Support Systems. In contrast, an examination of the literature and a consideration of some of the broader issues involved in MIS and DSS design lead to the conclusions that: (1) the currently available literature on cognitive style is an unsatisfactory basis for deriving operational design guidelines, and (2) further cognitive style research is unlikely to provide a satisfactory body of knowledge from which to derive such guidelines. The article presents six specific bases for these two conclusions. From a manager's pespective, the outcome of the study is a suggestion: maintain a healthy skepticism if it is suggested that paper and pencil assessments of the user's cognitive style should be used as a basis for MIS or DSS designs. From a researcher's viewpoint, the study raises two questions: (1) If our research interest is MIS and DSS design, does it seem that further research in cognitive style is a wise allocation of our research resources? (2) If our research interest is cognitive style, does it seem that the use of cognitive style as a basis for MIS and DSS designs will become an important application area?
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An information system consists of, at least, a PERSON of a certain PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPE who faces a PROBLEM within some ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT for which he needs EVIDENCE to arrive at a solution, where the evidence is made available through some MODE OF PRESENTATION. This defines the key variables comprising a Management Information System (MIS). It is argued that most research and development to date on MIS has assumed only one underlying psychological type, one class of problem types, one or two methods of generating evidence, and, finally, one mode of presentation. Other states are suggested for all these key variables. The result is the outline of a systematic research program on MIS.
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Some forty years after its initial publication, the Allport–Vernon–Lindzey Study of Values (SOV) was the third most cited non-projective measure of personality in the field of psychology. However, by the early 1980s the measure had fallen into disuse, in large part—we argue—due to its increasingly archaic content, lack of religious inclusiveness, and dated language. We describe the development of an updated version of the SOV that incorporates modifications to 15 out of the 45 original items. One hundred and seventy-nine students completed both the original and updated versions (counter-balanced for order). Psychometric properties of the updated and original scales were comparable and acceptable. Rationales for use of the updated version in research and practice are advanced.
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Previous research shows that groupware improves the exchange of information within groups. However, the additional information does not often lead to better group decisions, probably because individuals fail to process the new information they receive. This study explored the use of groupware processes that required individuals in groups to categorize information, in order to induce group members to better attend to the new information received from others and to integrate it into their own individual decision-making processes. Different groupware processes had different effects on attention to and integration of information, and ultimately on decision quality. Groupware processes that provided categories to organize information and groupware processes that required the receiver of information to categorize information increased attention to information and integration of information, which led to improved individual decision quality.
Article
Making good decisions is a key to the success of every industrial engineer. To make good decisions, an engineer should start by sharpening his objectives and delving into alternatives. This report details the elements of decision-making. These elements are easy to use and require no special training. Taking a close look at these elements will not only contribute to a more complete set of objectives and a more inspired set of alternatives, but will also enhance the necessary acceptance of the process.
Article
The concept of a "script" is presented as a framework for understanding the cognitive dynamics underlying many organizational behaviors and actions. A script is a schematic knowledge structure held in memory that specifies behavior or event sequences that are appropriate for specific situations. "Script processing" is the performance of the behaviors or events contained in the knowledge structure. Many facets of organizational behavior can be effectively described, analyzed, and understood by using the script concept and processing notion.
Article
The dominant values of the business system—economizing and power-aggrandizing—are manifestations of natural evolutionary forces to which sociocultural meaning has been assigned. Economizing tends to slow life-negating entropic processes, while power-aggrandizement enhances them. Both economizing and power-aggrandizing work against a third (non-business) value cluster— ecologizing—which sustains community integrity. The contradictory tensions and conflicts generated among these three value clusters define the central normative issues posed by business operations. While both economizing and ecologizing are antientropic and therefore life-supporting, power augmentation, which negates the other two value clusters, is pro-entropic and therefore life-defeating. Business ethicists, by focusing on the contradictions between personal values, on the one hand, and both economizing and power-aggrandizing, on the other hand, have tended to overlook the normative significance of nature-based value systems. Learning to reconcile economizing and ecologizing values is the most important theoretical task for business ethicists.
Article
The goal of this article is to help managers, students, and scholars contend with moral business problems by urging efforts to develop an adequate "managerial moral strategy." Integrative social contract theory (ISCT) is arguably the most promising candidate available, but a critical analysis reveals a shortcoming' it lacks sufficient moral content. Alleviating this weakness requires the formulation of the moral principles applicable to management. Doing so will elevate the usefulness and the influence of ISCT and the business ethics enterprise generally.
Article
In this article I address the lack of integration of normative and descriptive approaches to business and society and the problems posed for coherent theory development. I reformulate corporate social performance topics according to a research strategy aimed at moving inquiry beyond problems of integration. I then demonstrate the potential for a normative-descriptive unification and follow this with implications for future research.
Article
Much social behavior is predicated upon assumptions an actor makes about the knowledge, beliefs and motives of others. To note just a few examples, coordinated behavior of the kind found in bargaining and similar structured interactions (Dawes, McTavish, & Shaklee, 1977; Schelling, 1960) requires that participants plan their own moves in anticipation of what their partners' moves are likely to be; predicting another's moves requires extensive assumptions about what the other knows, wants, and believes. Similarly, social comparison theory (Festinger, 1950; Festinger, 1954; Woods, 1988) postulates that people evaluate their own abilities and beliefs by comparing them with the abilities and beliefs of others -- typically with abilities and beliefs that are normative for relevant categories of others. In order to make such comparisons, the individual must know (or think he or she knows) how these abilities and beliefs are distributed in those populations. Reference group theory (Merton & Kitt, 1950) incorporates a similar set of assumptions. In communication, the fundamental role of knowing what others know 1 is
Article
This study examined differences in the values patterns of business students from Anglo-American and Far Eastern country clusters using Allport et al.'s (1970) Study of Values. Differences were noted on five of the six attitudes; Theoretical, Economic, Political, Social, and Religious. Next, using multiple comparison method the value patterns of newly arrived Far Eastern students and Far Eastern students who had spent considerable time in the U.S. were compared for changes in value patterns that may be attributable to their stay and study in the United States. Differences were found in terms of five of the six evaluative attitudes between the two groups. Value pattern of Far Eastern students who had lived and studied in the U.S. for a considerable period of time was also compared with that of Anglo-American students to examine the degree of convergence in their value systems. Findings of this study suggest that as a result of frequent and sustained cross-cultural contacts in another cultural environment, the value profile of individuals tend to get modified, so as to include the values preferred and desired in the new social environment.
Article
In this study, we analyze the relative efficacy of normative and ipsative measures for the study of intra- and interindividual differences in child ability. With the use of representative data sets, including the WISC-R national standardization sample, purely ipsatized (or deviational ipsative) subtest scores were contrasted with conventional norm-based scores in terms of the evidential and consequential bases for validity. Internal and external evidence for validity was assessed for relative convergence of ability attributes, short- and long-term stability, and predictive efficiency. Comparative utility of each type of measure was explored for theoretical relevance, applicability in measurement work, and assessment of individualized intervention outcomes. Ipsative ability measures were found to be uniformly inferior to their normative counterparts, with ipsative measures conveying no uniquely useful information and otherwise impeding the versatility of assessment.
Article
Using meta-analytic procedures, this article quantitatively integrated the results of 31 experimental studies on the effects of Group Support System (GSS) use. A total of eight dependent variables representing performance, satisfaction, consensus, and equality of participation were investigated. The use of GSSs was found to have positive main effects on decision quality, number of alternatives generated, and equality of participation, but negative main effects in terms of time to reach decision, consensus, and satisfaction. Further analysis showed the effects to be moderated by task, group, context, and technology variables. For example, larger groups achieved betterperformance and greater satisfaction from the use of GSS than smaller groups. Groups with a formal hierarchy using GSS did worse in terms of both performance and satisfaction compared to groups without formal hierarchy. Also, the level of GSS support emerged as influential on almost all dependent variables. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for organizational use of GSS, design issues of GSS, andfuture research directions.
Article
The values of managers and employees in organizations are phenomena that have captured the interest of researchers, practitioners, social critics, and the public at large. Despite this attention, there continues to be a conspicuous lack of agreement on what values are and how they influence individuals. In this article we discuss how values have been defined and conceptualized. Focusing on values as desirable modes of behavior, we describe how they affect individuals in organizations and discuss some of the salient controversies that characterize contemporary research on values. Finally, we report on a comprehensive review of the most recent literature in this area.
Article
A cumulative body of experimental research is emerging that examines the ability of computer technology to support the processes and outcomes of small group meetings. For the most part the group decision support system effort has been concerned with demonstrating the usefulness of the technology in planning and decision-making situations where the quality of the meeting's outcomes can be objectively assessed. In many decision situations, however, there is no objective measure of decision quality available. Rather, the group must reconcile differences in opinion, personal preference, or judgments and achieve consensus about a particular mode of action. As a contribution to the accumulating research on GDSS, the current study examine the eff4ects of a GDSS in resolving conflicts of personal preference. In a task requiring resolution of competing personal preferences, 82 groups - the largest sample size in the GDSS literature to date - were randomly assigned to one of three experiment conditions: (1) a computer-based support system (GDSS); (2) a manual, paper and pencil, support system; or (3) no support whatsoever. Groups were either of size 3 or 4 persons. Use of the GDSS was expected to facilitate democratic participation in group discussion move group members toward agreement with one another, and result in a high level of satisfaction with the group decision process. While several of the intended effects of the technology were observe, the groups experienced some unintended consequences as a result of using the GDSS. In general, the GDSS technology appeared to offer some advantages over no support, but little advantage over the pencil and paper method of supporting group discussion.
Article
Because of today's increasingly complex business environment, decision makers in business need to use a process that takes into account and balances various forces--economic goals, personal values, and explicit values of the corporation. A process model provides a systematic method for ethical decision making. (Author/JOW)
Article
A conceptual system is a schema that provides the basis by which the individual relates to the environmental events he experiences. 4 conceptual systems and 3 transitional levels connecting them constitute the theoretical position in terms of which the authors classify variations in personality organization and psychopathology. Between-system and within-system analyses explore the increasing abstractness of subject-object linkages. Effects of arresting development along the concrete-abstract continuum of the systems are described. (351-item bibliogr.) From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4HJ75H. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
(see 27: 7472) A measure of the relative prominence of 6 basic interests or motives in personality. Test items are unchanged from the 1951 revision but the score sheet and norms are improved. The manual presents split-half and repeat reliability coefficients and value intercorrelations. Norms are given for the sexes, for several collegiate populations, and for numerous occupational groups. ([3rd ed.] Group, college level adults, 1 form, untimed, 20 min. Specimen set [$.60]) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Of the numerous factors believed to influence MIS success, the area of individual differences has by far been the most extensively studied. This paper synthesizes the findings of empirical investigations of the manner in which individual differences impact MIS success. Suggestions are made regarding those aspects which would benefit most from future research.
Article
Peer reporting is a specific form of whistelblowing in which an individual discloses the wrongdoing of a peer. Previous studies have examined situational variables thought to influence a person's decision to report the wrongdoing of a peer. The present study looked at peer reporting from the individual level. Five hypotheses were developed concerning the relationships between (1) religiosity and ethical ideology, (2) ethical ideology and ethical judgments about peer reporting, and (3) ethical judgments and intentions to report peer wrongdoing. Subjects read a vignette concerning academic cheating, and were asked to respond to a question-naire concerning the vignette. Data were analyzed using structural equation methodology. Results indicated that religiosity was positively associated with an ethical ideology of non-relativism. Individuals whose ethical ideologies could be described as idealistic and non-relativistic were more likely to state that reporting a peer's cheating was ethical. In turn, individuals who believed reporting a peer's cheating was ethical were more likely to say that they would report a peer's cheating.
Article
The structure and composition of profile types most representative of the 2,200 children (6 years 0 months to 16 years 11 months) comprising the normative sample for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Third Edition (WISC-III) are identified. Profiles from the 10 mandatory WISC-III subtests are sorted according to similar shape and level using multistage cluster analysis with independent replications. The final solution of eight most common (or core) profile types fulfills all formal heuristic and statistical criteria, including complete coverage, satisfactory within-type homogeneity, between-type dissimilarity, and replicability. Profile types are described according to population prevalence, ability level, subtest configuration; and each type is examined for membership trends by child demography, family characteristics, and unusual IQ discrepancies. Two methods are given for determining the relative uniqueness of WISC-III profile patterns in future research and clinical work. The article concludes with a case example using the method recommended for “everyday” decision making.
Article
This paper proposes a framework for a decision support system (DSS) based on critique and argumentation. We make a distinction between positive and negative types of critique and argue that both of them are valuable in making substantiated decisions. We further propose use of debate and argumentation as means for more informative decision support. We discuss the types of knowledge used for critiquing and the appropriate form of knowledge representation. The architecture of the proposed DSS contains intelligent critiquing agents which provide the user with the qualitative feedback on candidate decisions.
Article
Traditional organizational and support structures no longer function efficiently in the face of increasingly complex problem domains because these structures are generally not conceived from the social perspective, requiring development of new organizational structures and support systems. These structures must be able to support traditional decision-making in an increasingly complicated social domain. This paper defines the concept of an inquiring organization and conceptualizes a learning-oriented knowledge management system (LOKMS) for that type of organization. The role of the learning-oriented knowledge management system for inquiring organizations, which includes decision-making and learning process support, is discussed.
Article
The boundary between well structured and ill structured problems is vague, fluid and not susceptible to formalization. Any problem solving process will appear ill structured if the problem solver is a serial machine that has access to a very large long-term memory of potentially relevant information, and/or access to a very large external memory that provides information about the actual real-world consequences of problem-solving actions. There is no reason to suppose that new and hitherto unknown concepts or techniques are needed to enable artificial intelligence systems to operate successfully in domains that have these characteristics.
Article
In this paper we analyze the empirical findings on the impacts of technological support on group. We define and differentiate two broad technological support systems for group processes: Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS), and Group Communication Support Systems (GCSS). We then present a framework and method for analyzing the impacts of such information systems on groups. We develop the framework from the literature of organization behavior and group psychology and apply it to literature of MIS. We then review the empirical research and findings concerned with the impacts of GDSS and GCSS on groups, and we compare and contrast these findings. Finally, we conclude by discussing the implications of our analysis on the focus of attention and design of future research. Five Major implications stem from our analysis: (1) there is lack of research on some important “formal” factors of groups, (2) there is a paucity of research on the impacts of GDSS and GCSS on the informal dimension of groups, (3) there is a need to move away from laboratory settings to field study in organization settings, with “real” manager, (4) more research is needed on stages of group development and on how they affect the impacts of GDSS and GCSS on groups, and (5) more research is needed to understand how the structure imposed by the technological supports affect group processes.
Article
Organizations today face complex decision-making environments in which multiple perspectives must be considered. Mitroff and Linstone [The Unbounded Mind: Breaking the Chains of Traditional Business Thinking (1993) Oxford University Press, New York] developed Unbounded Systems Thinking (UST), of which multiple perspectives are an integral part. They suggest that, while the theory of applying multiple perspectives to decision-making and knowledge creation is sound and well researched, the implementation of multiple perspectives is difficult. It is maintained here that agent-oriented modeling can be used to design a system supporting multiple perspectives and to extend UST. This paper applies the Belief–Desire–Intention (BDI) model of agents to UST to demonstrate the use of agent-oriented modeling to facilitate multiple perspective decision support.
Article
Managerial intuition is a well-recognized cognitive ability but still poorly understood for the purpose of developing effective Executive Support Systems (ESS). This paper reviews research on cognition involved in intuition. The review shows that, in everyday decision making, executives are not passive choice makers but are active sensemakers who rely on perception, action, and imaginistic reasoning to arrive at solutions to problems. The combination of these cognitive resources appears to be seamless. Furthermore, the knowledge needed for problem solving is distributed between the manager's mind and the surrounding world. As a result, managers' intuition can be effective in handling dynamic, ill-structured problem situations. To develop an ESS that fits this perception–action ecology of the manager's life in a hectic world, we must go beyond the emphasis of the tasks' functionalities. The author proposes an ecological model of managerial intuition and recommends methodologies that focus the analysis on the interplay between the manager and their environment. He also suggests guidelines to improve the ESS development such that the powerful intuition of managers and the analytic capability of the computer may be combined.
Conference Paper
Knowledge management is quickly becoming a requirement for today’s complex organizations. Creating and managing existing knowledge has been linked to successful innovation and to sustainable competitive advantage. However, systems specifically designed to manage knowledge, support knowledge creation, and verify existing knowledge are in their infancy. This article follows the framework for a Learning-Oriented Knowledge Management System, and shows how such a complex system can be supported by an equally complex technology – that is, a multi-agent system. We define single agents and multi-agent systems and subsystems in the context of knowledge management systems in general, and the Learning-Oriented Knowledge Management System (LOKMS) specifically. We show how a multi-agent system can be conceived to fully support the LOKMS, describe some necessary agents and agent subsystems, and demonstrate prototypically a multi-agent system designed and built to support the integrity-checking component of the LOKMS. This system begins the process of LOKMS design and development.
Article
The interpretive perspective of organizational learning emphasizes the underlying purpose and meaning of an organization's environment. It involves the development of individual environmental interpretations and the development of a shared understanding of the environment. Understanding and supporting the interpretive organizational learning process is becoming increasingly important for the survival of today's organizations. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize information for researchers interested in interpretive organizational learning by (1) presenting a conceptual model of interpretive organizational learning and (2) providing definitions and examples of constructs that are fundamental to understanding the interpretation process. The paper then identifies key steps and components in measuring interpretive organizational learning. Database design requirements, including support for maintenance, querying, and temporal tracing of individual and group interpretations, are also presented.