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Abstract

The effects of açai pulp addition and different probiotic bacteria on the fatty acid profile of stirred yoghurt were examined. Skim milk was divided into two groups: one containing açai pulp and another without the fruit. Batches were inoculated with yoghurt starter culture and divided into five groups according to probiotic addition. Counts of viable microorganisms were measured at days 1, 14 and 28 of cold storage. Fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography at day 1. Açai pulp favoured an increase in Lactobacillus acidophilus L10, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bl04 and Bifidobacterium longum Bl05 counts at the end of 4 weeks of cold storage. This study demonstrated that açai pulp addition increased monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in probiotic yoghurt and enhanced the production of α-linolenic and conjugated linoleic acids during fermentation of skim milk prepared with B. animalis ssp. lactis Bl04 and B94 strains.

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... Pasteurized whole milk (3.25%), purchased from a local market, was heated at 85C for 15 minutes, cooled down to 42C in a water bath and transferred into 50 mL-sterile test tubes. The starter cultures, probiotics, and 4% WB were added and incubated at 42C until the yogurt reached ~ pH 5.0 (Santo et al., 2010). All treatments were done in triplicates. ...
... All tubes were incubated at 42º C for fermentation and pH was measured after 4 h and 1 h thereafter. When the pH reached approximately 5, all tubes transferred were stored at 4 º C (Santo, et al., 2010). On days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28, total microbial counts were carried in triplicate for each batch at different dilutions; four serial dilutions of 1 to 10. ...
... On days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28, total microbial counts were carried in triplicate for each batch at different dilutions; four serial dilutions of 1 to 10. An aliquot (5 μL) from each dilution was plated on MRS agar dishes using a spread plate method and incubated at 37°C for 24 h (Santo, et al., 2010). ...
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Article
The potential of wheat bran (WB) addition as a prebiotic source were demonstrated using yogurt with probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis). Yogurts (with 4% WB) were significantly (P < 0.05) different in total bacterial counts (9.1 log CFU/mL), and total titratable acidity % (TTA, 1.4%) compared to controls during 28 days cold storage (4°C). Additionally, WB-total dietary fiber contents and their bound phenolic profiles were investigated as well as the antioxidant activity of WB-water extractable polysaccharides (WEP) was studied. HPLC analysis of alkaline hydrolyzed DF fractions showed that insoluble DF had higher phenolic acids (84.2%) content than soluble DF (15.8%). Also, crude-WEP showed stronger antioxidant activity compared to purified-WEP with an ORAC of 71.88 and 52.48 µmol TE/g, respectively. Here we demonstrate WB has potentials as a source of prebiotics, which may have the potentials for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.
... Homogenized (3.25%) milk (commercial source in Ottawa, ON) was heated until the temperature reached 85 C for 15 minutes. Then, the pasteurized milk was cooled in a water bath and kept at 42 C (Espírito Santo et al., 2010). Twelve different yogurt treatments were prepared; 4 with raspberry, 4 with strawberry and 4 without berry (control) as shown in Table 1. ...
... Viable bacteria counts were performed on day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 in triplicate by following the study of Espírito Santo et al. (2010). Serial dilutions (10 -1 to 10 -5 ) were made for each yogurt treatment using a 1: 9 ratio. ...
... Both pH and TTA values of each yogurt treatment (Table 1) was measured on day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 according to the method by Espírito Santo et al. (2010). The pH was measured using the Denver Instrument UB-5 pH meter. ...
Article
This study aimed to i) investigate probiotic potentials of raspberry and strawberry addition in yogurts, ii) explore antioxidant activity of berries extracted by microwave using oxygen radical absorbance (ORAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH) as well as iii) determine the total phenolic content (TPC) of the berries. The probiotic potentials of those berry additions into yogurts containing different probiotics were determined by subsequent viable microorganism counts in each yogurt trial using selective media, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) during 28 days of cold storage at 4ºC. Viable microbial counts in yogurt trials containing probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and raspberry increased (P<0.05) for 21 consecutive days of cold storage. The pH levels decreased (P<0.05) as the TTA increased over 28 days of cold storage in all yogurts containing the berries. ORAC results showed that raspberry had higher antioxidant activity (505.72 µmol TE/100g of fruit) than strawberry (495 µmol TE/100g of fruit). Also, DPPH scavenging activity results showed that raspberry (86.11%) had higher antioxidant activity than strawberry (85.69%). There was not a significant (P<0.05) difference in TPC values of raspberry (0.20 g GAE/kg) and strawberry (0.18 g GAE/kg). This study suggests that both berries have potential as a source of prebiotics with antioxidant activity for future functional foods and nutraceutical applications.
... Prebiotics are food ingredient that offered several beneficial effects for health, namely enhanced bioavailability of mineral, stimulated activity and growth of profitable live microorganisms in the colon and interfering with pathogen microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract of host (Aryana and McGrew 2007). Numerous researches have been published on the enrichment of probiotic yoghurt with various stimulating supplements identified as 'prebiotic' which enhance the probiotic growth and survival (do Espírito Santo et al. 2010. The desired growth and activity of lactic acid bacteria with cereals bring to mind that incorporation of probiotics with cereal substrates under controlled conditions in various foods. ...
... Surprisingly, IWG yoghurts containing L431 and L20079 seemed a significantly higher pH (p \ 0.05) compared with their respective controls without IWG (Table 1). However, such a scenario was reported by do Espírito Santo et al. (2010) about probiotic yoghurts fermented with açai pulp for detecting their prebiotic effects. Likewise, according to a study of do Espírito Santo et al. (2012) who assessed effect of the passion fruit peel powder on probiotic bacteria, this behavior collaborated with their findings. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of immature wheat grain (IWG) on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (LNCFM), Lactobacillus casei 431 (L431) and Lactobacillus acidophilus 20079 (L20079) in yoghurts under cold storage. Furthermore, the impact of IWG on physicochemical, textural and antioxidative properties of yoghurts was evaluated. Fortification of yoghurt with IWG positively affected LNCFM and L20079 counts during cold storage whereas no statistical improvement was observed in the viability of L431. The addition of IWG clearly supported the antioxidative activity and total phenolic content in yoghurt. No statistical differences were discovered regarding syneresis and water holding capacity in all probiotic applications. Although, enrichment with IWG enhanced the firmness of probiotic yoghurts, it simultaneously reduced the cohesiveness and viscosity index. This study demonstrated that IWG may be used as a food additive for enhancing probiotic LNCFM and L20079 survival and providing functional aspects in yoghurt.
... The freeze-dried starter kefir culture kefir type B-heterofermentative culture-without production of CO 2 containing Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactoccocus lactis subspecies lactis and cremosis and Leuconostoc cremosis (Abiasa Inc., Saint Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada) was used in this study. The culture was diluted in pasteurized, homogenized (3.25% fat) milk purchased locally from a commercial source (Ottawa, ON, Canada), stirred at 85 C for 15 min, portioned into sterile conical tubes (50 ml), and cooled to 42 C (Espírito Santo et al., 2010). Seven treatments were prepared containing three faba bean (whole, cotyledon and hull), and chickpea flours (1.5 g; 3%, w/v), chickpea mucilage, inulin (10 ml added to 40 ml milk) and the control without any additives. ...
... pH, TTA, bacterial enumerations were monitored once a week for a total of 4 weeks (1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days) in triplicate for each batch at different dilutions (four serial dilutions of 1/10). From each dilution, a 100 ml aliquot was plated on MRS agar (Sigma-Aldrich Canada Ltd., Oakville, ON, Canada) as described previously (Espírito Santo et al., 2010), incubated (37 C, 24 h), and colony counts converted to log cfu/ml. ...
Article
Changes in kefir storage (4 °C, 28 days) were evaluated every week in response to pulse (whole faba bean [Vicia faba L. minor] and its dehulled fractions – hulls and cotyledon; whole chickpea [Cicer arietinum L.)] and its crude mucilage) supplementation. Each supplement offered different profile of microbial count that was optimal at 14 days refrigerated storage. Bacterial growth was insignificant for faba bean hull (8.26–8.45 UFC/ml) and cotyledon (8.54–8.51UFC/ml) supplemented kefirs between 7 and 21 days storage. Titratable acidity (TTA) of kefirs decreased for the first week then increased with storage time at different rates for each supplement. Kefir pH decreased linearly with storage time differing significantly among samples after 14 days storage. Inulin and other supplementations improved lactate production and increased proteolytic activity with fermentation time. Antioxidant activity of kefir depended solely on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the supplements independent of storage time. The high antioxidant activity of the faba bean hull (13.03 μmol trolox eq/g kefir) supplemented kefir probably reflects its high phenolic content (57.53 mg gallic acid/g sample). Moreover, pulse supplements were superior to commercial inulin in maintaining kefir stability during refrigerated storage.
... Pasteurized, homogenized (3.25% fat) milk (commercial source in Ottawa, ON) was stirred at 85 C for 15 min, portioned into sterile conical tubes (50 mL), and cooled to 42 C (Espírito Santo et al., 2010). Concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, 1.8, 2.0, and 3.0 g of lentils (0e6%, w/v) were added to test tubes containing pasteurized milk and starter cultures, to determine the maximum amount of whole ground lentils that could be added to milk without disrupting fermentation. ...
... was complete, yogurt samples were stored at 4 C, and bacterial enumerations were carried out once a week for a total of 4 weeks. Samples were plated in triplicate on MRS agar (SigmaeAldrich Canada Ltd., Oakville, Ontario) following serial dilution as described previously (Espírito Santo et al., 2010) and colony counts were converted to log CFU/mL. ...
... In addition, açai has attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical market in recent decades, for presenting several bioactive properties, such as antioxidants, analgesics, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects (Costa et al., 2018;Borges et al., 2021;Barbosa & Carvalho Junior, 2022). In the research by Santo et al. (2010) açai pulp was added to milk used in yogurt production to assess the fatty acid profile and viability of probiotic bacteria. The authors observed that the açai yoghurts had a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and that the addition of açai favored the increase in Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. ...
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The search for the development of new dairy products has been growing in recent years. Petit Suisse is a cheese that has been standing out in Brazil, reaching expansion in the market. The cheese added by fruits, such as açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), enhances the energy and nutritional value of the product. Its texture is an important feature, influencing the acquisition by the public. Thus, the objective was to develop and analyze the texture and physicochemical parameters of Petit Suisse cheeses added with açai. Three formulations (F1, F2 and F3) were prepared with different thickeners (xanthan gum and gelatin) and analyzed for texture, moisture, protein and pH parameters. The results indicated similarity between the different formulations for the texture parameters: F1 and F3 showed no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05), and F2 differed from F3 only in elasticity and cohesiveness. It was concluded that the application of different thickeners in Petit Suisse influenced its quality, being considered the best formulation that contained the mixture of thickeners (F3).
... In another study, viability of probiotic L. plantarum ATCC 14917 cells in Cornelian cherry juice decreased about 4 folds after 28 days of cold storage [26], while acai pulp ameliorated the viability of L. acidophilus, B. animalis ssp. lactis and B. longum throughout 4 weeks of cold storage [56]. Nevertheless, most of the probiotic strains applied for lactic acid fermentation of fruit juice seem at least to preserve their viability to the least limit (6 log cfu/mL) and they can deliver probiotic properties to the final product [57,58]. ...
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Article
Lactic acid fermentation of fresh fruit juices is a low-cost and sustainable process, that aims to preserve and even enhance the organoleptic and nutritional features of the raw matrices and extend their shelf life. Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) were evaluated in the fermentation of various fruit juices, leading in some cases to fruit beverages, with enhanced nutritional and sensorial characteristics. Among LAB, Lactiplantibacillus (Lpb.) plantarum subsp. plantarum strains are quite interesting, regarding their application in the fermentation of a broad range of plant-derived substrates, such as vegetables and fruit juices, since they have genome plasticity and high versatility and flexibility. L. plantarum exhibits a remarkable portfolio of enzymes that make it very important and multi-functional in fruit juice fermentations. Therefore, L. plantarum has the potential for the production of various bioactive compounds, which enhance the nutritional value and the shelf life of the final product. In addition, L. plantarum can positively modify the flavor of fruit juices, leading to higher content of desirable volatile compounds. All these features are sought in the frame of this review, aiming at the potential and challenges of L. plantarum applications in the fermentation of fruit juices.
... relate the impact of civilization-induced diseases to insufficient dietary fibers ingestion from fruits and vegetables (Nawirska & Kwaśniewska, 2005). Also, the beneficial effects on probiotics viability exerted by some ingredients such as fruits and vegetables pieces or pulp to dairy products have been examined (Espírito Santo et al., 2010;Kourkoutas et al., 2006;Sendra et al., 2008). Do Espírito Santo et al., (2012) investigated the effect of the supplementation of total dietary fiber from apple, banana, or passion fruit by-products on the acidity, bacteria counts, and fatty acid profiles in skim milk yogurts co-fermented by four different probiotics strains. ...
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Due to the high utilization rate of dairy products, enrichment of these products will successfully decrease or prevent diseases related with nutrition deficiencies. Fruits and vegetables in different forms (i.e., fresh, juices, powder, puree, and extract) are excellent sources for the enrichment of dairy products because of their desired taste, color, aroma, fibers, and vitamins content. So, this manuscript reviews the effect of some fruits and vegetables on the rheological behavior, physicochemical attributes, color parameters, sensorial and quality properties of dairy products including cheeses, ice creams, and yogurts. The physicochemical, color, texture, and sensorial properties of dairy products were affected with addition of fruits or vegetables. Also, the addition of these products contributes to the higher content of vitamins, natural colorants, minerals, polyphenols, crude fiber, and carotenoids. In addition, some fruits and vegetables are considered as potential dairy products stabilizing agent due to their desirable functional properties, such as water binding and holding, gelling and thickening ability. In summary, enrichment of cheeses, ice creams, and yogurts with fruits and vegetables increase the market share of these products due to the high demand for goods for an improved diet, rich in compounds with antioxidant activity and biological properties. This manuscript reviews the effect of some fruits and vegetables on the rheological behavior, physicochemical attributes, color parameters, sensorial and quality properties of dairy products including cheeses, ice creams, and yogurts.
... Carotenoids comprise the biggest group of pigmented compounds in nature, with approximately 600 isolated and changed with a decrease of MUFA and PUFA, as well as an increase of SFA and 60% of CLA, highlighting the potential of this functional property. The addition of açai pulp in yogurts was performed by Espírito Santo et al. (2010), who evaluated the effects of the fruit in probiotic bacteria development (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BI04 and Bifidobacterium longum BI05) and in the fatty acid profile (Table 1). ...
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Abstract Fermented milks, with diverse manufacturing, fermentations and specific strains, have been consumed around the world, with a millennial knowledge of their production. These dairy products have a potential nutritional value, taking food industries to invest, nowadays, in dairy products with a functional and healthy appeal due to the changes in the habits and diet of the population. The addition of natural ingredients from vegetables and fruits into fermented milks is a tendency nowadays. The inclusion of natural additives may change the texture, composition, sensory attributes and increase of the shelf life since some compounds are related to have a high antioxidant activity, which decreases the development of deteriorating microorganisms. These called bioactive compounds are synthesized by plants and also may contribute to the fermented milk formulation, in special from fruits, which increase the sensory acceptance. Several classes of fruits bioactive compounds are associated to several health benefits and are a base of many studies about functional fermented milks, reported in this review. This theory background becomes essential for future studies and dairy products development.
... Sources of bioactive compounds, as fruits extract, pulps and juices, are usually studied as a functional additive in fermented milks, becoming an important source for dairy research and a tendency to industries Casarotti et al., 2018). The addition of fruits bioactive compounds in dairy formulations also enhance the viability and the development of probiotic cells, with a potential prebiotic property (Abdollahzadeh et al., 2018;Balthazar et al., 2019;Casarotti et al., 2018;de Campo et al., 2019;Espírito Santo et al., 2010;Vicenssuto & de Castro, 2020). ...
Article
In fermented milks inoculated with two thermophilic strains (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus), guabiroba pulp (Campomanesia xanthocarpa O. Berg) was added in different concentrations: 5% (I5 sample) and 10% (I10 sample), compared to a control sample, with no pulp addition. In these fermented milks, Bifidobacterium BB-12 was added and the samples were submitted to a progressive gastrointestinal simulation in vitro. The cells count was performed, including the survival rates for all the progressive steps of the simulated digestion. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity analysis by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) were performed in all the gastrointestinal steps. Before and during the entire gastrointestinal tract, the Bifidobacterium BB-12 count was 8 - 9 log CFU g⁻¹, above the recommended for a probiotic product, with a highlight in intestinal colon steps. The I10 sample showed the highest viable cell count, the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity throughout the entire gastric steps (p < 0.05). The fermented milk proved to be an effective matrix for the probiotic stability and incorporation of guabiroba components. Bioactive compounds present in the guabiroba pulp may have occasioned a prebiotic and protective effect on Bifidobacterium BB-12 after gastric conditions. The possible bioconversion of these compounds in more active forms can contribute to the absorption in epithelial cells, enhancing fermented milks with guabiroba pulp as important sources of dietary accessible bioactive compounds.
... This is because some strains of bacteria are able to change the fatty acid profile of milk during fermentation and produce functional fatty acids, including conjugated fatty acids, as the result of their growth and metabolism [135]. Moreover, the addition of other ingredients into the milk, such as prebiotics, can further increase the content of functional fatty acids in fermented milks [136]. In a study using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animals subsp. ...
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Article
The valorization of food wastes and byproducts has become a major subject of research to improve the sustainability of the food chain. This narrative review provides an overview of the current trends in the use of food byproducts in the development of dairy foods. We revised the latest data on food loss generation, the group of byproducts most used as ingredients in dairy product development, and their function within the food matrix. We also address the challenges associated with the sensory properties of the new products including ingredients obtained from byproducts, and consumers’ attitudes towards these sustainable novel dairy foods. Overall, 50 studies supported the tremendous potential of the application of food byproducts (mainly those from plant-origin) in dairy foods as ingredients. There are promising results for their utilization as food additives for technological purposes, and as sources of bioactive compounds to enhance the health-promoting properties of dairy products. However, food technologists, nutritionists and sensory scientists should work together to face the challenge of improving the palatability and consumer acceptance of these novel and sustainable dairy foods.
... The viability and/or in vitro assays of probiotic cultures are evaluated using conventional plating methods. 25,26 However, in the last few years, some authors have suggested probiotic quantification using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) to avoid the underestimation of probiotic populations due to the difficulty in forming colonies after gastrointestinal in vitro assays, which can promote cellular damage to the bacteria. 5,27 Moreover, a prior treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA) was recommended by several studies [27][28][29] in order to allow the exclusion of the dead cells in qPCR analysis. ...
Article
The viability and the in vitro gastrointestinal survival of Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 (Bifidobacterium Bb-12) in table spreads with different proportions of milkfat (MF) and palm olein (PO) (MF:PO 40:60 and MF:PO 20:80) were investigated for up to 28 days of storage at 5 °C. Moreover, the qPCR alone and combined with propidium monoazide (PMA) was compared with the traditional plate count method for determining the in vitro gastrointestinal survival of Bifidobacterium Bb-12 in table spreads after 35 days of storage. Formulations showed probiotic viabilities ranging from 8 to 9 log CFU/g during the whole period of storage, and the milkfat and palm olein in different concentrations did not affect this viability. Bifidobacterium Bb-12 showed good survival after six hours of the in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions during the storage period studied, with an average reduction of 1.70 (MF:PO 40:60) and of 2.16 log CFU/g (MF:PO 20:80). The results of qPCR with PMA treatment and the plate count method were similar and the qPCR without PMA treatment showed to overestimate the Bifidobacterium Bb-12 populations. However, spread MF:PO 40:60 showed Bifidobacterium Bb-12 population from 0.76 to 1.43 log CFU/g higher when compared to MF:PO 20:80. Thus, the results showed that table spreads, especially the food matrix with a higher proportion of milk fat, are suitable for the incorporation of Bifidobacterium Bb-12.
... Conventional dairy products are naturally low in n-3 LC-PUFA , and this has led to an interest in meeting our dietary requirements by altering the diets of dairy-producing animals, enriching dairy products directly. Many studies have enhanced the lipid composition of dairy products by adding bioactive compounds, oils, and fats from plant and marine sources in the production of yogurt (Espírito Santo et al., 2010;Georgakouli et al., 2016;Robertson et al., 2016). Table 3 presents studies that focus on the effects of dairy products enriched with PUFA on inflammatory markers in humans. ...
Article
Dairy product consumption is often associated with negative effects because of its naturally high levels of saturated fatty acids. However, recent research has shown that dairy lipids possess putative bioactivity against chronic inflammation. Inflammation triggers the onset of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and cancer. This review discusses the anti-inflammatory properties of dairy lipids found in milk, yogurt, and cheese, and it examines them in relation to their implications for human health: their protective effects and their role in pathology. We also consider the effect of lipid profile alteration in dairy products—by using ruminant dietary strategies to enrich the milk, or by lipid fortification in the products. We critically review the in vivo, in vitro, ex vivo, and epidemiological studies associated with these dairy lipids and their role in various inflammatory conditions. Finally, we discuss some suggestions for future research in the study of bioactive lipids and dairy products, with reference to the novel field of metabolomics and epidemiological studies.
... This fruit is a rich source of polyphenols, being especially rich in anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and other flavonoids, well-studied for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. [16][17][18][19] Even though data related to the impact of tropi- cal fruit pulp on probiotic survival in food matrices are scarce, a study reported that the addition of açaí pulp promoted increased probiotic viability, 20 demonstrating that probiotic products with açaí pulp may be used as promising vehicles for these microorganisms. Açaí has turned into an important crop widely consumed in Brazil, and is one of the most popular fruits exported from the Amazon estuary. ...
Article
The effect of açai pulp ice cream and of its supplementation with inulin (I), whey protein concentrate (WC), and/or whey protein isolate (WI) on the viability and resistance to simulated gastrointestinal stress of the probiotic Lactobacillus (Lb.) rhamnosus GG strain throughout storage at -18 °C for up to 112 days was evaluated and morphological changes during stress were monitored. Lb. rhamnosus GG viability was stable in all formulations for up to 112 days of storage, preserving populations around 9 log CFU g(-1). Compared to the fresh culture, Lb. rhamnosus GG showed higher survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions when incorporated into açai ice cream, indicating that the presence of the food matrix contributed to the microorganism survival. A reduction of at least 5 log cycles of Lb. rhamnosus GG was observed in all formulations after the gastrointestinal simulation in all storage periods assessed. The addition of I, WC, and/or WI did not show any significant effect on the probiotic survival under simulated gastrointestinal stress (p < 0.05). Compared to the fresh culture, fewer morphological changes were observed when the probiotic was added to ice cream. Thus, the açai pulp ice cream was shown to be a suitable matrix for Lb. rhamnosus GG, improving its survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions.
... Prebiotic activity of kefir samples were measured according to a method described by Espirito Santo et al. (2010). ...
Article
This study investigated the capability and efficiency of flaxseed soluble dietary fibre /mucilage to enhance bacterial survival and growth in kefir as well as the antioxidant activity of the mucilage. Crude flaxseed mucilage was extracted using a microwave method, followed by enzymatic and dialysis treatments to obtain pure mucilage. The antioxidant activities of the pure and crude mucilage were measured using different assays. Microbial analyses, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) were measured in kefir samples, supplemented with probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis) and pure or crude flaxseed mucilage during 28 cold storage periodat 4 ºC. The results showed that for all kefir samples, the total bacteria counts were above7.9 log cfu/mL at the end of cold storage period. However, kefir samples supplemented with pure flaxseed mucilage enhanced significantly (P < 0.05) higher viability of bacteria (9.5 log cfu/mL) and acidity (0.78% TTA). An overall pH decline of 0.2 was observed during cold storage period. The total phenolic content (TPC) in crude mucilage was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than pure mucilage (10.5 ± 0.2 and 5.7 ± 0.1 mg Gallic acid equivalent /g flaxseed, respectively). The mucilage from crude flaxseed exhibited strong antioxidant activity; Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) value of 51.2 ± 3.3 ?mol Trolox equivalent /g, 53.7 ± 2.8% discoloration for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 68.3 ± 9.2% Beta-Carotene bleaching which was well in agreement with high TPC. This study demonstrated that flaxseed mucilage acts as a good source of prebiotic, enhancing lactic acid bacteria growth in kefir model in addition of their high antioxidant beneficiary.
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Yoghurt is a coagulated dairy product that is fermented by typical starter cultures. Yogurt has the highest demand rate among fermented products due to its sensory properties. Well‐consumed food products are being enriched by either adding nutrients or improving the already available content for the development of the product. From this point of view, protein enrichment is one of the approaches that contribute to the nutrient content of food products. The addition of plant‐based protein is a step that improves the nutrient content and is a sustainable approach for the functionalization of the product. In the present study, two types of plant protein were added; chickpea and pea in two different concentrations of 0.5% (w/w) and 1% (w/w) to determine the changes in the physicochemical, textural, microbiological, and sensory properties of the yoghurt during storage at 4°C for 21 days. In yoghurt samples, pH value, titratable acidity, colour measurements (L*, a*, b*), texture parameters (firmness, consistency, cohesiveness), microbiological contents show a significant difference during the storage period (p<0.05). On the other hand, adding plant protein had no significant difference in syneresis value during storage (p>0.05). The sensory evaluation results highlighted that protein enrichment develops consistency, mouthfeel, and oiliness scores compared to the control product (no plant protein added sample). These significant sensory modalities are determined by the casein network and water‐binding capability of the proteins, which was visible as a result of this study.
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Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a group of 18 carbon conjugated dienoic acids, has been considered a promising food supplement owing to its various physiological benefits to human health. Owing to a high isomer selectivity of the product and a simple isolation and purification process, microbial CLA has become a research hotspot. Many food-grade bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have been reported to possess CLA-production ability. Particularly, Bifidobacterium has high bio-conversion rate and enhanced CLA production, and is one of the best and most promising CLA producers among microorganisms. Consequently, this article aimed to review the current knowledge about Bifidobacterium CLA producers, the complex factors regulating CLA production in Bifidobacterium, the role of CLA production in Bifidobacterium, and the potential mechanism underlying Bifidobacterium CLA production. In summary, the above information offers novel insights into the production of food-grade CLA as well as the rational design of health-promoting fermented foods or synbiotics.
Chapter
Fermented milk products have received a lot of attention in recent years due to their nutritious effect and health benefits. One of the benefits offered by fermented milks is their potential as probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic food carrier. It is evident that fermented milk products such as yogurt and kefir can be successfully formulated with probiotics and prebiotics as the key ingredients to develop functional food products that promote health and wellness. Over the past century, research studies have been continuously established to strengthen the fundamental scientific knowledge and improve the technological aspects of fermented milk products. Particular attention has been given to the critical factors that influence the quality and acceptability of fermented milk products and aspects that link the nutritional value and health benefits with the presence of probiotics, prebiotics, and their combination (synbiotic). This chapter provides the necessary background and key details on characteristics, compositions, formulations, and potential health benefits of fermented milk products as the most popular vehicles for probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics mainly focusing on the two well-known products, yogurt and kefir.
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The effect of passion fruit and buriti pulps on probiotic and starter lactic acid bacteria growth and on fermented milk (FM) was evaluated. Buriti pulp showed higher amounts of lipids, total phenolic compounds (PC), β-carotene, lycopene and antioxidant activity (AA) than passion fruit. However, passion fruit was used more efficiently as a carbon source by all strains. Lacticaseibacillus casei SJRP38 showed the best results in the presence of passion fruit (1.8 log CFU/mL increase compared to the initial population) and the lowest reduction in the presence of buriti, thus it was selected to produce FM. Acidified milk (AM) with the same fruit pulps was used as a control. The buriti pulp did not affect the kinetic parameters of FM compared to the control. However, the addition of fruit pulps increased the PC in both FM and AM, and FM resulted in a greater increase (33.4 to 141.6%) than AM (21.4% to 87.9%). Also, buriti pulp was able to increase (6 to 8%) the AA of the FM when compared to the AM. FM with buriti pulp stood out for its high amount of total PC, which indicates its high potential to be used as a functional food.
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This study was performed to evaluate the effects of using native and commercial probiotic strains on biochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of yogurt. The viability of probiotic bacteria in all samples exceeded 6 log CFU/ml required to provide health benefits. The native Iranian Lactobacillus casei showed the highest viability throughout storage (8.5 log CFU/ml at the end of storage). Three distinct phases were observed in pH, acidity, and redox potential during the fermentation of all samples. Commercial L. casei strain had the lowest mean acidity increase rates and the longest incubation times. The growth of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in probiotic yogurt was improved compared to the control yogurt. The control sample had the lowest score in all sensory parameters evaluated. Overall, yogurt containing native Iranian L. casei strain is recommended because of its good sensory and microbial properties. Among different functional food products, probiotic dairy products are of great interest and yogurt is the most popular probiotic carrier. In most cases, commercial strains of Lactobacillus and bifidobacteria are incorporated into yogurt and native strains have not been studied widely. In this regard, isolation, characterization, and investigation of the effect of their application in dairy products can be promising in the development of functional dairy products with acceptable qualitative characteristics.
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The main constituents of the Euterpe oleracea Mart., Arecaceae, fruits (açaí) are anthocyanins. This paper aimed to standardize the extraction process and characterize an anthocyanin-rich dry extract obtained from this fruit. A 23 full factorial design was used. The volumes of ethanol 92% and acetic acid and the extraction time were used as factors. Total solids and anthocyanins content were used as feedback. The dry extract was obtained by freeze-drying. The content of anthocyanins was determined spectrophotometrically. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimeter, Thermogravimetry, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry were used for characterizingthe dry extract. The DPPH method was used for evaluating radical scavenging activity. The extraction conditions were established. The most influent factor was the volume of acetic acid. The dry extract moisture content was equal to 1.39 ± 0.25%, the evaporation residue 97.25 ± 1.28%, total ashes 0.62 ± 0.12%, and the anthocyanin content was 61.75 ± 3.28%. The elemental composition shows the presence of manganese 4.85 ppm, iron 1.62 ppm, zinc 0.05, copper 1.38 ppm, calcium 1.01 ppm, cadmium 0.003 ppm, nickel 0.37 ppm, and lead 0.38 ppm. The dried extract IC50 estimated by the radical scavenging assay with DPPH was 31.25 ± 2.31 ppm. The optimal extraction conditions were: the volume of ethanol 92%: 400 ml; volume of acetic acid: 75 ml; an extraction time: 4 h. Keywords: Açai, Anthocyanins, Antioxidant, Dry extract, Extraction, Factorial design
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Background. The aim of this study was to develop nutritious fermented milk products from camel's milk fortified with kiwi fruit and avocado puree, and fermented using probiotic strains. Material and methods. Stirred yoghurt made from camel's milk, supplemented with avocado and kiwi fruit puree as natural additives at different levels (2, 4 and 6%) and fermented with a mixture of yoghurt culture and probiotic Lb. acidophilus and B. lactis. The stirred yoghurt was chemically analyzed, and the microbial count, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were determined. The stirred yoghurt from different treatments was assessed for viscosity and sensory properties. Results. The highest viable counts of Lb. acidophilus and B. lactis were enumerated in yoghurts fortified with 6% avocado, whereas the control had significantly lower counts. The radical scavenging activity (RSA) and the total phenol content (TPC) decreased for the control of the stirred camel's milk yoghurt after 21 days of storage, whereas the samples fortified with kiwi or avocado puree retained high RSA and TPC content throughout the storage period compared to the control. Conclusion. Addition of 4% avocado or 6% kiwi pastes to fermented camel's milk produces a higher quality and acceptability of camel's milk.
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Background: The aim of this study was to develop nutritious fermented milk products from camel’s milk fortified with kiwi fruit and avocado puree, and fermented using probiotic strains. Methods: Stirred yoghurt made from camel’s milk, supplemented with avocado and kiwi fruit puree as natural additives at different levels (2, 4 and 6%) and fermented with a mixture of yoghurt culture and probiotic Lb. acidophilus and B. lactis. The stirred yoghurt was chemically analyzed, and the microbial count, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were determined. The stirred yoghurt from different treatments was assessed for viscosity and sensory properties. Results: The highest viable counts of Lb. acidophilus and B. lactis were enumerated in yoghurts fortified with 6% avocado, whereas the control had significantly lower counts. The radical scavenging activity (RSA) and the total phenol content (TPC) decreased for the control of the stirred camel’s milk yoghurt after 21 days of storage, whereas the samples fortified with kiwi or avocado puree retained high RSA and TPC content throughout the storage period compared to the control. Conclusions: Addition of 4% avocado or 6% kiwi pastes to fermented camel’s milk produces a higher quality and acceptability of camel’s milk.
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Amazonian plants possess high amounts of little-explored lipid compounds. Chemical parameters and lipophilic compounds present in twelve oils and fats from different Amazonian plants were characterized. The fatty acids identified reveal saturated fats, such as babassu oil and muru-muru fat (rich in lauric acid), ucuhuba fat (myristic acid), and bacuri fat (palmitic acid). Buriti, pracaxi, and patawa oils showed high oleic acid content. Passion fruit seed and Brazil nut oils had high levels of the polyunsaturated fatty acids rich in linoleic acid. The oleaginous plants had high unsaturation degree and high content of medium-length-chain fatty acids due to high values of iodine, saponification, and peroxide. For methyl tocols and total carotenes, a simultaneous determination method was used and revealed high levels of these vitamins in buriti oil. No previous work in the literature has described all these parameters in Amazonian oils and fats, especially regarding plant species such as bacuri, cupuassu, and ucuhuba. These results provide information on oils and fats that could be used as alternative sources of raw material for the food and pharmaceutics industries.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrolysate collagen (HC), cheese whey (CW), and açaí pulp (AP) content on the characteristics of probiotic dairy beverages. Higher levels of CW and AP decreased beverage ash and protein content, and increased lipid and carbohydrate content and energy values. HC and AP positively affected the viscosity of the formulations, which exhibited pseudoplastic behavior. In terms of quality parameters, higher levels of CW and AP increased both the syneresis (2.56–5.74%) and sedimentation index values (1.80–1.87%) of the formulations. The beverages presented adequate stability of physicochemical and microbiological parameters during 28 days storage. Formulations containing average levels of CW (22.5%), AP (30%), and HC (1.0%) achieved the best results regarding sensory analysis, with acceptability index values above 70% for most parameters. Practical applications Demand for probiotic foods is currently increasing due to their potential health benefits. Although the utilization of cheese whey in dairy beverage development is a challenge to the food industry because of the viscosity of the final product, this situation can be improved via the use of selected ingredients. Açaí pulp, hydrolyzed collagen, and cheese whey, when used in the production of probiotic dairy beverages, offer to the market a new functional product of adequate quality and acceptability.
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The effect of date extract (DE) addition on the microbiological, physicochemical, rheological, and sensory characteristics of probiotic fermented milk was investigated. DE was added to milk at the level of 0–12 g/100 mL; the mixtures were then fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5. The initial probiotic concentrations ranged between 8.16 and 8.77 log10 CFU/g. Although the highest DE concentration led to a significant count reduction (from 8.16 to 6.44 log10 CFU/g), the probiotic concentration was above 6 log10 CFU/g in all samples during 14 days of storage at 4 °C. All treatments had similar ash, fat, and protein content. As the DE concentration increased, total solids (from 9.98 to 16.88 g/100 g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (from 4.01 to 22.24 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100 g) increased. Samples with higher DE concentration showed lower pH and syneresis, and higher acidity. DE addition could slightly increase the viscosity from 53.48 to 69.95 mPa s. According to power law model, shear-thinning behavior was observed at all concentrations. DE-added products had lower L* and higher a* color values. Fortification with DE did not adversely affect the sensory acceptability. The date extract, therefore, seems to be a suitable candidate to improve the nutritional quality of probiotic dairy foods.
Article
The aim of the study was to evaluate the biocompounds content and physical characteristics of açaí pulp dried by different methods in order to determine the most suitable drying method. The açaí pulp with a high content of lipids (53.31 g/100 g) was dried using spouted bed, freeze dryer and spray dryer. The samples were evaluated for anthocyanins, carotenoids and moisture content, and also for color and microstructure parameters. All samples showed moisture content less than 5 g/100 g. Powders obtained by freeze dryer and spouted bed showed lower color difference than fresh pulp. Microstructure analysis exhibited particles with irregular surfaces and diameters less than 100 μm. The açaí pulp dried by freeze drying presented the best results under the conditions and methods evaluated, once it resulted in a product with higher contents of anthocyanins (5.87 ± 0.53 mg/g of dry matter) and carotenoids (38.28 ± 0.69 μg/g of dry matter), as well as lower moisture content (2.65 ± 0.11 g/100 g). Furthermore, no lipid oxidation occurred in the freeze-drying pulp. Therefore, we concluded that açaí pulp can be dried and still preserve high concentration of biocompounds, and also physical properties, being suitable to be applied in healthy foods.
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RESUMO A adição, em iogurtes, de polpa de Juçara como fonte de compostos fenólicos pode modificar as características físico-químicas, contribuir para atividade antioxidante, e interferir na viabilidade de bactérias probióticas e na aceitação sensorial. Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da adição de polpa de Juçara em iogurte, foi realizado um experimento, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em parcelas subdivididas. A parcela principal foi o teor de polpa, com seis níveis (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25%) e, como subparcela, o tempo de armazenamento, a 5 oC, com cinco níveis (1, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias). Os teores percentuais médios de gordura, cinzas, extrato seco total e acidez dos iogurtes não diferiram (P ≥ 0,05). O teor de proteína diminuiu com o aumento do teor de polpa, variando de 4,07% (F0) a 2,9% (F25%). O conteúdo fenólico total e a atividade antioxidante foram maiores no iogurte com 25% de polpa, atingindo valores de 117,84 mg de AGE/100g e 6,95 µmol Trolox/g, respectivamente, assim como a contagem de bactérias probióticas, que variou de 3,17 log UFC.g-1 (F0) a 6,34 log UFC.g-1 (F25%), nos iogurtes, após 28 dias de armazenamento. A adição da polpa de Juçara favoreceu a multiplicação e a viabilidade de bactérias probióticas, contribuiu para o aumento do conteúdo fenólico total e para maior atividade antioxidante dos iogurtes, que apresentaram boa aceitação sensorial pelo consumidor.
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Dairy products have been widely used for adding various biomolecules with the aim of improving their functional properties and health benefits. In this study, the physicochemical properties and sensory acceptance of yogurts enriched with sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) seeds (SIS) and β-glucans from Ganoderma lucidum (BGGL) were investigated. The angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity of some yogurt samples was also evaluated. Yogurts were produced from reconstituted skim milk powder, and SIS (4% wt/wt) and BGGL were added at different concentrations (0-1.5% wt/wt). The fermentation kinetics were not affected by the enrichment process. The addition of SIS and BGGL significantly increased (P < 0.05) the contents of protein, fat, carbohydrates, ash, total solids, aspartic acid, serine, arginine, glycine, threonine, tyrosine, and alanine. α-Linolenic (49.3%) and linoleic (32.2%) acids were the main fatty acids found in the enriched samples, whose values were about 50- and 25-fold higher than those of the control yogurt. The textural parameters (firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and index of viscosity) of the enriched yogurts were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control samples during the whole storage period. All enriched yogurts showed a sensorial acceptance higher than 70% by untrained panelists. The angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity of some selected yogurt samples ranged between 36 and 59%. These results indicate that SIS and BGGL could be used as natural ingredients for improving the nutritional value of yogurt and fermented milks.
Article
Experimental yoghurts were made with 13% reconstituted skim milk supplemented with 1, 2, 3% rice bran (RB) and inoculated with probiotic culture of Lactobacillus casei 431. The products were stored at 4 °C for 3 weeks. During this period, the viability of the probiotic L. casei 431 strain and yoghurt starter cultures were evaluated. In addition to this, some physicochemical, antioxidative and sensory properties of yoghurts were also determined. L. casei 431 remained above the 8 log CFU/g throughout the storage period in yoghurts fortified with 2% and 3% RB. Addition of rice bran decreased the syneresis and viscosity values whereas it increased scavenging activities of DPPH radical. However, yoghurts with RB had less sensory scores compared to plain yoghurt.
Chapter
Conjugated derivatives of fatty acids, namely conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA), have attracted much attention of the scientific community over the last two decades due to their biological properties. In fact, several studies realized in animal models and/or cell cultures have shown anticarcinogenic, antiobesity, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic, and immunomodulatory activities. CLA and CLNA isomers are commonly present in ruminant’s derived foods mainly because of the action of microorganisms on linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA), respectively. However, the natural concentrations of CLA and CLNA found in these food products do not seem to be sufficient to have any significant therapeutic effect and thus there are efforts to obtain CLA- and/or CLNA-enriched foods. Several food-grade microorganisms, such as bifidobacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and propionibacteria, are capable of producing CLA and CLNA from LA and LNA, respectively, given their linoleate isomerase activity. These microorganisms could thus be used to produce CLA-enriched foods either as starter or adjunct cultures or as biocatalysts producing CLA and/or CLNA that can be used as natural food additives. This chapter presents a comprehensive outlook of the biotechnological production of CLA and CLNA and a discussion of its technical issues, limitations, challenges, and potential food and nutraceutical applications based on nutritional value and biological properties.
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This study investigated the effects of various concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4%, v/w) of olive leaf extract on low fat apricot yogurt. The addition of the olive leaf extract during the preparation of low fat apricot yogurt significantly (P < 0.05) influenced dry matter, protein and ash contents and pH value. Streptococcus thermophilus count was statistically (P < 0.05) affected by addition of the olive leaf extract. The water holding capacity values of the samples decreased throughout the storage period. The viscosity values of the samples with olive leaf extract were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control samples (except 15th day). Yogurt including 0.4% olive leaf extract had the highest antioxidant activity at the end of the storage. Practical Applications Olive and olive leaf extract have numerous benefits such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and hypocholesterolemic properties. This study has proved the effect of the olive leaf extract on the chemical, microbiological, antioxidant and sensory properties of yogurt. The effect of the olive leaf extract on the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus was found to be very important. A functional product with high antioxidant properties can be produced by adding olive leaf extract during yogurt production.
Article
Abstract It was aimed to i) investigate if seabuckthorn whole fruit (S), and seabuckthorn purified mucilage (SP) addition into yogurt enhance bacterial viability, by measuring total bacterial counts of different yogurt trials on selective media, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) during 28 day cold storage at 4 °C, as well as ii) measure antioxidant activities of microwave extracted seabuckthorn crude mucilage (SC) and SP using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and DPPH scavenging activity. After 21 days of cold storage, yogurts with S and SP maintained higher viable bacteria counts in both of probiotics, Lactobacillus acidophilus (9.3 log cfu/mL) and Bifidobacterium lactis (9.2 log cfu/mL), higher TTA (0.8%), and lower pH (5.0) compared to the controls (P < 0.05). SC exhibited strong antioxidant activity with an ORAC value of 138.9 μmol Trolox equivalents/100 g, and a %DPPH scavenging activity value of 37.0%. Results of this study suggest S may serve as a new prebiotic source for functional foods and nutraceutical applications. Keywords Microwave-extraction; Probiotic; Seabuckthorn; Selective media
Chapter
This chapter provides a short introduction to the chemistry and biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and discusses the possible methods by which the CLA content of fermented food products can be increased. One possible way to produce foods with enhanced levels of CLA is the application of CLA-enriched raw materials. Therefore, the CLA content of raw materials and factors that influence their CLA content are discussed first. CLA formation during the processing of fermented milk and meat products is explored and functional foods are also discussed. The chapter also includes a section on the health effects of CLA.
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Probiotic foods products are a fast growing area of functional food, as found to be strongly accepted by the consumers. The application of probiotics in dairy products is already common. However, the food industry is seeking to produce different varieties of probiotic foods other than dairy products with potential health benefits. The success of new probiotic foods depends on the ability of probiotics to provide sufficient numbers of viable cells that beneficially modify the gut microflora of the host. It is highly desirable that the viable counts of probiotics in the final product to be at least 106–107 cfu ml−1 to offering health benefits to the consumers. Therefore, the objective of this study is to review the applications of selected probiotics in dairy and non-dairy foods and their viability during the storage.
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Asaí is a neotropical palm with fruits that are traditionally consumed by native communities in the Amazon. Consumption has increased due to the antioxidant contents. Distribution of this wild Amazonic palm is widespread and it is possible to find more than one species. While in Brazilian forests, E. oleraceae is the most abundant; in the eastern Amazon, the principal species is E. precatoria. During recent decades, many institutes, universities and research centers have studied many topics related to the palm. Despite these advances, harvest indices, postharvest handling, as well as processing lack the necessary knowledge for the well-timed harvest of bunches and fruit handling, in order to take advantage of this biological resource. Skin color and pigment contents are good harvest indices. Fresh fruits are not usually consumed but pulp, beverages and dehydrated powders constitute commercial products. To obtain good products from the fruit, postharvest handling includes conditioning operations such as selection and classification, which assure the delay of fruit decay and fermentation. Some processing protocols have been developed in order to obtain pulp and dry powder from asaí fruit, which preserve high antioxidant activities due to polyphenolic compounds. Uses of fruit pulp and dehydrated powders have diverse applications and all of them preserve a functional condition, such as in energy bars, instant beverages, chocolate fillers and gummy confectionery. Asaí fruits exhibit interesting options for the food industry with high potential for inclusion in many derivatives that satisfy industrial requirements, which could be reinforced with advances in technology and innovative processing to enhance preservation of the functional bioactive compounds.
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This work aims to develop formulations of fermented dairy beverages with probiotic cultures (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus e Bifidobacterium bifidum) yellow monbin flavored, to characterize the chemical composition and to evaluate the stability during refrigerated storage for 28 days. The dairy beverages were developed from an experimental design 3x3, with two factors and three levels each: yellow monbin pulp (15, 20 and 25%) and whey (20, 30 and 40%). Nine formulations were produced and submitted to a sensory acceptability test. Thereafter three selected formulations were evaluated based on their microbiological characteristics, proximate composition, pH and titratable acidity. As the acceptance was higher than 70% in all the formulations, were selected that had a higher proportion of whey. Thus, the formulations F3, F6 e F9 were selected. Considering the proximate composition, the selected formulations not differed regarding for carbohydrates. The dairy beverages showed stability with respect to pH and acidity during the shelf life of 28 days and satisfactory results as the investigation of pathogenic microorganisms within the standards established. Quantification of lactic acid bacteria evidenced high numbers to Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus, values between 11.6 to 10.2 CFU log/mL and 8.9 to 11 CFU log/mL, respectively. The species Bifidobacterium bifidum presented less than 6 log/mL CFU for the formulations. Based on these results, the selected dairy beverages formulations had nutrition, technology and sensorial feasibility.
Article
Acceptance and the probiotic viability of an innovative non-dairy frozen açaí (Euterpe oleracea, Mart.) dessert supplemented and not supplemented with inulin during a shelf-life of 84 days at −18°C were investigated. Desserts containing and not containing probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 and inulin were produced, resulting in 4 mixes of frozen açaí: control (M1), pro (M2), pre (M3), and synbiotic (M4). Sensory acceptability scores and probiotic counts were obtained during 84 days of storage. Inulin, a key factor for product approval, significantly (paçaí desserts were suitable for probiotic delivery and were accepted by consumers. Addition of inulin is recommended both for increasing acceptance and for the synbiotic potential.
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The whey is a relevant by-product in the cheese industry for being produced in large volume and for containing approximately 55% of its nutrients from milk. Its industry performance upon human nutrition products is still considered low, because the high concentration of minerals provides a low sensorial acceptation of food. Thus, beverages have been developed, mainly the fermented ones that display new flavors and aromas, aiming at recovering such important source of nutrients for the human food chain. It is observed, therefore, that the use of cheese whey enriches the products that contain them and avoid the culling directly in the soil, in the sewage system, rivers, and lakes, minimizing the negative impact, as discussed in this review.
Article
The ability of different Lactobacillus strains to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was determined. Three species—Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp), Lactobacillus acidophilus (La) and Streptococcus thermophilus (St)—were co-cultured in a medium containing skim-milk supplemented with hydrolyzed safflower oil. This study was aimed at future applications in dairy products. The optimal operation parameters were established by response surface methodology. More CLA was produced by co-culture than by single strain culture. The CLA produced by co-culture of La and Lp (La–Lp) was more than that produced by La and St (La–St). Maximum CLA production of 316.52 μg/mL was obtained with La–Lp co-culture using a substrate concentration of 5.0 %, inoculum size of 5.0 %, an initial medium pH of 6.4 and a temperature of 36.4 °C for 48 h. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of the use of co-cultures of La–St and La–Lp to produce CLA.
Article
The effect of the addition of passion fruit peel powder (PFPP) on the fermentation kinetics and texture parameters, post-acidification and bacteria counts of probiotic yoghurts made with two milk types were evaluated during 28 days of storage at 4 °C. Milks were fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (CY340), and one strain of probiotic bacteria: Lactobacillus acidophilus (L10 and NCFM), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bl04 and HN019). The addition of PFPP reduced significantly fermentation time of skim milk co-fermented by the strains L10, NCFM and HN019. At the end of 28-day shelf-life, counts of B. lactis Bl04 were about 1 Log CFU mL–1 higher in whole yoghurt fermented with PFPP regarding its control but, in general, the addition of PFPP had less influence on counts than the milk type itself. The titratable acidity in yoghurts with PFPP was significantly higher than in their respective controls, and in skim yoghurts higher than in the whole ones. The PFPP increased firmness, consistency (except for the NCFM strain of L. acidophilus) and cohesiveness of all skim yoghurts. The results point out the suitability of using passion fruit by-product in the formulation of both skim and whole probiotic yoghurts.
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In the market of functional foods, the products targeting the gut health have been leadering the efforts on research and development. In this sense, much attention has been focused on the probiotic products, mainly the dairy ones. The probiotic food with some sort of fruit as ingredient has been considered as the consumer’s predilection. In spite of still scarce studies that point out the effects of the fruity food matrices on the probiotic survival and/or activity, until now they indicate a neutral or even a positive effect of this interaction in the host. The aim of this review is to update the most recent findings about the effect of food matrices, especially those with a fruity base, on the probiotic viability and/or activity.
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The palm Euterpe oleracea Martius (acai) has been acclaimed to have a wide range of health-promoting and therapeutic benefits due to its reportedly high levels of antioxidants. Acai has a history of use as a medicinal plant and as a staple food in many parts of Brazil. Traditionally, it has been used to treat fevers, skin complications, digestive disorders and parasitic infections. Acai has also been of great economic importance in Brazil. In recent years, acai berry has been advertised widely, for example, via the Internet. This is based to a relatively high content of polyphenols, which in turn has been linked to a range of reported (mostly in vitro) antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and cardioprotective properties. This review highlights the scientific knowledge about its phytochemistry and pharmacology (and its limitations). In vitro and in vivo studies have been assessed in order to determine the therapeutic potential of acai. Since there have been very limited studies the results are mostly inconclusive. Acai demonstrates promising potential with regard to antiproliferative activity and cardioprotection but further studies are required. Claims about alleged health benefits can generally only be substantiated to a very limited degree. Strategies need to be developed in order to prioritise lesser studied 'novel' herbal, medicines or nutraceuticals generally distributed/popularised via the Internet and to assess the benefits and risks of such products which also allows for the evaluation of the claims made.
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Brazil is the biggest producer, consumer and exporter of açaí drink, made from the açaí palm's fruit. This drink or açaí pulp is usually commercialized under room temperature or in a frozen way resulting in important nutritional losses. This study aimed to evaluate some nutrients from the lyophilized açaí pulp. Humidity, total solids, ash and total lipids values were analyzed using the AOAC method. Carbohydrates including fibers were calculated by difference and the total nitrogen values were investigated by AACC method. Mineral concentration was analyzed in a mass spectrophotometer and fats by methyl esters preparation identified in a gas chromatography. Results from analytical determinations showed that the powder product is a very caloric food, 489.39 Kcal/ 100 g lyophilized pulp, specially due to the high lipid contents (40.75%), from which 52.70% are represented by oleic acid (C18:1) and 25.56% by the palmitic (C16:0). Total carbohydrate content was 42.53% ± 3.56 and the protein's was 8.13 g ± 0.63/100 g. Mineral profile evaluation demonstrated that the potassium (900 mg/100 g lyophilized açaí) and the calcium (330 mg/100 g lyophilized açaí) were the minerals observed in abundance. Magnesium has also shown important concentrations (124.4 mg/100 g lyophilized açaí), different from the iron (4.5 mg/100 g lyophilized açaí). Based on the results obtained on the nutritional composition evaluation of the lyophilized açaí pulp, it is possible to conclude that this process can be considered as an excellent alternative for preserving this pulp due to the important nutritional compounds found in it.
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Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Martius) is a typical palm tree from the Amazon, growing spontaneously in states of Pará, Amazonas, Amapá and Maranhão. It has been highlighted by the potential of its products, especially because of the economic importance for the regional fruit growing. The açaí fruits are very appreciated by their pulp flavour. In the açaí pulp, there is a significant amount of lipids, around 53%, in a dry basis, turning out to be an excellent source of essential fatty acids. The main purpose of the present work was to establish the fatty acid content in the lipid fraction of açaí pulp using high resolution gaseous chromatography. The açaí oil was obtained by enzymatic technology in water has been indicated as an alternative for vegetable oils extraction from pulp of fruits. A significant difference was not observed in the composition of the fatty acids present in açaí oil obtained from either process. In both cases, the oil is high in monounsaturated fatty acids (68% to 71%) and in polyunsaturated fatty acids (7.8% to 10.6%).
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Analyze the social returns and technological progress in the açaí cultivation in the State of Pará. The açaí is the basic food for a great majority of the Pará's population, especially the people living by the river's side that explore the fruit in the extractive way. The açaí demand and supply relationships were estimated for the purpose of the obtaining the price-elasticity, estimating the social returns of the technological adoption with respect to the economy of the açaí cultivation in Pará. The results showed, that since 2002, the benefits with the technological adoption for the society have been growing to a medium rate of 36.64% and, in 2005, the estimated value of the total benefit was of the order of R$238 million.
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In the present work, the combined effect of milk supplementation and culture composition on acidification, textural properties, and microbiological stability of fermented milks containing probiotic bacteria, was studied. Three powders (whey, casein hydrolysate, and milk proteins) were tested as supplementation. Two strains of probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA5) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LC35), were used in pure culture, and in mixed culture with Streptococcus thermophilus (ST7). Acidifying activity was enhanced with mixed cultures, compared to pure cultures resulting in a shorter time to reach pH 4.5. Acidifying activity was greatly improved with casein hydrolysate, with a reduction of the fermentation time by about 55% by comparison with the other supplementations. The stability of probiotic bacteria was weakly affected by milk supplementation and culture composition. However, pure cultures were more stable than mixed cultures. The texture of the fermented products was not dependent on culture composition, but strongly dependent on milk supplementation. Sweet whey supplementation gave products with lower firmness and viscoelasticity than products supplemented with casein hydrolysate or milk proteins (decrease by 70%). It was observed that all products containing probiotic counts over 2.2×107 CFU mL−1 are suitable for the development of a lactic beverage containing probiotics.
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The aim of this study was to determine the effects of using various probiotic bacteria and plant oils in cultured cream on the fatty acid profiles including conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). L. acidophilus, B. bifidum, S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus, P. thoenii (jensenii) P126, and P. jensenii B1264 and a mixed culture (blend of L. acidophilus, B. bifidum, S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus) were used in the fermentation of cream samples at a level of 2%. Cream samples were fortified with sunflower oil, soybean oil and hazelnut oil at a level of 2%. Microbial counts and fatty acid profile analysis were performed. The microbial results demonstrated that fermented cream could be a superior product for the presence of probiotics. Even though the cream samples contained 52% milk fat, in the majority of the samples growth of probiotic bacteria was higher than 106 cfu/g. Concentrations of short-chain fatty acids such as butyric, caproic and capric acids in cultured cream samples differed depending on the cultures used, while long-chain unsaturated fatty acids were significantly affected by the plant oil fortification. The highest CLA content was obtained in the sample produced with B. bifidum, containing 0.73 mg of CLA/g fat. The effect of different plant oils on CLA concentration was significant (p >0.05) for HO + YC, SFO + LBYC and SO + LBYC. Results of the study are important for the dairy industry since it is the first publication on fermented cream with improved functional properties. The development of functional cultured cream with plant oils and probiotic bacteria would provide an important alternative dairy product.
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The protection of human health as well as the quality and safe food assurance becomes the priority of European research in the sphere of animal production. The negative experiences with the using of antibiotic growth promoters lead to subsequent reduction of their application. It is necessary to replace them by the growth promoters of natural origin, which are able to provide the comparable efficacy and will not contribute to the cumulative contamination of the environment. The probiotics represent an effective alternative to antibiotics and current research should be aimed at improving of their efficacy. This may be achieved by several methods. From the practical point of view, combination with synergistically acting components of natural origin seems to be the best way. Potentiated probiotics are defined as biopreparations containing production strains of microorganisms and synergistically acting components of natural origin which exert their intensified effect through effects on probiotic and gut microorganisms, the gut mucosa and the intestinal environment or immune system. A number of suitable components may be used for this purpose, such as prebiotics, non-specific substrates, plants and their extracts, metabolites of microorganisms and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this report, the results of application of natural feed additives in animals are reviewed and their valuation for the enhancement of probiotic effectiveness is discussed.
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Extraction of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can provide important income for the inhabitants of tropical developing countries. The present research focuses on NTFP extraction in the Amazon estuary by evaluating the economics of managing açaí (Euterpe oleracea), a predominant palm species of the Amazon floodplains. The productivity, revenues and costs associated with traditional household management of açaí were examined in secondary forests and in homegardens. The present value of the net revenue (NPV) of lands managed for fruit and palm-heart was calculated at different distances from the central market of Belém, Pará, Brazil. Intensity of açaí management was dependent on distance from the market and household resources, ranging from simple collection in natural forest to intense cultivation. All calculations of revenues accounted for variation in prices due to seasonality of production. Açaí ws found to be a highly valuable production system even at high rates of interest. At a 15% interest rate, the net present values were US$ 1337–2693 ha−1 in managed secondary forests and US$ 4266–6930 ha−1 in homegardens.
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A new method for measuring the activity of mesophilic and thermophilic lactic acid bacteria is proposed based on measuring the pH of cultures at extremely short intervals (30–90 s) during growth and calculating several kinetic parameters, i.e. the maximum acidification rate (Vm), the time and pH at which Vm occurred, the time or pH range during which the observed rates were greater than Vm/2. These were easily calculated by coupling the pH meter to a microcomputer.
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Most probiotic lactobacilli adhere to intestinal surfaces, a phenomenon influenced by free polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The present study investigated whether free linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, or docosahexaenoic acid in the growth medium alters the fatty acid composition of lactobacilli and their physical characteristics. The most abundant bacterial fatty acids identified were oleic, vaccenic, and dihydrosterculic acids. PUFA, especially conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers and gamma-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and alpha-linolenic acids, also were identified in lactobacilli. When lactobacilli were cultured in MRS broth supplemented with various free PUFA, the incorporation of a given PUFA into bacterial fatty acids was clearly observed. Moreover, PUFA supplementation also resulted in PUFA-dependent changes in the proportions of other fatty acids; major interconversions were seen in octadecanoic acids (18:1), their methylenated derivatives (19:cyc), and CLA. Intermittent changes in eicosapentaenoic acid proportions also were noted. These results were paralleled by minor changes in the hydrophilic or hydrophobic characteristics of lactobacilli, suggesting that PUFA interfere with microbial adhesion to intestinal surfaces through other mechanisms. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that free PUFA in the growth medium induce changes in bacterial fatty acids in relation to the regulation of the degree of fatty acid unsaturation, cyclization, and proportions of CLA and PUFA containing 20 to 22 carbons. The potential role of lactobacilli as regulators of PUFA absorption may represent another means by which probiotics could redirect the delicate balance of inflammatory mediators derived from PUFA within the inflamed intestine.
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Euterpe oleraceae is a large palm tree indigenous to the Amazon River and its tributaries and estuaries in South America. Its fruit, known as acai, is of great economic value to native people. In this study, a standardized freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder was used for all analyses and tests. Among many findings, anthocyanins (ACNs), proanthocyanidins (PACs), and other flavonoids were found to be the major phytochemicals. Two ACNs, cyandin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside were found to be predominant ACNs; three others were also found as minor ACNs. The total content of ACNs was measured as 3.1919 mg/g dry weight (DW). Polymers were found to be the major PACs. The concentration of total PACs was calculated as 12.89 mg/g DW. Other flavonoids, namely, homoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, scoparin, and taxifolin deoxyhexose, along with several unknown flavonoids, were also detected. Resveratrol was found but at a very low concentration. In addition, components including fatty acids, amino acids, sterols, minerals, and other nutrients were analyzed and quantified. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid, total monounsaturated fatty acid, and total saturated fatty acids contributed to 11.1%, 60.2%, and 28.7% of total fatty acid. Oleic acid (53.9%) and palmitic acid (26.7%) were found to be the two dominant fatty acids. Nineteen amino acids were found; the total amino acid content was determined to be 7.59% of total weight. The total sterols accounted for 0.048% by weight of powder. The three sterols B-sitosterol, campesterol, and sigmasterol were identified. A complete nutrient analysis is also presented. Microbiological analysis was also performed.
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Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. We previously reported that a diet high in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) reduces lipid and inflammatory cardiovascular disease risk factors in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The objective was to evaluate the effects of a diet high in ALA on serum proinflammatory cytokine concentrations and cytokine production by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from subjects fed the experimental diets. A randomized, controlled, 3-diet, 3-period crossover study design was used. Hypercholesterolemic subjects (n = 23) were assigned to 3 experimental diets: a diet high in ALA (ALA diet; 6.5% of energy), a diet high in linoleic acid (LA diet; 12.6% of energy), and an average American diet (AAD) for 6 wk. Serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations and the production of IL-6, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha by PBMCs were measured. IL-6, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha production by PBMCs and serum TNF-alpha concentrations were lower (P < 0.05 and P < 0.08, respectively) with the ALA diet than with the LA diet or AAD. PBMC production of TNF-alpha was inversely correlated with ALA (r = -0.402, P = 0.07) and with eicosapentaenoic acid (r = -0.476, P = 0.03) concentrations in PBMC lipids with the ALA diet. Changes in serum ALA were inversely correlated with changes in TNF-alpha produced by PBMCs (r = -0.423, P < 0.05). Increased intakes of dietary ALA elicit antiinflammatory effects by inhibiting IL-6, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha production in cultured PBMCs. Changes in PBMC ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid (derived from dietary ALA) are associated with beneficial changes in TNF-alpha release. Thus, the cardioprotective effects of ALA are mediated in part by a reduction in the production of inflammatory cytokines.
Chapter
Almost all foods contain fat, which is very loosely de ned as material that is soluble in any of several organic solvents such as hexane, diethyl ether, or chloroform. The major lipid classes commonly encountered in foods are shown in Figure 3.1. For this discussion, pigments, sterols, hydrocarbons, tocopherols, waxes, and so on will be ignored, although they are coextracted along with the major classes of lipids. The distinguishing feature of lipids in foods is the universal occurrence of medium-and long-chain (C14-C22) fatty acids. The hydrocarbon chains of these fatty acids are the main factor in the solubility already mentioned. As emphasized by the adjectives, the nomenclature is rather confused. Most nutritionists distinguish the C8, C10, and C12 fatty acids from the common C16 and C18 fatty acids by calling the former short chain and the latter long chain. The former are readily digested, and on absorption they pass directly to the liver via the portal vein, whereas the latter tend to transfer into the lymph in chylomicrons (Nelson and Ackman, 1988). For most foods, C22 fatty acids are the longest chain length present in any quantity, and in this chapter, long chain will mean C20 and C22.
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This study was aimed to determine the accumulation of free fatty acid by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 1471, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 1000 and Lactobacillus casei 111) in cold-stored milk. According to the results, all cold-stored milks had higher acid degree values than those of fresh milk. This phenomenon showed that a slight increase occurred in the accumulation of free fatty acids as a result of spontaneous lipolysis during cold storage. All lactic acid bacteria showed good performance in production of titratable acidity, which increased during fermentation of the milk (fresh and stored milks). Moreover, as the storage time was prolonged, more free fatty acid accumulation was obtained from the fermentation of the cold-stored milk by the investigated lactic acid bacteria. The control milk, which was without lactic acid bacteria, showed no change in the accumulation of free fatty acid during fermentation. From this result, it can be suggested that longer cold-storage time can induce higher free fatty acid accumulation in milk by lactic acid bacteria.
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Three M17 agar media for the enumeration of Streptococcus thermophilus in fermented dairy products, such as yogurt and other commercial fermented milk, were compared: CM785 Oxoid®, 15108 Merck®, and a M17 made in the laboratory. In all cases, the highest counts were taken on Oxoid® medium. The difference between the averages of the counts on the Oxoid® M17 and the laboratory-made M17 is significant, (P ≤ 0.05). However, the difference between the counts on the Oxoid® and Merck® media is not significant.
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Effects of various antibiotics and of addition of various sugars as sole carbon source to minimal nutrient agar base were studied in order to develop a simple and reliable method for selective enumeration of L acidophilus in yogurt containing Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium spp. Application of antibiotics was found to be unsuitable for selective enumeration of L acidophilus. Use of salicin as a sole carbon source in the minimal nutrient base medium was found to suppress the growth of all the 4 groups of bacteria studied except that of L. acidophilus. Salicin medium was successfully used for selective enumeration of L acidophilus from pure cultures and from yogurts containing the 4 groups of lactic acid bacteria.
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Fruit-flavoured yoghurt was made by adding 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% mulberry pekmez (MP) into milk. The effects of the MP on the quality and fermentation process of the yoghurt were determined. The titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, whey separation and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts were determined at weekly intervals for 28 days. The pH range of the MP yoghurts was 4.65–5.57 and the pH of the plain yoghurt was 4.47 (P < 0.05). The addition of MP led to an increase in the fermentation time and a decrease in the viscosity of the yoghurts. Statistically significant differences were found between the plain and MP yoghurts in terms of pH (4.01 and 4.35), viscosity (5429 and 3175 cP) and number of LAB (7.07 and 6.48 log cfu). During storage, the titratable acidity, viscosity and LAB counts of MP yoghurts were lower and the whey separations higher than those of controls.
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The benefits of probiotics have been recognized and explored for over a century. The pioneering work of Tissier and Moro was elaborated in the Metchnikoff's theory of longevity and converted into commercial reality by Shirota and Kellogg in 1930s and German nutritionists with their probiotic therapy in 1950s. Our knowledge about probiotics and their interactions with the host has grown ever since and many potential and even proven mechanisms of action for probiotics have recently been published. Definitely, there is enough clinical evidence to support certain health claims attributed to selected strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. However, substantial work needs to be done to substantiate other potentially beneficial properties including immunomodulation, hypocholesterolemic and anticarcinogenic effects. The aim of this review is to pay the tribute to pioneers in the field and provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about probiotics and their impact on our well-being.
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The production of free fatty acids (FFAs) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei during fermentation and 10d of storage at 4°C was evaluated and compared with control dahi. The total FFAs in terms of acid degree values significantly increased during fermentation and storage of both types of dahi samples. In addition, gas chromatographic analysis of FFAs showed that butyric and linoleic acids increased in the probiotic dahi compared to control dahi during fermentation and storage. Furthermore, the CLA content increased in probiotic dahi during fermentation and remained stable during storage, whereas no change was observed in the control dahi. Probiotic lactobacilli appeared to increase the production of FFAs by lipolysis of milk fat, and produced CLA by using internal linoleic acid, which may confer nutritional and therapeutical value to the product.
Article
The viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10, Bifidobacterium lactis LAFTI® B94, and L. paracasei LAFTI® L26 and their proteolytic activities were assessed in yoghurt at different termination pH of 4.45, 4.50, 4.55, and 4.60 in the presence of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus Lb1466 and Streptococcus thermophilus St1342 during 28 days of storage at 4°C. All strains achieved the recommended level of 6.00logcfug−1 of the product with L. acidophilus LAFTI® L10 and L. paracasei LAFTI® L26 exceeding the number to 8.00 and 7.00logcfug−1, respectively. Lactobacilli strains showed a good cellular stability maintaining constant concentration throughout storage period regardless of termination pH. On the other hand, the cell counts of B. lactis LAFTI® B94 decreased by one log cycle at the end of storage. The presence of probiotic organisms enhanced proteolysis significantly in comparison with the control batch containing L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus Lb1466 and S. thermophilus St1342 only. The proteolytic activity varied due to termination pH, but also appeared to be strain related. The increased proteolysis improved survival of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus Lb1466 during storage resulting in lowering of pH and production of higher levels of organic acids, which might have caused the low cell counts for B. lactis LAFTI® B94.
Article
The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers present in milk fat have a high health amelioration potential. Their high prevalence in fat of ruminants and in milk and dairy products has been described and confirmed over many years. The CLA isomers are formed during biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in the rumen and also through conversion of vaccenic acid in the mammary gland. In addition, several strains of Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium, Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus are able to form CLA from linoleic acid and thus could be used to increase the CLA level in fermented dairy products such as yoghurt and cheese. It appears likely that lactic acid bacteria and especially propionibacteria can form CLA during cheese ripening because free linoleic acid is formed in the ripening process. However, for the time being the reviewed data allow no final conclusion on whether these increased levels of CLA are mainly due to formation by microorganisms, or due to cattle feed or breed. Further studies including all these parameters will be necessary to elucidate the potential role of starter cultures to achieve physiologically relevant CLA levels in dairy products. It appears that contribution of presently used dairy starter bacteria to increased CLA content in cheese is relatively minor.
Article
The effect of commercial fruit preparations (mango, mixed berry, passion fruit and strawberry) on the viability of probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis LAFTI® B94 in stirred yogurts during storage (35 days) at refrigerated temperature (4°C) was evaluated. The results showed that addition of either 5 or 10g/100g fruit preparations had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the viability of the two probiotic strains except on L. acidophilus LAFTI L10 yogurt with 10g/100g passion fruit or mixed berry. After the addition of fruit preparation, 96% of the yogurts incorporated with fruit preparation did not exhibit a greater loss in the viability of probiotic bacteria compared to plain yogurt during the storage period. A correlation between the post-storage pH in yogurts and the survival of probiotic bacteria was observed. All the yogurts, however, contained the recommended levels of (106–107cfu/g) probiotic bacteria at the end of 35-day shelf life.
Article
Ever-growing consumer demand for convenience, combined with a healthy diet and preference for natural ingredients has led to a growth in functional beverage markets. Current trends and changing consumer needs indicate a great opportunity for innovations and developments in fermented milks. Scientific and clinical evidence is also mounting to corroborate the consumer perception of health from fermented milks. Probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics and associated ingredients also add an attractive dimension to cultured dairy products. Also, owing to expanding market share and size of dairy companies, there has been a reduction of clearly structured markets i.e. merging of dairy products and fruit beverage markets with introduction of `juiceceuticals' like fruit-yogurt beverages that are typical example of hybrid dairy products offering health, flavour and convenience. Another potential growth area for fermented milks includes added-value products such as low calorie, reduced-fat varieties and those fortified with physiologically active ingredients including fibers, phytosterols, omega-3-fatty acids, whey based ingredients, antioxidant vitamins, isoflavones that provide specific health benefits beyond basic nutrition. World over efforts have been devoted to develop fermented milks containing certain nonconventional food sources like soybeans and millets and convert them to more acceptable and palatable form thus producing low cost, nutritious fermented foods especially for developing and underdeveloped nations where malnutrition exists. Furthermore, use of biopreservatives and certain innovative technologies like membrane processing, high pressure processing and carbonation lead to milk fermentation under predictable, controllable and precise conditions to yield hygienic fermented milks of high nutritive value.
Article
The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of yogurt containing açaí pulp as a food carrier of probiotic cultures. Probiotic yogurts containing increasing amounts of açaí pulp (3, 5 and 7%) were processed and submitted to a physicochemical analysis and viable microbial count during refrigerated storage. In general, all the physicochemical parameters showed variations proportional to the amount of açaí pulp in the product formulation. Probiotic activity was verified throughout refrigerated storage for all the products, although there was a fall of one logarithmic cycle for both micro-organisms during this period (107–108 CFU/mL).
Article
We examined the effect of storage time on culture viability and some rheological properties (yield stress, storage modulus, loss modulus, linear viscoelastic region, structural recuperation and firmness) of fermented milk made with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis in coculture with Streptococcus thermophilus (ST). Acidification profiles and factors that affect viability (postfermentation acidification, acidity and dissolved oxygen) were also studied during 35 days at 4C. Fermented milk prepared with a coculture of ST and Bifidobacterium lactis gave the most constant rheological behavior and the best cell viability during cold storage; it was superior to ST plus LA for probiotic fermented milk production. Probiotic cultures should grow quickly in milk, provide adequate sensory and rheological properties to the product, and remain viable during storage. Commercially, it is very common to use yogurt starter culture (i.e. Streptococcus thermophilus[ST] and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus) in combination with the probiotic bacteria in order to reduce fermentation time. However, LB tends to post acidify fermented milk, which reduces the viability of the probiotic bacteria; thus, it is recommended to use starter cultures devoid of this species. We found that the technological properties and the viability of the probiotic bacterium Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BL O4 in coculture with ST make it suitable for probiotic fermented milk production; it produces rheological characteristics similar to those of yogurt.
Article
The objectives of this study were to identify the factors and procedures responsible for increasing the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in fermented milk. Fourteen lactic acid bacteria were screened for CLA-producing ability using sunflower oil (containing 70% linoleic acid) as a substrate. Among the screened strains, Lactococcus lactis I-01 showed the highest CLA-producing ability. The optimal concentration of sunflower oil for CLA production was 0.1 g/L in whole milk, which accounted for 0.25% of total milk fat. Our results demonstrated that CLA formation in fermented milk could be affected by numerous factors such as bacterial strain, cell number, optimal substrate concentration, and the period of incubation at neutral pH.
Article
The establishment of the intestinal microflora, and probiotic bacteria, may control the inflammatory conditions in the gut. As polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) possess antimicrobial activities, they may deter the action of probiotics. We assessed whether free linoleic, γ-linolenic, arachidonic, α-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids at physiological concentrations in the growth media would influence the growth and adhesion of Lactobacillus GG (probiotic), Lactobacillus casei Shirota (probiotic) and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (dairy strain). Higher concentrations of PUFA (10–40 μg PUFA ml−1) inhibited growth and mucus adhesion of all tested bacterial strains, whilst growth and mucus adhesion of L. casei Shirota was promoted by low concentrations of γ-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid (at 5 μg ml−1), respectively. PUFA also altered bacterial adhesion sites on Caco-2 cells. Caco-2 cells grown in the presence of arachidonic acid were less adhered to by all three bacterial strains. Yet, L. casei Shirota adhered better on Caco-2 cells grown in the presence of α-linolenic acid. As the adhesion to mucosal surfaces is pivotal in health promoting effects by probiotics, our results indicate that the action of probiotics in the gut may be modulated by dietary PUFA.
Article
Fruit yogurt was prepared by adding concentrated grape juice (pekmez) CGJ, to milk. Optimum CGJ concentration and its influence on quality and fermentation process of yogurt were evaluated. The pH, titratable acidity, protein content, viscosity, whey syneresis, starter bacteria, mold and yeast counts were determined weekly at 4°C for 1 month. Addition of 10% CGJ provided desired sweetness. After 4h incubation of 5–10–15% CGJ-added yogurts the pH was 4.44, 4.98 and 5.90, respectively, and the control was pH 4.26. CGJ addition increased fermentation time and decreased viscosity. During storage, acidity of 10% CGJ-added yogurt remained lower (P<0.05) than controls. CGJ did not affect (P>0.05) protein content and molds or yeasts were not detected.
Article
Crude and refined hazelnut oils from different countries were characterised by major and minor compounds. Fatty acids, triacylglycerides, waxes, sterols, methyl-sterols, terpenic and aliphatic alcohols, tocopherols, tocotrienols and hydrocarbons were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The levels of these chemical compounds in hazelnut oils together with the equivalent carbon numbers and triacylglyceride carbon numbers, were compared with the results of analyses of samples of other vegetable oils. The statistical procedure of cluster analysis was used to characterise hazelnut oils versus other edible oils.
Article
The growth and metabolism of two probiotic organisms (L. acidophilus LAFTI® L10 and Lactobacillus casei LAFTI® L26) and a regular yoghurt culture (L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus Lb1466 and Streptococcus thermophilus St1342) were studied in yoghurt containing 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% (w/v) of high amylose corn starch powder (Hi-maize®) or inulin. Viable cell counts of probiotic organisms, their metabolites and proteolytic activities, and viscosity of the yoghurts were determined during refrigerated storage for 28 d at 4 oC. In the presence of inulin, cultures showed better retention of viability (8.0 log cfu g−1) in comparison with that of Hi-maize, which had a reduction by one log cycle. Lower concentrations of 0.5–1.0% Hi-maize improved (P<0.05) the production of propionic acid and also increased proteolytic activity of probiotic organisms substantially. A greater release of free amino acids may have sustained better growth of the organisms in yoghurts. Supplementation with either Hi-maize or inulin increased the viscosity of probiotic yoghurts significantly (P<0.05).
Article
A survey was carried out to determine the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in various dairy products. The only detected CLA isomer was cis-9trans-11 linoleic acid. Commercial samples of yoghurt, fermented milk and cheese were analyzed: 16 standard yoghurts, 6 organic yoghurts, 8 mountain pasture yoghurts, 5 sheep yoghurts, 8 probiotic yoghurts, 8 fermented milk samples, 6 fermented milk samples from mountain pastures, 30 cow cheeses (9 Alpine cheeses, 8 Swiss Emmental, 8 Fontina Valdostana, 5 Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano), 12 ewe cheeses (Pecorino) and 8 goat cheeses. The fatty acid composition and fat content were also assessed. Fontina Valdostana had the highest amount of CLA (8.11 mg/g fat), followed by Pecorino cheese (7.77 mg/g fat), Swiss Emmental (7.66 mg/g fat) and sheep yoghurt (6.92 mg/g fat). High levels of CLA were also found in fermented milk and yoghurt of mountain pasture and organic yoghurt (6.15, 6.06 and 6.05 mg/g fat, respectively). The animal diet, specific characteristics of the milk used in manufacturing, with special reference to the species and CLA content of the milk, processing and production methods play an important role in setting the CLA levels in dairy products.
Article
Probiotics could represent an effective alternative to the use of synthetic substances in nutrition and medicine. The data concerning the efficacy of probiotics are often contradictory and it will be important to search for ways to improve their efficacy. In order to enhance the efficacy of probiotics, it is necessary to obtain additional knowledge on their mode of action. The efficacy of probiotics may be potentiated by the several methods: the selection of more efficient strains; gene manipulation; the combination of several strains; and the combination of probiotics and synergistically acting components. This review focuses on the enhancement of the efficacy of probiotics by their combination with synergistically acting components of natural origin. This approach seems to be the best way of potentiating the efficacy of probiotics and is widely used in practise. By the above-mentioned method, more effective probiotic preparations will be developed.
Article
Nine probiotic lactobacilli strains were evaluated for their ability to survive in a commercial fruit drink stored at 4 °C for up to 80 days. The pH of the drink was 4.2, which enabled good stability of many cultures during storage. Lactobacillus rhamnosus seemed more stable than Lactobacillus acidophilus in this medium, but viability was still mostly strain dependent. Spectrophotometry studies showed that the cultures generally had higher growth rates as pH increased from 3.8 to 4.2. There was a correlation (P = 0.037) between stability during storage in the drink and the ability of the strains to grow at pH 4.2, but that the relationship was not strong (R2 = 0.49). Four strains were selected to study their resistance to simulated gastro-intestinal (GI) conditions. Fresh cultures were compared to those obtained after 35 days of storage at 4 °C. Viability in presence of 0.3% bile salts or of pancreatic enzymes was not affected by previous refrigerated storage. However, the cultures which were tested after having been stored for 35 days at 4 °C in the fruit drink had on the average 1.2 log higher viability losses than the fresh cultures when exposed to a 2 h incubation at pH 2.0 to simulate a gastric stress.
Article
This study investigates the kinetics of acidification, fatty acid (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, C18:2 c9, t11) content in fermented milks prepared from organic and conventional milk. Fermented milks were manufactured with five mixed cultures: four different strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BL04, B94, BB12 and HN019) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB340, in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus TA040. The composition of milk was evaluated, and the kinetics of acidification was followed by continuous pH measurement using the Cinac system. The profile of FA, including CLA, was analyzed by gas chromatography. The chemical composition of conventional and organic milk was similar, with the exception of protein and Fe, the concentrations of which were higher in the organic milk. The rate of acidification was significantly influenced by the type of milk and the bacterial strain used. Co-cultures St-HN019 and St-BB12 showed higher maximal acidification rates in both milks. Final counts of S. thermophilus (9.0-10.1 log10 colony forming units (CFU)·mL-1), Lactobacillus bulgaricus (8.2-8.5 log 10 CFU·mL-1) and B. animalis subsp. lactis strains (8.3-9.3 log10 CFU·mL-1) did not differ significantly in either milk. Unexpectedly, all fermented organic milks contained significantly higher amounts of CLA than the same milk before fermentation, whereas CLA amounts did not change during fermentation of conventional milk. Regardless of the type of milk, CLA was found to be significantly positively correlated with trans-vaccenic acid and negatively correlated with linoleic acid. Moreover, the CLA contents were significantly higher in fermented milks showing shorter fermentation times.