Article

Selective influences an morphological variation amongst Pacific Homo sapiens

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

The large range of human morphological variation found in the Pacific is usually ascribed to settlement out of southeast Asia by several “waves” of people of differing physical form. However, a body heat balance analysis suggests that much of the observed variation in body form is a consequence of varying environments within the Pacific. Inland people on large islands maintained an appropriately smaller body form for their true tropical environment. An increasingly large and muscular body mirrors increasing involvement with the sea, because this maritime environment, with its frequent combination of wind and wet, was effectively the coldest of all global climates for neolithic peoples. Such adaptation, along with the processes of genetic drift in this region of large and small islands, sufficiently accounts for the great range of phenotypic variation.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... This alternative prospect, considering a modification/alteration of the initial morphology of the population associated with the Lapita culture as occurring during the Lapita period rather than immediately afterward, reconciles the contradictory archaeological and bioarchaeological views on the origins of Polynesians better than other explanations such as selection, adaptation, secular change, bottleneck, and founder effect (60,61), or the addition of a significant later Asiatic migration via Micronesia (16,62). The late Lapita individuals that have been the subject of study before the discovery of the Teouma site are simply not representative of the biology of the initial Lapita dispersal through Remote Oceania into Polynesia. ...
Article
Full-text available
With a cultural and linguistic origin in Island Southeast Asia the Lapita expansion is thought to have led ultimately to the Polynesian settlement of the east Polynesian region after a time of mixing/integration in north Melanesia and a nearly 2,000-y pause in West Polynesia. One of the major achievements of recent Lapita research in Vanuatu has been the discovery of the oldest cemetery found so far in the Pacific at Teouma on the south coast of Efate Island, opening up new prospects for the biological definition of the early settlers of the archipelago and of Remote Oceania in general. Using craniometric evidence from the skeletons in conjunction with archaeological data, we discuss here four debated issues: the Lapita–Asian connection, the degree of admixture, the Lapita–Polynesian connection, and the question of secondary population movement into Remote Oceania.
... This alternative prospect, considering a modification/alteration of the initial morphology of the population associated with the Lapita culture as occurring during the Lapita period rather than immediately afterward, reconciles the contradictory archaeological and bioarchaeological views on the origins of Polynesians better than other explanations such as selection, adaptation, secular change, bottleneck, and founder effect (60,61), or the addition of a significant later Asiatic migration via Micronesia (16,62). The late Lapita individuals that have been the subject of study before the discovery of the Teouma site are simply not representative of the biology of the initial Lapita dispersal through Remote Oceania into Polynesia. ...
Article
Full-text available
With a cultural and linguistic origin in Island Southeast Asia the Lapita expansion is thought to have led ultimately to the Polynesian settlement of the east Polynesian region after a time of mixing/integration in north Melanesia and a nearly 2,000-y pause in West Polynesia. One of the major achievements of recent Lapita research in Vanuatu has been the discovery of the oldest cemetery found so far in the Pacific at Teouma on the south coast of Efate Island, opening up new prospects for the biological definition of the early settlers of the archipelago and of Remote Oceania in general. Using craniometric evidence from the skeletons in conjunction with archaeological data, we discuss here four debated issues: the Lapita-Asian connection, the degree of admixture, the Lapita-Polynesian connection, and the question of secondary population movement into Remote Oceania.
... In essence, in these situations we are interested in what has been termed "basal body mass" in contemporary populations ( Hruschka, Hadley, & Brewis, 2014), i.e., body mass in early adulthood before later accumulation of excess body fat due to ageing and lifestyle factors, or short term health variability. Such fluctuations in body mass are largely driven by changes in fat mass, which is especially plastic and sensitive to short term fluctuations in individual diet and health ( Wells 2010), while lean mass appears to be less plastic and potentially subject to unique selective pressures ( Hardikar et al. 2015;Houghton 1991 ( Buckberry 2015;Falys, Schutkowski, & Weston, 2006;Jackes 2000; Mays 2015) and age-related aggregation of excess mass likely varies among populations, controlling for factors such as age-related changes in body mass currently has limited potential. However, the fact that various studies indicate that skeletal dimensions best reflect body mass, and more precisely lean mass, in early adulthood drastically reduces the introduction of such noise into the data on early adult body size. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Estimating body mass from skeletal dimensions is widely practiced, but methods for estimating its components (lean and fat mass) are poorly developed. The ability to estimate these characteristics would offer new insights into the evolution of body composition and its variation relative to past and present health. This study investigates the potential of long bone cross-sectional properties as predictors of body, lean, and fat mass. Materials and methods: Humerus, femur and tibia midshaft cross-sectional properties were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography in sample of young adult women (n = 105) characterized by a range of activity levels. Body composition was estimated from bioimpedance analysis. Results: Lean mass correlated most strongly with both upper and lower limb bone properties (r values up to 0.74), while fat mass showed weak correlations (r ≤ 0.29). Estimation equations generated from tibial midshaft properties indicated that lean mass could be estimated relatively reliably, with some improvement using logged data and including bone length in the models (minimum standard error of estimate = 8.9%). Body mass prediction was less reliable and fat mass only poorly predicted (standard errors of estimate ≥11.9% and >33%, respectively). Discussion: Lean mass can be predicted more reliably than body mass from limb bone cross-sectional properties. The results highlight the potential for studying evolutionary trends in lean mass from skeletal remains, and have implications for understanding the relationship between bone morphology and body mass or composition.
... For Pacific Island populations, explanations for the thrifty genotype have been proposed based on body size and composition. Houghton (4) hypothesized that cold, long and inhospitable oceanic voyages gave a survival advantage to those Polynesians with a large body size. A high fat-free mass would generate more heat, and a stocky frame, with a lower surface area to body mass ratio, would minimize heat loss. ...
... while lean mass appears to be less plastic and potentially subject to unique selective pressures (Hardikar et al. 2015;Houghton 1991;Prentice 2008;Steegmann 2007;Stini 1975;Wells 2012a;Wells and Shirley 2016;Wilberfoss 2012). As methods for estimating age at death from adult skeletons remain relatively imprecise (Buckberry 2015;Falys, Schutkowski, & Weston, 2006;Jackes 2000;Mays 2015) and age-related aggregation of excess mass likely varies among populations, controlling for factors such as age-related changes in body mass currently has limited potential. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Estimating body mass from skeletal dimensions is widely practiced, but methods for estimating its components (lean and fat mass) are poorly developed. The ability to estimate these characteristics would offer new insights into the evolution of body composition and its variation relative to past and present health. This study investigates the potential of long bone cross‐sectional properties as predictors of body, lean, and fat mass. Materials and Methods Humerus, femur and tibia midshaft cross‐sectional properties were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography in sample of young adult women (n = 105) characterized by a range of activity levels. Body composition was estimated from bioimpedance analysis. Results Lean mass correlated most strongly with both upper and lower limb bone properties (r values up to 0.74), while fat mass showed weak correlations (r ≤ 0.29). Estimation equations generated from tibial midshaft properties indicated that lean mass could be estimated relatively reliably, with some improvement using logged data and including bone length in the models (minimum standard error of estimate = 8.9%). Body mass prediction was less reliable and fat mass only poorly predicted (standard errors of estimate ≥11.9% and >33%, respectively). Discussion Lean mass can be predicted more reliably than body mass from limb bone cross‐sectional properties. The results highlight the potential for studying evolutionary trends in lean mass from skeletal remains, and have implications for understanding the relationship between bone morphology and body mass or composition.
Chapter
The genesis of bioarchaeology in New Zealand as a discipline is entwined with the fates of the indigenous people of the land, the Māori, and influenced by the relatively short period of non-Māori colonisation. The story of how human skeletal remains (Kōiwi tangata), were treated and used in research by colonial curio hunters and adventurers mirror the treatment and eventual re-empowerment of Māori culture. Human skeletal remains hold a special place in all New Zealanders’ cultural identity but for Māori, are the physical embodiment of their genealogy representing a direct link to the land on which their ancestors lived and died. This chapter briefly reviews the history of biological anthropology as a discipline in New Zealand, outlining history and the legislative and social context of this research. Two case studies of recent bioarchaeology research are presented highlighting the current state of play in the discipline at one institution.
Book
This book tracks the progress of the prehistoric influx of population into the Pacific region, the last set of migrations involved in peopling the planet that saw the colonization of islands stretching across a quarter of the globe: from Madagascar in the west to Easter Island in the east, from Hawaii in the North to New Zealand in the south. The authors use science and mathematics to cast new light on this final human expansion. The book focuses on two undeveloped areas of research, showing how oceanography and global climate change determined the paths, sequence, timing and range of migrations. Though the book has an oceanographic base and Pacific prehistory as its focus, it is interdisciplinary. It was a belief in the power of science to advance other disciplines that prompted its writing, and in the last decade genetic research has established Halmahera, the largest of the Spice Islands, rather than Taiwan as the ancient Polynesian homeland. Taking this as its starting point, the reader is led on a journey of discovery that takes in fields as diverse as oceanography, genetics, geology and vulcanology, ship hydrodynamics, global climate history and palaeodemography. Key themes: Prehistoric migration - West Pacific Warm Pool currents - Primary oceanic routes - Settlement sequence -Transoceanic spice trading - Climate-driven chronology Charles Pearce holds the Thomas Elder Chair of Mathematics, University of Adelaide, Australia. He has been awarded the ANZIAM Medal and the Potts Medal for outstanding contributions to applied and industrial mathematics and to operations research. He is foundation Editor-in-Chief of the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Industrial and Applied Mathematics (ANZIAM Journal) and a member of the editorial boards of a number of international mathematical journals. He has over 300 research publications in the fields of optimization, convex analysis and the probabilistic modelling of physical and biological processes. Frances Pearce, a writer, plant hybridizer and former lecturer from the University of Adelaide, has interests in the areas of prehistory, oceanography, genetics and climate history, particularly in the use of science to illuminate prehistory.
Article
Understanding the play between heredity and environment, and relating it to disease causation, is the task of ecogenetics. Gene-Environment Interactions: Fundamentals of Ecogenetics presents the first comprehensive survey of this discipline, reflecting its relationship with toxicology, epidemiology, pharmacology, public health, and other medical and biological fields. Divided into four sections, the text elucidates key basic and advanced topics: Section 1 covers fundamentals, including the history of the discipline, a discussion of the molecular laboratory tools currently available to assess genotypes, using such measurements in molecular epidemiology studies, and the statistical issues involved in their analysis. Section 2 focuses on a number of key genetic polymorphisms relevant for ecogenetics, including enzymes of phase I and phase II metabolism, enzymes involved in DNA repair, as well as receptors and ion channels. This highlights characteristics of selected, widely studied genotypic/phenotypic differences, and allows discussion of how given genetic variations can influence responses to exogenous chemicals. Section 3 examines gene-environment interactions through a disease-based approach, addressing how genetic polymorphisms can influence susceptibility to various diseases. Chapters cover important disease conditions such as various types of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, chronic pulmonary diseases, infectious diseases, diabetes, and obesity. The final section discusses the ethical, legal, and social issues that arise when investigating and evaluating genetic polymorphisms in human populations, as well as the impact of ecogenetics on risk assessment, regulatory policies, and medicine and public health. Packed with clear examples illustrating concepts, as well as numerous tables and figures, Gene-Environment Interactions: Fundamentals of Ecogenetics is a unique resource for a wide range of physicians, students, and other specialists.
Chapter
IntroductionThrifty Genotype and Phenotype HypothesesEthological ApproachSignificance of AgricultureSignificance of ColonizingSignificance of Social InequalityNew Obesogenic EnvironmentReferences
Article
Physical characteristics of Polynesians have been closely scrutinised in the light of osteology, somatology, human genetics and growth study. It has been proved that the Polynesian physique is very unique in relation to common standards for Homo sapiens, and that their distinctiveness is phenotypically a form of hypermorphism. This Polynesian hypermorphic phenotype may have developed as the result of some evolutionary change like an ecological r-strategic adaptation in the process of colonising uninhabited islands in Oceania. At the same time, a fair number of Polynesian physical characteristics are quite similar to those of Mongoloid populations in Asia proper. This implies that the Polynesian's remote origins were somewhere in Asia, specifically the East China Sea area. Thus Polynesians, while distinctive, should be one of Asiatic Mongoloid populations, who have adapted to Oceanic environments in a very specialised way.
Article
The dental wear and the post-cranial dimensions of the prehistoric dog of New Zealand (kuri) are shown to reflect the Maori environment in which it lived. Midshaft dimensions became smaller and tooth wear advanced in late prehistoric groups. Nutrition is likely to have been the single most important causative factor in the observed temporal shift. The changes match archaeological evidence for a subsistence move by Maori away from large game taxa toward a focus on marine and horticultural products. It is suggested that there is potential for profitable collaboration between zooarchaeologists, studying commensal species, and physical anthropologists involved in the analysis of prehistoric human remains. KEYWORDS: Maori, dog, kuri, skeletal variation, tooth wear, New Zealand.
Chapter
Full-text available
Les échantillons masculins de Nouvelle-Calédonie et des Loyauté, au-delà de leur intégration au groupe de population dit "Australo-Mélanésien", se caractérisent par une similitude morphologique avec les séries de Mélanésie insulaire et surtout avec celles du Vanuatu et de Fidji. Très proches morphologiquement, les échantillons néo-calédonien et loyaltien se distinguent des autres séries mélanésiennes par une plus grande homogénéité et une combinaison de caractères métriques qui leur est propre. Les sujets du nord de la Grande Terre et des îles Loyauté présentent des ressemblances avec les séries australiennes alors que ceux du sud de la Grande Terre se rapprochent des séries de Fidji et de Tonga. Leur position parmi les populations du Pacifique est commentée. (D'après résumé d'auteur)
Article
Full-text available
Tesis de Lic. en Comunicación, Especialidad en Periodismo, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Se presentan ejemplos de síntesis literarias como una propuesta de capacitación con la intención que el periodista de ciencia pueda ser capaz de identificar la ciencia cuando la lee y que logre productos periodísticos de calidad en términos de contenido científico, pero también de tiempo y espacio.
Article
The cranial sensory nerve supply in three skeletal populations, two distinct prehistoric Polynesian groups from New Zealand, the Moriori and Maori, and one contemporary Indian group, are investigated. This paper assesses an aspect of the hypothesis that Polynesian groups have anatomical adaptations that enabled them to survive in a cool and wet environment. To this end the relationship between sensory nerve dimensions were examined, based on the area of cranial nerve foramina, and external environmental temperature. Statistical comparisons between the Polynesians and Indians showed significantly reduced cranial cutaneous sensory nerve foramina size, and therefore diminished facial cutaneous sensory nerve supply in the Polynesians. On this basis it is inferred that sensory supply to the skin of the infracranial body was also lessened. This paper proposes that reduced skin sensory nerve supply was selected as an adaptation to a cool and wet environment, where it acted as a body energy conserving mechanism by delaying the onset of body warming mechanisms.
Article
The descriptive epidemiology of type 2 diabetes and findings from cohort studies suggest that this disorder originates in large part from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Determining the details of these interactions using the nested case-control design may be optimal, but is a long-term and expensive strategy. Quicker and cheaper results may be obtained by studying interaction on the quantitative traits that underlie diabetes; however, the power of such studies to detect interaction is highly dependent on the precision with which non-genetic exposures are measured. Unraveling these interactions will undoubtedly shed light on the etiology of diabetes and will, we hope, lead to opportunities for targeted prevention. Recent studies in high-risk groups such as people with impaired glucose tolerance suggest that the incidence of diabetes can be reduced by more than 50% by interventions aimed at changing dietary and physical activity behavior [39,40]; however, it may be that individuals with a particular genotype are particularly susceptible to the negative metabolic consequences of sedentary living, and that they conversely, therefore, would have most to gain from a targeted preventive intervention program. Understanding how to detect these individuals and which environmental factors a program should attempt to manipulate is a major goal of studies that attempt to unravel gene-environment interaction.
Chapter
Adaptive limits are considered in the context of the abiotic stresses to which organisms are normally exposed. For instance, nutritional stress is common in traditional human societies so that a dominant few survive and the remaining individuals in a population are vulnerable. In animals such channelling of resources can be achieved by complex territorial and social behaviour including sexual selection. Metabolic cost considerations underlie the susceptibility of carriers of sexual ornamental traits to stress from parasites, climate and inadequate nutrition. Individuals that develop the most extreme ornaments may have genes for stress resistance and may be relatively heterozygous. Similarly, genes for stress resistance appear to underlie survival to extreme ages; this leads to a stress theory of ageing. In the adjustment to natural environments, cultural factors can be a complication in human populations. However, in outlier Polynesian populations directly exposed to climatic stress, a body-heat balance analysis indicates that adaptation to extreme environments is a critical determinant of body form. Under these circumstances, genes for stress resistance would be advantageous, but the tradeoff would be reduced fitness in more benign environments. The concept of an energy budget appears in Galton (1874) who appreciated the difficulty in applying such analyses to our own species. Here, the basic tenets of Darwin are considered under a more stressful scenario than is usually assumed. Connections between functional and evolutionary biology emerge from reductionism at this level as well as generalizations across disciplines. This follows from assuming that the target of selection of stress is at the level of energy carriers.
Chapter
The prehistory for the Polynesian peoples sketched in this chapter rests on mounting genetic evidence for a Lapita and Polynesian homeland in the Spice Islands. It rests too on recognition of the basic importance to the successful colonization of the Pacific of the genetic acquisition of cold resistance and famine resistance which conferred some protection against hypothermia. We argue that fundamental changes to the Spice Islanders’ physiology and an evolution of maritime skills and technologies accompanied their progression from local to regional to international spice trading. That the ancestors of the Lapita and Polynesian peoples inhabited the Spice Islands suggests a coherent relationship in their prehistory between economics, geography, history and genetics. This relationship is explored in this chapter.
Article
Objectives: This study investigates allometric changes in shoulder breadths relative to changes in stature arising from rapidly changing developmental circumstances within 107 Taiwanese families. It speaks to broader issues related to the extent of phenotypic plasticity of body breadths humans are capable of in response to reductions in developmental stressors. Methods: An examination of relationships between shoulder breadth and height within individuals in each generation was followed by evaluation of patterns of difference between same-sex parent-offspring pairs in height and shoulder breadth. Results: Height was similarly positively correlated with shoulder breadth within fathers, mothers, sons, and daughters (P ≤ 0.002). Variance accounted for ranged from an adjusted R(2) of 0.201 among fathers to 0.151 for sons, with mothers' and daughters' values being 0.187 and 0.181, respectively. Comparisons of differences within families indicate that parents who were shorter than their same-sex offspring also tended to have modestly narrower biacromial breadths (father-son pairs: adjusted R(2) = 0.112; t = 2.82, P = .007; mother-daughter pairs: adjusted R(2) = 0.135; t = 2.97, P = 0.005). Conclusions: Taken as a whole, results here support the view that secular changes in stature are not accompanied by similar changes in body breadths, perhaps so that responses to developmental environmental improvements do not alter thermoregulatory equilibria that reflect long-term evolutionary processes. These results indirectly constrain plausible hypotheses about how ancestors of Austronesian speakers altered their body size and shape as they voyaged to Fiji, Western Polynesia, and beyond.
Book
Disseminating what is currently known about the skeletal biology of the ancient Rapanui and placing it within the wider context of Polynesian skeletal variation, this volume is the culmination of over thirty years of research into the remotely inhabited Easter Island. Compiling osteological data deriving from Rapanui skeletal remains into one succinct analysis, this book demonstrates how the application of modern skeletal biology research techniques can effectively be employed to address questions of human population origins and microevolution. Craniometrics and DNA analysis are used to provide indications as to Rapanui ancestral lineage. Evidence is presented in a user-friendly manner to allow researchers and graduates to critically analyse the current knowledge of prehistoric Rapanui skeletal variation. An important resource providing valuable evidence from human biology that modifies earlier archaeological and cultural anthropological views, this book will stimulate further research into the Rapanui. Provides a comprehensive analysis of Rapanui prehistory, useful for archaeologists, bioarchaeologists and researchers interested in the history of Easter Island Biological evidence is presented in a succinct and easy to read manner, allowing researchers to further evaluate preconceptions originating from cultural anthropology and folklore Cranial differences are combined with DNA evidence to examine the genetic relationships between different Rapanui tribes.
Article
Full-text available
The Marquesas Islands have traditionally been divided into a northwestern and a southeastern group, a division which reflects language dialect differences. Additionally, archaeological studies have also suggested that differences in material culture existed between the northwestern and southeastern islands. This study examines Marquesan cranial discrete and metric traits to evaluate the level of intra-archipelago heterogeneity, and to determine if a northwest/southeast division is evident cranially.
Article
Full-text available
The dwarfing of large mammals on islands occurred repeatedly in the Pleistocene. Elephants, deer, hippopotami and other species became dwarfed on islands in Indonesia, the Mediterranean, the east Pacific and elsewhere. In most cases, the full-sized ancestral form can be recognized among the adjacent mainland fauna, but evolutionary rates cannot be estimated because the entry of the ancestor onto the island, and appearance of the dwarf form, are poorly dated. Here I give the first example in which the island dwarf is well dated, the full-sized ancestor is found in demonstrably older deposits on the island, and a good estimate can be made for the duration of the isolation leading to dwarfing. In the Last Interglacial, red deer on Jersey, Channel Islands, became reduced to one sixth of their body weight in less than six thousand years.
Article
Recent work on the basal metabolism of infants and adults has revived interest in Rubner's law that heat production in different individuals and species of animals is proportional to the surface area. This law was first definitely formulated by Rubner¹ in 1883, although suggested by Bergman² many years before. At the time the experimental work in support of this theory was done no record was kept of body movements and men and animals were allowed to move during the periods of investigation. The average heat production per square meter of body surface was about 1,000 calories per day. In modern work, where the influence of muscular activity is absolutely excluded, the figure is in the neighborhood of 830 calories per square meter per day, as has been shown in Paper 4 of this series. With these new figures it is not unnatural that many
Article
A decision-theoretic approach is used to broaden the fitness set theory of evolution in heterogeneous environments. In previous formulations of fitness set theory, the optimum population always maximized some sort of average fitness across the environmental array with each environment being weighted solely by its actual frequency. An alternative definition of optimum is given in which minimum fitness is maximized instead of average fitness. This Maximin population is also buffered against perturbations in the environmental array (fitness homeostasis) and tends to have equal fitness in most environments (large niche breadth), particularly when the worst conditions the population faces are due to environmental uncertainty. A more generalized definition of optimum takes a mixture of these two above-mentioned populations. In such a mixture optimum, environments are weighted both by their actual frequencies and by their fitness effects. An even weaker definition of optimum is then used to create a set of admissible populations. Theorems are given which show polymorphic populations are not favored on convex fitness sets, but polymorphic optimum populations are possible on concave fitness sets in a fine-grained environment. Furthermore, a generalized adaptive function is found which identifies all possible admissible populations. This adaptive function is generalized further by incorporating a continuous grain parameter which allows not only fine- and coarse-grained environments, but also environments with grain intermediate between fine and coarse and environments with grain coarser than coarse. Many of these results are also extended to the case in which environmental heterogeneity is continuous and not discrete.
Article
As it has been shown long ago by physicists, the volume/surface ratio influences the cooling of bodies. Unfortunately, the volume of living things in most cases is difficult to assess. Therefore it can be reasonably replaced by body-weight, as it is usual in biological work. A second ratio, total limbs length/body weight, also plays an obvious role in body-heat regulation. Both ratios were studied experimentally on more than 100 men, in a hot room or on a tread-mill. On the other hand they were studied statistically on many different populations belonging to all the major divisions of the human species. These ratios are not the cornerstone of body-heat regulation, but both influence it. As a general tendency, body-weight/body-surface ratio decreases in warm climates, whereas limbs-length/body weight ratio increases. These geographical differences may be considered as ecological gradients related to body-heat regulation. These gradients do not exactly follow latitudes, because other factors, such as altitude, must be also taken into account. Perhaps there are several similar gradients, represented by different figures in different branches of human species. Some small gradient irrégularities can probably be explained by sampling errors: adaptation is a statistical phenomenon and small samples may sometimes distort a gradient's orderliness. Finally, body-weight/body-surface ratio is to some extent related to age. As we have shown it elsewhere, some numerical "inconsistencies" disappear if the age influence is statistically eliminated. Unfortunately, this correction is often impossible because in many populations the exact age of adult subjects is unknown.
This paper examines genetic diversity on Karkar Island, Papua New Guinea, and its relation to patterns of migration within and between the two linguistic groups (Waskia and Takia) on the island. Exchange between linguistic groups is found to be small: less than 3% of married individuals living in one linguistic group were born in the other. There is evidence of a secular trend in movement with significantly greater proportions of younger married individuals living outside their village group of birth. The migration patterns are examined by principal coordinate analysis of kinship coefficients derived from three sets of migration probabilities: ages 15-29, 30-44, 45 and over. For all three age groups the linguistic division is preserved and there is broad agreement between relatedness and the geographical arrangement of the village groups. The 22 polymorphic genetic systems examined show considerable diversity, most of which is within or between village groups in the same linguistic division. The greater level of diversity between Takia groups is consistent with their greater isolation from one another. Genetic distances between village groups show good agreement with geographical distances and there is no overlap between Waskia and Takia. The present-day genetic structure of Karkar Island can be interpreted as being largely the result of the interplay of migration and drift processes. The paper considers the use of analyses of this kind in establishing the magnitude and role of evolutionary forces operating on the genetic structure of human populations and the problems of unravelling rigorously and in detail the historical development of this structure.
Article
The growth and somatotype patterns of Manus children, Territory of Papua and New Guinea, reflected in anthropometric measurements and somatotype photographs, is reported for 438 children, ranging from 15 months of age to maturity. Somatotype distributions and individual somatotype photographs indicate little difference between boys and girls from age 1 to 4 years; between age 5 and 9 years boys shift toward higher second component ratings; between age 10 and 18 years boys shift toward higher second and third component ratings, while girls shift toward higher first and third component ratings. Four sample somatotype photographs are representative of the population at age 10 and 14 years, and show age and sex characters easily noted visually. Comparison of height, weight and subscapula skinfold values show that the Manus children resemble the Kaiapit and Bundi children of the New Guinea highlands populations reported by Malcolm in the form of their growth curves but not in growth rates. Manus children grow more slowly than the British, but faster than the Kaiapit and Bundi children. While low skinfold values and height/weight ratios derived from means for height and weight suggest somatotypic similarity of the Manus, Kaiapit and Bundi populations, somatotype photographs are needed for confirmation. Lacking historical information and genetic evidence, we can speculare that diet, nutrition, climate and perhaps physical activity are factors which influence the growth patterns of these populations. The protein intake derived from fish and other seafood may be an important factor in the relatively fast growth and earlier maturation of the Manus. Malcolm thinks that low protein intake plays an important role with the Kaiapit and Bundi, but does not rule out survival value of slow growth and short stature.
Article
Red cell antigen, serum protein and red cell enzyme groups were determined for a series of 1,821 individuals belonging to six language families in Western New Guinea. Three of the language families represent groupings of languages spoken by people in the swampy coastal plain of south central Western New Guinea, two belong to the Central Highlands and one to the Lake Plain area near the confluence of the Idenburg and Rouffaer Rivers.The distribution of genetic markers reveals similarities with other parts of New Guinea. The A2 allele is absent in the ABO system, the frequency of Ns in the MNS system is very high as is the R1 (CDe) allele in the Rh system. Hp1 frequencies are high, and the transferrin allele TfD1 is present as in other parts of New Guinea. In the red cell enzyme systems several alleles were detected which are characteristic of Papuan, and in some cases other Melanesian populations: these include MDH3, PGK4, PGK2, PGM92, PGM102, as well as some very restricted alleles such as Peptidase B6 and Pep B2.Three indices of genetic distance were computed. The most striking results are the genetic closeness of the Dani and Moni populations from the Central Highlands to the Asmat on the southern coastal plain, and the relative remoteness of the Awyu from the other south coastal populations. The results are discussed in terms of recent theories on the origin and dispersal of Papuan languages.
Article
DNA polymorphisms and copy-number variants of alpha-, zeta-, and gamma-globin genes have been studied in seven Micronesian island populations and have been compared with those in populations from Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. Micronesians are not significantly different from Polynesians at these loci and appear to be intermediate between Southeast Asians and Melanesians. There is evidence of significant Melanesian input into the Micronesian gene pool and of substantial proto-Polynesian contact with Melanesia.
Article
The Polynesian people who settled a wide area of the tropical Pacific have a large and muscular body phenotype that appears to contradict the classical biological rules of Bergmann and Allen. However, a scrutiny of the conditions actually experienced by these canoe voyagers and small-island dwellers suggests that in reality the oceanic environment is labile and frequently very cold, and from it tribal technology offered little protection. The Polynesian phenotype is considered to be appropriate to, and have undergone selection for, this oceanic environment.
Article
Hypochromic anaemia is very common among the island populations of Vanuatu in the South-West Pacific. Results of a large-scale survey show that, unexpectedly, this form of anaemia is seldom due to iron deficiency or coexistent parasitic disease. Rather, it results from a previously unsuspected high incidence of alpha-thalassaemia which has been identified only by application of DNA analysis to the populations studied. These findings suggest that hypochromic anaemia in tropical or subtropical populations should not necessarily be attributed to iron deficiency; detailed studies of iron status should be carried out before major dietary changes or fortification of food with iron are implemented.
Article
Experiments similar to those establishing the concepts of wind chill have been done with bare and "clothed" cylinders and when the clothing was wet at temperatures above and below freezing. Clothing prevented the heat loss that was associated with increased wind velocity in the bare cylinder. With wet clothing, evaporation increased with wind velocity but heat loss did not, and raincoats or freezing markedly reduced wet heat loss. The concept of wind chill applies only to unprotected objects.
Article
A survey to assess the thermal stress experienced by New Guinea villagers during everyday life was conducted on about 30 adults of each sex at each of two places - the villages of Kaul, on Karkar Island, and Lufa in the highlands. An observer accompanied each subject throughout the day, continuously recording his activity, his adjustments of clothing, and the time he spent in sunshine and in shade. Every 20 min, measurements of air temperature, humidity, and wind speed, and the mean radiant temperature in sunshine and shade, were made near the subject. Air temperature in the villagers' houses was continuously recorded by thermograph. A preliminary analysis of the results indicates that people at Lufa were exposed to lower air temperature, humidity, and wind speed, but greater radiant heat, than those at Kaul. The average thermal stress, as calculated by the method of Belding & Hatch, was only slightly less at Lufa than at Kaul. At Kaul the air temperature indoors was much the same as that outdoors, but at Lufa it was 2 ^circC higher than outdoors. Air temperature and mean radiant temperature at Kaul were considerably higher in houses built of galvanized iron than in those of traditional bush materials. Men working in a copra drier were intermittently exposed to air temperatures over 71 ^circC, and to globe-thermometer temperatures as high as 110 ^circC. Kaul people engaged in their normal pursuits were found to lose an average of 2196 g of sweat in 7.5 h and to replace about half of it by drinking, thus incurring a fluid deficit of 1172 g, equivalent to 2.1% of body mass.
Article
Body-temperature regulation has been studied in two communities in New Guinea. On Karkar Island in the hotter coastal region, 40 young adult males and the same number of young female villagers, together with 39 plantation workers and 14 Europeans, were examined. At Lufa, near Goroka, in the cooler and drier highlands, 30 male and 25 female adult villagers, together with 36 older people, were investigated. Temperature regulation was studied using an air-conditioned bed in which the subjects received standardized exposures to cool and warm environments and the sweating response was measured during controlled hyperthermia at 38 ^circC. The results did not reveal any important difference in response between the coastal villagers and the highland people. The Europeans living on Karkar Island had the high sweating capacity which is characteristic of the acclimatized European, whereas the sweat rates of the New Guinea people were closely comparable to the level for an unacclimatized European. Comparison of the two sexes showed the lower sweat rates and the pattern of deep body and skin temperature changes found in women in previous studies using this technique. The changes in deep body temperature, skin temperature, blood flow and heart rate during the successive periods of exposure to a thermally neutral climate, with cooling and during rewarming, do not indicate that the indigenes of New Guinea utilize the vasomotor control mechanism more efficiently than Europeans.
Article
Child growth, adult physique and somatic changes in old age are compared in the two populations by means of a cross-sectional survey. The results indicate that the physique of the Lufa Highlanders has features in common with high-altitude populations. Throughout the growth period the Lufa people are heavier, more muscular and skeletally more robust than the Karkar Islanders. Maturity is reached earlier in the coastal population and the close relation between adult height, child growth rate and maturity observed in some parts of New Guinea, including Lufa, does not apply to the island community. The two populations are similar in adult height but differ significantly in body proportions and in dimensions of the head and face. Ageing proceeds rapidly after the third decade and the effects appear with greater uniformity than in Western populations. Decrease in body mass is particularly striking. Physiological and pathological ageing together with secular trends contribute to the variation in anthropometric characteristics with age, although the relative contributions of these phenomena appear to differ in the two populations.
Article
As part of a multidisciplinary survey of populations in the Banks and Torres Islands of Vanuatu and the Southern and Central Districts of the Solomon Islands, nearly 2,400 persons have been tested for ABO blood groups and a number of serum protein and red cell enzyme genetic marker systems. For the ABO system, the populations are characterized in general by high gene O and low gene B frequencies except in two of the Polynesian Outlier Islands, Rennell and Bellona, which have high frequencies of B. Among the serum proteins, several alleles have distributions indicating significant movement of people between islands. These include AlbuminNew Guinea and the transferrin alleles Tf, and Tf, and Tf. Similar specific alleles for red cell enzymes also show distributions reflecting interisland population movement as well as contact with persons from outside the southern Pacific region. Examples are ACP in the acid phosphatase system, PGM and PGM, PGM and PGM, PGK4 and also HbJTongariki. The data available for 11 polymorphic systems were used to generate genetic distances. Of the four Polynesian Outlier Islands, Anuta is most remote genetically, with Rennell and Bellona also relatively isolated. The fourth Polynesian Outlier, Tikopia, occupies a position genetically close to the Melanesian populations of the Banks and Torres Islands and the southern Solomons. The history of early European contact and voyaging in the Pacific, as well as archaeological and linguistic evidence and local legends, indicate that significant movements of people occurred between islands and provided opportunities for genes to be introduced from Europeans, Africans, and Asians. The genetic marker studies give evidence for genes from all these sources, though at a low level. Despite this admixture, the Polynesian Outlier and Melanesian populations have preserved their own distinctive genetic patterns.
Article
Healthy young men were exposed, nearly nude, for 2 hours or less to various environmental conditions (dry-bulb temperature, 90°–20°F; windspeed, μ1, 5, 10 mph). Oxygen consumption was recorded at intervals during exposure. The results show that even under conditions where no visible shivering was observed, there was an increase in heat production. Exposure to very low temperatures (20°F) with low winds did not evoke the largest increases in heat production. The greatest mean heat production (370 Cal/hr.) was associated with the highest windspeed (10 mph), and this value approached the maximum heat production which can be attained by shivering (mean value about 425 Cal/hr.). Thus, increasing the windspeed had a relatively greater impact on heat production than decreasing the dry-bulb temperature. The relationships between heat production and windspeed and heat production and dry-bulb temperature were nonlinear. Submitted on February 8, 1960
Genetic Diversity among Austrulinn Aborigines. Canberra: Australian Institute ofAboriginal Studies The regulation ofbody temperature Physiology of Heat Regulation, pp. 109185
  • V Balakrishnan
  • L D Sanghvi
  • R L Kirk
  • H C Bazett
Balakrishnan, V., Sanghvi, L. D. & Kirk, R. L. (1975). Genetic Diversity among Austrulinn Aborigines. Canberra: Australian Institute ofAboriginal Studies. Bazett, H. C. (1968). The regulation ofbody temperature. In (L. H. Newburgh, Ed.) Physiology of Heat Regulation, pp. 109185. New York: Hafner. Blackwood, B. (1931-32). Report on fieldwork in Buka and Bougainville. Oceania 2, 199-219.
A field study of thermal stress in New Guinea villagers Man in a Cold Environment The Genetics of Human Populations
  • B Budd
  • G M Fox
  • R H Hendrie
  • A L Hicks
B. P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 200. Budd, G. M., Fox, R. H., Hendrie, A. L. & Hicks, K. E. (1974). A field study of thermal stress in New Guinea villagers. Phil. Trans. R. Sot. B 268,393~400. Burton, A. C. & Edholm, 0. G. (1955). Man in a Cold Environment. London: Edward Arnold. Cavalli-Sfona, L. L. & Bodmer, W. F. (197 1). The Genetics of Human Populations. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.
An anthropometric study of Hawaiians of pure and mixed blood
  • Dunn
Cholesterol, coconuts and diet on Polynesian atolls
  • Prior
Accidental hypothermia in walkers, climbers and campers
  • Pugh
Archaeology of the Marianas Islands
  • Thompson
A field study of thermal stress in New Guinea villagers
  • Budd
The Tonga cardiovascular and metabolic study
  • Finau
Growth and somatotype patterns of Manus children
  • Heath
How Peruvian Indians adapt to altitudes
  • Hochachka
The physical characteristics of the Ontong Javanese
  • Shapiro
Report on fieldwork in Buka and Bougainville
  • Blackwood
Windchill reconsidered
  • Kaufmann
Material culture of Kapingamarangi
  • Buck
An Asian-specific 9 base pair deletion of mitochondrial DNA is frequently found in Polynesians
  • Herzberg
Profiles of the survey samples
  • Mitchell
Zur Anthropologie der Micronesischen Inselgruppe Kapingamarangi (Greenwich-Inseln)
  • Schlaginhaufen