Article

Exploring creative thinking in graphically mediated synchronous dialogues

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This paper reports on an aspect of the EC funded Argunaut project which researched and developed awareness tools for moderators of online dialogues. In this study we report on an investigation into the nature of creative thinking in online dialogues and whether or not this creative thinking can be coded for and recognized automatically such that moderators can be alerted when creative thinking is occurring or when it has not occurred after a period of time. We outline a dialogic theory of creativity, as the emergence of new perspectives from the interplay of voices, and the testing of this theory using a range of methods including a coding scheme which combined coding for creative thinking with more established codes for critical thinking, artificial intelligence pattern-matching techniques to see if our codes could be read automatically from maps and ‘key event recall’ interviews to explore the experience of participants. Our findings are that: (1) the emergence of new perspectives in a graphical dialogue map can be recognized by our coding scheme supported by a machine pattern-matching algorithm in a way that can be used to provide awareness indicators for moderators; (2) that the trigger events leading to the emergence of new perspectives in the online dialogues studied were most commonly disagreements and (3) the spatial representation of messages in a graphically mediated synchronous dialogue environment such as Digalo may offer more affordance for creativity than the much more common scrolling text chat environments. All these findings support the usefulness of our new account of creativity in online dialogues based on dialogic theory and demonstrate that this account can be operationalised through machine coding in a way that can be turned into alerts for moderators.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Firstly, Wegerif et al., ( 2010) claims that the dialogic approach of creativity begins with open-ended situated "living" dialogues with no forehand direction in which the meaning that flows in the dialogue depends on a tension between different perspectives. The concept of Middle c creativity (Moran, 2010) can contribute to ...
... Based on the analytical framework and informed by features of creative collaboration (Vass et al., 2014;Eteläpelto & Lahti, 2008), by creative collaboration with technology (Hennessy, 2011;Kennewell & Beauchamp, 2007;Sakr, 2018;Wegerif et al., 2010) and ...
... Multimodal representation of ideas encouraged dialogue with explicit and tangible reasons for their ideas. Furthermore, by converting thoughts into external objects, students widened and deepened their understanding of each other's ideas, which in turn resulted in a better negotiation and the best choice to solve the task (Wegerif, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
This research expands our understanding on the role of interactive technologies to draw learners into a dialogic space capable to promote ways of thinking creatively together. Grounded on dialogic theory, the research examines and characterizes the emergence of co-creative processes in an interactive technology framework. To this end, this paper reports on an empirical study with secondary-school students who followed a technology-enhanced dialogic pedagogy that promotes co-creativity in real secondary-education classrooms. Qualitative methodology was used to document real-life multimodal interaction. The video data was processed in different phases to develop an analytical framework capable of identifying strings of episodes indicating typical facets of technology-enhanced co-creative processes. Results provided seven typical co-creative facets: 1) collective framing of the task; 2) overcoming technological challenges; 3) engagement in generating a shared pool of ideas; 4) developing intersubjectivity; 5) fusing ideas for a new perspective; 6) evaluation of ideas and 7) making ideas a reality. Furthermore, the findings show that each co-creative facet covers specific objectives in the co-creativity cycle and presents distinct features along three key dimensions: a) co-creative processes involved, b) typical discourse features and, c) dialogic use of specific technology affordances (e.g. visibility, interactivity, responsiveness, multimodal representation, provisional, stability, re-usability) for co-creating. Future educational implications to design a more effective technology-enhanced dialogic pedagogy that can connect learners to their creative potential are also discussed.
... Compared with linear texts, graphic representation has been proved to induce better learning outcomes (Suthers and Hundhausen 2003) as it expresses the argument structure explicitly and provides an intuitive form to model knowledge. Furthermore, the study of Wegerif et al. (2010) suggested that the spatial representation of messages in graphically mediated synchronous dialogue offered a pedagogical affordance for creativity. ...
... "Representation-the act of highlighting aspects of our experience and communicating them to others and ourselves-is one of the fundamental and generative activities that are at the heart of the human experience" (Enyedy 2005, p. 427). Prior research on CSCL has highlighted the importance of representational aids such as dynamic notations, knowledge maps, and simulation for collaborative learning performance (Enyedy 2005;Fischer et al. 2002;Janssen et al. 2008;Scardamalia and Bereiter 1991;Slof et al. 2010;Suthers 2006;Wegerif et al. 2010). Embedding representational tools in a CSCL environment can facilitate students' construction of multimodal representations of the domain knowledge and thereby guide their interaction (Slof et al. 2010). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter serves two purposes. First, it reviews the existing computer-supported collaborative second-language learning studies. A second purpose of the chapter is to echo Chap. 2 by concentrating on representational tools to present the rationale of social shaping of the technology. Affordances of technology can change depending on the users’ background and contexts. The chapter explains the necessity and possibility of a close analysis of how users (including both teachers and students) appropriate a representational tool for collaborative knowledge construction.
... A key example comes from the study by Wegerif et al. ( 2010 ) of creative and critical thinking using dynamic online concept mapping between knowledge of specifi c settings and educational theory. They encapsulated the dialogic relationship between unique critical incidents and more general patterns that was referred to in Chapter 2 . ...
... Students are increasingly provided with the necessary technologies for engaging in discourse with others beyond the classroom walls, to engage in dialogue about shared interests or learning goals in virtual space (Blake, 2013; Collins & Halverson, 2009; Wegerif et al., 2010). As such, teachers are increasingly provided with the opportunities to foster a global community of students through the use of available wikispaces, chat rooms, online forums, etc., that are designed to provide a space for members to share, reflect, disagree, affirm, learn, and create. ...
Article
Full-text available
Global efforts to prepare young developing minds for solving current and future challenges of climate change have advocated interdisciplinary, issues-based instructional approaches in order to transform traditional models of science education as delivering conceptual facts (UNESCO, 2014). This study is an exploration of the online interactions in an international social network of high school students residing in Norway, China, New Zealand and the United States (N=141). Students participated in classroom-based and asynchronous online discussions about adapted versions of seminal scientific studies with facilitative support from seven scientists across various fields. Grounded in a language-in-use frame for investigating facilitation and demonstrations of problem-based and evidence-based reasoning (Kelly & Chen, 1999), we traced the varied questions, assertions, and evidentiary sources within student-led online discussions. We found that questions from scientific experts in the form of unconstrained, open-ended invitations for exploration were followed by students’ acknowledgement and consideration of complex and, at times, conflicting sociopolitical and economic positions about climate change issues. These findings suggest that broadening science classroom discussions to include socially relevant, unsolved issues like climate change could open potential entry points for a dialogic approach that fosters a scientific community in the classroom.
... Examples of this in the realm of educational gaming include Shute and Becker's (2010) advancement of 21st century assessment that places an emphasis on the importance of learning to think creatively through data mining of learners' activities and collaborations in educational gaming environments. Furthering this agenda, Wegerif et al. (2010) have demonstrated the ability to automatically recognize creative reasoning in student e-discussions within in situ dialogue analysis of intelligent tutoring learning environments and their data streams. These examples present opportunities that can inform the development of design rationale implementations as creativity support tools. ...
Article
Full-text available
Design rationale can act as a creativity support tool. Recent findings from the field of creativity research present new opportunities that can guide the implementation and evaluation of design rationale’s ability to foster creative processes and outcomes. By encouraging the exploration of failure through use of analogy, design rationale can foster creative transfer and enable progress in new directions. Open source communities offer an opportunity to observe a form of intrinsically motivated ad hoc design rationale, exhibiting formal and informal information transfer links within forums and allowing access to common tools, expertise, and mentorship. A discussion of a spectrum of implementations of design rationale informs strategies to mitigate conflicts and advance inherent synergies between design rationale and creativity.
... A key example comes from the study by Wegerif et al. ( 2010 ) of creative and critical thinking using dynamic online concept mapping between knowledge of specifi c settings and educational theory. They encapsulated the dialogic relationship between unique critical incidents and more general patterns that was referred to in Chapter 2 . ...
... This technique minimises disputational talk, loss of face or defensiveness, instead promoting 'engagement with the dialogue itself' (Wegerif, 2011). In sum, Lloyd's careful orchestration progressively broadens and deepens the dialogue (Wegerif et al., 2010). He makes timely interjections to recall specific prior contributions for juxtaposition with other perspectives, inviting commentary and evaluation (I2, as above: 119, 123, 133). ...
Article
Full-text available
The research reported sought to develop a framework for systematically analysing classroom dialogue for application across a range of educational settings. The paper outlines the development and refinement of a coding scheme that attempts to represent and operationalise commonalities amongst some key theorists in the field concerning productive forms of educational dialogue. The team has tested it using video recordings from classroom settings in the UK and Mexico, across age phases, subject areas, and different interactional contexts including whole class, group and paired work. Our Scheme for Educational Dialogue Analysis (SEDA) is situated within a sociocultural paradigm, and draws on Hymes' Ethnography of Communication to highlight the importance of context. We examined how such a tool could be used in practice. We found that concentrating on the ‘communicative act’ to explore dialogue between participants was an appropriate level of granularity, while clustering the 33 resulting codes according to function of the acts helped to highlight dialogic sequences within lessons. We report on the application of the scheme in two different learning contexts and reflect on its fitness for purpose, including perceived limitations. Development of specialised sub-schemes and a version for teachers is underway.
... Comments to moderators indicating the presence of creativity, or the lack of this, for example, can be rated for usefulness and that information fed back to inform the machine learning algorithm. By picking up and reflecting back to the group, indications of reasoning and of creativity, the technology was also teaching reasoning and creativity (Wegerif et al., 2010). ...
... In this sense, creativity can be seen to be a regular but vital component of intelligibility. Wegerif et al. (2010) went further in using artificial intelligence pattern matching techniques to show that creative activity could be coded and read by using more established critical thinking codes. Their work again underlines the synergy to be found in brain activity between creativity and critical reasoning. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article will review the literature of updated neuroscientific research in order to gain insights into the centrality to critical reasoning of creativity (understood as creative thinking, including the impulsion of imagination and wonder). Furthermore, it will explore literature that testifies to the credentials of moral education in facilitating the forms of creativity associated with the development of critical reasoning, as suggested by the insights of neuroscience. Finally, the article will review the literature related to earlier empirical evidence of the crucial role that moral education can play in facilitating creativity, imagination and wonder.
... The results of this study are on one hand comparable to the results of Wegerif et al. (2010), who analysed creativity in online dialogues mediated graphically. Drawing on Bakhtin, they proposed that the appearance of innovative viewpoints in a graphical dialogue map influences interpretation and meaningful construction among users. ...
Article
While the efficacy of computer-generated feedback in affecting learners' scores, errors, and writing skills has already been established, the impact of such feedback on learners' identity representations remains unexplored. The current paper explores the ways in which computer-generated feedback from Microsoft Word Office™ (MWO) and Grammarly influences English as an Additional Language (EAL) learners' identity representations while writing on a screen. To this end three participants were involved in a case study whereby they were asked to complete five writing tasks. Power relations, intertextuality and multimodality levels, and attitudes—in their technical sense—as relevant concepts were employed to explore potential factors that influence EAL writers’ identity representations. The results obtained from think-aloud sessions and interviews show that while the participants relied on computer-generated feedback to spell correctly and to make well-formed sentences, they experienced pressures, control and power from automatic feedback, which subsequently influenced their identity representations.
... In an empirical study she showed that adding small graphical components to a traditional text-based discussion forum (using short L-shaped lines to connect a post to its replies) made it easier for students to follow the discussion and led them to produce a more connected conversation. Related work using a graphical interface for synchronous chat (Wegerif et al. 2010) also provides evidence suggesting spatial representation of dialogue is both easier for students to follow and helps them to consider multiple ideas together, creating an important foundation for subsequent posts that contribute coherently to the discussion. ...
Conference Paper
This study investigated whether students exhibited different new-post reading behaviors when using a graphical discussion forum rather than a traditional text-based linear forum. Detailed examination of clickstream patterns in seven case studies showed several differences in reading strategies between the two forums. Most notably, in the graphical forum students read new posts in connection with other related (new or existing) posts, while in the text-based forum new-post reading was disconnected and scattered.
... Some empirical support for these claims is provided by Kear (2001) who showed that graphically enhancing a traditional discussion forum interface to highlight the structure of the discussion made it easier for students to follow and led them to produce a more connected and coherent discussion. Related work using a graphical interface for synchronous chat (Wegerif et al., 2010) also provides evidence suggesting spatial representation of dialogue is both easier for students to follow and helps them to consider multiple ideas together. ...
Article
Online discussions offer exciting potential for educational dialogue, but too often result in disjointed conversations with low levels of interactivity. One contributing cause is the traditional text-based interface, which presents posts in a long list, leaving students overwhelmed and without useful navigational cues. To address this problem, we used information visualization techniques to design a graphical discussion forum interface. Starburst presents discussion posts as a dynamic hyperbolic tree: higher-level posts initially appear as larger and more central nodes, with each level of replies appearing smaller and more towards the periphery. To evaluate the new interface, students’ discussion participation using Starburst was compared to their activity interacting with the same discussion content in a traditional text-based linear forum. Results showed that students were more purposeful in selecting which discussion threads to read when using Starburst and read new posts in a more connected fashion. Implications for the future design, use, and research of online discussions are considered. © 2015 Association for Educational Communications and Technology
... Prior research on CSCL has highlighted the importance of representational aids, such as dynamic notations, knowledge maps, and simulations for collaborative learning performance (Fischer et al. 2002;Janssen et al. 2008;Slof et al. 2010;Wegerif et al. 2010). Embedding representational tools in a CSCL environment can facilitate students' construction of multimodal representations in the knowledge domain and thereby guide their interactions (Slof et al. 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
While the affordances of face-to-face and online environments have been studied somewhat extensively, there is relatively less research on how technology-mediated learning takes place across multiple media in the networked classroom environment where face-to-face and online interactions are intertwined, especially in the context of language learning. This case study contextually investigates the appropriation of a representational tool by students in small groups, in the context of collaborative second language writing activities. In this paper, micro-analysis of cross-media interactions is deployed to unravel how different groups of students evolve alternative approaches to appropriating the technology. The study explores the beneficial affordances of a representational tool that supplement face-to-face communication for second language learning, and draws implications for the design of collaborative L2 learning in networked classrooms.
... Working with the Digalo/Argunaut tools from the dialogic perspective, Wegerif et al. (2010) emphasized the need to go beyond formalistic argumentation, or the "dialectic paradigm", as they refer to it. Wegerif's notion of creativity in dialogues as the mechanism behind the ideational tension that leads to emergence of new perspectives is indeed intriguing, but in order to establish it, there is a need for a temporal approach and for complementary studies with children. ...
Article
Full-text available
Only a few studies have dealt with the challenge of bridging the linguistic gap between the dialogic realm and the talk of disengaged students. Bridging this gap is particularly relevant to the CSCL community since one of its utmost aims is to promote the dialogic. This study aims to articulate how to harness the CSCL design and affordances to enhance dialogic pedagogy with disengaged students. Using temporal analysis of philosophical discussions for children, we focus on three disengaged 8th grade students participating in successive discussions mediated by a CSCL tool (Argunaut), and follow the way they talk with their peers in the classroom. The study shows the gradual emergence of the dialogic among those students. We describe the transition of their talk moves, from initially reproducing the way they talk to adopting dialogical norms. To explain this we conceptualize the notion of carriers of discursive norms and discuss its transformative role in dialogue. The dialogic transition was made possible by the pedagogical design and the design of the CSCL tools. These affordances allowed the students change the meaning of the conversational building blocks of space, silence, addressee, and the ethics of talk.
... Examples of this in the realm of educational gaming include Shute and Becker's (2010) advancement of 21st century assessment that places an emphasis on the importance of learning to think creatively through data mining of learners' activities and collaborations in educational gaming environments. Furthering this agenda, Wegerif et al. (2010) have demonstrated the ability to automatically recognize creative reasoning in student e-discussions within in situ dialogue analysis of intelligent tutoring learning environments and their data streams. These examples present opportunities that can inform the development of design rationale implementations as creativity support tools. ...
... The third pattern can be detected by means of a novel case-based graph matching technique, developed within the ARGUNAUT project, which searches clusters that are similar to prototypical examples and ranks these clusters according to their similarity scores. Other patterns not discussed here include "building-on" and "new-perspective," which is related to creative reasoning [23]. ...
Article
Full-text available
One of the main challenges in tapping the full potential of modern educational software is to devise mechanisms to automatically analyze and adaptively support students' problem solving and learning. A number of such approaches have been developed to teach argumentation skills in domains as diverse as science, the Law, and ethics. Yet, imbuing educational software with effective intelligent tutoring functions requires considerable time and effort. We present a highly configurable software framework, “Configurable Argumentation Support Engine” (CASE), designed to reduce effort and development costs considerably when building tutorial agents for graphical argumentation learning systems. CASE detects pedagogically relevant patterns in argument diagrams and provides feedback and hints in response. A wide variety of patterns are supported, including ones sensitive to students' understanding of the domain, problem-solving processes, and collaboration processes. Teachers and researchers can configure the behavior of tutorial agents on three levels: patterns, tutorial actions, and tutorial strategies. The paper discusses design concerns, the architecture, and the configuration mechanisms of CASE. As a proof of concept, four showcases are presented each showing different aspects of CASE and thus demonstrating the flexibility and breadth of applicability of the CASE approach in supporting single user and collaborative scenarios across different argumentation domains.
... Using this system we were able to investigate the hypothesis that the spatialised reasoning of dynamic concept maps supported creative reasoning. (Wegerif, McLaren et al, 2010) We investigated the impact dynamic concept mapping on creativity using a coding for creativity based on a pattern-matching algorithm combined with stimulated recall interviews of participants. Through the interviews we fond that the non-linear nature of the maps with multiple ideas copresent stimulated creativity. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this theory paper we define dialogic space and outline its importance to computer supported collaborative learning. We argue that dialogic space is a complex concept combining transcendental and empirical aspects to account for the situated opening of opportunities for creative understanding in the tension between different perspectives. Despite this complexity dialogic space can be operationalised in concrete designs for learning. Some general principles are developed through a review of the literature on the indirect relationship between communications technologies and dialogic space. The large EC funded Argunaut and Metafora projects to design online dialogic education environments are then used to illustrate more specific affordances of online design for a dialogic pedagogy.
... For instance, researchers could map out the beginning, progress, and end of online arguments on Facebook and other SNS, generating specific models that can capture the unique ways in which individuals argue online. Pragma-dialectical considerations ( van Eemeren & Grotendorst, 2004) or creative thinking algorithms (Wegerif et al., 2010) could be employed to examine the nature and characteristics of online argumentation. From such research, interventions may be designed to improve understanding of arguments in new media and to educate individuals on how to conduct such arguments in constructive ways. ...
Article
This study explored how people argue on social-networking sites. Specifically, participants (N = 170) responded to open and closed-ended questions about the most recent argument they had engaged in on Facebook. Results of a content analysis of participants’ answers revealed individuals tended to argue mostly about public issues, in somewhat complex arguments that involved a median of six people and with about 30 comments exchanged. Individuals often pursued multiple goals, with persuasion and defending themselves or others also reported by some. Arguments tended to end without resolution, and most had no effects on arguers’ relationships; however, for 20% of the sample, arguments permanently damaged their relationships. Although the number of friends participants had did not have a substantial effect on their frequency of arguing, the frequency with which one’s friends argued on Facebook was positively related to one’s own arguing frequency. These results are interpreted in connection to argumentation and computer-mediated-communication literatures. Limitations of the study as well as directions for future research are also discussed.
... By picking up and reflecting back to the group, indications of reasoning and of creativity, the technology was also teaching reasoning and creativity. (Wegerif et al 2010) Vygotsky argued that thinking is first found socially in the use of language and other 'cultural tools' and that individuals learn to think through internalising the use of these cultural tools which then become cognitive tools or tools to think with. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this paper I argue for the value of a dialogic approach to teaching thinking with technology in the Internet Age. I begin with the argument that technology is not external to thinking but that technology use is intrinsic to thinking, shaping both how we think and how we value thinking. I use a discussion of the Flynn effect to argue that thinking changes in history as a result of changes in technology use. This raises the question of the kind of thinking we need to teach for the Internet Age. I then consider four pedagogical approaches to teaching thinking with technology, technology as tutor, technology as cognitive tool, technology as modelling environment and technology as support for dialogue. I argue for the value of a 'dialogic' approach as a way of integrating all the other approaches and I illustrate how this can work in practice with examples taken from recent educational technology development projects.
... Mutual trust and risk-taking are other key dispositions in collaborative creativity. Wegerif et al., (2010), claims that the emergence of creative processes in a collaborative learning situation depends more on the tensions between different perspectives rather than a shared framework. Thus, creative thinking emerges when opposing ideas and disagreements are thoroughly discussed in such a way that divergent opinions and conceptions are related to each other. ...
Chapter
This chapter proposes a technology-enhanced pedagogical framework for collaborative creativity and explores its effects in secondary education. The technology-enhanced pedagogical framework is built on sociocultural theory which conceptualizes creativity as a social activity based on intersubjectivity and dialogical interactions. Dialogue becomes an instrument for the development of collaborative creativity processes such as divergent and convergent thinking, distributed leadership, mutual engagement, or group reflection. Two real secondary classrooms followed the technology-enhanced pedagogical framework to solve collaboratively a social challenge and find a novel and valuable solution for a community. The role of technology in shaping collaborative creativity processes and students’ perception about what specific collaborative and creative processes emerged during the project was explored in these two case studies. Findings showed that the technology-enhanced pedagogical framework scaffolded the development of key divergent processes as, for instance, idea generation and new ways of thinking. Besides, students reported the emergence of convergent processes such as selection and combination of ideas, and they learned new ways of conveying and communicating ideas. Finally, students highlighted the development of key learning to learn processes related mostly to group reflection and mutual engagement.
... Het proces van kennis construeren is niet geworteld in het voltooien van leertaken, maar is geworteld in een dialogische (Ludvigsen & Mørch, 2010) en interactieve activiteit met de wereld (Arievitch, 2017). De dialogische benadering beschouwt de constructie van kennis als een inter-mentaal proces, waarbij nieuwe inzichten naar voren komen uit een dialoog die meerdere perspectieven herbergt (multivocaal) (Koschmann, 1999;Wegerif et al., 2010). De dialoog betreft de 'interactiviteit met de wereld' als de plaats van kennisontwikkeling en is daarmee een 'psychologisch' proces waarin 'interactief-actieve' studenten centraal staan als de enige kennisgenererende factor. ...
Book
Full-text available
Kennis in-(ter)-actie Responsief leren als kennis construeren Kennis in-(ter)-actie Responsief leren als kennis construeren 'De maat is vol: jonge mensen spijbelen voor het klimaat.' Maar de ecologische crisis is een crisis in ons denken, en daarmee ook een crisis in ons onderwijs. Het aangaan van de grote ecologische en economische uitdagingen is niet geholpen met 'oud denken'. Ze vragen om mensen die minder atomistisch en meer ecologisch kunnen denken over hoe zaken elkaar beïnvloeden en met elkaar verbonden zijn. Leren kritisch te denken is niet genoeg. Ontwerpgericht leren denken en samen nieuwe kennis construeren, is cruciaal. Velen zien leren als een neurologisch of cognitief informatieverwerkingsproces. Leren is vooral een psychologisch proces waarbij kennis inter -actie ontstaat. In de rede wordt deze stelling conceptueel besproken en onderbouwd met semantische, sociale netwerkanalyses van student-interacties. De rede eindigt met handreikingen voor studenten en docenten voor responsief en kennis-construerend leren.
... A key example comes from the study by Wegerif et al. ( 2010 ) of creative and critical thinking using dynamic online concept mapping between knowledge of specifi c settings and educational theory. They encapsulated the dialogic relationship between unique critical incidents and more general patterns that was referred to in Chapter 2 . ...
... However, using AI techniques, including visualization and hierarchical reasoning modelling, may be inadequate to support reasoning. e four studies reviewed focused on the utilization of modelling to support general reasoning, while the reasoning model should be largely domain-specific [24,39,40,42]. Moreover, there is an unresolved challenge in coding learners' behaviours as far as AI-supported reasoning is concerned. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study provided a content analysis of studies aiming to disclose how artificial intelligence (AI) has been applied to the education sector and explore the potential research trends and challenges of AI in education. A total of 100 papers including 63 empirical papers (74 studies) and 37 analytic papers were selected from the education and educational research category of Social Sciences Citation Index database from 2010 to 2020. The content analysis showed that the research questions could be classified into development layer (classification, matching, recommendation, and deep learning), application layer (feedback, reasoning, and adaptive learning), and integration layer (affection computing, role-playing, immersive learning, and gamification). Moreover, four research trends, including Internet of Things, swarm intelligence, deep learning, and neuroscience, as well as an assessment of AI in education, were suggested for further investigation. However, we also proposed the challenges in education may be caused by AI with regard to inappropriate use of AI techniques, changing roles of teachers and students, as well as social and ethical issues. The results provide insights into an overview of the AI used for education domain, which helps to strengthen the theoretical foundation of AI in education and provides a promising channel for educators and AI engineers to carry out further collaborative research.
... According to this theory, creativity emerges from the tension between different ideas. Similarly, Wegerif et al. (2010) define this dialogic interaction process ''as a dance of voices and perspectives'', and suggest that confrontation of ideas stimulates new idea generation. The ''Thinking Together '' model Mercer (2013), Mercer et al. (2019) suggests that learning to reason with others helps students be independent thinkers. ...
Article
Collaborative learning is an essential part of children’s development, positively impacting academic achievement and fostering higher levels of reasoning. However, young learners often face challenges with taking turns in conversation, openly listening to ideas, and respecting different viewpoints. One way to foster collaborative skills may be to raise children’s awareness of their own collaborative dialogue. In this paper, we present a new interactive visualization application that supports children in reflecting on their collaborative dialogue from a recent prior interaction. The tool analyzes children’s completed dialogue and then presents temporal information about their interaction with their partner. We implemented two studies with 36 seventh grade children who collaboratively completed computing activities. We conducted think-aloud sessions to investigate children’s perceptions, preferences, and expectations of the collaborative dialogue visualizations. The results showed that the dialogue visualizations hold promise for helping children increase their awareness of collaborative dialogue and set their own goals regarding ways they would like to improve.
... The knowledge-creation process is not rooted in the completion of learning tasks, but in a dialogical (Ludvigsen & Mørch, 2010) and interactive activity with the world (Arievitch, 2017). The dialogical approach views knowledge building as an inter-mental process, in which new insights emerge from a dialogue that contains multiple (multivocal) perspectives (Koschmann, 1999;Wegerif et al., 2010). The dialogue concerns 'interactivity with the world' as the place of knowledge development and is therefore a 'psychological' process that centres on 'interactively-active' students as the sole knowledge-generating factor -a psychological process consisting of people's activity with their environment, not a biological brain activity. ...
Book
Full-text available
Knowledge in-(ter)-action Responsive learning as knowledge building “We’ve had enough”: young people skip class for the climate. “However, the environmental crisis is also a crisis of our thinking, and therefore a crisis in our education. Facing the complex ecological and economic challenges, “old thinking”-solutions are not very helpfully. The challenges call for people who can think less atomistical and more ecologically about how things influencing each other and how they are interconnected. Learning to think critically is not enough. Learning to think in a design-oriented way and building new knowledge and understanding together is crucial. Many see learning as a neurological or cognitive information processing. Learning is primarily a psychological process from which knowledge in-(ter)action emerge. In this book, the theorem is conceptually discussed and substantiated with semantic, social network analyses of students’ interactions. The book ends with practical guidelines for students and teachers for knowledge building responsive to challenges in our world.
... Moreover, some investigations have shown that the institutional setting of learning and assessment structure the way students frame and reason about cognitive tasks (Säljö and Wyndham 1993). Finally, there are also studies suggesting that use of tools (technical and discursive ones) structures and guides children's thinking during problem solving (Kozulin 2003;Schoultz et al. 2001;Wegerif et al. 2010;Ludvigsen et al. 2010). ...
Article
Why do students give incorrect answers in PISA? What are the reasons for giving incorrect answers? Do all incorrect answers reflect only the lack of competence or might even a competent child make a mistake? The aim of this article is to contribute to a better understanding of these issues. In the current investigation, we selected six students who responded incorrectly to one PISA question in mathematics or science when they solved it individually. Then, we analyzed their understanding of the PISA task and their reasoning about it through a dialogical problem solving in triads to identify why they made an incorrect answer. Moreover, we tried to determine how the shared peer interaction might change the understanding and reasoning of the child and enable her/him to solve the task. The results of this study illustrate the differences between incorrect answers reflecting lack of competence and those incorrect answers, which appear for some other reasons. Based on the dialogical problem solving approach, we analyzed these two types of incorrect answers and the reasoning trajectories behind them.
... Bakhtin (1986) considered conversation an unpredictable dance between different perspectives. However, while some conversations could contribute to knowledge building and to a creative process through the teammates' interaction, other conversations could be merely procedural (Wegerif et al. 2010). Conversation can support creativity in collaborative learning when the idea exchanges support divergent thinking by generating or modifying the current ideas within the group. ...
Article
Group process assessment is one of the methodological challenges in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). The aim of this study is to analyze the group process dimensions in a problem-solving task with modular robotics in which creative components of fluidity, flexibility and innovation can be observed. The analysis of group process dimensions in relation to the creative components aims to understand the way group processes can support the creativity process in a problem-solving task. For this objective, 24 dyads of in-service teachers in a creative problem-solving task with modular robotics were engaged. The group process dimensions of conversation, social interaction and problem-solving was identified based on a CSCL coding schema developed for the Virtual Math Team environment. The creative components of fluidity, flexibility and innovation are operationalized based on Guilford’s Alternate Uses Test’s components. The results show the creative component of innovation is related to interactions of support within the dyad. Moreover, the participants dedicating more time to solve the task are engaged not only in more problem-solving interactions with their dyad but also in building more innovative figures, and they also make more figures together. Those results lead us to consider the importance of a positive emotional environment in the context of collaborative creation.
... The selection of components to be included in the framework is grounded in a dialogical approach to learning and knowledge building (Ludvigsen and Mørch 2010). The dialogical approach views the construction of knowledge as an intermental process, where new insights emerge from a multivocal dialogue encompassing multiple perspectives (Koschmann 1999;Wegerif et al. 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study describes the socio-cognitive dynamics of collaborative online knowledge-building discourse among Dutch Master of Education students from the perspective of openness. A socio-cognitive openness framework consisting of four social and four cognitive components was used to analyze contributions to online collective knowledge building processes in two Knowledge Forum® databases. Analysis revealed that the contributions express a moderate level of openness, with higher social than cognitive openness. Three cognitive indicators of openness were positively associated with follow-up, while the social indicators of openness appeared to have no bearings on follow-up. Findings also suggested that teachers’ contributions were more social in nature and had less follow-up compared to students’ contributions. From the perspective of openness, the discourse acts of building knowledge and expressing uncertainty appear to be key in keeping knowledge building discourse going, in particular through linking new knowledge claims to previous claims and simultaneously inviting others to refine the contributed claim.
Article
The role of e-discussion and e-collaboration with peers in the context of problem solving has been widely discussed. Two strands of analysis, one focused on dialogic space of and key discussion events of widening and deepening, and one focused on social networking, were undertaken in a case study of a graphic, synchronous e-discussion. These approaches are shown to be complementary, as cross-analysis makes it possible to reveal interesting phenomena in the discussion and suggest directions for intervention.
Article
A natural concern in the field of computer‐supported collaborative learning is how participants in collaborative learning project attain individual deep understanding through pedagogical or technological support. This study explores such individual outcomes as influenced by designing a collaborative learning project supported with a diagram‐based thinking tool based on cognitive load theory (CLT). A comparative experiment was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the diagram‐based thinking tool. A total of 49 first‐year graduate students were recruited and assigned to two conditions. In the experiment condition, the group students completed the collaborative learning project through a diagram‐based thinking tool, while the group students in the control condition completed the same project through an alternative text‐based thinking tool. Pre‐and posttesting of the domain knowledge was employed to evaluate each individual's learning outcome. Group discourse was employed to evaluate how group students actively engage during collaboration. Results show that the support of diagram‐based thinking tool integrated in collaborative learning can facilitate individual understanding intensively. Moreover, diagram‐based thinking tool can engage group students into cognitively demanding learning activities actively. Findings demonstrate that the semantic diagram tool provides promising technological support when designing collaborative learning project based on CLT. This study serves as a foundation to the design of technological support for future classroom‐based collaborative learning project.
Article
Full-text available
There is consensus among curriculum developers of Business Schools that along with technical knowledge students should also be trained to acquire soft skills. Communication, collaboration, creativity, critical thinking and problem solving are mentioned by some authors as the most important skills for professionals of the 21st century to be successful. Students must perform learning activities applying these skills in order to develop them. In this work we present a learning activity intended for Business students which requires creativity in order to be performed. We developed a collaborative tool to support this activity, called Sketchpad. The students who used the system evaluated the contribution of the designed activity to creativity and the ability of the tool to support it through an open questionnaire based on the Creativity Factor Evaluation (CSI). A second evaluation was done concerning Sketchpad’s collaborative support. Both studies showed a positive students’ perception of the activity and tool value according to these evaluation dimensions.
Article
Full-text available
The primary concern of the present research was to investigate the effects of an Internet-Assisted Language Learning (IALL) environment on the development of L2 students' critical thinking skills. A total of 77 students of Diploma in Hotel Management at UiTM Terengganu, Dungun Campus, Malaysia were involved in this study. This sample was divided into three groups, namely full, partial and non-IALL environments. Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT), Level X, was administered as the pre-post-test to measure the development of critical thinking skills of L2 students. The CCTT scores revealed that students who were exposed to the full IALL environment improved significantly in their critical thinking skills as compared to those in the partial and non-IALL environments. When the various sub-skills were measured, the analysis showed that they improved the most in the connecting skill, an element of the higher order thinking skills. The present study concludes that using the Internet in language classrooms helps to create critical English as a Second Language (ESL) students. Thus, language teachers should not have any reservations in incorporating internet in their classrooms. The study recommends that future work should investigate whether IALL environment can also significantly help to foster students' creative thinking.
Article
This study examined whether inspecting and constructing different part-task-specific visualizations differentially affects learning. To this end, a complex business-economics problem was structured into three phase-related part-tasks: (1) determining core concepts, (2) proposing multiple solutions, and (3) coming to a single solution. Each phase was foreseen with a part-task-specific representational tool facilitating visualization of the domain-content (i.e., a conceptual, causal and simulation tool respectively for the subsequent phases). Whereas all teams of learners (N = 17) were scripted to carry out the part-tasks in the predefined order, teams were instructed to (1) inspect expert visualizations (n = 8) or (2) construct their own domain-specific visualizations (n = 9). Results indicate that constructing visualizations, in comparison to inspecting them, evokes more meaningful discussion of the domain-content beneficially affecting team complex learning-task performance and individual learning gains (i.e., higher post-test score).
Article
Cognitive style was once a popular research topic in the field of decision support systems (DSS), but because of the lack of usable results, it has not received much attention from the research community in recent years. This paper argues that it can be both promising and worthwhile to revive research efforts into cognitive style in the modern decision-making environment. Several reasons are offered to support this argument: First, the decision-making environment is now more integrated with technology, particularly the Internet, making it more uniform and easier to define. Second, the potential benefit of such studies is greater because more people are using Internet-based technology to make decisions. Third, data on the cognitive behavior of decision makers are captured and available for analysis because of the close integration between technology and the decision-making process. Research questions are raised and potential variables are proposed and discussed.
Article
During the past two decades a variety of approaches to support argumentation learning in computer-based learning environments have been investigated. We present an approach that combines argumentation diagramming and collaboration scripts, two methods successfully used in the past individually. The rationale for combining the methods is to capitalize on their complementary strengths: Argument diagramming has been shown to help students construct, reconstruct, and reflect on arguments. However, while diagrams can serve as valuable resources, or even guides, during conversations, they do not provide explicit support for the discussion itself. Collaboration scripts, on the other hand, can provide direct support for the discussion, e.g., through sentence openers that encourage high quality discussion moves. Yet, students often struggle to comply with the rules of a script, as evidenced by both the misuse and nonuse of sentence openers. To try to benefit from the advantages of both of these instructional techniques, while minimizing their disadvantages, we combined and experimented with them within a single instructional environment. In particular, we designed a collaboration script that guides student dyads through a process of analyzing, interrelating and evaluating opposing positions on a contentious topic with a goal to jointly generate a well-reasoned conclusion. We compare a baseline version of the script, one that only involves argument diagramming, with an enhanced version that employs an additional peer critique script, implemented with sentence openers, in which student pairs were assigned the roles of a proponent and a constructive critic. The enhanced version of the script led to positive effects: student discussions contained a higher number of elaborative moves and students assessed their argumentation learning more positively.
Article
Full-text available
The primary concern of the present research was to investigate the effects of an Internet-Assisted Language Learning (IALL) environment on the development of L2 students' critical thinking skills. A total of 77 students of Diploma in Hotel Management at UiTM Terengganu, Dungun Campus, Malaysia were involved in this study. This sample was divided into three groups, namely full, partial and non-IALL environments. Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT), Level X, was administered as the pre-post-test to measure the development of L2 students' critical thinking skills. The CCTT scores revealed that students who were exposed to the full IALL environment improved significantly in their critical thinking skills as compared to those in the partial and non-IALL environments. When the various sub-skills were measured, the analysis showed that they improved the most in the connecting skill, an element of the higher order thinking skills. The present study concludes that using the Internet in language classrooms helps to create critical ESL students. INTRODUCTION Problems, questions and issues will be the source of
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to introduce and investigate creativity as a key element of achieving sustainable development. Conceptually, it adopts a post-normal perspective of creativity and focuses on Mikhail Bakhtin's theory of dialogism as a pathway to it. Empirically, it is a participative qualitative research introducing the notion of creativity to the students enrolled at the English department, Humanities and Administration College, Qassim Private Colleges to help those students – as prospective teachers – to be creative teachers designing teaching aids related to the contents of their courses. This study was conducted upon 160 female students during the first term of the academic year 2015-2016. At the end of the term, those students were introduced to a competition entitled "The Most Creative Project". Intending to investigate how those students conceived of and worked for creativity, they underwent a survey after the Project Fair. They reported that their participation in that experience enabled them to exchange ideas. They concluded that all of them excelled in introducing their creative projects.
Article
This paper is going to discuss and report the design students' learning experiences in creativity education within virtual reality. The development of virtual reality in education and training are discussed as well as the important roles of designing students' learning experience are explored respectively. Based on an empirical qualitative research in virtual reality, three directional approaches for further studies are identified: 1) creating environmental stimulation to facilitate students' creative thinking; 2) developing a game-like virtual learning environment to enhance students' learning experience; 3) using avatars as role-playing simulation to develop students' creative-friendly learning behaviour.
Book
Full-text available
Our Decoding Learning report looks at the impact of digital technology in the classroom. Key findings Schools spent £487 million on ICT equipment and services in 2009-2010. But this investment has not yet resulted in radical improvements to learning experiences or attainment. No technology has an impact on learning on its own right; impact depends on how it is used. Rather than categorising innovations by the type of technology used (eg, do games help learning?), it’s more useful to think about the types of learning activities we know to be effective, such as practising key skills, and exploring how tech can support these activities. We identify eight learning themes that show significant promise of impact when combined with digital technology. - See more at: http://www.nesta.org.uk/publications/decoding-learning
Article
There is wide variation in how exposure to violence is conceptualized. Perceptions of ordinary violence are linked to people's actual experiences, which may be direct, indirect, observed, or vicarious, and all through filters of gender, class, community, and culture. Event-recall interviews were conducted among a convenience sample of Swedish males (n = 132) and females (n = 202) aged 6 to 45 years. Respondents spontaneously recalled 703 events (averaging 2.3 events for males, 2.1 for females). For men, 93% of events were male(s)-on-male(s), 2% female-on-female, and 2% male(s)-on-female(s). For women, 42% of events were male(s)-on-male(s), 19% female(s)-on-female(s), 24% male(s)-on-females, and 10% female(s)-on-male(s). Interviewee's roles differed. Of males, 17% were aggressors, 40% victims, and 43% observers. Of females, 12% were aggressors, 30% victims, and 58% observers. For males, there was a significant increase in degree of seriousness of events from junior-, to high school, to college. For females, events became more serious as interviewees progressed from aggressor to victim to observer. For males, violent events between strangers were significantly more serious than all other combinations of acquaintanceship. Most recently recalled events were the most serious for males (no effect for females). Participation in sports was linked to seriousness of events recalled by females, events being described as more serious by females who participated in sports, this effect being stronger for those females who participated in contact/collision and self-defense sports. The significant correlation between trauma and seriousness is nearly twice as strong for females which might be taken as an indication of stronger moral pathos.
Article
Learning to learn together (L2L2) is a complex competence requiring that all the group members are able to coordinate, regulate and plan the learning task by balancing issues of individual ability, motivation and expectations through constant dialogue. In this paper we report on a project to define the complex competence of L2L2 and to support it with a set of web-based tools and associated pedagogy, the Metafora Project. The system we develop embodies our theory of L2L2 and the results of our design-based research suggest that this system can succeed in making key elements of L2L2 explicit in the talk and actions of groups of learners.
Conference Paper
There is consensus among curriculum developers of Business Schools around the world that along with technical knowledge students should be trained to also acquire soft skills. Communication, collaboration, creativity, critical thinking and problem solving are mentioned by some authors as the most important for professionals of the 21st century to be successful. In order to develop these skills learners have to perform learning activities where they need to apply them. In the literature we found many works about learning activities designed for training creativity which have been used in Business Schools. They do not make use of technology. On the other hand, there are many works about learning activities which make use of technology to train collaboration and problem solving skills. In this work we present a learning activity which makes use of a technologic tool for supporting it, which promotes collaboration, creativity and critical thinking. A first experiment shows that the perception students get from the activity and the ability of the tool for supporting these factors is positive.
Article
This study focused on the relationship between perceptions of an innovative environment and creative performance in a web-based synchronous environment. A total of 160 sophomores and juniors from the National Taiwan Normal University participated in a learning activity consisting of a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design. Pearson’s correlation coefficients and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used in data analysis. Results indicated a positive correlation between personal creative performance and a free, supportive, and innovative environment. Team support and organizational obstruction had less influence on personal creative performance. Compared with a traditional classroom, a synchronous environment added to innovative essence and helped learners do better in terms of novelty, feasibility, value, and creative product design overall.
Article
Creativity is increasingly considered to be an important goal of education. While creativity can be influenced by many noncognitive factors (eg, personality and motivation), creative thinking remains the most important source of creativity. Creative thinking combines several cognitive processes leading to the generation and selection of new and useful ideas or solutions. Divergent thinking or the ability to generate a range of alternative ideas, is a necessary component of creative thinking. Research has explored cognitive strategies to activate divergent thinking. However, such strategies are often abstract and difficult to implement. This study proposes a computer‐based cognitive mapping approach to improving divergent thinking as a response to this challenge. The approach enables students to build a computer‐based cognitive map that can foster divergent thinking by associating unrelated concept, object or situation (COS), by decomposing a COS into rich details for viewing it from divergent perspectives, and by combining and changing COSs. A quasi‐experiment was conducted with high school students. The results have shown promising effects of the approach on improving students' performance and perceived competence in divergent thinking. Practitioner Notes What is already known about this topic • Divergent thinking is an important part of the cognitive processes that may lead to creativity. • Divergent thinking can be enhanced by training in cognitive strategies, but these strategies involve complex cognitive processes that are abstract and difficult to implement. • Cognitive mapping can facilitate complex thinking and cognitive processes. What this paper adds • This study proposes a computer‐based cognitive mapping approach as a divergent thinking tool that may help students visualize the process of applying divergent thinking strategies (association, decomposition, and combination and adjustment) when performing creativity‐related tasks. • The approach is effective in improving high school students' divergent thinking performance in terms of idea fluency, flexibility and originality, in addition to perceived competence in divergent thinking. Implications for practice and/or policy • It is important to provide learners with effective thinking tools that facilitate the complex cognitive processes of applying divergent thinking strategies. • Divergent thinking processes can be facilitated by associating unrelated concept, object or situation (COS), by decomposing a COS into rich details for viewing it from divergent perspectives, and by combining and changing COSs.
Article
Full-text available
A dialogic theory of collaborative creativity focuses on the emergence of new perspectives from the interplay of ‘voices’. With much research on the interaction between digital technology, dialogue and collaborative creativity focusing on human voices, this paper explores how a microblogging tool may contribute to co-creative processes as a ‘voice’ in a dialogue. We diffractively read excerpts from one lesson, involving learners aged 11–12 years studying English in the UK, through material-dialogic theory and Barad’s theory of agential realism. Through our entanglement with both theory and data, we explore the tensions and relationships between: i). ideas of creativity in the context of digital technology-supported classroom dialogue; and ii). frameworks of understanding informed by agential realism. Bringing these two sets of ideas together addresses a gap in our current understanding of the multi-layered nature of students’ creative engagement with digital technologies in classrooms. These findings are thus significant when considering a material-dialogic approach in the context of developing collaborative creativity through technology. Additionally, the paper makes a methodological contribution, illustrating the use of a diffractive approach in the context of technology-mediated dialogue and creativity.
Article
Full-text available
p class="0abstract"> The present work describes the structure of a pilot study which was addressed to test a tool developed to automatically assess Critical Thinking - CT Levels through language analysis techniques. Starting from Wikipedia database and lexical analysis procedures based on n-grams, a new approach aimed at the automatic assessment of the open-ended questions, where CT can be detected, is proposed. Automatic assessment is focused on four CT macro-indicators : basic language skills, relevance, importance and novelty. The pilot study was carried out through different workshops adapted from Crithinkedu � EU Erasmus + Project model aimed at training university teachers in the field of CT. The workshops were designed to support the development of CT teaching practices at higher education level and enhance University Teachers’ CT as well. The two-hour workshops were conducted in two higher educational institutions, the first in the U.S.A (CCRWT Berkeley College NYC, 26 university teachers) and the second in Italy (Inclusive memory project - University Roma Tre, 22 university teachers). After the two workshops, data were collected through an online questionnaire developed and adapted in the framework of the Erasmus + Crithinkedu project. The questionnaire includes both open-ended and multiple choice questions. The results present CT level shown by university teachers and which kind of pedagogical practices they intend to promote after such an experience within their courses. In addition, a comparison between the values inferred by the algorithm and those calculated by domain human expert is offered. Finally, following up activity is shown taking into consideration other sets of macro-indicators: argumentation and critical evaluation. </p
Chapter
In this study, the collaborative visualization-based learning system, named semantic diagram tool is proposed as a driver to transform the classroom ecosystem. To investigate its effectiveness, two cases integrated with semantic diagram tool were designed, implemented, and analyzed. In the first case, the flow of interaction between teacher and students under the mediation of semantic diagram tool was investigated, with discourse analysis from the classroom video. In the second case, the flow of interaction between students in group under the mediation of semantic diagram tool was investigated, with the analysis of group discourse data. It is found that semantic diagram tool can make classroom more student-centered and changes the role of teacher from knowledge transfer to learning facilitator. It also can make group learners engaged more into cognitive-demanding learning activity than the situation without the integration of semantic diagram tool. Based on these findings, future researches such as teacher development and the design of learning technology are discussed.
Chapter
This chapter presents research conducted in early childhood classrooms in Luxembourg, a European country with a complex multilingual situation. A multi-layered corpus of classroom interactions, consisting of photos, video and audio recordings, was collected over a period of 12 months and then partially transcribed and annotated. Drawing from this corpus, this study sheds light on discourse practices of 4–8-year-old children and examines the co-construction of the children’s growing understandings of science in open collaborative inquiries. Arguing from a context-sensitive perspective, our research shows the learning of science as an interactional achievement in situ.
Article
Full-text available
M. Nystrand. (1997). Opening Dialogue: Understanding the Dynamics of Language and Learning in the English Classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.
Book
Full-text available
Dialogic Education and Technology is about using new technology to draw people into the kind of dialogues which take them beyond themselves into learning, thinking and creativity. The program of research reported in this book reveals key characteristics of learning dialogues and demonstrates ways in which computers and networks can deepen, enrich and expand such dialogues. A dialogic perspective is developed drawing upon recent work in communications theory, psychology, computer science and philosophy. This perspective foregrounds the creative space opened up by authentic dialogues. Whereas studies of computer-supported collaborative learning have tended to see dialogue as a means to the end of knowledge construction the dialogic perspective taken by this book sees dialogue as an end in itself - in fact moving learners into the space of dialogue is described as the core aim of education. The central argument of the book is that there is a convergence between this dialogic perspective in education and the affordances of new information and communications technology. A genuinely dialogic perspective is relatively new to the field of educational technology and there is a considerable amount of interest in this topic amongst researchers who wish to see what extra insights, if any, a dialogical approach can offer them. "This is an exciting book that synthesizes, clarifies and extends mounting discussions of dialogical thinking related to computer-supported education [...]. It is not only a delightful personal statement, but provokes thought on central issues of CSCL and enters into challenging dialog with the relevant alternative approaches. As a result of reading this book, I am convinced that we urgently need to open new online spaces for people to understandingly interact with different perspectives and creatively generate new insight and respect for difference." -Gerry Stahl Executive Editor of the International Journal of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning This book offers a set of lenses which give deep insight into education and the use of technologies for learning. The moves between empirical studies, theoretical reflections and discussion of the design of learning environments make the book very thought provoking. Ideas are not just treated as ideas but they become transformed into principles for design. Wegerif is convincing that the use of technology for the creation, maintaining and development of dialogical spaces has the potential for transforming and expanding educational experiences in a way which offers a needed vision of learning for the future. -Sten Ludvigsen Director of the InterMedia Centre for design, communication and learning University of Oslo
Article
Full-text available
Cutting across the common distinction between learning to argue and arguing to learn, this research is concerned with arguing to learn argumentative knowledge, or broadening and deepening understanding of the space of debate. A secondary school experiment compared broadening/deepening of understanding of the space of a debate on genetically modified organisms, using either a CHAT tool, or else an argument-diagram tool (DREW: Dialogical Reasoning Educational Web tool) that was designed as a medium for interactive debate. Although there was no significant difference between the quality of students' texts before and after debating across the conditions, a new interaction analysis method ("Rainbow") revealed differences in students' expression and elaboration of arguments.
Article
Full-text available
Dialogue theory, although it has ancient roots, was put forward in the 1970s in logic as astructure that can be useful for helping to evaluate argumentation and informal fallacies.Recently, however, it has been taken up as a broader subject of investigation in computerscience. This paper surveys both the historical and philosophical background of dialoguetheory and the latest research initiatives on dialogue theory in computer science. The main components of dialogue theory are briefly explained. Included is a classification of the main types of dialogue that, it is argued, should provide the central focus for studying many important dialogue contexts in specific cases. Following these three surveys, a concluding prediction is made about the direction dialogue theory is likely to take in the next century, especially in relation to the growing field of communication studies.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Students in classrooms are starting to use visual argumentation tools for e-discussions --- a form of debate in which contributions are written into graphical shapes and linked to one another according to whether they, for instance, support or oppose one another. In order to moderate several simultaneous e-discussions effectively, teachers must be alerted regarding events of interest. We focused on the identification of clusters of contributions representing interaction patterns that are of pedagogical interest (e.g., a student clarifies his or her opinion and then gets feedback from other students). We designed an algorithm that takes an example cluster as input and uses inexact graph matching, text analysis, and machine learning classifiers to search for similar patterns in a given corpus. The method was evaluated on an annotated dataset of real e-discussions and was able to detect almost 80% of the annotated clusters while providing acceptable precision performance.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
E-discussion tools provide students with the opportunity not only to learn about the topic under discussion but to acquire argumentation and collabo- ration skills and to engage in analytic thinking. However, too often, e- discussions are not fruitful and moderation is needed. We describe our ap- proach, which employs intelligent data analysis techniques, to support teachers as they moderate multiple simultaneous discussions. We have generated six machine-learned classifiers for detecting potentially important discussion char- acteristics, such as a "reasoned claim" and an "argument-counterargument" se- quence. All of our classifiers have achieved satisfactory Kappa values and are integrated in an online classification system. We hypothesize how a teacher might use this information by means of two authentic e-discussion examples. Finally, we discuss ways to bootstrap from these fine-grained classifications to the analysis of more complex patterns of interaction.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Students are starting to use networked visual argumentation tools to discuss, debate, and argue with one another about topics presented by a teacher. However, this development gives rise to an emergent issue for teachers: how do they support students during these e-discussions? The ARGUNAUT system aims to provide the teacher (or moderator) with tools that will facilitate effective moderation of several simultaneous e-discussions. Awareness Indicators, provided as part of a moderator's user interface, help monitor the progress of discussions on several dimensions (e.g., critical reasoning). In this paper we discuss preliminary steps taken in using machine learning techniques to support the Awareness Indicators. Focusing on individual contributions (single objects containing textual content, contributed in the visual workspace by students) and sequences of two linked contributions (two objects, the connection between them, and the students' textual contributions), we have run a series of machine learning experiments in an attempt to train classifiers to recognize important student actions, such as using critical reasoning and raising and answering questions. The initial results presented in this paper are encouraging, but we are only at the beginning of our analysis.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many approaches to analyzing online argumentation focus on explicit reasoning and overlook the creative emergence of new ideas. The value of a dialogic analytic framework including creative emergence was tested through applying it to the coding and analysis of undergraduate synchronous e-discussions using a graphical interface within the EU funded project ARGUNAUT. Qualitative analysis found that critical reasoning functioned to 'deepen' the graph through unpacking assumptions whilst creative emergence of new perspectives produced 'widening' moves. This distinction between deepening and widening was successfully used as the basis for an artificial intelligence (AI) graph-matching algorithm. Given examples of deepening and widening from real e-discussions, the AI algorithm was able to successfully find other occurrences of such moves within new e-discussions. This supports our claim to distinguish between these two aspects of shared thinking and has the potential to provide awareness indicators as a support for e-moderation.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Moderation of e-discussions can be facilitated by online feedback promoting awareness and understanding of the ongoing discussion. Such feedback may be based on indicators, which combine structural and process-oriented elements (e.g., types of connectors, user actions) with textual elements (discussion content). In the ARGUNAUT project (IST-2005027728, partially funded by the EC, started 12/2005) we explore two main directions for generating such indicators, in the context of a synchronous tool for graphical e-discussion. One direction is the training of machine-learning classifiers to classify discussion units (shapes and paired-shapes) into pre-defined theoretical categories, using structural and process-oriented attributes. The classifiers are trained with examples categorized by humans, based on content and some contextual cues. A second direction is the use of a pattern matching tool in conjunction with e-discussion XML log files to generate "rules" that find "patterns" combining user actions (e.g., create shape, delete link) and structural elements with content keywords.
Article
Full-text available
The author considers a wide variety of issues and perspectives raised by a new attention on creativity. The book is divided into three sections that focus on: the challenges of fostering creativity in schools; the problems of separating creativity from values; and, the implications for liberal education. Questions raised and considered include: to what extent is creativity a tool; is creativity determined by its subject context; can the demise of creativity be attributed to the technicization of teaching; is there a universal concept of creativity or is it limited by its cultural specificity; how appropriate is the implication that creativity is a good thing for the economy, for society and for education, without reflection on the consequences (i.e. the "throw away" society); and how can teachers encourage students to evaluate the effect of their choices on others.
Article
Full-text available
The development of reason has long been an important aim for education. This is possibly reflected in the emphasis on the importance of explicit verbal reasoning in definitions of ‘Exploratory Talk’: a concept that has had some influence on classroom teaching. In this paper I argue from transcript evidence that, while Exploratory Talk is a specific dialogical model of reason that has proved to be a useful pedagogic tool, there are educationally valuable ways of talking together that are characterised more by verbal creativity than by explicit reasoning. Close analysis of actual dialogues highlights the essential importance of verbal creativity even to the task of solving reasoning test problems in small groups. This analysis also suggests that the extent and quality of creativity found in classroom dialogues is influenced by shared ground rules. This implies the need to expand our understanding of dialogical reason to incorporate creativity and to develop dialogical models to support the stimulation and channelling of creativity in educational contexts.
Conference Paper
Despite their potential value for learning purposes, e-discussions do not necessarily lead to desirable results, even when moderated. The study of the moderator's role, especially in synchronous, graphical e-discussions, and the development of appropriate tools to assist moderators are the objectives of the ARGUNAUT project. This project aims at unifying awareness and feedback mechanisms in e-discussion environments, presently implemented on two existing platforms. This system is primarily directed to a human moderator and facilitating moderation, but might also help the students monitor their own interactions. At the heart of system are the inter-relations between an off-line AI analysis mechanism and an on-line monitoring module. This is done through a collaboration of technological and pedagogical teams, showing promising preliminary results.
Article
Two authorities in argumentation theory present a view of argumentation as a means of resolving differences of opinion by testing the acceptability of the disputed positions. Their model of a “critical discussion” serves as a theoretical tool for analyzing, evaluating and producing argumentative discourse. This major contribution to the study of argumentation will be of particular value to professionals and graduate students in speech communication, informal logic, rhetoric, critical thinking, linguistics, and philosophy. © Frans H. van Eemeren and Henriette Greebe and Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Chapter
Case-based reasoning is one of the fastest growing areas in the field of knowledge-based systems and this book, authored by a leader in the field, is the first comprehensive text on the subject. Case-based reasoning systems are systems that store information about situations in their memory. As new problems arise, similar situations are searched out to help solve these problems. Problems are understood and inferences are made by finding the closes cases in memory, comparing and contrasting the problem with those cases, making inferences based on those comparisons, and asking questions when inferences can't be made.
Article
Principles are abstract rules intended to guide decision-makers in making normative judgments in domains like the law, politics, and ethics. It is difficult, however, if not impossible to define principles in an intensional manner so that they may be applied deductively. The problem is the gap between the abstract, open-textured principles and concrete facts. On the other hand, when expert decision-makers rationalize their conclusions in specific cases, they often link principles to the specific facts of the cases. In effect, these expert-defined associations between principles and facts provide extensional definitions of the principles. The experts operationalize the abstract principles by linking them to the facts.This paper discusses research in which the following hypothesis was empirically tested: extensionally defined principles, as well as cited past cases, can help in predicting the principles and cases that might be relevant in the analysis of new cases. To investigate this phenomenon computationally, a large set of professional ethics cases was analyzed and a computational model called SIROCCO, a system for retrieving principles and past cases, was constructed. Empirical evidence is presented that the operationalization information contained in extensionally defined principles can be leveraged to predict the principles and past cases that are relevant to new problem situations. This is shown through an ablation experiment, comparing SIROCCO to a version of itself that does not employ operationalization information. Further, it is shown that SIROCCO's extensionally defined principles and case citations help it to outperform a full-text retrieval program that does not employ such information.
A cluster of shapes around the emergence of a new perspective
  • R Wegerif
Fig. 2. A cluster of shapes around the emergence of a new perspective. R. Wegerif et al. / Computers & Education 54 (2010) 613–621 References
Open dialogue: Understanding the dynamics of language and learning in English classrooms Explaining creativity Helping teachers handle the flood of data in online student discussions
  • M Nystrand
  • K Sawyer
  • O Scheuer
  • B M Mclaren
Nystrand, M. (1997). Open dialogue: Understanding the dynamics of language and learning in English classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press. Sawyer, K. (2006). Explaining creativity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Scheuer, O., & McLaren, B. M. (2008). Helping teachers handle the flood of data in online student discussions. In B. Woolf, E. Aimeur, R. Nkambou, & S. Lajoie (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th international conference on intelligent tutoring systems (ITS-08), lecture notes in computer science, Vol. 5091 (pp. 323–332). Berlin: Springer.
The uses of argument. Cambridge, UK: University Press A systematic theory of argumentation. The pragma-dialected approach
  • S E Toulmin
  • F H Van Eemeren
  • R Grootendorst
Toulmin, S. E. (1958). The uses of argument. Cambridge, UK: University Press. Van Eemeren, F. H., & Grootendorst, R. (2004). A systematic theory of argumentation. The pragma-dialected approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Creativity in schools: Tensions and dilemmas Computer supported moderation of e-discussions: The ARGUNAUT approach
  • A R Craft
  • R Drachman
  • R Hever
  • B Schwarz
  • U Hoppe
  • A Harrer
Craft, A. (2005). Creativity in schools: Tensions and dilemmas. London: Routledge. De Groot, R., Drachman, R., Hever, R., Schwarz, B., Hoppe, U., Harrer, A., et al. (2007). Computer supported moderation of e-discussions: The ARGUNAUT approach. In Clark Chinn, Gijsbert Erkens, & Sadhana Puntambekar (Eds.), Mice, minds, and society – The computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) conference 2007, Vol. 8 (pp. 165–167).
Prosperity for all in the global economy world class skills. Final report of the leitch review of skills
  • S Leitch
Leitch, S. (2006). Prosperity for all in the global economy world class skills. Final report of the leitch review of skills. London: HMSO/HM Treasury.
What's in a cluster? Automatically detecting interesting interactions in student e-discussions All our futures: Creativity, culture and education: National advisory committee on creative and cultural education
  • J Mikšátko
  • B M Mclaren
Mikšátko, J., & McLaren, B. M. (2008). What's in a cluster? Automatically detecting interesting interactions in student e-discussions. In B. Woolf, E. Aimeur, R. Nkambou, & S. Lajoie (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th international conference on intelligent tutoring systems (ITS-08), lecture notes in computer science, Vol. 5091 (pp. 333–342). Berlin: Springer. NACCCE, (1999). All our futures: Creativity, culture and education: National advisory committee on creative and cultural education. London: DfEE and DCMS.
Speech genres and other late essays Austin: University of Texas Beyond difference: Reconfiguring education for the user-led age. Paper presented at the ICE 3 (Ideas, Cyberspace, Education) conference at Ross Priory
  • Dordrecht Bruns
Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Bakhtin, M. (1986). Speech genres and other late essays. Austin: University of Texas. Bruns, A. (2007). Beyond difference: Reconfiguring education for the user-led age. Paper presented at the ICE 3 (Ideas, Cyberspace, Education) conference at Ross Priory, Loch Lomond, Scotland, 21–23 March 2007. <http://snurb.info/publications> Accessed 10.08.09.
Explaining creativity
  • K Sawyer
Sawyer, K. (2006). Explaining creativity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Beyond difference: Reconfiguring education for the user-led age. Paper presented at the ICE 3 (Ideas, Cyberspace, Education) conference at Ross Priory
  • A Bruns
Bruns, A. (2007). Beyond difference: Reconfiguring education for the user-led age. Paper presented at the ICE 3 (Ideas, Cyberspace, Education) conference at Ross Priory, Loch Lomond, Scotland, 21–23 March 2007. <http://snurb.info/publications> Accessed 10.08.09.
All our futures: Creativity, culture and education: National advisory committee on creative and cultural education
NACCCE, (1999). All our futures: Creativity, culture and education: National advisory committee on creative and cultural education. London: DfEE and DCMS.
Computer supported moderation of e-discussions: The ARGUNAUT approach Mice, minds, and society – The computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) conference
  • De Groot
  • R Drachman
  • R Hever
  • R Schwarz
  • B Hoppe
  • U Harrer
De Groot, R., Drachman, R., Hever, R., Schwarz, B., Hoppe, U., Harrer, A., et al. (2007). Computer supported moderation of e-discussions: The ARGUNAUT approach. In Clark Chinn, Gijsbert Erkens, & Sadhana Puntambekar (Eds.), Mice, minds, and society – The computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) conference 2007, Vol. 8 (pp. 165–167). International Society of the Learning Sciences.
Helping teachers handle the flood of data in online student discussions
  • Mclaren Scheuer
  • B Woolf
  • E Aimeur
  • R Nkambou
  • S Lajoie
The pragma-dialected approach
  • Van Eemeren
(in press) Reframing the teaching of higher order thinking for the network society Learning in social practices. ICT and new artifacts - Transformation of social and cultural practices
  • De Wegerif
  • In Press Laat
  • R Wegerif
  • M F De Laat
Computer-supported collaborative learning in the space of debate
  • M J Baker
  • M Quignard
  • K Lund
  • A Séjourné
Baker, M. J., Quignard, M., Lund, K., & Séjourné, A. (2003). Computer-supported collaborative learning in the space of debate. In B. Wasson, S. Ludvigsen, & U. Hoppe (Eds.), Designing for change in networked learning environments: Proceedings of the international conference on computer support for collaborative learning 2003 (pp. 11–20). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.