Article

Effect of soaking whole cereal and legume seeds on iron, zinc and phytate contents

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  • French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development
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Abstract

The effects of soaking whole cereal (maize, millet, rice, sorghum) and legume seeds (mung bean, cowpea, soybean) on iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and phytate (Phy) contents were investigated. In all the above cereals, except millet, the molar ratios of Phy/Fe were above than 14, and ratios of Phy/Zn were above 20 while, in legumes, ratios were lower. Soaking whole seeds for 24 h led to leaching of iron and, to a lesser extent, of zinc ions into the soaking medium. Soaking led to a significant (P⩽0.05) reduction in the phytate content of millet, maize, rice and soybean, but did not improve the Phy/Fe molar ratio, while decreasing the Phy/Zn molar ratio only slightly. Soaking on its own was not found to be a good method for improving mineral bioavailability but the results showed that, in combination with other treatments, or with optimized soaking conditions, it could nevertheless prove useful.

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... The average daily adult requirements for trace elements (in men and women aged 19-70 years) are as follows: Fe 8-18 mg/day; Zn 8-14 mg/day; Cu 1.2-1.7 mg/day; and Mn 5-5.5 mg/day (34). T. ferdinandiana fruits contain 1.7 mg/100 g DW of Fe that is much lower than some grains such as sorghum 3.7 mg/100 g DW, soybean 7.3 mg/100 g DW, and mung bean 7.2 mg/100 g DW (35). Zinc content of T. ferdinandiana fruit is 2.2 mg/100 g DW and is higher than a value (0.6 mg/100 g DW) previously reported (33). ...
... Zinc content of T. ferdinandiana fruit is 2.2 mg/100 g DW and is higher than a value (0.6 mg/100 g DW) previously reported (33). T. ferdinandiana fruits have lower levels of Zn compared with other common legumes and grains such as soybean (3.6 mg/100 g DW), mung bean (2.8 mg/100 g DW), rice (2.9 mg/100 g DW), and millet (3.7 mg/100 g DW) (35). Manganese levels in T. ferdinandiana leaves are much higher (25.5 mg/100 g DW) compared to fruits (5.1 mg/100 g DW) and seedcoats (1.3 mg/100 g DW). ...
... The values obtained in the present study are lower than plants and grains previously reported to contain high phytate levels. For example, phytate levels range from 1,000 to 2,200 mg/100 g DW in soybeans and from 590 to 1,100 mg/100 g DW in mung beans (35). The phytate levels of some seeds and grains were also reported to be high such as rice 1,084, cowpea 559, maize 908, sorghum 925, and soybean 878 mg/100 g DW (35). ...
Article
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Oxalic and phytic acid are phytochemicals considered to be anti-nutritional factors as they are predominantly found as oxalates and phytates bound to minerals like calcium and potassium. Studies have associated excessive oxalate consumption with increased urinary excretion of oxalate (hyperoxaluria) and calcium oxalate kidney stone formation, and excessive phytate consumption with decreased bioaccessibility and bioavailability of certain minerals and reduced utilization of dietary protein. However, other studies suggest that dietary consumption of phytate may be beneficial and inhibit formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones. In light of these conflicting reports, dietary intake of oxalate and phytate enriched plants should be considered in relation to potential health outcomes following consumption. Terminalia ferdinandiana is one such plant and is investigated here with respect to oxalate, phytate, and mineral contents. Assessment of oxalate and phytate contents in T. ferdinandiana fruit, leaf, and seedcoat tissues through hydrolysis into acid forms revealed oxalic acid contents ranging from 327 to 1,420 mg/100 g on a dry weight (DW) basis whilst phytic acid contents ranged from 8.44 to 121.72 mg/100 g DW. Calcium content in the different tissues ranged from 131 to 1,343 mg/100 g. There was no correlation between oxalic acid and calcium, however a significant, positive correlation was observed between phytic acid and calcium ( r = 0.9917; p < 0.001), indicating that tissues rich in phytic acid also contain higher levels of calcium. The high content of phytic acid in comparison to oxalic acid in T. ferdinandiana fruit found in this study and the dietary significance of this in terms of calcium bioavailability, needs to be investigated further.
... Also, there was a loss of 77.21 % and 71.93% iron after soaking Wang Kae in NaHCO 3 + NaCl solution and water respectively. The above losses in iron content for Kirkhouse benga and Wang Kae far exceeds the 40% loss of iron content recorded in sorghum grain after soaking in distilled water (Lestienne et al., 2005). Therefore, consuming Padi-Tuya soaked in NaHCO 3 + NaCl solution will likely help to mitigate anemia due to its high iron yielding capability as reported by (WHO, 2008). ...
... In addition, there was a loss of 75.29% zinc in Wang Kae after soaking in water. With the exception of Kirhouse Benga soaked in water, the remaining losses in zinc content exceeds the 30% in sorghum grain after soaking in distilled water (Lestienne et al., 2005). Reduction after soaking may be due to leaching of iron and zinc ions into the soaking medium. ...
... Reduction after soaking may be due to leaching of iron and zinc ions into the soaking medium. Zinc is found in a huge variety of enzymes and other proteins, where it serves as a structural component (Lestienne et al. 2005). ...
Article
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Cowpea is a widely consumed food crop produced in the Savanna zone of Ghana. Anti-nutrients/bio-active compounds in it limit the biological availability of important nutrients/minerals (proteins, carbohydrates, fat, sodium, zinc, calcium, iron e.t.c). Thisstudy employed soaking to investigate the nutritional value of three cowpea varieties (Wang Kae, Kirkhouse Benga and Padi-Tuya). The soaking was in two forms; soaking in water and soaking with 1% each of NaHCO3and NaClsolutions. Standard chemical analytical procedures were carried out to measure proximate parameters (Fat, protein, carbohydrate, ash, moisture and crude fibre), anti-nutrients/bioactive compounds (Tannins, phytates, oxalate and flavonoids), and minerals (Sodium, iron, calcium and zinc) contents of the cowpea varieties. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in proximate composition, anti-nutrients/bioactive compounds and minerals among the cowpea varieties were obtained. Moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrates and crude fibre varied among the soaking regimes for the samples in the ranges of 7.47-19.90%, 2.35-6.11%, 23.35-26.33%, 29.23-35.33%, 21.70-31.36% and 2.24-4.78%, respectively. Values for iron, zinc, calcium and sodium ranged between 24.86-214.46mg/kg, 45.02-216.93mg/kg, 31.12-56.59mg/kg and 34.82-136.13mg/kg, respectively. Tannins, phytate, flavonoids and oxalate values also ranged between 1.35-6.74mg/g, 4.18-10.70mg/g,15.50-91.39mg/100g and 13.64-24.63mg/g, respectively. These results indicate that, soaking with water and (NaHCO3 + NaCl) solution have potentialities for enhancing nutritional value in the cowpea varieties, which could be a means of combating nutritional deficiencies and food insecurity in Ghana and other countriesin West Africa
... 0.8-0.9% [16][17][18] Present at high levels, approx. 3% [19] Absent Absent Present at levels of approx. ...
... 3% [19] Absent Absent Present at levels of approx. 0.6-1.5% [18,20] Present at levels of approx. 0.6-1.5% [18,20] Tannins Absent Absent Present in some varieties only [16,21] Absent Absent Absent Present Varietal influence not clear [22] Present Evident varietal influence [23] Possibly present [24] Absent Absent ...
... 0.6-1.5% [18,20] Present at levels of approx. 0.6-1.5% [18,20] Tannins Absent Absent Present in some varieties only [16,21] Absent Absent Absent Present Varietal influence not clear [22] Present Evident varietal influence [23] Possibly present [24] Absent Absent ...
... Thus with cooking at 95 • C for 1 h, the phytate content of different legumes is reduced between 11% and 80% (Shi et al., 2018). In the same way, soaking reduces the phytate content of different cereals from 17% to 28% (Lestienne, Icard-Vernière, Mouquet, Picq & Trèche, 2005), while sprouting reduces the phytate content of legumes by more than 60% (Duhan, Khetarpaul & Bishnoi, 2002;Lestienne et al., 2005). This situation seems to be due to the enzymatic action on phytates released during germination of the seed, leading to the formation of myo-inositol phosphate derivative and inorganic phosphate (Pramitha et al., 2021). ...
... Thus with cooking at 95 • C for 1 h, the phytate content of different legumes is reduced between 11% and 80% (Shi et al., 2018). In the same way, soaking reduces the phytate content of different cereals from 17% to 28% (Lestienne, Icard-Vernière, Mouquet, Picq & Trèche, 2005), while sprouting reduces the phytate content of legumes by more than 60% (Duhan, Khetarpaul & Bishnoi, 2002;Lestienne et al., 2005). This situation seems to be due to the enzymatic action on phytates released during germination of the seed, leading to the formation of myo-inositol phosphate derivative and inorganic phosphate (Pramitha et al., 2021). ...
Article
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The intake of foods derived from plants has been proposed as an useful strategy in the prevention of several chronic diseases. However, plants also possess a group of substances known as antinutrients, which may be responsible for deleterious effects related to the absorption of nutrients and micronutrients, or exert beneficial health effects. This review compiles scientific evidence regarding the physiological impact of some antinutrients (lectins, goitrogens, phytates and oxalates) in the human health, their negative effects and the culinary and industrial procedures to reduce their presence in foods. It can be concluded that, the effects of antinutrients on human health could change when consumed in their natural food matrix, and after processing or culinary treatment. Accordingly, some of these compounds could have beneficial effects in different pathological conditions. Future research is required to understand the therapeutic potential of these compounds in humans.
... The leaching of iron contents into the soaked water leads to the reduction in total iron content among treated samples. A similar decrement in total iron content among soaked grains was reported in several studies (ElMaki et al. 2007; Lestienne et al. 2005;Saharan et al. 2001) [6,17,30] . The extractability of iron was increased with soaking and plasma bubbling treatments to 68% in T1 and 58% in T2. ...
... The leaching of iron contents into the soaked water leads to the reduction in total iron content among treated samples. A similar decrement in total iron content among soaked grains was reported in several studies (ElMaki et al. 2007; Lestienne et al. 2005;Saharan et al. 2001) [6,17,30] . The extractability of iron was increased with soaking and plasma bubbling treatments to 68% in T1 and 58% in T2. ...
Article
Pearl millet was subjected to air plasma bubbling along with soaking to enhance HCl extractable iron by reducing phytic acid content. The pearl millet was soaked for 11 h and 10 h followed by plasma bubbling (1 and 2 h) at input voltage 180 V and 10 lph flow rate. A 64.9% and 70.93% of reduction in phytic acid was observed with treatments. The total iron content was reduced while HCl extractable iron content improved by 68% and 59% with 1 h and 2 h exposure time. The significant changes (p≤ 0.05) in pearl millet’s physical, nutritional, and techno-functional properties were noticed with plasma exposure. The present study shows the potential of plasma exposure along with soaking for reducing phytic acid content, improving free iron, and ameliorating techno-functional properties of pearl millet.
... Phytic acid (IP6) content was determined by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (Dionex, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) after sample extraction in 0.5 M HCl (0.1/5 ; w/v) at 100 • C for 6 min, according to the method described by Lestienne et al. (2005). ...
... Similarly, soaking did not significantly reduce the phytate content of dehulled seeds. Lestienne et al. (2005) found that soaking at 30 • C for 24 h significantly reduced phytate content in millet, maize, rice and soybean, but not in cowpea. Ologhobo and Fetuga (1984) observed a reduction of 20-28 % in phytate contents in three cowpea cultivars after soaking at 27 • C for 3 days. ...
Article
Doughnuts made from cowpea, a highly nutritious pulse, are frequently consumed in West Africa. As processing may affect their nutritional composition, cowpea processing into two doughnut types (ata and ata-doco) was characterized, and samples collected from 12 producers in Cotonou, Benin. Proximate composition, folate, mineral, phytate, and alpha-galacto-oligosaccharide contents were determined in the raw material, intermediate products, and doughnuts. Mass balance was assessed during ata production to monitor folate and alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides distribution, and to determine what steps most influenced their concentration. Ata was prepared with dehulled-soaked seeds, and ata-doco with whole or partially dehulled, non-soaked and dry-milled seeds. After both types of doughnuts production, lipid content increased by 11–33 times compared with raw seeds, due to oil absorption during deep-frying. Milling led to an increase of iron content by 50–57 % (ata) and 21–75 % (ata-doco production). Alpha-galacto-oligosaccharide contents decreased by 22–57 % after whipping during ata-doco, but not during ata production. The mass balance assessment showed significant reductions of folate (-50 %) and alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides (-33 %) after dehulled seed washing and soaking during ata production. This study showed that the impact of traditional processing on the nutritional value of cowpea-based doughnuts is strong, but highly variable depending on the doughnut type and producers’ practices.
... Phytic acid impairs the absorption of iron and zinc and to a lesser extent calcium 41 . A molar ratio of phytate: zinc (PA: Zn) of 10 has been described as the limit for optimal absorption of zinc 42 . In our study, the calculated molar ratios of phytate: zinc were all greater than 10 ( Soaking, roasting and boiling of seeds of B. petersiana had no effect on the content of zinc, calcium and magnesium ( Table 3). ...
... , meaning that the phytate present in raw, soaked, roasted and boiled seeds of B. petersiana could impair the absorption of zinc in the digestive tract and may contribute to zinc deficiency. A molar ratio of phytate: iron (PA:Fe) of 14 as the limit for optimal absorption of iron has been described by Lestienne et al.42 . The phytate: iron molar ratios of seeds of B. petersiana were less than the critical value of 14; therefore it is unlikely that iron absorption would be significantly impaired by the phytate present in raw, soaked, boiled or roasted seeds of B. petersiana. ...
Article
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Background: Antinutritional factors present in food may reduce the bioavailability of nutrients and cause harmful effects to human health. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of traditional processing methods on protein digestibility, nutrient and antinutrient constituents of seeds of Bauhinia petersiana. Subjects and Methods: The seeds were processed by soaking in water, boiling or roasting before analyzing protein digestibility, nutrient and antinutrient compositions. Results: Soaking resulted in no significant changes in the content of moisture, protein, fiber, phytates and trypsin inhibitor activity and significant reductions in fat, ash and tannins. Roasting resulted in no significant change in the content of moisture, ash, protein, and fiber and significant reductions in fat, phytates and trypsin inhibitor activity. Boiling resulted in a significant increase in the content of both protein and fiber and reduction in fat, ash, tannins, phytates and trypsin inhibitor activity. Mineral content of zinc, magnesium and calcium was not changed by soaking, roasting or boiling of the seeds. The calculated phytate: zinc molar ratios for both the raw and processed seeds were greater than 10, the limit for optimal absorption of zinc in the small intestine whereas phytate: iron molar ratios were less than 14, the limit for optimum absorption of iron in the intestines. In vitro digestibility of proteins in the seeds was increased when the seeds were soaked, roasted or boiled. Conclusions: Boiling the seeds of B. petersiana before consumption would effectively remove undesirable antinutrients while maintaining the nutrient content of the seeds and improving digestibility of proteins. Keywords: Legume, nutrient, antinutrient, digestibility, phytate.
... This simple soaking processing is a best suitable technique for rural household to decrease phytate content. However, there was significant loss in both iron (up to 40%) and zinc (up to 30%) content as a result of soaking (Lestienne et al. 2005;Afify et al. 2011). This reduction may be attributed to leaching of iron and zinc ions into the soaking medium (Saharan et al. 2001). ...
... This reduction may be attributed to leaching of iron and zinc ions into the soaking medium (Saharan et al. 2001). The difference in the leaching rate for iron and zinc could be due to their different location in the seed (Lestienne et al. 2005). Iron and zinc are mostly located in the aleurone layer in cereals, but zinc is also available in endosperm and found in a large number of enzymes and other proteins. ...
... Several physicals, biological and biotechnological methods to reduce PA content have been reported (Fretzdorff & Brummer, 1992;Shi et al., 2007;Ertacs and Türker 2014). Seeds that imbibe water show activation of endogenous phytase enzymes that hydrolyze PA thereby eliminating PA from food (Kumari, Krishnan, Jolly, Sachdev, & others, 2014;Lestienne, Icard-Vernière, Mouquet, Picq, & Trèche, 2005;Mahesh, Pavithra, Parvathi, Rajashekara, & Shankar, 2015). Soaking of grains followed by cooking is much more effective than cooking treatment alone to increase the bioavailability of micronutrients since the latter may lead to unwanted leaching of micronutrients to the medium (Huma, Anjum, Sehar, Khan, & Hussain, 2008). ...
... optima (Konietzny & Greiner, 2002). Lestienne et al. (2005) reported in pearl millet that soaking can increase the in vitro bioavailability of Fe and Zn by 2-23% which was attributed to increased phytase activity. The activity of phytase which is present in the grain is reported to have a significant effect on the degradation of PA along with the increase in micronutrients and minerals (Gupta et al., 2013). ...
Article
Phytic acid (PA), [myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate] is the principal storage compound of phosphorus (P) and account for 65%–85% of the seeds total P. The negative charge on PA attracts and chelates metal cations resulting in a mixed insoluble salt, phytate. Phytate contains six negatively charged ions, chelates divalent cations such as Fe²⁺, Zn²⁺, Mg²⁺, and Ca²⁺ rendering them unavailable for absorption by monogastric animals. This may lead to micronutrient deficiencies in humans since they lack the enzyme phytase that hydrolyzes phytate and releases the bound micronutrients. There are two main concerns about the presence of PA in human diet. The first is its negative impact on the bioavailability of several minerals and the second is the evidence of PA inhibiting various proteases essential for protein degradation and the subsequent digestion in stomach and small intestine. The beneficial role of PA has been underestimated due to its distinct negative consequences. PA is reported to be a potent natural plant antioxidant which plays a protective role against oxidative stress in seeds and preventive role in various human diseases. Recently beneficial roles of PA as an antidiabetic and antibacterial agent has been reported. Thus, the development of grains with low-PA and modified distribution pattern can be achieved through fine-tuning of its content in the seeds.
... The recommended dose of zinc intake is 11 mg/d and 8 mg/d for men and women, respectively, and should not exceed 40 mg/d [225]. Zinc deficiency is more commonly found in the elderly [226] and vegetarians [227] and usually progresses in a chronic and latent way, of which the manifestation is hard to connect with zinc homeostasis directly, much different from that of iron and iodine. The absence of a reliable and specific biomarker for the indication of in vivo zinc levels also restricts further study of zinc in clinical trials. ...
Article
Full-text available
Zinc, an indispensable micronutrient for human health, might play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Zinc could be involved in the atherogenic process through interaction with atherogenic cells, such as endothelial cells (ECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and immune cells. In addition, zinc also exerts important positive or negative functions in various atherosclerosis-related risk factors, including lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and blood pressure. Currently, evidence focusing on the relationship between zinc status and atherogenic risk factors has been well established, while the direct interaction between zinc and atherosclerosis has not been fully understood. In this review, we aimed to summarize the association between zinc and atherosclerosis and explore current findings on how zinc and zinc homeostasis-associated proteins act in the atherogenic processes.
... Also, the hydrolyzable tannin in the finger millet is converted into gallic acid at high temperature, thereby lowering the overall tannin content of the conventionally hydrated finger millet [26]. The phytate content of the ultrasound hydrated finger millet was lesser than that of the conventionally hydrated finger millet [26,27,28,29]. During ultrasound treatment, the impact of bubbles in the microcavities increases significantly. ...
Article
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Finger millet (Eleusine Coracana) is rich in nutrients and minerals. The iron and calcium contents are comparatively higher than other cereal crops. Finger millet also has some antinutrients such as tannins and phytates, that needs to be removed for maximum health benefits. Traditionally, these antinutrients are removed by the hydration process. The conventional hydration process is time cumbersome and often results in poor quality grains. Ultrasonication during hydration of finger millet could reduce the processing time and antinutrient content in finger millet. The ultrasound amplitude, treatment time, and grain to water ratio during hydration were optimized. An ultrasound amplitude of 66 %, treatment time of 26 min, and a grain to water ratio of 1:3 resulted in best desirability parameters with a reduction in phytate and tannin contents of the finger millet by 66.98 and 62.83%, respectively. Ultrasonication during hydration increased the water binding capacity and solubility of the finger millet starch. XRD study of the starch isolates confirmed the increased crystallinity of the particles. FESEM of the starch isolates also confirmed that ultrasound-assisted hydration of finger millet resulted in the desired size reduction and homogeneous distribution of starch particles. The optimized ultrasound-assisted hydration could be adopted and scaled up for bulk processing of finger millets.
... Iron content was found to be reduced over germination (sadawarte et al., 2018) [22] . The low in ash contents were obtained in the germinated horse gram and this reduction because of leaching of solid matter in soaking water ( [24,25,26] . ...
... This causes mobilization of protein with help of proteases leading to formation of polypeptides, free amino acids, and reduction in antinutrients leading to improved protein digestibility (Chitra et al., 1997;Jimenez et al., 2020). Here, it is, advocated that household processes soaking, sprouting, and fermentation can be easily employed for reducing the phytate and improving the nutritional quality of food grains specially legumes and oilseeds (Jan et al., 2016;Lestienne et al., 2005). ...
Article
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The present study evaluated the effect of sprouting on nutritional characteristics of flaxseed varieties Neelam, Garima, Shekhar and Kusum. It was found that moisture and ash contents of sprouted flaxseeds were higher, while the crude protein, fat and fibre content of sprouted flaxseeds were significantly lower than that of raw. The highest protein content among all the four raw and sprouted flaxseed varieties was in Neelam while lowest protein content was of Kusum variety. After sprouting of flaxseeds their soluble dietary fibre increased while insoluble dietary fibre decreased. There was less change in total calcium content even after germination as compared to raw. On mean basis, the total iron and magnesium contents of sprouted flaxseed varieties were significantly (P,0.05) lower as compared to raw varieties. Sprouting caused increase in available mineral contents (calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium and phosphorus), in vitro protein and starch digestibilities and antioxidant activity of processed flaxseeds.
... Bioavailability of iron and zinc can be estimated by calculation of the molar ratios of phytate to mineral (Lestienne, Icard-Vernière, Mouquet, Picq, & Trèche, 2005;Lopez, Leenhardt, Coudray, & Remesy, 2002). ...
Article
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A dietary shift from resource-demanding animal protein to sustainable food sources, such as protein-rich beans, lowers the climate footprint of food production. In this study, we examined the nutrients and antinutrients in 15 fava bean varieties cultivated in Sweden to select varieties with high nutritional value. On a dry weight basis, the fava beans were analyzed for their content of protein (range 26 - 33%), amino acids (leucine range: 50.8 – 72.1 mg/g protein, lysine range: 44.8 – 74.8 mg/g protein), dietary fiber (soluble fraction range: 0.55 – 1.06 %, insoluble fraction range: 10.7 – 16.0 %), and iron (1.8 - 21.3 mg/100g) and zinc contents (0.9 - 5.2 mg/100g), as well as for the following antinutrients: lectin (0.8 - 3.2 HU/mg); trypsin inhibitor (1.2 - 23.1 TIU/mg) and saponin (18 - 109 µg/g); phytate (112 – 1,281 mg/100g); total phenolic content (1.4 – 5 mg GAE/g); and vicine(403 µg/g - 7,014 µg/g), convicine (35.5 µg/g - 3,121 µg/g) and the oligosaccharides raffinose (1.1–3.9 g/kg), stachyose (4.4 – 13.7 g/kg) and verbascose (8 – 15 g/kg). The results indicate substantial differences between cultivars in relation to their contents of nutrients and antinutrients. Only one of the cultivars studied (Sunrise) have adequate estimated bioavailability of iron, which is of major concern for a diet in which legumes and grains serve as important sources of iron. The nutritional gain from consuming fava beans is significantly affected by the cultivar chosen as the food source.
... The highest retention was 99.05% using pressure-cooking and the same soaking water (Pereira, Carvalho, and Dellamora-Ortiz 2014). A study on various cereals found that soaking for 24 hours prior to cooking equated to a significant reduction in zinc (P < 0.05) for millet, maize and rice (Lestienne et al. 2005). This study also found a significant reduction in phytate during soaking (P < 0.05) but the phytate: zinc molar ratio did not change significantly. ...
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Dysphagia is an underlying symptom of many health issues affecting a person's ability to swallow. Being unable to swallow correctly may limit food intake and subsequently micronutrient status. The elderly may be the most at risk group of suffering dysphagia as well as most likely to be deficient in micronutrients. The use of texture-modified meals is a common approach to increasing dysphagia sufferer's food intake. The modification of food may affect the micronutrient content and currently there is a limited number of studies focusing on micronutrient content of texture-modified meals. This review considers the prevalence of dysphagia within the elderly UK community whilst assessing selected micronutrients. Vitamin B12, C, D, folate, zinc and iron, which are suggested to be most likely deficient in the general elderly UK population, were reviewed. Each micronutrient is considered in terms of prevalence of deficiency, metabolic function, food source and processing stability to provide an overview with respect to elderly dysphagia sufferers.
... Studies that evaluated these processes analyzed the composition of macronutrients (Afify, El-Beltagi, El-Salam, & Omran, 2012b), protein digestibility (Afify et al., 2012b), antinutritional factors (Afify et al., 2012b), and concentration of minerals in sorghum (Lestienne, Icard-Vernière, Mouquet, Picq, & Trèche, 2005). Thus, the knowledge about the impact of these processes on the concentration of vitamins (mainly of the B complex), carotenoids and bioactive compounds, including flavonoids, needs to be evaluated. ...
Article
The impact of maceration and germination on the concentration of bioactive compounds still needs to be evaluated. The stability of B complex vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine), vitamin E (α, β, γ, δ tocopherols and tocotrienols), xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) and flavonoids (3-deoxyanthocyanidins-3-DXAs, flavones and flavanones) was evaluated in sorghum grains subjected to maceration and germination, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Maceration and germination reduced thiamine and pyridoxine concentrations (retentions ranging from 3.8 to 50.2%). Riboflavin and Vitamin E concentrations were not affected by maceration. Germination increased riboflavin and reduced vitamin E. 3-DXAs were sensitive to maceration and germination (retentions of 69.6% and 69.9%, respectively). Flavones contents decreased with germination. Our results indicate that, after germination and/or maceration, sorghum had important nutritional and functional value. Thus, its intake, mainly in macerated forms, should be encouraged, since concentrations of riboflavin, vitamin E and flavones were not altered during this processing.
... As phytic acid is co-localized with various minerals, the physical removal though milling and/or soaking may also result in decreaseed iron and zinc content in grains (Hama et al., 2012;Lestienne et al., 2005a). In cases where refinement can reduce the presence of antinutrients to a greater extent than the reduction in mineral content, modest improvements in iron bioaccessibility have been observed. ...
Article
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Developments in genetics, agronomics and processing has positioned staple cereals as important sources of iron, zinc and provitamin A (pVA) carotenoids for nutritionally vulnerable populations. Significant effort has been placed on understanding the bioavailability of these micronutrients from cereal foods, including the exploration of underlying mechanisms by which their bioavailability can be modified. While micronutrient bioavailability is preferably assessed in clinical trials, relevant in vitro digestion and intestinal cell culture models have been applied to study effects of genetic, agronomic, post-harvest and food processing on micronutrient bioavailability. This review (1) critically assesses the application of in vitro models in the exploration of mechanisms associated with iron, zinc and provitamin A carotenoid bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption from cereal foods, and (2) identifies remaining gaps in order to frame future strategies to improve the nutritional impact of cereal foods.
... Many authors have given detailed report on mechanisms / pathways involved in reduction of antinutritional factors. During soaking process, the reduction of antinutritional factors (phytates, oxalates and tannins) in horse gram flour was due to leaching loss [37]. The denaturation of protein besides complexes formation might be the clue for reduction in roasting [38,39] and polyphenol oxidase activation for tannin reduction was also reported [40,41]. ...
Article
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Aim: The study was conducted to understand the Effect of processing and fermentation on functional properties and on anti-nutritional factors in Horse Gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum). Place and Duration of Work: The study was carried out in Department of Agricultural Microbiology, GKVK, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore during 2019-20. Methodology: Horse gram seeds were procured from National seed project, thoroughly cleaned and were subjected to different processing methods (soaking, roasting, cooking and germination) and ground into flour. Then, the processed flours were analyzed for altered functional properties like bulk density, water and oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity and stability etc. The raw seeds were directly milled into flour without any processing and used as control. Further, all processed flours were subjected to fermentation and compared with non fermented flours for reduction of antinutritional factors (tannins and phytates). Results: The functional properties of unprocessed (raw) horse gram flour was recorded with values of 0.95 g / g (Bulk density), 1.87 g / mL(water absorption capacity),1.45 g / mL(oil absorption capacity), 7.56% (foaming capacity) and 70.78% for foaming stability. Whereas, the processing significantly altered the functional properties. When it comes to antinutritional factors, unprocessed flour recorded with 7.9 mg / g of tannins and 0.96 mg / g of phytates. The processing in combination with fermentation facilitate further reduction of antinutrients compared to processing alone (without fermentation). Among them, fermented germinated flour and fermented cooked flour proven their efficiency in reduction of tannins (61.3 and 62.5%) and phytates (54.1 and 46.8%) compared to other processed flours. Conclusion: Based on results, it is evidenced that processing altered functional properties of horse gram effectively. However, processing combined with fermentation yielded higher reduction in antinutritional factors compared to processing alone. Further, germinated flour and cooked flour on fermentation were found to yield significantly higher reduction in antinutritional factors thereby enhancing its utilization in functional foods as main / partial ingredient.
... Soaking and blanching has been documented to reduce the levels of these indigestible sugars that inhibits iron and calcium absorption (Hotz and Gibson, 2007;Lestienne et al., 2005). However, fermentation have been documented to improve protein digestibility and food quality in terms of increase in amino acids and vitamins production. ...
... We detected significant effects of both genotype and environment on most of the 198 elements ( Figure 1 and Supplemental table 2). The measured element concentrations of the 199 present study corroborate the broad range observed in the sorghum element literature (Mengesha, 200 1966;Neucere and Sumrell, 1980;Lestienne et al., 2005;. Similar to a study 201 carried out in wild emmer wheat (Gomez-Becerra et al., 2010), grain Na and Ca showed large 202 variation (5 and 4 fold, respectively). ...
Preprint
Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality require the sequestration of sufficient mineral nutrients. Identification of genes and alleles that modify element content in the grains of cereals, including Sorghum bicolor , is fundamental to developing breeding and selection methods aimed at increasing bioavailable mineral content and improving crop growth. We have developed a high throughput workflow for the simultaneous measurement of multiple elements in Sorghum seeds. We measured seed element levels in the genotyped Sorghum Association Panel (SAP), representing all major cultivated sorghum races from diverse geographic and climatic regions, and mapped alleles contributing to seed element variation across three environments by genome-wide association. We observed significant phenotypic and genetic correlation between several elements across multiple years and diverse environments. The power of combining high-precision measurements with genome wide association was demonstrated by implementing rank transformation and a multilocus mixed model (MLMM) to map alleles controlling 20 element traits, identifying 255 loci affecting the sorghum seed ionome. Sequence similarity to genes characterized in previous studies identified likely causative genes for the accumulation of zinc (Zn) manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), calcium (Ca) and cadmium (Cd) in sorghum seed. In addition to strong candidates for these four elements, we provide a list of candidate loci for several other elements. Our approach enabled identification of SNPs in strong LD with causative polymorphisms that can be used directly in plant breeding and improvement.
... Relative bioavailability of iron and zinc was estimated through the calculation of molar ratios of phytate:iron and phytate:zinc, respectively 78,79 . The molar ratios were calculated using BLUEs of the three traits and a value of 660.3 g/mol as molecular weight of phytate as described by Castro-Alba and colleagues 57 . ...
Article
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Mineral deficiencies represent a global challenge that needs to be urgently addressed. An adequate intake of iron and zinc results in a balanced diet that reduces chances of impairment of many metabolic processes that can lead to clinical consequences. In plants, bioavailability of such nutrients is reduced by presence of compounds such as phytic acid, that can chelate minerals and reduce their absorption. Biofortification of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) represents an important strategy to reduce mineral deficiencies, especially in areas of the world where this crop plays a key role in the diet. In this study, a panel of diversity encompassing 192 homozygous genotypes, was screened for iron, zinc and phytate seed content. Results indicate a broad variation of these traits and allowed the identification of accessions reasonably carrying favourable trait combinations. A significant association between zinc seed content and some molecular SNP markers co-located on the common bean Pv01 chromosome was detected by means of genome-wide association analysis. The gene Phvul001G233500, encoding for an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, is proposed to explain detected associations. This result represents a preliminary evidence that can foster future research aiming at understanding the genetic mechanisms behind zinc accumulation in beans.
... Wide variation in Fe and Zn concentrations has been recorded in wheat grain. [25][26][27] The average Fe concentration was reported to be between 30 mg/kg and 73 mg/kg 28 , in contrast to this study where it was low -ranging between 19.6 mg/kg and 28.61 mg/kg. The range of Zn concentration was reported to be between 20.4 mg/kg and 30.5 mg/kg in wheat grains. ...
Article
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In sub-Saharan Africa, crops are often grown under low nitrogen (N) and low phosphorus (P) conditions, which may impact on the nutritional components of the grains. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low N and low P and a combination of the two on iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and phytic acid content in two commercial South African spring wheat cultivars (PAN3497 and SST806). Phenotypic traits were also investigated. Although cultivar effects were not significant, treatment effects were highly significant for the phenotypic and nutritional traits. Low P stress increased Fe and Zn levels, whereas low N stress had the opposite effect. In addition, low P stress inhibited phytic acid accumulation the most, suggesting that under this treatment, Fe and Zn were more available because of less interaction with phytic acid. Compared to the low N treatment, the low P treatment led to lower reductions in the number of tillers, plant height, stem thickness, number of seeds, weight of seeds and dry weight for both cultivars. While low P had positive effects on the nutritional value of wheat, the combination of low N and P treatment had a negative impact on most of the measured characteristics. Low N conditions had more negative effects on all measured characteristics than low P conditions and was very detrimental to wheat nutritional value and yield. Significance: • Results from this study emphasise the impact of fertilisation and the impact of insufficient nitrogen and phosphorus fertiliser on wheat productivity. • Low nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation impact grain microelement content and bioavailability which impact nutritional value.
... This reduction may be attributed to possible leaching into the soaking medium. [66,67] Opuku et al. [51] observed a decrease in the calcium content on malting (0.204 to 0.168% db) for millets (Pennisetum typhodes). Dave et al., [68] however, found an increase in the calcium content during soaking and germination for cowpea, horse gram, moth bean, moong bean, soybean, and pearl millets. ...
... Limited literature exist on how cooking conditions affects the selenium concentration in stable foods. Lestienne et al. (2005) analyzed the content of Se in cowpea with and without previous soaking and noted a reduction in the Se content after the cooking treatment. However, these results were evaluated in the soaked form, whereas in our studies, the Se content was observed after heat treatment, because most food stuffs are typically consumed as cooked product. ...
Article
Six types of cooking pots with five different food stuffs were used to investigate the influence of cooking pots on macro and micronutrients of cooked foods. A general trend observed was that cooking pot forged from titanium offered best protection (retention) of micronutrients while pitted aluminum pot offered the lowest irrespective of the food sample cooked. Titanium and enamel coated cooking pots required less quantity of water to get food done resulting into a low (68.67%) moisture content for food cooked in such pots in contrast to values as high as 77.89% when other pots were used. Our research evidenced that cooking pot may have impact on people’s morbidity since steady consumption of food cooked in some pots may aggravate, micronutrient malnutrition. Our findings suggest a contrary view to the previous idea of using pressure pot to cook food. Pots that offered low-pressure cooking (82 °C/0.53 bar) was found to preserve the most heat liable nutrients. Our recommendation, therefore, is the use of titanium and enamel coated cooking pots which offered better retention of food nutrients. Cooking may cause changes to food nutrient depending on foodstuff, materials used in forging the pot as well as the fitness of the pot lid.
... This reduction is attributed to leaching of iron into the soaking medium [30]. Similar finding was obtained by Lestienne et al. [31] in sorghum grain as the workers reported that up to 40% of iron content may be lost as a result of soaking in sorghum grain. Studies showed that the maximum gluten free products have a poor content of calcium, magnesium and iron, so occurrence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among celiac patients are common [9,32]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to optimize the germination condition for amaranth grains (VL-44) to maximize their nutritional value. The results showed that the optimized germinated amaranth flour exhibited higher protein, antioxidants, dietary fiber and lesser content of phytic acid and tannins as compared to raw amaranth flour. The effect of independent variables (germination temperature and germination time) on responses (protein, total dietary fiber (TDF), antioxidant activity (AOA), phytic acid and tannins), were analysed by central composite rotatable design (CCRD) analysis using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) technique, a well-defined statistical tool. Statistical analysis revealed that germination time and germination temperature significantly (p < 0.05) influenced all the responses. An increase in germination time and temperature resulted in a significant increase in protein, AOA, and TDF and reduction in phytic acid and tannins. The quantitative analysis of amino acids of raw and optimized germinated amaranth flour by HPLC revealed germination of amaranth flour enhanced all essential amino acids except methionine, tryptophan and valine. The GC–MS data showed that germination enhanced oleic acid and linoleic acid from 1.84 to 1.99% and 1.94 to 2.30% respectively, while decreased the palmitic acid from 1.06 to 1.00%.
... The phytate content of millet, maize, rice and soybean was reduced significantly by soaking (Lestienne et al. 2005). ...
Article
Gluten-enteropathy affects a significant number of people, making gluten a major concern in the food industry. With medical advancements, the diagnosis of allergies is becoming easier, and people who are allergic to gluten are recommended a complete gluten-free diet. Since wheat provides a major part of the energy and nutrition in the diet, its elimination affects nutrition intake of allergic population. Food scientists are working to formulate products using protein-rich gluten-free grains with quality attributes at par with gluten-containing products. Focused research has been done to provide nutrition and a variety of food to people suffering from gluten-related disorders. Efforts are being made to remove the gluten from the wheat and other gluten-containing grains, while applying different processing/treatments to enhance the properties of gluten-free grains. Hence, the present review summarizes the importance, processing, and products of different gluten-free grains. It also highlights the digestibility of gluten-free grains with clinical trials and gluten elimination strategies for gluten-containing grains.
... Plant seeds also contain phytases, however, and soaking of seeds can reduce phytate contents through enzymatic degradation. While Lestienne et al. (2005) could show a 23% reduction in phytate levels in whole soybeans by soaking in water for 24 hr at 30 • C, the same treatment did not have an effect on cow peas and mung beans. pH conditions and temperature are influential in phytate degradation. ...
Article
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Plant‐based yogurt alternatives are increasing in market value, while dairy yogurt sales are stagnating or even declining. The plant‐based yogurt alternatives market is currently dominated by products based on coconut or soy. Coconut‐based products especially are often low in protein and high in saturated fat, while soy products raise consumer concerns regarding genetically modified soybeans, and soy allergies are common. Pulses are ideally suited as a base for plant‐based yogurt alternatives due to their high protein content and beneficial amino acid composition. This review provides an overview of pulse nutrients, pro‐nutritional and anti‐nutritional compounds, how their composition can be altered by fermentation, and the chemistry behind pulse protein coagulation by acid or salt denaturation. An extensive market review on plant‐based yogurt alternatives provides an overview of the current worldwide market situation. It shows that pulses are ideal base ingredients for yogurt alternatives due to their high protein content, amino acid composition, and gelling behavior when fermented with lactic acid bacteria. Additionally, fermentation can be used to reduce anti‐nutrients such as α‐galactosides and vicine or trypsin inhibitors, further increasing the nutritional value of pulse‐based yogurt alternatives.
... Recently, many calculations of micronutrients bioavailability have been projected, such as phytate/Zn or phytate/Fe molar ratios of cereals and legumes (Chan et al. 2007). Furthermore, in spite of the advantage of phytate for human health, many methods were introduced to diminish it for improving mineral bioavailability of cereals and legumes, containing molecular genetic modification, soaking, fermentation, polishing and phytase treatment (Badau et al. 2005, Lestienne et al. 2005, Ren et al. 2007). For many reasons, however, none of these have been universally successful in solving micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. ...
Article
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Agronomic bio-fortification is one of the main approaches for mitigation of micronutrient shortage in human populations and endorses sustainable production of food and feed. Studies related to agronomic bio-fortification of crops are mainly focused on single or rarely two micronutrients application, and no attempt has made to study the combined effect of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and selenium (Se) on forage sorghum. Therefore, this research was accomplished to evaluate the effect of Zn, Fe and Se bio-fortification on diverse sorghum accessions. The field experiments were conducted in a randomised complete block design with a split-plot arrangement. The treatments comprised of Zn (10 mg/L as ZnSO<sub>4</sub>∙5H<sub>2</sub>O), Fe (7 mg/L as FeSO<sub>4</sub>∙7H<sub>2</sub>O), Se (3 mg/L as SeSO<sub>4</sub>) and CK (control) were applied to five sorghum accessions: G<sub>1</sub> (Y-16), G<sub>2</sub> (YSH-166), G<sub>3</sub> (YSH-134), G<sub>4</sub> (YSS-98) and G<sub>5</sub> (YSH-132). According to our results, the sorghum accession G<sub>5</sub> showed superiority over all other accessions and produced maximum values of all growth and quality traits except grains number per panicle and 1 000-grain weight. All applied micronutrients (Zn, Fe and Se) enhanced the growth, quality and uptake of nutrients in sorghum accessions. However, Se recorded the highest plant height, stem diameter, 1 000-grain weight and Zn produced the maximum protein, oil and starch contents. Conclusively, it can be concluded that G<sub>5</sub> with Se must be used to achieve the optimum values of agronomic traits, while G<sub>5</sub> with Zn found more effective to improve the quality traits of sorghum.
... 9 (abd el-Hady and abdel-Galeel 2012;abubakar et al. 2018;abulude 2004;albarracin, Gonzalez, and drago 2013;azeke et al. 2011;Banchuen et al. 2009;Beaulieu et al. 2020a;Beaulieu et al. 2020b;Caceres et al. 2014b;Caceres et al. 2019;Chatchavanthatri et al. 2021;Chung, ryu, and Kang 2016;Chung and Kang 2021;esa et al. 2011;Han et al. 2016a;Hong et al. 2004;ismail et al. 2014;Jayadeep and Malleshi 2011;Kaur, asthir, and Mahajan 2017;Kim et al. 2011;Kim et al. 2012;Kim and Jang 2004;Kim et al. 2015c;Kim et al. 2015a;lee et al. 2016;lee et al. 2007b;lestienne et al. 2005;li et al. 2018;li et al. 2017;liang et al. 2008;liang et al. 2009;Megat rusydi et al. 2011;Moon, lee, and Han 2010;Moongngarm and Khomphiphatkul 2011;Moongngarm and saetung 2010;noreen et al. 2009;ohtsubo et al. 2005; owolabi, Chakree, and Yupanqui 2019;Pal et al. 2016;shallan et al. 2010;sibian, saxena, and riar 2017;singh, sharma, and singh 2018;ukpong et al. 2021;Xia et al. 2017;Yang, sun, and Gu 2018). na = not applicable because of few data points (N = 1) for the calculations. ...
Article
Over the last 30 years, thousands of articles have appeared examining the effects of soaking and germinating brown rice (BR). Variable germination conditions and methods have been employed to measure different health-beneficial parameters in a diverse germplasm of BR. Research results may therefore appear inconsistent with occasional anomalies, and it may be difficult to reach consensus concerning expected trends. Herein, we amassed a comprehensive review on germinated brown rice (GBR), attempting to codify 133 peer-reviewed articles regarding the effects on 164 chemical parameters related to health and nutrition in BR and in value-added food products. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA-2020) approach was used to direct the flow of the literature search. A pair-wise comparison t-test was performed to deliver an overall approach indicating when a given compound has been found to significantly increase or decrease through germination, which was grouped into GABA and polyamines, γ-Oryzanol and phytosterols, phenolic compounds, vitamins, proteins and amino acids, starchy carbohydrates, free sugars, lipids, minerals and phytic acid. This resource will stimulate interest in germinating rice and optimistically help increase both production and consumption of highly nutritious, health-beneficial rice with pigmented bran. FULL TEXT LINK: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/IV4E8UGZBT6J45MCEYWW/full?target=10.1080/10408398.2022.2094887
... Typical iron and phytic acid content in commonly consumed Indian staple foods.Source: iron content:[170][171][172][173]; phytic acid:[162,174]. ...
Article
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While rates of malnutrition have declined over the last decade in India due to successful government interventions, the prevalence of anemia remains high. Staple foods provide almost 70% of the daily iron intake. As staple foods are a rich source of phytate, this ingested iron is poorly absorbed. Currently, 59% of children below 3 years of age, 50% of expectant mothers and 53% of women aged 15–19 years are anemic. The most common intervention strategy has been through the use of iron supplements. While the compliance has been low and supplies irregular, such high rates of anemia cannot be explained by iron deficiency alone. This review attempts to fit dietary and cooking practices, field-level diagnostics, cultural beliefs and constraints in implementation of management strategies into a larger picture scenario to offer insights as to why anemia continues to plague India. Since the rural Indian diet is predominantly vegetarian, we also review dietary factors that influence non-heme iron absorption. As a reference point, we also contrast anemia-related trends in India to the USA. Thus, this review is an effort to convey a holistic evaluation while providing approaches to address this public health crisis.
... ,Lestienne et al. (2005) ,Shimelis & Rakshit (2007) ,Doss et al. (2011) ,Srivastava et al. (2015) ,Sharma et al. (2017Sharma et al. ( , 2018,Shi et al. (2018) ,Buta et al. (2019) ,Diouf et al. (2019) Soaking and boiling/cooking Broad bean, chickpea, common bean, cowpea, green pea, jack bean, lentil, pigeon pea and al.(2001) , Ibrahim et al. (2002) , Alajaji and El-Adawy (2006) , Shimelis and Rakshit (2007) , Doss et al. (2011) , Hefnawy (2011) , Sharma et al. (2015) , Preti et al. (2017) , Shi et al. al. (2001) , Ibrahim et al. (2002) , Alajaji & El-Adawy (2006) , Shimelis & Rakshit (2007) , Hefnawy (2011) , Preti et al. (2017) , Pedrosa et al. et al. (2001) , Ogundele et al. (2021) Extrusion cooking African yam bean ( Sphenostylis stenocarpa ), broad bean, carob, common bean, chickpea, grass pea, green pea, jack bean, lentil, et al. (2001) , Varela et al. (2007) , Morales et al. (2015) , Rathod & Annapure (2016) , Nikmaram et al. (2017) , Arribas et al. (2019a , 2019b ), Pedrosa et al. et al. (2011) , Hamza et al. (2012) Germination Broad bean, common bean, cowpea, jack bean, lablab bean, mucuna ( Stizolobium niveum ) al. (2001) , Ibrahim et al. (2002) , Shimelis & Rakshit (2007) , Aguilera et al. (2013) , Diouf et al. (2019) High hydrostatic pressure Grass pea 36-71 Buta et al. (2019) a BAC, biogenic amines content; LaC, lathyrogens content; LeC, lectins content; OAC, oxalic acid content; PAC, phytic acid content; SC, saponins content; TC, tannins content; TIA, trypsin inhibitor activity. ...
Article
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Legumes have immense health benefits to humans and animals, while substantially contributing to soil amelioration. However since they contain several antinutients, customarily legumes go through several processes before they are used as plated items or as another food ingredient. The contents of antinutrients in legumes have been reduced by applying various traditional and avant-garde processing methods. The traditional ones, like dehulling, soaking, boiling, pressure cooking, sprouting and fermentation help in the reduction of certain antinutrients, such as α-galactosides, phytic acid, enzyme inhibitors, lathyrogens, lectins, saponins and tannins. There also has been contemporary research which indicates the effectiveness of some recent innovative processes, such as dielectric heating, extrusion, γ-irradiation, ultrasound and high hydrostatic pressure in reducing antinutrients. This review is intended to assess the different types of antinutrients in legumes, their structure-function relations and the various processing methods which are going through as well as which have potentiality to be deployed in reducing or eliminating the antinutrients. Moreover, since these technological processes need to be optimised for more effectiveness, minimisation of antinutrients by using response surface methodology has also been highlighted. These processing techniques can be tailored or optimised to achieve targeted results.
... The only exception was a slightly higher zinc content of 0.56 ± 0.05 mg/L for Congress wort produced with 20% lentil malt. Most of the metal ions that occur naturally in seeds are removed by the malting process and then further depleted during the different steps of the brewing process, especially with the spent grains after lautering [50,51]. The variety of the cereal or legume also has an impact on metal content. ...
Article
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Lentils, a popular foodstuff worldwide, are gaining more interest for their use in alternative diets. In addition, we are observing an ever-growing demand for new raw materials in the malting and brewing industry and an overall rising interest in a low-gluten lifestyle. Therefore, in this study, malt was produced from green lentils and used in both laboratory- and pilot-scale brewing trials. Malted lentils were used as 10% and 20% adjuncts at the laboratory scale, following the Congress mash procedure, and the most important parameters (e.g., filtration time, pH, color, extract, fermentability) of the wort and beer samples were analyzed with a special focus on the concentrations of metal ions (Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Fe) in wort. The production of beer with lentil malt as an adjunct was then scaled up to 1 hl, and several beer parameters were analyzed, including the gluten content and foam stability. The results showed that the gluten content was decreased by circa 35% and foam stability was enhanced by approximately 6% when adding 20% lentil malt. Furthermore, the use of lentil malt reduced the filtration time by up to 17%. A trained panel evaluated the sensorial qualities of the produced beers. Overall, the use of green lentil malt shows promising results for its potential use in brewing.
... During the process of germination there was a significantly (p 0.05) increase in iron, magnesium, calcium and sodium contents of Kodo millet flour (Tables 3). The antinutritional factor such as phytic acid acts as a powerful chelating agent thereby reduces the bioavailability of minerals with the formation of insoluble complexes (Lestienne, Icard-Verniere, Mouquet, Picq, & Treche, 2005;Wheeler & Ferrel, 1971). The increase in mineral content is believed to be due to phytase (myo-inositol hexakis phosphate phosphor-hydrolases), a phytate-specific phosphatises enzyme which got activated during the process of germination, hydrolysed the phytate to inositol, freed orthophosphate and released the minerals in the germinated millet seeds. ...
Article
The present investigationwas carried out to determine the effect of germination on pasting, rheological, morphological properties of Kodo millet flour and in-vitroantioxidant characteristics of its phenolic and γ-amino butyric acid extracts. Rheological analysis depicted complex flour viscosity decreased with an improvement in shear intensity, symbolizing the shear-thinning action of flour upon germination. The frequency and temperature sweep demonstrated a decrease in visco-elasticity as a result of germination wherein, SEM revealed destruction in the continuous composite structure of starch which got entangled in dense protein matrix following germination. The in-vitroantioxidant activities such as total antioxidant capacity, DPPH*, FRAP, metal chelating ability and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities of both the extracts increased significantly. There was a decrease in pasting properties and gelatinization behaviour whereas, visco-elastic solid behaviour changed to visco-elastic fluid. This research explores the potential of germinated Kodo millet flour for valuable bioactive compounds extraction and its utilization in product development.
... 59 However, another study looked at the subsequent bioavailability of iron and zinc after soaking and found it likely did not improve despite the reduction in phytate (calcium was not measured). 60 There are gut bacteria capable of phytase activity, such as Bifidobacterium dentium, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus salivarius, that could break down these compounds. Promoting growth of these bacteria through probiotics can help improve calcium absorption and, as mentioned above, have been proposed for use in the breadmaking process. ...
Article
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Calcium intake remains inadequate in many low‐ and middle‐income countries, especially in Africa and South Asia, where average intakes can be below 400 mg/day. Given the vital role of calcium in bone health, metabolism, and cell signaling, countries with low calcium intake may want to consider food‐based approaches to improve calcium consumption and bioavailability within their population. This is especially true for those with low calcium intake who would benefit the most, including pregnant women (by reducing the risk of preeclampsia) and children (by reducing calcium‐deficiency rickets). Specifically, some animal‐source foods that are naturally high in bioavailable calcium and plant foods that can contribute to calcium intake could be promoted either through policies or educational materials. Some food processing techniques can improve the calcium content in food or increase calcium bioavailability. Staple‐food fortification with calcium can also be a cost‐effective method to increase intake with minimal behavior change required. Lastly, biofortification is currently being investigated to improve calcium content, either through genetic screening and breeding of high‐calcium varieties or through the application of calcium‐rich fertilizers. These mechanisms can be used alone or in combination based on the local context to improve calcium intake within a population.
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Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.) is a leguminous plant that is widely cultivated in West Africa for its nutritious seeds. However, the hard-to-cook phenomenon of this legume affects its patronage by consumers. The quality and bioavailability of nutrients are affected by processing techniques during cooking. This study evaluated the effects of processing techniques on the nutritional quality of two Bambara groundnut varieties (namely, Simbi-bile and Sinkpili-zee). For this, each variety was subjected to four processing techniques, namely, (i) dehulled and soaked in water, (ii) dehulled and soaked in 1% NaHCO3 + 1% NaCl, (iii) dehulled and steamed, and (iv) Control. After sample processing, the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC) standard protocols were used for chemical analysis. The results on proximate composition, anti-nutritional factors, and seed minerals composition showed significant variations among treatments. The main effects of variety and processing technique markedly influenced the parameters measured. Soaked Bambara groundnut with NaHCO3 reduced anti-nutritional factors. Steamed treatments yielded highest amount of protein (25.87%) while dehulled treated Bambara groundnut produced the highest amount of carbohydrate (42.77%). Calcium, potassium, and iron showed significant reduction (p ≤ 0.05) when dehulled. Additional sodium in processing Bambara increased mineral content of the crop. Anti-nutritional factor levels were also reduced significantly in simbi-bile when soaked. Proximate components (crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, carbohydrate, and water) had significant changes in their compositions across all the processing techniques. From the correlation analysis, oxalate and phytate have some levels of effect in all varieties on every nutritional or mineral component. Total ash correlated negatively with crude fat and positively with phytate and oxalate. Dehulled and control did not reduce the anti-nutritional factors compared to NaHCO3 + NaCl. From the results, soaking of Bambara groundnuts in 1% NaHCO3 + 1% NaCl prior to cooking was effective in improving nutritional quality while overcoming the hard-to-cook phenomenon. The findings highlight the need to adopt correct processing techniques that conserve the nutritional benefits of these edible seeds. Soaking Bambara groundnut in NaHCO3 + NaCl as a processing technique increases mineral content while reducing anti-nutritional factors, and hence should be adapted.
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La graine est le point de départ de l'assemblage des communautés associées au microbiote des plantes et va promouvoir le bon développement et la santé des plantes. L'étude de la structure du microbiote pendant le développement des graines de haricot et de radis a révélé que la Sélection était le principal processus écologique impliqué dans l'assemblage des communautés. Les facteurs de l'hôte et de l'environnement conduisent à la sélection d'un taxon dominant dont l'identité peut varier d'une graine à l'autre au sein de la même plante, mais aussi au cours du développement de la graine. La transmission de ces taxons dominants aux plantules n’est cependant pas systématique. L'analyse des déterminants génétiques bactériens impliqués dans la transmission aux plantules de l’agent phytopathogène Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) a révélé que la biosynthèse des purines était importante pour coloniser cet habitat. Enfin, la transmission de Xcc par les graines peut être limitée par une souche de Pseudomonas isolée de graines, grâce à sa capacité à produire une pyoverdine atypique lors de l'interaction avec cet agent phytopathogène. En conclusion, ces résultats constituent un premier pas vers l'utilisation de la graine comme vecteur d'organismes bénéfiques pour la croissance et la santé des plantes.
Article
Phytate or phytic acid (PA), is a phosphorus (P) containing compound generated by the stepwise phosphorylation of myo-inositol. It forms complexes with some nutrient cations, such as Ca, Fe and Zn, compromising their absorption and thus acting as an anti-nutrient in the digestive tract of humans and monogastric animals. Conversely, PAs are an important form of P storage in seeds, making up to 90% of total seed P. Phytates also play a role in germination and are related to the synthesis of abscisic acid and gibberellins, the hormones involved in seed germination. Decreasing PA content in plants is desirable for human dietary. Therefore, low phytic acid (lpa) mutants might present some negative pleiotropic effects, which could impair germination and seed viability. In the present study, we review current knowledge of the genes encoding enzymes that function in different stages of PA synthesis, from the first phosphorylation of myo-inositol to PA transport into seed reserve tissues, and the application of this knowledge to reduce PA concentrations in edible crops to enhance human diet. Finally, phylogenetic data for PA concentrations in different plant families and distributed across several countries under different environmental conditions are compiled. The results of the present study help explain the importance of PA accumulation in different plant families and the distribution of PA accumulation in different foods.
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Consumption of cereals as the predominant dietary source imposes a compounding effect on hidden hunger due to their low micronutrient content as well as availability. Thus, identification and inclusion of crop varieties with greater nutrient content and availability for human consumption is integral to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. Peanut cultivars were studied for their phytic acid, Ca, Mg, P, K, Fe and Zn content in seeds and their interactions influencing Fe and Zn bioavailability. GG7 recorded highest Fe (0.067 g kg1 ), Zn (0.069 g kg1 ) and Mg (3.75 g kg1 ) while LGN 2, SG 99 and DRG 12 showed highest Ca (0.0633 g kg1), P (5.88 g kg1) and K (7.58 g kg1) contents respectively. Phytic acid content was highest in TMV 2 (27.68 g kg1) and lowest in DRG 12 (7.06 g kg1). Phytic acid was negatively correlated with Mg (-0.497) and K (-0.546), while a positive correlation with Ca (0.427) was recorded. Mg was positively correlated to Fe (0.568) and Zn (0.1), while Zn and P displayed negative correlation (-0.442). The cluster analysis revealed cluster I enlisting cultivars with high Fe, Zn and Mg content having high Zn availability (GG 7, Girnar 2 and DRG 12); whereas, cluster II displayed cultivars with low Fe and Zn availability (TAG 24, JL 24 and TMV 2). Zn and Fe contents are substantially higher in peanuts. The predominance of Mg, K and Ca in kernels further aid in reduced binding of Zn and Fe with phytic acid, thereby improving their availabilities for human consumption to ensure nutritional security.
Chapter
Bioavailability is the fraction of a nutrient in the food that is absorbed upon digestion and available for utilization in normal physiological functions. Bioavailability of nutrients especially that of micronutrients from plant based foods is a complex issue and is a concern to the nutritionists and plant breeders who are undertaking nutrient enrichment in the staple crops called “biofortification.” It depends on a number of factors of the food like food structure, food processing, chemical form of nutrient and interaction between nutrients, as well as the consumer like age, sex, ethnicity, physiological factors, and health status. Presence of natural factors in the food grains such as phytate, tannin, fiber, etc. affects the availability of minerals. The micronutrient bioavailability from commonly consumed cereal foods is generally low. Several traditionally used household food preparation techniques like soaking, germination, hydrothermal treatment, etc. enhance the micronutrient bioavailability. Different bioavailability models are being adopted to screen large numbers of promising genotypes developed under breeding programs to study the efficacy of the biofortified products in alleviating micronutrient malnourishment. Genetic transformation is also being attempted to develop more nutritious sorghum grains along with enhanced iron and zinc bioavailability to ensure nutritional security of millions of African sorghum consumers. The micronutrient bioavailability has been enhanced in the transformed lines due to reduction in phytate up to 85%. Enhanced availability of nutrients in these grains is to be ascertained further through clinical trials along with risk assessment and appropriate biosafety regulations in place before farmer release.
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The present investigation was undertaken to study the influence of heat processing on the total content and bioaccessibility of copper and chromium from various cereals and pulses. The bioaccessibility of these minerals was determined by employing an in vitro dialysability procedure. Microwave cooking, pressure cooking, and open‐pan boiling were the three heat treatment methods used in this study. The copper bioaccessibility in different cereals and pulses was increased as a result of microwave cooking, pressure cooking and open‐pan boiling ranging from 34 to 99%, 16 to 131% and 18 to 133%, respectively. Similarly, the chromium bioaccessibility was also increased as a result of these three heat processing methods in cereals and pulses ranging between 23 to 126%, 15 to 98%, and 30 to 58%, respectively. The bioaccessibility of copper and chromium in most of the analyzed grains was enhanced by pressure cooking; hence, it was the most efficient method.
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The objective of this study was to develop an optimal processing technique capable of reducing antinutrients to acceptable levels, retain nutrients and functional values of avocado seeds for human consumption. Different processing conditions for probiotic fermentation, boiling and soaking techniques were studied to establish optimal processing conditions for the seeds. The antinutrients, antioxidant activity, total phenolics and selected nutrients of avocado seeds were analyzed using analytical standard methods. All processing techniques significantly (p < 0.05) reduced over 50% of antinutrients. The highest total phenolics and antioxidant activity (IC50) were 33.3 mgGAE/g and 0.8 mg/mL respectively which were observed at a fermentation temperature of 37 °C. Soaking and boiling reduced the analyzed minerals to about 30% whereas probiotic fermentation retained 100% of minerals analyzed, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol. Moreover, probiotic fermentation demonstrated the best results in comparison to boiling and soaking thus, considered as an optimal processing method for improving nutritional and functional values of avocado seeds.
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Legumes are rich in proteins, carbohydrates, phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals and antinutrients. The antinutrients compounds reduce the bioavailability of micronutrients, like phytate. Iron (Fe) has a crucial role in several metabolic processes, such as hemoglobin’ synthesis, hormones, DNA, conjunctive and muscle tissue, with a critical role in the production of energy and oxygen’ transportation. The presence of phytate could cause Fe deficiency and several consequences for the organism. Therefore, the reduction or elimination of this antinutrient, it’s essential to improve the biological utilization of legumes and to reduce possible adverse effects. This review aims to understand the phytate metabolization, effects and doses, and to identify strategies that can reduce the effects of phytate, to improve Fe bioavailability. Phytate, the complex of phytic acid and mineral elements, is a chelating agent that reduces mineral bioavailability. It has an inhibitory effect on Fe when the molar ratio phytate/Fe is higher than 1. The consequences of Fe deficiency include decreased physical and cognitive performance, depression and fatigue. Soaking, germination, fermentation and heat treatment reduce phytate content, therefore increasing Fe bioavailability. Biofortification improves Fe status and seems to enhance the consequences of Fe deficiency, such as physical ability and cognitive function. Future research is necessary to study different varieties of legumes and in combination with various biofortified foods, like cereals. Besides that, more studies are needed to assess physical and cognitive performance, to develop biofortification and improve the health of populations.
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Background: Supplementation of myo-inositol has proved effective in different pathological conditions associated with insulin-resistance, including polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes, gestational diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. At the same time, dietary habits in developed countries tend to reduce inositol intake , due to reduced consumption of whole grain foods, legumes, and nuts, rich in phytic acid, the main source of inositol. Aim: The review aims at providing a collection of foods with high phytic acid content to be used for diets that can make available as much inositol as is obtained from nutritional supplements commonly present in the market. Methods: An extensive review concerning the phytic acid content of foods was obtained from literature; furthermore, we designed an exemplifying phytic acid rich diet in by means of a specific nutritional software. Results: Foods with high phytic acid content are: cereals (0.04-3.3% on the dry matter), legumes (0.2-2.4%), oil seeds (0.4-5.7%), and nuts (0.2-9.4%). A moderate amount of phytic acid has been found in root vegetables, tubers and fruits, while low levels are found in the leafy green vegetables. Using these data, we developed an example of weekly diet which provides a mean phytic acid content of 5 g/1660Kcal. Conclusions: This study shows that it is possible to increase phytic acid intake, and consequently inositol availability, by means of an appropriate diet as a complementary treatment to dietary supplements. In people who regularly consume fruits and vegetables, the gut microbiota efficiently degrades phytic acid to myo-inositol phosphate products, therefore this diet could be proposed to patients with increased inositol needs, such as those suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome and in insulin resistance.
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Aging is accompanied by changes in gastrointestinal functions. The impact of the gastrointestinal (GI) conditions of the elderly on the extent of proteolysis and glycolysis as well as calcium bioaccessibility in some cooked legumes (chickpea, lentils, soya bean and white bean) and cereals/pseudocereals (oats, spelt and quinoa) were studied. Samples were digested in vitro using three GI models specifically focused on the elderly in which oral, gastric and intestinal conditions were altered (E1: altered oral conditions, E2: altered oral and gastric conditions and E3: altered oral, gastric and intestinal conditions). Samples were also subjected to a standardized GI digestion as a control (C). The extent of proteolysis was only significantly affected with suboptimal intestinal conditions (p<0.05). Protein digestibility of cereal grains decreased to a greater extent than for legumes. The release of non-essential amino acids was more affected than that of essential ones, mainly in legumes such as soya bean, lentils and white bean. The extent of glycolysis was much higher in cereal grains than legumes regardless of GI digestion conditions. Glycolysis declined with altered intestinal conditions (E3) compared to the C, in all legumes and spelt. Calcium bioaccessibility was much higher in cereal/pseudocereals than in legumes. However, calcium bioaccessibility seems to be highly limited in elderly people suffering from oral, gastric or intestinal alterations (up to 53% reduction compared to C). Such data might be helpful to develop dietary strategies based on protein-rich vegetal foods, including alternative crops such as oats, quinoa and spelt, specifically used to mitigate sarcopenia and osteoporosis in elderly people.
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This review paper presents the state‐of‐the‐art of techniques such as decortication, parboiling and germination affecting nutritional parameters of millets. Functional characteristics of millets useful for designing special foods and value‐added products have been discussed. Why millets, known as superior grains due to their nutritional value and climate resilience, grown extensively, long ago, were replaced by other crops is highlighted? Based on leads from literature, technology interventions required to motivate farmers to adopt millets again have been identified. It is concluded that by adopting decortication, parboiling and germination, it is possible to enhance nutritional and sensory properties of millets. Value‐added and functional foods, including the fast‐moving ones (baked, extruded ready‐to‐eat meal etc.) can be designed using composite flours containing millets, like Kodo and Kutki, to drive demand of these grains. This will help strategize plans for making millets, a preferred crop again for sake of sustainability of agriculture and addressing malnutrition.
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The calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn) and phytate (Phy) contents of 35 Nigerian foods were determined. Levels (mg/100 g) of Ca were 29–45 (legumes), 17–49 (cereals), 17–187 (spices) and 38–155 (tuber/roots) while the Zn levels were 0.55–2.00 (legumes), 0.67–1.84 (cereals), 0.34–4.92 (spices) and 1.35–7.07 (tubers/roots). Phytate levels were 14–344 (legumes), 112–287 (cereals), 35–184 (spices) and 0.0–1070 (tubers/roots). It was found that fermentation reduced Phy levels in Parkia filicoidea, Sorghum bicolor and Manihot esculenta while Phy level was increased in fermented Zea mays. The Phy:Zn molar ratios calculated for many legumes, cereals, tubers/roots and one spice analysed were greater than 20:1. Corresponding Ca:Phy molar ratios were generally low in legumes (except for Sphenostylis stenocarpa, 54:1), cereals and tubers/roots but generally high in spices (except Irvingia gabonensis, 2:1). Dioscorea rotundata, Dioscorea dumentorum and Manihot esculenta have respective molar ratios of Ca:Phy 1.8, 2.5 and 1.4 while the respective [ca] [Phy]/[Zn] molar ratios were 0.50, 0.54 and 0.62. These results suggest that the bioavailability of zinc in the Nigerian diet may be low due to the high phytate content of the staple foods.
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1. Studies were carried out in vitro to examine the effects of phytate on the solubility of the trace elements zinc, copper and manganese. Appropriate volumes of a solution of sodium phytate were added to a mineral solution to achieve phytate: Zn values of from 0: 1 to 45:1. In a second series the same values for phytate: Zn were achieved by varying the amount of added Zn at a fixed phytate concentration. 2. In both experiments > 85% of the Zn was rendered insoluble at pH 6.5 even at the lowest value for phytate:Zn (5:1). The effect of phytate on Zn solubility was greater than effects on Cu or Mn. 3. In a dietary study, rats were offered a semi-synthetic egg-albumin-based diet with added phytate. Two series of diets were prepared, the first had a constant Zn content (18.5 mg Zn/kg) and the amount of sodium phytate varied so as to achieve values for phytate: Zn of from 0:1 to 40:1 (series 1). In the second series, the same values for phytate:Zn were achieved by adding a fixed amount of phytate (7.4 g phytic acid/kg) while the amount of Zn was varied (series 2). 4. Dietary phytate caused significant reductions in growth rates, plasma Zn concentrations and hair Zn concentrations and greying of the coat at values for phytate:Zn of 15:1, 10:1, 10:1 and 15:1, respectively. 5. While phytate was apparently slightly more effective in reducing Zn status when phytate:Zn values were achieved at the lower absolute levels of phytate and Zn (series I diets), the differences at equivalent phytate:Zn values were small. It was concluded that phytate:Zn values can be used as an indicator of Zn availability from phytate-rich diets. Rats offered three diets containing soya-bean-based textured-vegetable-protein (TVP) exhibited low rates of weight gain compared with rats offered an egg-albumen-based diet of similar Zn content (14.5 mg Zn/kg). Additional Zn supplied in drinking-water (25 mg Zn/l) was without effect on rats consuming the egg-albumin diet but significantly improved the weight gain of rats on the TVP diets. 7. It was concluded that phytate naturally present in TVP behaves similarly to phytate added to an otherwise phytate-free diet and that the reduced availability of Zn in TVP diets can be accounted for entirely by their phytate contents.
Article
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Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase was purified from immature soybean seeds harvested approximately 5 weeks post-anthesis. A crude extract was clarified using polyethyleneimine and purified by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, Cibacron Blue 3GA-agarose, Toyopearl DEAE 650M, and Toyopearl phenyl 650M columns. The enzyme had a relative molecular mass, M(r), of 52,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis and retained 50% of its activity after 6 weeks at 0 degrees C. The Km values for inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate and MgATP, respectively, were 2.3 microM and 8.4 microM, and the Vmax was 243 nmol/min/mg. The pH and temperature optima, respectively, were 6.8 and 42 degrees C. Maximum activity was obtained when the magnesium ion concentration was 4 mM. The kinase specifically phosphorylated the 2-position on the inositol ring and could also utilize D-inositol 1,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate as a substrate. The K for the reaction was 14, indicating that the enzyme may be involved in both inositol hexakisphosphate formation in maturing seeds and ATP resynthesis in germinating seeds. Substrate concentrations in mature seeds were favorable for ATP formation, whereas additional factors appeared to drive the accumulation of inositol hexakisphosphate in maturing seeds.
Article
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The effect of different processing techniques was studied on in vitro iron availability and phytate hydrolysis in high and low saponin content quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) seeds. Water slurries of ungerminated and germinated quinoa flour were processed by cooking, soaking, and fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum as starter. Iron solubility under physiological conditions (in vitro) was measured and used as an estimation of iron availability. Phytate (inositol hexaphosphate/IP6) and its degradation products were analysed by an HPLC method. The IP6 + IP5 content was reduced by cooking with 4 to 8%, germination with 35 to 39%, soaking with 61 to 76% and by fermentation with 82 to 98%. The highest reduction, about 98%, was obtained after fermentation of the germinated flour. Cooking had no effect on the amount of soluble iron. Iron solubility increased, however, two to four times after soaking and germination, three to five times after fermentation and five to eight times after fermentation of the germinated flour samples and was highly correlated to the reduction of IP6 + IP5 (P < 0.001). There was no difference between the quinoa varieties with regard to phytate reduction and iron solubility. The pH in fermented samples was reduced from 6.5 to about 3.5, due to lactic acid formation.
Chapter
PHYTATE (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6) widely occurs in plantseeds and/or grains [1-4], roots and tubers [1,3,5,6], fruits and vegetables [3,5,6], nuts [3,5], pollen of various plant species [7-9], and organic soils [10,11]. The phytate fraction of organic soil contains a mixture of phosphorylated derivatives of myo-, chiro-, scyllo-, and neo-inositol [12]. Inositol phosphates with fewer than six phosphate groups, such as myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6pentakisphosphate, have been isolated and identified from the nucleated erythrocytes of birds, turtles, and freshwater fish [13-17].
Chapter
FOR several decades, concerns have been raised about the role of phytic acidin reducing mineral bioavailability. Because dietary phytic acid is a ubiquitous plant constituent present in nuts, cereals, legumes, and oilseeds, current trends in food choices merit a reexamination of this issue. Recommendations for increasing consumption of cereals and grains as the foundation of the food guide pyramid by the U.S. Dietary Guidelines Committee has prompted one such trend. A second trend is that soy-containing foods are becoming increasingly popular in the United States due to intensified research on their health benefits. Increased consumption of snack foods with plant seeds including poppy seeds, sesame seeds, and pumpkin seeds, and granola mixes of nuts and dried foods that contain appreciable amounts of phytate is a third trend. An emerging trend is the interest of manufacturers and consumers in functional foods. Addition of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid or fructooligosaccharides to foods could have tremendous effects on mineral bioavailability that temper the effect of dietary phytate. Genetically modified crops with reduced phytate as discussed in another chapter in this book and still others with higher levels of micronutrients or absorption enhancers as reviewed by Frossard et al. [1] could substantially alter the current food supply.
Article
Phytate levels in the unprocessed foods were 6.24 ± 0.22 mg of phytate/g of sample (cassava), 8.55 ± 0.45 mg/g (cocoyam), 6.37 ± 0.32 mg/g (yam), 7.34 ± 0.31 mg/g (white maize), 6.86 ± 0.12 mg/g (yellow maize), 8.86 ± 0.20 mg/g (red sorghum), 4.49 ± 0.22 mg/g (rice), 8.24 ± 0.22 mg/g (cowpea), and 6.88 ± 0.52 mg/g (soybean). Seventy-two hours of fermentation substantially reduced phytate levels in these foodstuffs, ranging from 80% to 98% for rice, cassava, and cocoyam and from 52% to 65% for sorghum, maize, soybean, cowpea, and yam. Lowering of phytate levels was most rapid within the first 48 h of fermentation. Cooking had little reducing effect on phytate levels in whole cereals and legumes but had considerable reducing effect on phytate levels in the tubers. Further processing of all the intermediate products to ready-to-serve foods achieved reductions in phytate levels. The pH of the maize dough fell from pH 6.21 to pH 3.10 during fermentation.
Article
A simple technique was developed and used to dissect pearl millet [Pennisetum americanum (L.) cv. Leeke] kernels into their anatomical parts. The proportions of the component parts of pearl millet kernels of different seed sizes were determined. The results showed that the germ represented a larger proportion of the kernel weight than in other common cereal grains. Medium-size kernels (< 2920 but > 2240 μm) contained 75·1% endosperm, 17·4% germ and 7·5% bran (pericarp + aleurone). The amount of bran varied with the seed size and type of pericarp. Large kernels (> 2920 urn) had 7·17% bran while small kernels (< 2240 μm) produced 10·64%. Small kernels with thick and thin pericarps had 12·3 and 9·3% bran, respectively. The whole grain and all fractions were analyzed for protein, fat, and ash with the following results: whole grain, 13·27, 6·26, 1·68%; endosperm 10·88, 0·53, 0·32%; germ 24·52, 32·18, 7·18%; bran 17·07, 50·4, 3·20%, respe ctively. The amino acid compositions varied among the different anatomical parts of the grain. The endosperm was lower in lysine, arginine, and glycine and higher in glutamic acid and leucine than the whole grain.
Article
ICPL-87, the high yielding cultivar of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) released by ICRISAT (International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics), India was subjected to various domestic processing and cooking methods, i.e. soaking (6, 12, 18 h, 30°C), soaking (12 h) and dehulling, ordinary as well as pressure cooking and germination (24, 36 and 48 h, 30°C). The unprocessed seeds of this variety contained considerable amounts of phytic acid, (857 mg per 100 g). This was reduced significantly (P
Article
This review provides a current summary of the literature concerning various aspects of phytate. These include data relative to its chemical structure, its occurrence in numerous cereals and legumes, the role of phytase, and the influence of food-processing conditions on phytate/phytase activity. In addition, the nutritional significance of phytate with regard to mineral binding abilities and methods commonly used for the analysis of phytate are also discussed.
Article
Seventy-two hours of fermentation substantially reduced phytate levels in these foodstuffs. Lowering of phytate levels was most rapid within the first 48 h of fermentation. Cooking had little reducing effect on phytate levels in whole cereals and legumes but had considerable reducing effect on phytate levels in the tubers. Further processing of all the intermediate products to ready-to-serve foods achieved reductions in phytate levels
Article
The bioavailability of calcium, iron, zinc, and selenium from hydroponically grown wheat flour containing low (0.19%), medium (0.67%), medium-high (1.64%), or high (1.85%) phytate levels fed to rats was determined. Mineral loads in the test meals were 639 mu g of calcium, 132 mu g of iron, 24 mu g of zinc, and 1 mu g of selenium. The percent of Ca-45 absorption from high-phytate wheat (85.7 +/- 5.2) test meals was significantly (P < 0.01) less than from test meals containing low (92.8 +/- 4.8) and medium-high-phytate (91.9 +/- 5.0) wheat. The percent of Fe-59 absorbed by rats was significantly different (P < 0.01) at 81.47 +/- 6.8, 73.38 +/- 6.9, and 66.05 +/- 7.7 for low-, medium-high-, and high-phytate flour. The percent absorption of Zn-65 from medium- (91.55 +/- 3.0), medium-high- (89.36 +/- 1.7), and high- (88.91 +/- 1.6) phytate wheat flour was significantly lower than that from low-phytate (94.55 +/- 1.8) flour (P < 0.05). Absorption of Se-75 in rats from medium-high- (81.52 +/- 2.0) and high- (81.08 +/- 1.8) phytate wheat flour was significantly lower than that from low-phytate (84.49 +/- 1.8) flour (P < 0.05). Absorption of all minerals decreased with increasing phytate but was high at all concentrations due to low mineral density in wheat.
Article
The effects of germination, cooking and canning on the changes in total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus and phytate retention in black-eyed, red kidney, mung, and pink beans were determined in this study. Soaking the dry beans in water for 12 hr at 24°C resulted in a slight decrease in phytate. After germination for 96 hr or longer there was a significant breakdown in phytic acid, and an increase in inorganic phosphorus. Cooking the dry beans at 100°C for 3 hr had little effect on phytate retention. Heat processing the dry beans at 1155°C for 3 hr in cans resulted in some increase in inorganic phosphorus and a reduction in phytate.
Article
Four soluble phytases were identified in germinating spelt. Although numerous purification strategies were applied, none of the four phytases could be purified to homogeneity. The purest phytase preparation, called D21, contained a phytase (major component) and an acid phosphatase (APH) (minor component). The phytase behaves like a monomeric protein of a molecular mass of about 68 kDa and shows a broad substrate specificity. Optimal pH for degradation of phytate was 6.0 and the optimal temperature 45C. Kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of Na-phytate were KM 400 μmoll−1 and kcat 368s−1 at pH 6.0. The spelt phytase D21 degrades phytate stepwise.
Article
HCl extractable mineral soluble in 0.03 N HCl the concentration of HCl found in human stomach is an index of its bioavailability from foods. The amount of HCl-extractable calcium, phosphorus and iron in raw and unprocessed seeds of rice bean and fababean were (70.2, 55.2), (78.0, 71.2) and (33.4, 35.1), respectively. Among all the domestic processing methods, sprouting was the best method followed by dehulling and soaking (12 h) for improving the extractability of Ca, P and Fe whereas did not affect the total mineral contents. The husks of these legumes had significantly lower levels of extractable Ca, P and Fe.
Article
 The changes in the quantities of inositol phosphates during the maturation and germination of pea, faba bean and lupin seeds were determined in two consecutive (1993 and 1994) years of differing weather conditions. Irrespective of the year, all seeds accumulated predominantly inositol hexaphosphate (IP6). The weather conditions influenced the accumulation of inositol phosphates in maturing seeds, but they did not influence the total content. Gradual degradation of inositol phosphates occurred during seed germination. After 8 days of germination, IP6 was degraded by some 80% in peas, 78% in faba beans and 42% in lupin seeds. The enzymic hydrolysis of higher forms of inositol phosphates (IP6 and IP5) in germinating seeds was assumed to yield inositol tetraphosphate (IP4) and inositol triphosphate (IP3), because the quantities of these compounds increased during seed germination.
Article
Typical organelles for protein storage occur in seeds, protein bodies are found in haploid, diploid or triploid tissues and are single membrane bound. In some plants, they exhibit inclusions (globoid and crystalloid), but not in Gramineae endosperm or in Leguminosae cotyledons. A relationship between species and protein body ultrastructure can be put forward. The chemical composition is based mainly on storage proteins and phytic acid but, hydrolytic enzymes(protease and phytase), cations and ribonucleic acids are also present. Other minor biochemical components include oxalic acid, carbohydrates (excluding starch) and lipids. The locations of the storage proteins, enzymes and phytin are described. Protein body ontogeny during seed maturation has given rise to much controversy: are they plastidic or vacuolar? Recent studies on the location of proteosynthesis show that protein bodies are probably synthesized in endoplasmic reticulum lumen and that the Golgi apparatus plays an important role in storage protein synthesis. During germination protein bodies swell and fuse, giving rise to the cell central vacuole, while the integrity of the membrane is maintained. Protein bodies may be considered as being an example of tonoplast origin from endo-plasmic reticulum.
Article
This paper reviews research published in recent years concerning the effects of zinc and iron interaction in both animal and humans. The information is discussed with particular emphasis on those situations relevant to the realities of less-industrialized countries. A clear need for a shift from the naked concept of “deficiency” or “excess” to a global perspective of “balance” emerges from the analysis performed. The conceptual considerations made here may have application beyond these two nutrients when approaching solutions for the correction of nutritional disorders.Copyright © 1996 Elsevier Science Inc.
Article
Four cultivars of Sudanese sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were analysed for their phytate content, with respect to effects of processing operations, namely milling extraction, water soaking, malting, heat-treatment and fermentation. The conditions of processing used were: decortication to give an 80% extraction meal; 12 and 24 h soaking in tap water; 96 h germination; fermentation for 3,6,9 and 12 h; and cooking at 95°C until starch gelatinized. Total phosphorus, phytate phosphorus and phytic acid were determined. Results showed that phytic acid phosphorus formed >85% of total phosphorus of the sorghum cultivars studied. All treatments investigated caused phytic acid reduction to various extents. Enzymic methods of phytic acid removal (fermentation and malting) were found to be more effective than physical extraction methods, i.e. milling, soaking and heating.
Article
Comparative effects of extrusion cooking and conventional processing methods on protein content and reduction of antinutritional factor (phytic acid, condensed tannins, polyphenols, trypsin, chymotrypsin, α-amylase inhibitors and haemagglutinating activity) levels in Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris seeds were studied. In vitro protein and starch digestibilities were assessed. P. vulgaris seeds showed highest levels of condensed tannins, chymotrypsin and α-amylase inhibitory activities and haemagglutinating activity. Dehulling significantly increased protein content and greatly reduced condensed tannin and polyphenol levels in both legumes. Extrusion was the best method to abolish trypsin, chymotrypsin, α-amylase inhibitors and haemagglutinating activity without modifying protein content. Furthermore, this thermal treatment was most effective in improving protein and starch digestibilities when compared with dehulling, soaking and germination.
Article
Representative samples of 30 staple Malawian foods, raw and prepared “as eaten,” were analyzed for phytate using an anion-exchange method, and for calcium and zinc by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Phytic acid contents expressed on a fresh weight (FW) basis ranged from 211–1089 mg/100 g for cereals and 166–1297 mg/100 g for legumes, to 4–97 mg/100 g for leaves, 10–59 mg/100 g for roots, and 11–25 mg/100 g for fruits. In general, leaves had the highest calcium content (81–514 mg/100 g FW), followed by kidney beans (90 mg/100 g FW), and dry pigeon peas (112 mg/100 g FW). The calcium content of other foods analyzed was relatively low. The zinc content of wild blight, cassava leaves, and okra leaves was comparable to that for the less refined cereals and legumes (i.e., > 1.0 mg/100 g FW), but higher than that of highly refined cereals, pumpkin leaves, chinese cabbage, and other foods analysed (i.e., < 1.0 mg/100 g FW). Cooking had no effect on the phytate content of cereals, but milling and fermentation reduced both the phytate and zinc contents of maize flour. The phytate:Zn molar ratios calculated for all cereals and most legumes analyzed were greater than 20:1. Corresponding Ca:phytate molar ratios were low. Fruits, except for mangoes, vegetables, and roots, had low phytate: Zn molar ratios, but their Ca:phytate and [Ca][phytate]/[Zn] molar ratios were high. Mangoes had high phytate:Zn, Ca:phytate, and [Ca][phytate]/[Zn] molar ratios. These analytical results suggest that the bioavailability of zinc in the Malawian diet is probably low, due to the high phytic acid content of the staple foods.
Article
Widespread zinc deficiency is likely to exist in developing countries where staple diets are predominantly plant based and intakes of animal tissues are low. The severe negative consequences of zinc deficiency on human health in developing countries, however, have only recently been recognized. An integrated approach employing targeted supplementation, fortification and dietary strategies must be used to maximize the likelihood of eliminating zinc deficiency at a national level in developing countries. Supplementation is appropriate only for populations whose zinc status must be improved over a relatively short time period, and when requirements cannot be met from habitual dietary sources. As well, the health system must be capable of providing consistent supply, distribution, delivery and consumption of the zinc supplement to the targeted groups. Uncertainties still exist about the type, frequency, and level of supplemental zinc required for prevention and treatment of zinc deficiency. Salts that are readily absorbed and at levels that will not induce antagonistic nutrient interactions must be used. At a national level, fortification with multiple micronutrients could be a cost effective method for improving micronutrient status, including zinc, provided that a suitable food vehicle which is centrally processed is available. Alternatively, fortification could be targeted for certain high risk groups (e.g. complementary foods for infants). Efforts should be made to develop protected fortificants for zinc, so that potent inhibitors of zinc absorption (e.g. phytate) present either in the food vehicle and/or indigenous meals do not compromise zinc absorption. Fortification does not require any changes in the existing food beliefs and practices for the consumer and, unlike supplementation, does not impose a burden on the health sector. A quality assurance programme is required, however, to ensure the quality of the fortified food product from production to consumption. In the future, dietary modification/diversification, although long term, may be the preferred strategy because it is more sustainable, economically feasible, culturally acceptable, and equitable, and can be used to alleviate several micronutrient deficiencies simultaneously, without danger of inducing antagonistic micronutrient interactions. Appropriate dietary strategies include consumption of zinc-dense foods and those known to enhance zinc absorption, reducing the phytic acid content of plant based staples via enzymic hydrolysis induced by germination/fermentation or nonenzymic hydrolysis by soaking or thermal processing. All the strategies outlined above should be integrated with ongoing national food, nutrition and health education programmes, to enhance their effectiveness and sustainability, and implemented using nutrition education and social marketing techniques. Ultimately the success of any approach for combating zinc deficiency depends on strong advocacy, top level commitment, a stable infrastructure, long term financial support and the capacity to control quality and monitor and enforce compliance at the national or regional level. To be cost effective, costs for these strategies must be shared by industry, government, donors and consumers.
Article
A new and convenient method for the determination of Pi was developed. Phosphomolybdate is measured colorimetrically, without reduction to molybdenum blue, by dissolving the whole assay mixture in acetone, where phosphomolybdate is bright yellow. The hydrolysis of acid-labile phosphates (e.g., creatine phosphate) causes no problems, because extra molybdate is complexed with citrate immediately after the color has been developed. Strong reductants and SH compounds which interfere, if present in high concentrations, are eliminated by adding H2O2. Detergents, organic bases, protein, and sucrose do not interfere. The assay is as sensitive as most modifications of the Fiske-SubbaRow method. In the routine procedure the useful range is 50–1500 nmol of Pi. The application of the method to the assay of inorganic pyrophosphatase in the cells of Escherichia coli is described.
Article
This study leads to the following conclusions on the B vitamin content of pearl millet [Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke]. Little variation occurs in riboflavin and thiamin contents among cultivars grown at the same location but niacin varies significantly among cultivars grown at the same location. Location has a strong effect on thiamin content, a moderate effect on niacin, and no significant effect on the riboflavin content. Significant losses of B vitamins occur as a result of milling. Riboflavin, niacin, and thiamin are high in the germ and bran of pearl millet but relatively low in the endosperm. Cooked pearl millet showed elevated B vitamin levels presumably by improving extractability. The level of phytic acid in pearl millet is slightly lower than that reported for wheat and appears to vary both with location and with cultivar. As expected, the level of phytic acid is high in the germ and low in the endosperm.
Article
Zinc is essential for all species. Human zinc deficiency related to diet was recognized 30 yr ago among adolescents in Iran and Egypt. Subsequent factorial calculations, balance studies, and tracer studies of bioavailability and turnover established the amounts of zinc needed for equilibrium and dietary factors that impair retention. Comparison of dietary intakes of zinc with requirements suggested many women and children are at risk of deficiency. Epidemiological studies associated low plasma levels of zinc with abnormal pregnancy outcomes and controlled intervention trials showed that zinc repletion improved pregnancy outcomes. Low iron nutriture, a common phenomenon in women, was shown to be associated with low zinc nutriture. Thus the hypothesis that zinc deficiency is a public health problem appears to be true.
Article
An LC method was developed for the determination of phytic acid in food. The separation was carried out by gradient elution on an anion-exchange column using a conductivity detector. Earlier reversed-phase LC procedures for the quantitation of phytic acid usually required a prepurification step. The prepurification can be avoided by the separation method described in this paper. The method is sensitive and selective, and can be rapidly and easily performed. It is therefore suitable for routine determination.
Article
In less-developed countries, novel strategies are needed to control iron-deficiency anaemia, the most common form of malnutrition. We undertook a community-based randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of iron or aluminium cooking pots in young Ethiopian children. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. The primary outcomes were change in children's haemoglobin concentration, weight, or length over the study period. We also did a laboratory study of total and available iron in traditional Ethiopian foods cooked in iron, aluminium, and clay pots. 407 children, one per household, entered the study. The change in haemoglobin concentration was greater in the iron-pot group than in the aluminium-pot group (mean change to 12 months 1.7 [SD 1.5] vs 0.4 [1.0] g/dL; mean difference between groups 1.3 g/dL [95% Cl 1.1-1.6]). The mean differences between the groups in weight and length gain to 12 months (adjusted for baseline weight or length) were 0.6 cm (95% CI 0.1-1.0) and 0.1 kg (-0.1 to 0.3). The laboratory study showed that total and available iron was greatest in foods cooked in iron pots, except for available iron in legumes for which there was no difference between types of pot. Ethiopian children fed food from iron pots had lower rates of anaemia and better growth than children whose food was cooked in aluminium pots. Provision of iron cooking pots for households in less-developed countries may be a useful method to prevent iron-deficiency anaemia.
Article
Using a multivariate experimental design, optimal conditions for phytate degradation were found to be pH 4.8 and 57 degrees C in barley flour (cv. Blenheim) and pH 5.2 and 47 degrees C in a crude extracted phytase from barley. Three methods for measuring phytase activity in raw and hydrothermally processed barley were compared. Incubation at pH 5 and 55 degrees C for 60 min did not give significantly different results (p > 0.05), whereas incubation at pH 5 and 50 degrees C for 10, 20, 30, and 60 min gave significantly different results (p < 0.001) between methods. The change in microstructure of phytate globoids during hydrothermal processing showed that the degradation was highest in the scutellum cells and less in the aleurone layer.
Article
Various methods of processing maize suitable for household use in rural Malawi, Central Africa, were investigated for their ability to reduce its phytate content and phytate/zinc molar ratio. These methods included fermentation, germination, and soaking. Penta- and hexainositol phosphates were measured by HPLC, and zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Natural lactic fermentation of maize flour slurries resulted in 88% phytate retention compared to unprocessed, unrefined maize flour porridges, whereas lower phytate retention was observed when a starter culture (61%) or germinated flour (71%) was also used. Fermentation of cooked maize flour porridges with germinated flour added resulted in 54-85% retention of phytate compared to controls. Soaking maize flour or pounded maize and decanting excess water resulted in 43 and 49% retention of phytate, respectively. The latter soaking procedures were simple and effective and were suitable for household use in rural Malawian communities.
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Phytate and mineral bioavailability Energy required from complementary foods and factors affecting their intake. In: Complementary Feeding of Young Children in Developing Countries: a Review of Current Scientific Knowledge
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Effects of soaking on phytate degradation I
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