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The role of gratitude in the development of social support, stress, and depression: Two longitudinal studies

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Abstract

In two longitudinal studies, the authors examined the direction of the relationships between trait gratitude, perceived social support, stress, and depression during a life transition. Both studies used a full cross-lagged panel design, with participants completing all measures at the start and end of their first semester at college. Structural equation modeling was used to compare models of direct, reverse, and reciprocal models of directionality. Both studies supported a direct model whereby gratitude led to higher levels of perceived social support, and lower levels of stress and depression. In contrast, no variable led to gratitude, and most models of mediation were discounted. Study 2 additionally showed that gratitude leads to the other variables independently of the Big Five factors of personality. Overall gratitude seems to directly foster social support, and to protect people from stress and depression, which has implications for clinical interventions.

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... This personal benefit does not necessarily have to be earned by the recipient, but must explicitly intended for them, albeit in a metaphorical way [44]. Various studies have shown a positive influence of gratitude on well-being [45], [46], [47], [48], [49], sleep quality and duration [45], [50], social support [51], [52] and levels of depression and stress [48], [49], [51]. Furthermore, feelings of gratitude evoke prosocial behaviour and thus promote social relationships [52], [53], [54], [55]. ...
... This personal benefit does not necessarily have to be earned by the recipient, but must explicitly intended for them, albeit in a metaphorical way [44]. Various studies have shown a positive influence of gratitude on well-being [45], [46], [47], [48], [49], sleep quality and duration [45], [50], social support [51], [52] and levels of depression and stress [48], [49], [51]. Furthermore, feelings of gratitude evoke prosocial behaviour and thus promote social relationships [52], [53], [54], [55]. ...
... But how does the medical students' gratitude directly promote the SP' trust in them, even more so when the interaction only took place within a ten-minute OSCE? Various studies have shown grateful people to have strong communicative and social skills: they are more empathetic, more extroverted, more stress resistant, more relaxed, less depressed, they show a high level of well-being and, above all, they are motivated to do favours [45], [46], [47], [48], [51], [52]. These effects of gratitude might have generated an overall confidence-inspiring image of the more grateful students among the SP and moved them to a positive evaluation of the additional question. ...
Article
Introduction: The promotion of physicians' empathy (PE) skills in medical school plays a central role in physician-patient communication. However, a significant decline in empathy among medical students during their training has been repeatedly reported. Gratitude could be a possible protective factor for PE. However, as some students do not seem to be affected by this empathy loss, this study explores the relationship between gratitude and PE. Methods: Using validated questionnaires (JSPE-S, IRI and GQ-6), 88 medical students at LMU München evaluated their self-assessed PE and gratitude. In addition, they went through four OSCE stations focusing on general medicine, in which their empathy and communication skills were assessed by simulated patients (SP) and by an assessor using the Berlin Global Rating. Correlations were analysed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and gender differences were analysed using Mann-Whitney U-tests. Results: In the self-assessment, there was a significant, moderate correlation between students' attitude towards empathy (JSPE-S) and their gratitude (GQ-6) and a weak correlation between the IRI subscale "Empathy" and the GQ-6. In terms of the performance-based assessment, there were also weak correlations between PE or communication skills and gratitude. There were no gender-specific differences in the gratitude of the students. Conclusion: We were able to demonstrate a correlational relationship between gratitude and empathy in medical students. Whether gratitude acts causally as a protective or supportive factor for empathy remains open. A causal relationship of gratitude to empathy should therefore be examined in a prospective study design.
... Gratitude-focused interventions are derived from theory and research on gratitude, which is the emotional experience of noticing and appreciating the positive aspects of everyday life . Individuals with higher levels of gratitude experience better psychological well-being, including lower rates of depression, anxiety, and greater emotional functioning, including more positive affect, less negative affect, and higher life satisfaction (Datu & Mateo, 2015;Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Kong et al., 2015;Wood et al., 2010;Wood, Joseph, et al., 2008a, 2008b. Gratitude has also been associated with lower levels of stress (Wood et al., 2008a(Wood et al., , 2008b, stronger social relationships (Algoe, 2012;Algoe et al., 2020), better self-reported physical health (Hill et al., 2013;O'Connell & Killeen-Byrt, 2018), and better cardiovascular and immune health (Cousin et al., 2020;Emmons & Stern, 2013). ...
... Individuals with higher levels of gratitude experience better psychological well-being, including lower rates of depression, anxiety, and greater emotional functioning, including more positive affect, less negative affect, and higher life satisfaction (Datu & Mateo, 2015;Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Kong et al., 2015;Wood et al., 2010;Wood, Joseph, et al., 2008a, 2008b. Gratitude has also been associated with lower levels of stress (Wood et al., 2008a(Wood et al., , 2008b, stronger social relationships (Algoe, 2012;Algoe et al., 2020), better self-reported physical health (Hill et al., 2013;O'Connell & Killeen-Byrt, 2018), and better cardiovascular and immune health (Cousin et al., 2020;Emmons & Stern, 2013). Research has also shown that gratitude alleviates the negative psychological consequences of stressors such as chronic illness and COVID-19 (Jiang, 2020;Sirois & Wood, 2017), and studies directly testing the stress-buffering effects of gratitude have shown that gratitude reduces the impact of stress on negative health outcomes (Deichert et al., 2019). ...
... The gratitude intervention was effective in reducing participants' stress and negative affect. This is consistent with previous research showing that gratitude is linked to lower stress levels (e.g., Wood et al., 2008aWood et al., , 2008b. Research suggests that gratitude can buffer the negative psychological outcomes associated with stressful life events (Deichert et al., 2019). ...
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Exploring ways to mitigate the stress of the COVID-19 pandemic is important for long-term health. Expressive and gratitude-focused writing are effective methods to help individuals process traumatic or stressful events. Gratitude-focused writing may yield additional benefits because it helps individuals appraise events positively. We hypothesized that an online gratitude writing intervention would yield greater benefits than an expressive writing intervention or control group. Participants were randomized to one of three groups and completed assessments one-week and one-month post-intervention. The gratitude writing group maintained gratitude levels and decreased stress and negative affect at one-month post-intervention. The expressive writing group decreased in gratitude and showed no changes in stress or negative affect at one-month post-intervention. The control group decreased in gratitude and negative affect and showed no changes in stress at one-month post-intervention. Gratitude writing may be a better resource for dealing with stress and negative affect than traditional expressive writing methods under extremely stressful situations with uncertain trajectories.
... These interventions should focus, for example, on the teaching and practicing of specific social support skills, that is training people how to talk with and get along with others (interpersonal insight, feedback, or emotional expression) (Hogan et al., 2002). Gratitude interventions can be also influential for the development of employee perceptions of social support and high managersubordinate relationship quality (Niemiec et al., 2017;Wood et al., 2008). According to Wood et al. (2008), an increase in gratitude protects against stress and depression and helps cultivate social support. ...
... Gratitude interventions can be also influential for the development of employee perceptions of social support and high managersubordinate relationship quality (Niemiec et al., 2017;Wood et al., 2008). According to Wood et al. (2008), an increase in gratitude protects against stress and depression and helps cultivate social support. In addition, organizations could proactively adopt various practices to encourage instrumental helping. ...
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Abstract Purpose-The purpose of this study is to establish a hierarchy among different workplace resources in terms of their relative contribution to employee decision to provide instrumental help. Design/methodology/approach-We conducted a within-person survey experiment and analyzed the data using multilevel regression. The data are based on a random sample of 94 employees working in medium-sized companies in Crete, Greece. Findings-Results suggest that for employees' decision to provide instrumental help, some job resources are perceived as more important than others. Workplace resources that are closer to employees (i.e., coworkers' social support and manager-subordinate relationship) are perceived as more important compared to leadership style and the manager use of humor. Practical implications-Findings suggest that organizations can successfully improve instrumental helping through interventions primarily aimed at building group-level resources. Originality/value-The study highlights the importance of workplace resources for employees' decision to provide instrumental help. However not all job resources are perceived as equally important. Theoretically, the study extends influential resource-based theories.
... This variable was perceived social support. This is consistent with the literature which demonstrates that gratitude is primarily a social emotion (e.g., Algoe and Stanton, 2012) and that it is strongly related to pro-social behavior and perceived social support (Wood, Maltby, Gillett, et al., 2008). ...
... Most importantly for our findings, though, there have been studies suggesting that grateful people have higher levels of perceived social support (e.g., Wood, Maltby, Gillett, et al., 2008). Perceived social support is an interaction between the factual support a person receives and his or her interpretation of it (Lakey & Drew, 1997). ...
Preprint
Introduction: Gratitude is known to have beneficial effects on the well-being of various populations, including women with breast cancer. The present diary study examined if daily feelings of gratitude would affect the daily functioning of women with breast cancer and if after a 2-week-long gratitude intervention they would function better than before it.Methods: Participants were 62 women with breast cancer. Half of them were randomly assigned to the gratitude condition, half to the control condition. All of them completed a 14-day diary that measured their daily gratitude, well-being, affect, satisfaction with life, perceived social support, and other aspects of daily functioning. The gratitude group took part in an intervention that involved wearing a smartwatch that asked them what they were grateful for, three times a day for 14 days. The control group wore smartwatches that sent neutral notifications. Before and after the study, participants completed a set of trait-level scales that measured their dispositional gratitude, depression, anxiety, stress coping styles, and other correlates of gratitude.Results: Daily gratitude was positively correlated with all aspects of good daily functioning (e.g., positive affect, well-being, acceptance of illness), and negatively with negative affect – regardless of the study condition. There were no significant differences in the functioning of women in the gratitude intervention and the control group, besides in daily perceived social support: women who practiced gratitude felt more supported by others on an everyday basis. All participants had a higher level of acceptance of illness and a lower level of anxiety after the study, compared to their baseline scores.Conclusion: We found that daily feelings of gratitude were associated with the good functioning of the patients in everyday life. Keeping a two-week diary that involved self-monitoring of one’s mood and well-being led to better functioning after the study, compared to the initial levels. Yet, research into the effectiveness of gratitude interventions in this population should continue and we conclude the paper with suggestions for future research. We believe this study contributes to the understanding of mechanisms behind a breast cancer patient’s daily functioning.
... Gratitude is positively associated with psychological well-being. It is routinely linked to reduced depressive symptoms in retrospective and cross-sectional studies (Wood et al., 2008) as well as in prospective and longitudinal studies (Jans-Beken et al., 2019). Gratitude is also associated with reduced odds of developing generalized anxiety disorder, phobias, nicotine and alcohol dependence, and other drug dependence (Kendler et al., 2003; however, experimental studies have produced mixed support for links with psychopathology, Jans-Beken et al., 2019). ...
... The present findings highlight that collinearity between gratitude and support may bias gratitude's association with outcomes in extant literature. For example, although gratitude has been positively associated with individual psychological well-being in prior cross sectional (Wood et al., 2010) and longitudinal (Jans-Beken et al., 2019) studies as well as negatively associated with depression (Wood et al., 2008), anxiety, and substance dependence (Kendler et al., 2003), this pattern of outcomes is mirrored in literature on support (Taylor, 2011). After controlling for support and the matching of gratitude to support, gratitude was not significantly associated with psychological well-being in the present study. ...
Article
Extant literature often assumes that gratitude is intrinsically positive therefore ought to be maximized. Virtue theory and social alignment theory, however, suggest gratitude is adaptive only in specific relational contexts. Drawing from find-remind-bind theory’s notion that gratitude functions to promote interactions with supportive partners in particular, we test whether it is not just the overall level of gratitude and support that bear upon personal (psychological well-being, physical health) and relational (commitment, sexual satisfaction, aggression) outcomes, but also congruence in levels of gratitude for one’s partner relative to the support they provide. Drawing from a cross-sectional survey of 874 mixed-sex married dyads (N=1,748) in the United States, we demonstrate that gratitude for a partner in excess of the support that partner provides is associated with maladaptive personal and relational outcomes. Implications and future directions are discussed.
... Traditionally, resistance and readiness for a change were studied in dialectical approach when both concepts are defined as opposite to each other. The reason for establishing this approach is the nature of organizational change which is described as a multileveled construct (Weiner, 2009). In recent literature, resistance and readiness for change is viewed as different concepts (Holt, Armenakis, Harris, & Feild, 2007). ...
... Gratitude is considered as one of five qualities of mindfulness, which reduces the feeling of anxiety amongst workers experiencing employment uncertainty (Jacobs & Blustein, 2008). It decreases stress (Wood, Maltby, Gillett, Linley, & Joseph, 2008), raises the feeling of responsibility towards society and their colleagues (Andersson, Giacalone, & Jurkierwics, 2007), and enhances social relationships and increases their subjective well-being (Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005). ...
... As one of the core concepts examined in the field of positive psychology, gratitude has been found to be a predictor of various positive outcomes. At the intrapersonal level, gratitude is associated positively with multiple indexes of mental and physical health, such as lower risks of depression, anxiety, and dependence on nicotine, alcohol, and drug (e.g., Kendler et al., 2003), reduced level of stress (Wood et al., 2008b), improvement in sleep quality (Emmonse & McCullough, 2003), and better recovery from trauma (i.e., post-trauma growth, Peterson & Seligman, 2003). On the flip side, gratitude is linked with eudemonic well-being (e.g., autonomy, personal growth, and purpose in life, Wood et al., 2009) and authentic living (Wood et al., 2008a). ...
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Objectification, treating others merely as things or tools while denying their personhood, results in severe consequences. While prior research predominantly focused on the triggers of objectification, we aimed to investigate a possible intervention. We hypothesized that gratitude could reduce objectification toward general others (i.e., people who are not the benefactors). Across three studies (N = 1007), our hypothesis was supported. Study 1 showed that dispositional gratitude negatively predicted trait objectification. Studies 2 and 3 further found a causal relationship. Specifically, after heightening participants’ state of gratitude, participants showed a lower level of objectification towards others (Study 2). Using a scenario study that described a working context, we further showed the alleviating effect of gratitude on objectification toward a group of factory workers, targets often suffering from objectification (Study 3). Our reported effect is prevalent, such that it is observed across samples from two countries (i.e., the United States and China).
... Furthermore, gratitude is proven to be a better predictor of subjective well-being than any of the big five personality traits across different studies (McCullough et al., 2002;Wood, Maltby, Gillett, Linley, & Joseph, 2008). On the other hand, trait gratitude was negatively correlated with depression and anxiety across two studies and four populations (Watkins et al., 2003), and increased trait gratitude can predict a decrease in depression and anxiety level (McCullough et al., 2002) . ...
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Backgrounds: Gratitude and pride are both benefit-related emotions, whereby the pride attributes success to oneself and gratitude to another. Gratitude and pride are vital to the function of a society, allowing one to create interpersonal relationships and build self-confidence. Despite growing interest in the neural underpinnings of positive emotions and subjective feelings, we know very little about how these emotions are represented in the brain and computationally updated over time by new experience. Aims of the study: We aimed to fill the gap by finding the specific neural representations of the dynamic emotional experience of gratitude and pride, and the functional neural substrates for updating positive emotions in general. Furthermore, we also aimed to find the best computational models to give the best explanations how these two emotions are updated as the environmental factors change. Methods: We developed a novel behavioral task based on the gameshow “Who Wants to be a Millionaire”, which we used together with functional MRI, and computational modeling. We investigated which brain regions are involved in representing gratitude and pride, how the human brain keeps track of these emotions over time and how it updates them when new information is available. 13 Results: We found that gratitude was more associated with neural activities in the bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ), which has previously been implicated in Theory of Mind. In contrast, pride was more associated with neural activities in the caudate nucleus, which is part of the reward system, and hippocampus. Importantly, when we look for neural activity parametrically modulated with the reported magnitude of gratitude feelings we found correlations mainly in the motor cortex (precentral gyrus), reward system (ventral striatum, putamen) and Theory of Mind network (temporal pole). In contrast, neural activity pertaining to the strength of the feeling of pride was found in the bilateral putamen. Moreover, activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was related to an emotional prediction error signal, suggesting that this region might be involved in the process of updating our level of gratitude and pride feelings. Computational modeling revealed different models for gratitude and pride. Gratitude model uniquely involved the prediction of others’ behavior, while pride model involved mainly the reward. Implications: Our findings delineate the computational mechanisms and neural circuitry for positive emotions that accompany the attribution of getting reward whether it is due to one's own effort or help of others. Besides, our studies contribute to theories of emotions in several different aspects, especially to the newest theory of constructed emotion. Our findings have clinical implications for developing new psychotherapies for patients with emotional disorders.
... One of the exercises in the 6-Minute Diary is a classic gratitude intervention in which one lists things or events for which one is grateful (Emmons and McCullough, 2003;Watkins et al., 2003;Seligman et al., 2005;Froh et al., 2008). To date, several studies have examined the benefits of gratitude for interpersonal relationships (Sun et al., 2014), social support (Wood et al., 2008), subjective well-being (Wood et al., 2009;Rash et al., 2011;Allan et al., 2013;Datu, 2013), strengthened social relationships (Emmons and McCullough, 2003), and improved physiological and cognitive functioning (McCraty et al., 2003). There are positive correlations between gratitude and life satisfaction, happiness, optimism, hope, and positive affect. ...
Article
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This study investigated the effects of the 6 Minutes Journal (6MT), a commercial diary combining several positive psychology interventions, including gratitude, goal-setting, and self-affirmation exercises, on several mental health outcome measures. In a randomized controlled trial, university students (N = 157) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 6MT (n = 77) and a wait list control group (n = 80). Participants in the intervention group were instructed to follow the instructions of the 6MT for 4 weeks. Participants in both groups completed measures of perceived stress, positive and negative affect, self-efficacy and resilience at baseline, after 2 (t1), and 4 (t2) weeks. We used path-analyses with autoregressive and cross-lagged effects to test our hypotheses of the effects of the 6MT. Participants in the intervention group reported decreased levels of perceived stress and negative affect, as well as increased levels of resilience and self-efficacy compared to the control group. Positive affect was not statistically significantly influenced. The data showed a statistically significant increased levels of self-efficacy and resilience only after 4 weeks, suggesting that changing these constructs needs more time. The 6-minute diary does not appear to make individuals fundamentally more positive. However, the intervention may have a protective function against negative influences on well-being.
... Gratitude is a positive response to a good outcome of another individual's efforts. It encourages prosocial responses among the beneficiaries and is associated with lower depressive symptoms, burnout, and suicide risk in a non-crisis context [16,30,31]. In a crisis context, gratitude is a key driver of adaptation to crises, such as COVID-19 [32]. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 outbreak has caused significant stress in our lives, which potentially increases frustration, fear, and resentful emotions. Managing stress is complex, but helps to alleviate negative psychological effects. In order to understand how the public coped with stress during the COVID-19 pandemic, we used Macao as a case study and collected 104,827 COVID-19 related posts from Facebook through data mining, from 1 January to 31 December 2020. Divominer, a big-data analysis tool supported by computational algorithm, was employed to identify themes and facilitate machine coding and analysis. A total of 60,875 positive messages were identified, with 24,790 covering positive psychological themes, such as “anti-epidemic”, “solidarity”, “hope”, “gratitude”, “optimism”, and “grit”. Messages that mentioned “anti-epidemic”, “solidarity”, and “hope” were the most prevalent, while different crisis stages, key themes and media elements had various impacts on public involvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first-ever study in the Chinese context that uses social media to clarify the awareness of solidarity. Positive messages are needed to empower social media users to shoulder their shared responsibility to tackle the crisis. The findings provide insights into users’ needs for improving their subjective well-being to mitigate the negative psychological impact of the pandemic.
... Additionally, social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1989) also explains psychosocial functioning in terms of triadic (i.e., personal cognitive, behavioral patterns, and environmental events) reciprocal causation. Migrant adolescents with higher levels of relative deprivation may perceive less social support and more discrimination (Chen et al., 2014), causing them to stay alone and avoid social situations (Wood et al., 2008). Empirical research also demonstrates that perceived social support partially mediates the relationship between relative deprivation and depression among children from divorced families (Xiong et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Despite existing studies showing that relative deprivation is a risk factor for migrant populations’ social withdrawal, the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. The current study used a moderated mediation model to investigate perceived social support as a possible mediator and in-group identity as a possible moderator in the relationship between relative deprivation and social withdrawal. A large sample of 1772 Chinese migrant adolescents completed questionnaires that measured relative deprivation, social withdrawal, perceived social support, and in-group identity. Relative deprivation was significantly and positively correlated with migrant adolescents’ social withdrawal, and perceived social support partially mediated this relationship. Moreover, in-group identity moderated the indirect effect of relative deprivation on social withdrawal via perceived social support, with a high level of in-group identity weakening the association between relative deprivation and perceived social support. It is recommended that parents and educators pay closer attention to adolescents’ perceived social support and in-group identity to provide appropriate interventions.
... La investigación científica ha demostrado que la experiencia de emociones positivas constituye una de las posibles vías de acceso a la plenitud y el bienestar (Seligman, 2011). Se ha observado que estas emociones tienen la capacidad de amplificar el repertorio de pensamientos y acciones, estimular la memoria asociativa, la flexibilidad, la integración y la eficiencia del razonamiento, predecir el bienestar subjetivo, incrementar la resistencia y robustecer ciertas capacidades personales que optimizan la probabilidad de supervivencia y salud (Boehm & Lyubomirsky, 2008;Cohen, Doyle, Turner, Alper, & Skoner, 2003;Consedine, Magai, & King, 2004;Fredrickson, 2013;Fredrickson & Branigan, 2005;Fredrickson & Joiner, 2018;Froh, Yurkewicz, & Kashdan, 2009;Johnson, Waugh, & Fredrickson, 2010;Madan, Scott, & Kensinger, 2019;Puente-Díaz & Cavazos-Arroyo, 2019;Ren, Hu, Zhang, & Huang, 2010;Vaish, Carpenter, & Tomasello;Van Cappellen, Rice, Catalino, & Fredrickson, 2018;Wood, Maltby, Gillett, Linley, & Joseph, 2008). En el plano interpersonal, favorecen el establecimiento de conexiones sociales extensas y positivas, y promueven una actitud inclusiva, compasiva, cooperativa y tolerante hacia los demás (Fredrickson, 2013;Kok et al., 2013;Rand, Kraft-Todd, & Gruber, 2015). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to assess the validity based on internal structure of the Children's Questionnaire of Positive Emotions (CIEP), and to provide normative data for the interpretation of the scores of Argentinean children, aged from 8 to 12 years old. Participants were 1384 girls, 1376 boys and 1 child who did not identify his sex (M = 10.14; SD = 1.30). All attended to public or private primary schools, from urban and suburban areas of Argentina. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed that the data fit acceptably the five-factor proposed model: joy, gratitude, sympathy, serenity and personal satisfaction. The ANOVA’s revealed differences in the positive emotional experience between girls and boys, being the first who shown greater tendency to be grateful and sympathetic. From these results, the means, standard deviations and percentile values for each sex were calculated.
... The existing literature has shown that gratitude was linked to lower levels of depression (Lambert et al., 2012). Further, research has demonstrated the importance of gratitude in catalyzing healthy interpersonal relationships (Algoe, 2012;Algoe et al., 2020;Lambert et al., 2012;Wood et al., 2008). ...
Article
Objectives: Although gratitude relates to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) well-being outcomes in the United States, more evidence is needed to understand how this psychological strength reciprocally relates to mental health during this pandemic. This study examines the association of gratitude with stress, anxiety, and depression among undergraduate students in the United States via a longitudinal design. Methods: An online survey was administered to 643 undergraduate students in a public university located in the southeastern region of the United States. There was a 1-month interval between the first and second waves of data collection. Results: Cross-lagged panel structural equation modeling showed that whereas gratitude positively predicted subsequent relatedness needs satisfaction, it negatively predicted later stress, anxiety, and depression. Relatedness needs satisfaction was reciprocally linked to subsequent gratitude. Conclusion: Results suggest that gratitude might serve as a protective psychological resource against the detrimental mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Gratitude is an "orientation towards noticing and appreciating the positives in life" (Wood et al., 2010, p. 891). More than two decades of scientific inquiry in social psychology has shown that gratitude leads to a raft of beneficial outcomes for individuals including enhanced wellbeing (Portocarrero et al., 2020), higher life satisfaction (McCullough et al., 2002), reduced stress and depression (Wood, Maltby, Gillett et al., 2008) and a greater sense of meaning and purpose in life (Wood et al., 2009; for reviews, see, Wood et al., 2010). Although the benefits of gratitude are universally established in psychology domains, organizational scholars have just begun to realize the potential advantages of gratitude in the management field (Fehr et al., 2017). ...
... The relationship between gratitude and self-efficacy can be explained in the following three ways. First, highly grateful individuals are more likely to perceive and receive more social support from others (including family and friends, and even strangers) in their lives, and can experience more care (Wood et al., 2008). Once an individual receives care and social support from others, he or she enhances his or her psychological capital, which can improve the ability to cope with frustration and enhance self-efficacy more easily. ...
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The current study aimed to explore how family atmosphere influenced pro-social behavior among Chinese college students and to explore the mediation roles of gratitude and self-efficacy. We recruited 800 Chinese college students, and the participation rate was 89% (712 participants, M = 19.26, SD = 1.23). Participants completed the family atmosphere scale, the pro-social tendencies measure, the gratitude questionnaire, and the general self-efficacy scale. Results indicated that (1) Family atmosphere, gratitude, self-efficacy, and pro-social behavior were positively correlated after controlling for the grade, gender, and age. (2) The family atmosphere affected pro-social behavior not only directly, but also indirectly through the partial mediating role of gratitude and self-efficacy. Moreover, gratitude and self-efficacy also played a full chained mediation role in the relationship between the family atmosphere and pro-social behavior of college students. Therefore, a supportive family atmosphere is conducive to promoting college students’ gratitude and self-efficacy, in turn affecting their pro-social behavior.
... Several experimental studies are found to have shown gratitude interventions to have a positive effect on psychological wellbeing (Bozkurt, 2019;Măirean et al., 2018;Uhder et al., 2017), subjective well-being (Megawati et al., 2019), school wellbeing (Jiang et al., 2015), and health (Millstein, 2016). Several studies have also shown gratitude to negatively correlate to depression (Sun et al., 2020;Tulbure, 2014;Wood et al., 2008) and anxiety (Gökşen, 2020;McCullough et al., 2002). ...
Article
This study aims to adapt the Existential Gratitude Scale (Jens-Beken & Wong, 2019) to Turkish culture and to examine the scale’s psychometric properties in this respect. The study uses the convenience sampling method, and the sample consists of 286 participants between the ages of 18 to 53, of whom 212 (74.1%) are female and 74 (25.9%) are male. The structural validity of the scale has been examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The CFA results confirm the original EGS’ one-dimensional structure over a Turkish sample, and the scale has good fit indices (χ2=94.655, df=34, χ2/df =2.784, GFI=0.936, NFI=0.930, CFI=0.954, SRMR=0.0420, and RMSEA=0.079). The factor loadings range from .46 to .77. For the criterion validity, Pearson correlations were calculated for the EGS with the Short Gratitude, Resentment, and Appreciation Scale and Transpersonal Gratitude Scales, which resulted in significant positive correlations (respectively r=0.476 and r=0.579 at p= 05). The item-total correlation and comparison of the upper 27% and lower 27% groups were examined for the item analysis of the scale; these have revealed the EGS to possess satisfactory discriminating power. As a result of the reliability analysis, Cronbach’s alpha of internal consistency was calculated as .893. This study shows the EGS to be a valid and reliable tool useable in the context of Turkey for measuring individuals’ existential gratitude levels. The EGS can be a valuable tool for practitioners in mental health settings in developing appropriate interventions for individuals’ coping skills in celebrating adversity.
... Thus, it is possible that dispositional gratitude may be associated with greater social connectedness and resources, which have previously been linked to lower likelihood of developing psychopathology and suicidal behavior (Arenson et al., 2021;Neria et al., 2010;Wang et al., 2021). The link between gratitude and social connectedness is well established in previous literature (e.g., Liao & Weng, 2018;Wood, Maltby, Gillett, et al., 2008), which also aligns with the Broaden-and-Build Theory and results of our post-hoc mediation analyses. Further longitudinal research is needed, such as repeated measure designs that capture individual differences in social connectedness (e.g., ecological momentary assessment), to fully evaluate the role of social resources in mediating the relationship between gratitude and adverse mental health outcomes. ...
Article
Background Dispositional gratitude has been implicated as a psychological characteristic that may modulate risk for mental health outcomes. Using a population-based sample of U.S. military veterans, this study evaluated the association between dispositional gratitude and the development of psychopathology and suicidal behaviors over a 7-year period. Methods A nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans was surveyed at four timepoints across seven years. Analyses were restricted to veterans without incident outcomes at baseline. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine the relation between baseline levels of dispositional gratitude and risk of developing (a) major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); (b) suicidal ideation; and (c) suicide attempts. Results A total 9.6% of veterans developed MDD, GAD, and/or PTSD, 9.5% developed suicidal ideation, and 2.8% reported having attempted suicide over the 7-year follow-up period. Among veterans with high levels of dispositional gratitude, incidence was lower for MDD/GAD/PTSD (8.0%), suicidal ideation (6.8%), and suicide attempts (1.5%). Conversely, veterans with low dispositional gratitude were at substantially higher risk of developing MDD/GAD/PTSD (27.7%), suicidal ideation (33.6%), and suicide attempts (20.3%). Conclusions High dispositional gratitude may help protect against the development of psychopathology and suicidal behaviors in U.S. military veterans, whereas low gratitude may increase risk of developing these outcomes. Collectively, these results support the potential utility of enhancing gratitude as part of primary prevention efforts for veterans, service members, and other populations at heightened risk for adverse mental health outcomes.
... Gratitude, also known as gratitude or feeling, is a positive emotion that individuals experience when they receive favors from others (McCullough et al., 2002). Trait gratitude refers to the fact that a person has a high sense of gratitude and will easily and frequently experience gratitude (Wood et al., 2008). It is a stable and implicit gratitude and a static expression that reflects individual differences State gratitude refers to the immediate emotional experience of individuals after they are helped by others, namely Gratitude Emotion (Emmons and Shelton, 2002), is a kind of immediate and explicit gratitude emotional experience, is a dynamic expression of gratitude, reflecting the difference of state. ...
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Gratitude, as one of the positive emotions associated with self-transcendence, is also a moral and pro-social emotion with a pro-social nature. Therefore, in order to verify whether gratitude has the same effect as pro-social in promoting connection with nature, this study (N = 890) divided subjects into three groups (gratitude, recreation, and control) and used a questionnaire to explore the effects of gratitude on positive emotions of self-transcendence, connection with nature, and pro-environmental tendencies (willingness to participate in environmental protection, willingness to sacrifice for the environment). The results found that (1) positive emotions of self-transcendence partially mediated the effect of the gratitude condition on connection to nature, and (2) positive emotions of self-transcendence and connection to nature were fully and continuously mediated, suggesting that the gratitude condition had an indirect effect on both (a) willingness to participate in environmental protection and (b) willingness to sacrifice for the environment. These findings imply that we may need to pay more attention to the connection between gratitude and nature to promote a harmonious relationship between humans and nature.
... Trait gratitude reflects the predisposition to respond to benefits from others, while state gratitude represents a temporary emotional response to a benefactor (McCullough, Tsang, & Emmons, 2004). Extensive studies have revealed the beneficial effects on well-being from gratitude (Jans-Beken, Lataster, Peels, Lechner, & Jacobs, 2018;Kong, Zhao, You, & Xiang, 2020;Sun & Kong, 2013;Wood, Maltby, Gillett, Linley, & Joseph, 2008;Yang, Yan, Jia, Wang, & Kong, 2020), while the nature and process of gratitude have not been sufficiently explored. Accordingly, we argued that gratitude may be elicited through two processes: cognitive appraisals of the benefactor's behaviors and affective experience elicited by these behaviors, and that the tendencies of these two processes are different. ...
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Gratitude is considered to be a multidimensional construct consisting of both cognitive (cognitive appraisals of benefaction) and affective (feelings of gratitude) components, which is crucial for health and well-being. However, few studies have examined the cognitive-affective structure of gratitude and its associations with subjective well-being. Thus, the present study explored the two-dimensional structure of gratitude and its predictive effects on subjective well-being. Study 1 showed that the bi-factor structure of gratitude had the best fit with the data compared with the one- and two-factor models, and both general and affective gratitude positively predicted subjective well-being at the cross-sectional level. Study 2 further found that general gratitude positively predicted life satisfaction and positive affect after 3 months. However, cognitive gratitude negatively predicted subjective well-being at both cross-sectional and longitudinal levels. Therefore, future gratitude studies should consider the two-dimensional structure of gratitude.
... For instance, studies FLOURISHING AMONG ADULTS WITH DISABILITIES 7 support our findings that suggest that enhancing gratitude may be a means to help people with disabilities cope with functional limitations, onset of stress, and develop resilience (Fredrickson, 1998;Fredrickson et al., 2003). As an adaptive coping mechanism, gratitude may reduce stress by allowing negative life experiences to be reinterpreted with a grateful perspective (Timmons & Ekas, 2018;Wood et al., 2008). Researchers have also demonstrated that negative emotions (e.g., envy, bitterness, or anger) are inhibited among individuals with high gratitude, as these feelings are incongruent with gratitude practices (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005;Nelson, 2009). ...
Article
Purpose/objective: Flourishing, a primary outcome of rehabilitation psychology, is understudied among adults with disabilities. Gratitude has emerged as an individual strength that is both malleable and robust in predicting flourishing and adaptation to disability. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of gratitude on flourishing over time and to analyze the potential mediating role of adaptation to disability on this relationship for a group of adults with disabilities. Research method/design: Data were collected at 3 time points over 21 months (N = 429). A single mediator model with external demographic variables was tested to determine the relationship of gratitude (Time 1) with adaptation to disability (Time 2) and flourishing (Time 3). Approximately 40% of the initial sample was retained across all time points. Results: Gratitude predicted later flourishing and adaptation to disability accounted for a significant portion of this relationship, accounting for 27% of the total effect. Conclusions/implications: Results of this single mediator model indicate that adaptation to disability serves as a partial mediator of the relationship between gratitude and flourishing, with both gratitude and adaptation to disability having a significantly positive influence on flourishing. Understanding gratitude's influence on later adaptation and flourishing provides data to inform rehabilitation psychology interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Gratitude and forgiveness are not only linked to children's close relationships but also to their well-being. Individuals experiencing more gratitude tend to make more positive attributions, immerse themselves in positive, adaptive environments, and receive more social support [26,42], which are all conducive to less depressive symptomatology. Dispositional gratitude appears to be incompatible with Beck et al.'s [43] cognitive depressive bias. ...
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Although greater parent-child attachment security is linked with children’s lower levels of depressive symptoms, little research has evaluated potential explanatory mechanisms. We investigated whether dispositional gratitude and interpersonal forgiveness explain the relation between attachment security with parents and early adolescents’ depressive symptoms. Early adolescents (N = 105; M age = 12.3 years; 51% girls) completed questionnaires assessing their attachment security to mother and father figures, depressive symptoms, and dispositional gratitude, and an interview assessing interpersonal forgiveness. Results revealed that greater attachment security to mothers and fathers was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and greater levels of dispositional gratitude and interpersonal forgiveness. Further, dispositional gratitude and interpersonal forgiveness were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Dispositional gratitude emerged as a mediator between attachment security with each parent and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that greater parent-child security may promote early adolescents’ appreciation of positive events, which in turn may relate to fewer depressive symptoms.
... However, a multitude of correlations does not increase the likelihood that gratitude actually causes happiness. Providing stronger support for causation, several prospective studies have shown that gratitude predicts increased wellbeing over time [4,5], and a number of experimental studies have manipulated gratitude exercises and shown that gratitude increases happiness [3,[6][7][8] (for reviews, see [9,10]). In short, correlational, prospective, and experimental studies have supported the conclusion that gratitude is a critical component of the good life. ...
Chapter
In this chapter we review recent research in the relationship of gratitude to happiness. First, we show how gratitude is a critical component of the good life. Because gratitude is vital to wellbeing, it is important to establish the causes of state and trait gratitude. We explain an appraisal approach to grateful emotion and show how certain benefit interpretations are critical to the experience of gratitude. In this context, we describe an encouraging new paradigm that has been applied to the study of gratitude: Cognitive Bias Modification. This experimental approach has helped to establish the causal status of interpretations to gratitude, and we describe how this methodology should help to understand gratitude in future research. Recent research on the cognitive antecedents of gratitude has shown that the nature of the benefactor matters to experiences of gratitude, and in this regard, a divine benefactor may create a unique experience of gratitude. Gratitude scholars have now turned to the question: How does gratitude enhance happiness? We present research and theories that have attempted to speak to this issue. Finally, we explore the question: Who benefits most from gratitude interventions? Research has supplied some surprising answers to this question.
... Hope and gratitude -two important concepts in positive psychology -are core themes embedded within the HOPE Programme. They are addressed through the experience of group curative factors (23), and through specific activities such as goal setting and feedback, identifying strengths, and gratitude diaries (25)(26)(27). The Hope Programme for Long COVID content was codesigned by people living with Long COVID and healthcare professionals who support them. ...
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BACKGROUND There are around 1.3million people in the UK living with the devastating psychological, physical and cognitive consequences of Long COVID. UK guidelines recommend that Long COVID symptoms are managed pragmatically with holistic support for patients’ biopsychosocial needs, including psychological, emotional, and physical health. Self-management strategies such as pacing, prioritisation, and goal setting are vital for the self-management of many Long COVID symptoms. This paper describes the co-development and initial testing of a digital intervention combining peer support with positive psychology approaches for self-managing the physical, emotional, psychological, and cognitive challenges associated with Long COVID. OBJECTIVE The objectives of this study were to: i) co-design an intervention with and for people living with Long COVID; ii) test the intervention and study methods; iii) measure changes in participant wellbeing, self-efficacy, fatigue and loneliness; iv) gain understand the types of self-management goals and strategies used by people living with Long COVID. METHODS The study employed a pre-post, mixed methods, pragmatic, uncontrolled design. Digital intervention content was co-developed with a lived experience group to meet the needs uncovered during the intervention development and logic mapping phase. The resulting 8-week digital intervention – Hope Programme for Long COVID – was attended by 47 participants, who completed pre- and post-programme measures of wellbeing, self-efficacy, fatigue and loneliness. Goal-setting data was extracted from the digital platform at the end of the intervention. RESULTS The recruitment rate (83.9%) and follow up rate of (59.6%) were encouraging. Positive mental wellbeing increased by 6.5 points from baseline to post-course (p<.001). Self-efficacy also improved from baseline to post-course (mean difference 1.1, p=.009). All goals set by participants mapped onto the five goal-directed everyday self-management strategies in the TEDSS taxonomy. The most frequent type of goals related to activities strategies, followed by health behaviour and internal strategies. CONCLUSIONS The bespoke self-management intervention -Hope Programme for Long COVID – was well-attended and follow up was encouraging. The sample characteristics largely mirrored those of the wider UK population living with Long COVID. Our next trial (ISRCTN: 11868601) will employ a non-randomised waitlist control design to further examine intervention efficacy. CLINICALTRIAL N/A
... Research has shown that gratitude enhances well-being (Wood et al. 2010;Watkins 2014). Gratitude is strongly associated with subjective well-being (McCullough et al. 2002;Watkins et al. 2003) and prospectively predicts well-being (e.g., Wood et al. 2008). Furthermore, numerous experimental studies have shown that gratitude exercises increase happiness (for reviews, see Davis et al. 2016;Watkins and McCurrach 2021). ...
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The authors used a prospective design to investigate how gratitude to God predicts religious well-being over time. Gratitude to God is a central aspect of monotheistic religions, and thus may be particularly important to the religious/spiritual well-being of believers. Participants completed online measures of trait and state gratitude to God, along with spiritual well-being, nearness to God, and religious commitment scales over a one-to-two-month period. General well-being, trait gratitude, and the Big Five personality traits were also assessed. After controlling baseline levels, trait gratitude and the Big Five personality traits, dispositional gratitude to God at Time 1 predicted increased religious well-being, nearness to God, and religious commitment at Time 2. Although gratitude to God was significantly related to general well-being variables in cross-sectional analyses, it did not predict these variables over time. Validity data for the gratitude to God measures are also presented. The results suggest that gratitude to God is important to religious/spiritual well-being, and gratitude to God may be a critical variable for research on positive psychology and the psychology of religion/spirituality.
... Gratitude is also correlated with depression. Wood et al. (2008) reported that having the feelings of thankfulness will make one's depressive phase more tolerable and shorter. Another study suggested that gratitude is negatively associated with depression (Seligman et al., 2005). ...
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This study investigates the relationship between mindfulness, gratitude, and psychological wellbeing of young individuals in Pakistan with the potential role of hopefulness as a mediator between mindfulness, gratitude, and wellbeing. Data were collected from young individuals (18–40 years old) from Pakistan. A total sample of 500 participants was collected by employing the online survey questionnaire, and 374 questionnaires were duly filled and returned. The PLS-SEM technique was used to test the proposed hypotheses. The results of the study found that there is a strong direct relationship between gratitude, mindfulness, and hopefulness, and mindfulness is also strongly correlated with wellbeing. However, the relationship between gratitude and wellbeing was not statistically significant. Moreover, the mediation results reveal that the relationship between mindfulness, gratitude, and wellbeing is significantly mediated by hopefulness. This shows that gratitude and mindfulness are crucial in enhancing wellbeing through hopefulness. This study is an important contribution to validating the broaden-and-build theory, which suggests that hopelessness is a significant factor of a depressive state. It can be indicated that inducing hopefulness could be a significant element of the treatment plan of professional clinical psychologists.
... According to Armstrong, there are seven laws of success; goals, education, ingenuity, drive, good health, determination, and the help of God (Rasool et al., 2012) and God helps those who are grateful. Many developed countries conducted research on these constructs and found gratitude to be Clinical and Counselling Psychology Review Volume 3 Issue 1, Spring 2021 a beneficial construct for enhancing subjective well-being and overcoming psychological problems (Wood et al., 2008). The purpose of the current research is to look at the importance of social and psychological needs for subjective well-being and the healthy development of the youth because Pakistan is one of the youngest countries in the world. ...
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The purpose of the study was to quantify the impact of gratitude on subjective well-being and moderating role of materialism among Pakistani youth. For this purpose, the sample of 550 participants (aged 15-29) were selected through a multistage random sampling technique from five metropolitan cities of Pakistan. The measurement tools employed for the data collection were the Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky & Lepper 1999), Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., 1998) Gratitude Questionnaire GQ-6 (McCullough et al., 2002), and Material Values Scale (Richines & Dawson., 1992). The collected data were analyzed through Smart PLS (3.0). The results showed a significant positive relationship between gratitude and subjective well-being (happiness and satisfaction with life) and a negative relationship with materialism. Whereas, materialism played a significant moderating role between gratitude and subjective well-being. Significant gender differences were also exhibited in this study. This study also provides guidelines and strategies for youth and parents, to educational professionals, new researchers, society, and government agencies.
... This study aimed at examining the effect of meaning in life on prosocial behavior as mediated by PsyCap. To this end, we used the cross lagged panel model, which can increase confidence in causality in longitudinal correlational data (Hamaker, Kuiper, & Grasman, 2015;Wood, Maltby, Gillett, Linley, & Joseph, 2008). The findings support H1 and show that meaning in life (T1) is significantly associated with students' prosocial behavior (T3), while prosocial behavior (T1) is not significantly associated with meaning in life (T3). ...
Article
Meaning in life is a summative cognition of valuable goals, life purpose, and relationships among things and people. A central feature of meaning in life is the broad consideration of more than oneself. We extend this logic to suggest that people higher in meaning in life will engage in more prosocial behaviors, compared to others. Further extending this idea, we hypothesized and longitudinally tested the assertion that one of the potentials, yet overlooked and important mechanisms that mediates the association between current meaning in life and prosocial behavior among university students six-months later is psychological capital (PsyCap). A total of 913 Chinese university students (25.6% males; 70.3% females; Mage = 19.63, SDage = 1.04) completed a Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), a Prosocial Tendencies Measure (PTM), and a Positive Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PPQ) at three different times. The results showed that the association between T1 meaning in life and T3 prosocial behavior was significant before adding the mediator variables into the model (β = 0.10, p < 0.001). T2 PsyCap significantly mediated the influence of T1 meaning in life on T3 prosocial behavior (indirect effect = 0.10; 95% CI [0.06, 0.14]). We concluded that meaning in life in university students can influence subsequent prosocial behaviors, directly, as well as through PsyCap.
Article
Background: There are around 1.3million people in the UK living with the devastating psychological, physical and cognitive consequences of Long COVID. UK guidelines recommend that Long COVID symptoms are managed pragmatically with holistic support for patients' biopsychosocial needs, including psychological, emotional, and physical health. Self-management strategies such as pacing, prioritisation, and goal setting are vital for the self-management of many Long COVID symptoms. This paper describes the co-development and initial testing of a digital intervention combining peer support with positive psychology approaches for self-managing the physical, emotional, psychological, and cognitive challenges associated with Long COVID. Objective: The objectives of this study were to: i) co-design an intervention with and for people living with Long COVID; ii) test the intervention and study methods; iii) measure changes in participant wellbeing, self-efficacy, fatigue and loneliness; iv) gain understand the types of self-management goals and strategies used by people living with Long COVID. Methods: The study employed a pre-post, mixed methods, pragmatic, uncontrolled design. Digital intervention content was co-developed with a lived experience group to meet the needs uncovered during the intervention development and logic mapping phase. The resulting 8-week digital intervention - Hope Program for Long COVID - was attended by 47 participants, who completed pre- and post-program measures of wellbeing, self-efficacy, fatigue and loneliness. Goal-setting data was extracted from the digital platform at the end of the intervention. Results: The recruitment rate (83.9%) and follow up rate of (59.6%) were encouraging. Positive mental wellbeing (mean difference 6.5, p<.001) and self-efficacy (mean difference 1.1, p=.009) improved from baseline to post-course. All goals set by participants mapped onto the five goal-directed everyday self-management strategies in the TEDSS taxonomy. The most frequent type of goals related to activities strategies, followed by health behaviour and internal strategies. Conclusions: The bespoke self-management intervention -Hope Program for Long COVID - was well-attended and follow up was encouraging. The sample characteristics largely mirrored those of the wider UK population living with Long COVID. Although not powered to detect statistically significant changes, the preliminary data shows improvements in self-efficacy and positive mental wellbeing. Our next trial (ISRCTN: 11868601) will employ a non-randomised waitlist control design to further examine intervention efficacy.
Article
The Michigan Diaries (MI Diaries) project was developed from late March to early April of 2020, in the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic. MI Diaries is a longitudinal sociolinguistic project, collecting “audio diaries” from participants throughout the pandemic and beyond. As a research project designed to obtain personal narratives from a time of deep anxiety and pain, and during a time where face-to-face data collection was not feasible, MI Diaries was confronted from the outset with a substantial set of both ethical and practical considerations. In this paper, we describe some of these challenges, and our false starts and eventual solutions in response. Throughout, we highlight decisions and methods that may be applicable for future researchers conducting remote fieldwork, navigating a speech community during a disaster, or both.
Article
Purpose Nurses' work engagement is critical for the service quality of the hospital. Thus, investigation on the influencing factors of nurses' work engagement has become an important issue. This study addresses this issue by exploring the effect of daily family-to-work conflict (FWC) on next-day work engagement among Chinese nurses. Design/methodology/approach The theoretical model was tested using 555 experience sampling data from 61 nurses collected for 10 workdays in China. Findings Nurses' daily FWC is associated with their next-day ego depletion. Moreover, increased ego depletion ultimately reduces their next-day work engagement. In addition, a between-individual factor of frequency of perceived patient gratitude mitigates the effect of FWC on ego depletion and the indirect effect on work engagement via ego depletion. Originality/value This study is important to the management of health-care organizations as it carries significant implications for theory and practice toward understanding the influence of FWC among nurses. On the one hand, the authors apply the job demands-resources (JD-R) model as the overarching theoretical framework, which contributes to the authors’ understanding of how FWC impairs work engagement. On the other hand, the authors extend extant theoretical models of FWC by identifying the frequency of perceived patient gratitude as an important contextual factor that counteracts the negative effects of FWC among nurses. Moreover, organizations could encourage patients to express their gratitude to nurses by providing more channels, such as thank-you notes, to offer nurses some support for overcoming the destructive effect of FWC.
Article
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In this research it is aimed to test the effectiveness of junior high school students writing gratitude journals on gratitude. The research group constitutes students who attend secondary school in a public school and volunteer to participate in the research. The research was carried out on two groups, one experimental group and one control group. There were 23 participants in the experimental group and 24 participants in the control group. In the scope of the research, Gratitude Scale and Subjective Well-Being Scale for Adolescents were used. Data were collected three times in the research process; pre-test, post-test, and follow-up test. After the pre-test was applied, a training seminar on gratitude was given to the experimental group. In this seminar, students were told about what they can be grateful for and how they can be expressed. After the training seminar, the experimental group was asked to write daily in gratitude diaries created by the researchers based on the balance model of positive psychotherapy for 21 days. At the end of 21 days, the last time was collected, and the final test data were collected. Finally, the follow up data were collected 10 weeks after the end of the study and the study was terminated. The data were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U Test and the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and the Friedman Test. Examination of the test results for the experimental and control groups revealed that the experimental group differed significantly from the control group in terms of gratitude and subjective well-being. In addition to these findings, according to the Wilcoxon Test results, the individuals in the experimental group got significantly higher scores in terms of gratitude and subjective well-being in the posttests than in the pretest scores. In the control group, there was no difference between the pretest and posttest scores. According to the Friedman test results used for the follow-up test analysis, the positive effect in the experimental group continues in the follow-up test. It was observed that individuals in the control group got significantly lower scores in the follow-up tests compared to gratitude and subjective well-being scores. According to the results of the follow-up test, it was understood that the effectiveness of the writing exercise continued. According to these findings, it was determined that the practice of writing gratitude diaries increased the gratitude and subjective well-being levels of adolescents.
Article
This study adopts a retrospective pretest-posttest design to investigate the effects of perceived gratitude and damage on changes in residents’ attitudes toward tourism and the mediating role of residents’ attitudes on their perceptions of tourism contribution before and amid COVID-19 targeting the city of Wuhan. The results indicate that residents’ attitudes are positively changed after COVID-19. Gratitude significantly improves residents’ attitudes when they perceive high damage, whereas the effect of gratitude was meager when perceived damage was low. This study provides a better understanding of residents’ attitudes and tourism contribution and suggests guidelines to recover from the negative event.
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Abstrak Perceraian merupakan peristiwa yang sering dipandang negatif oleh anak sehingga menyebabkan mereka sulit untuk merasa bersyukur. Penelitian mengenai kebersyukuran menunjukkan bahwa social support memiliki keterkaitan dengan gratitude. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk melihat bagaimana kontribusi setiap dimensi social support terhadap gratitude pada dewasa awal yang orang tuanya bercerai. Penelitian ini dilakukan terhadap 111 individu, dengan menggunakan instrumen adaptasi skala GRAT (α=0.880, n=40) untuk mengukur gratitude, dan skala ISEL (α=0.92, n=31) untuk mengukur social support. Data penelitian di analisis dengan menggunakan teknik regresi linier berganda dan menghasilkan 3 dimensi social support dapat memprediksi gratitude; dimensi appraisal support (R 2 =0.125, p=0.000; p<0.05), dimensi belonging support (R 2 =0.140, p=0.000; p<0.05) dan self-esteem support (R 2 =0.047, p=0.008; p<0.05). Sedangkan dimensi tangible support tidak dapat memprediksi gratitude pada dewasa awal yang orang tuanya bercerai (R 2 =0.000, p=0.823; p>0.05). Appraisal support memprediksi gratitude secara negatif, semakin tinggi Appraisal support maka semakin rendah gratitude, demikian pula sebaliknya. Sedangkan belonging support dan self-esteem, masing-masing memprediksi gratitude secara positif, semakin tinggi belonging support dan self-esteem maka semakin tinggi gratitude. Kata Kunci: Social Support, Gratitude, Perceraian.
Article
Most research on knowledge sharing has examined the construct as an individual difference variable and neglected that it may vary within an individual over a short period of time. Moreover, although researchers have recognized the critical role of leaders in knowledge management practice, scant attention is given to the day‐to‐day dynamics of the relationship between leader behaviours and employee knowledge sharing. Taking a dynamic perspective on knowledge sharing and based on affective events theory, we argue that daily managerial coaching positively affects employees' daily knowledge sharing via the mediating role of daily gratitude. In addition, employees' perceived overqualification would moderate the relation between daily managerial coaching and daily gratitude such that daily managerial coaching would elicit a stronger daily gratitude for employees with lower perceived overqualification. A 10‐working day quantitative diary survey of 122 R&D employees from a large state‐owned enterprise supported our whole theoretical model. The implications of our findings for both theory and practice were discussed.
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Objective: Patients with thyroid disorders were found to experience depression due to several factors. The aims of this study was to measure depression level among thyroid disorder patients and examine the correlation between depression and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and free Thyroxine (fT4), stressful life events and social support level. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out at one of the non-profit hospital at central region of Peninsular Malaysia. 153 thyroid patients were selected by using simple random sampling technique. The ethical approval was sought from IIUM Research Ethics Committee (IREC563) and the Medical Research and Ethics Committee (MREC) (NMRR-15-2127-28667). Several tools were used in this study including Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-42 (DASS-42), list of Life Threatening Experiences (LTE), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS); and Thyroid Function Test including TSH and fT4 were reviewed from the patient’s file. A correlation test was used to analyse the data by using SPSS version 21.0. Results: About 15% (n=23) out of 153 thyroid disorder patients had varies degree of depression (males - 7.8% (n=3) and females – 17.3% (n=20)). Also, there were positive correlation between depression and TSH (r=0.235, p=0.03), stressful life events (r=0.264, p=0.001) and negative correlation (r=-0.068, p=0.402) with perceived social support from family. Conclusion: These findings suggested that thyroid disorder patients had depression and the factors associated with depression were high TSH level, recent stressful life events and low social support from the family. These factors can be considered while assessing thyroid disorder patients who had symptoms of depression.
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Dispositional gratitude has emerged in the literature to be associated with many health benefits in measures ranging from self-reported health to biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. However, little is known about the link between dispositional gratitude and lipid profiles. Drawing from the Gratitude and Self-improvement Model that grateful individuals are more likely to strive for actual self-improvement such as engaging in healthy lifestyles, we investigated the relation between dispositional gratitude and serum lipid levels. Participants consisted of 1800 adults from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) 2: Biomarker Project ( N = 1054) and MIDUS Refresher: Biomarker Project ( N = 746). Serum lipid profiles were measured through fasting blood samples. After controlling for demographics, use of antihyperlipidemic mediation, and personality traits, we found that higher dispositional gratitude was associated with lower triglyceride levels. Results also revealed that healthy diets and lower BMI partially mediated the gratitude-triglyceride association. However, some variations in the analytic method may influence the associations between gratitude and triglycerides levels. Our findings provide preliminary evidence suggesting dispositional gratitude as a promising psychological factor that is associated with a healthier lipid profile.
Increasingly, researchers are putting their efforts into understanding more about self-made products (e.g. reasons for purchasing these type of products). Nevertheless, it remains poorly understood as to how to effectively promote such products. Understanding whether using emotions (e.g. gratitude) in an advertisement may increase the effectiveness of advertising is still open to debate. Based on the cognitive theory of emotions, in the present study, the effect of emotional appeals on purchase intentions is explored through three experiments. Study 1 examines the effect of gratitude (vs. no-appeal) on consumer's click through behavior for self-made products. The results show that gratitude appeal poses a stronger effect on consumers' click through behavior for self-made products as opposed to no appeal. Study 2 provides further evidence of the gratitude effect (versus happiness, no-appeal) on purchase intention for self-made products in comparison to pre-made ones. Finally, Study 3 establishes desire to put in more effort as an underpinning mechanism for gratitude appeal and adds level of effort as a moderator. The findings suggest that marketers should incorporate gratitude appeal into their advertisements to increase consumers' purchase intentions by stimulating the desire to put in more effort.
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BACKGROUND – Becoming a mother, that is the forty weeks of pregnancy, is a highlighted stage of life for a woman. It is a defining period for both the mother and her child, who is to be born. Furthermore, gestation can be understood as a normative crisis as well, during which numerous psychological problems may evolve. Therefore, the preservation of mental health and support provided for women are especially important in prenatal care. GOALS – The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gratitude, appreciation, subjective well-being, and social support – as momentous constructs of health psychology – in assisting mental health in the lives of pregnant women and to explore the relations between these variables. METHODS – 79 pregnant women participated in our online, qualitative investigation; 36 of them had been writing gratitude diaries for 4 weeks. We compared the questionnaires’ results (filled out both before and after the intervention) of the experimental group (n = 36) with the results of the control group (n = 43) similarly filled out on two different occasions. The following instruments were used in our study: Gratitude, Resentment, and Appreciation Test; Appreciation Scale; Subjective Well-Being Questionnaire; MOS Social Support Survey. RESULTS – Higher appreciation and dispositional gratitude correlate with a higher sense of subjective well-being and a better perception of social support. In the experimental group, writing a gratitude diary was followed by a significant positive change in all questionnaires: the scores for gratitude, appreciation, subjective well-being, and social support increased. CONCLUSIONS – Dispositional gratitude that can be improved by such a simple intervention as writing a gratitude diary is a useful means of supporting the mental health of pregnant women and thereby of preserving and promoting their psychological and physical well-being. Besides medical healthcare, expectant women are in particular need of professional mental support, wherefore it is important not only to maintain their physical health but also to introduce new methods that assist mentally the well-being of pregnant persons. Key words: gratitude, pregnancy, mental health, well-being, social support
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In this research it is aimed to test the effectiveness of junior high school students writing gratitude journals on gratitude. The research group constitutes students who attend secondary school in a public school and volunteer to participate in the research. The research was carried out on two groups, one experimental group and one control group. There were 23 participants in the experimental group and 24 participants in the control group. In the scope of the research, Gratitude Scale and Subjective Well-Being Scale for Adolescents were used. Data were collected three times in the research process; pre-test, post-test, and follow-up test. After the pre-test was applied, a training seminar on gratitude was given to the experimental group. In this seminar, students were told about what they can be grateful for and how they can be expressed. After the training seminar, the experimental group was asked to write daily in gratitude diaries created by the researchers based on the balance model of positive psychotherapy for 21 days. At the end of 21 days, the last time was collected, and the final test data were collected. Finally, the follow up data were collected 10 weeks after the end of the study and the study was terminated. The data were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U Test and the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and the Friedman Test. Examination of the test results for the experimental and control groups revealed that the experimental group differed significantly from the control group in terms of gratitude and subjective well-being. In addition to these findings, according to the Wilcoxon Test results, the individuals in the experimental group got significantly higher scores in terms of gratitude and subjective well-being in the posttests than in the pretest scores. In the control group, there was no difference between the pretest and posttest scores. According to the Friedman test results used for the follow-up test analysis, the positive effect in the experimental group continues in the follow-up test. It was observed that individuals in the control group got significantly lower scores in the follow-up tests compared to gratitude and subjective well-being scores. According to the results of the follow-up test, it was understood that the effectiveness of the writing exercise continued. According to these findings, it was determined that the practice of writing gratitude diaries increased the gratitude and subjective well-being levels of adolescents
Article
Helping acts, however well intended and beneficial, sometimes involve immoral means or immoral helpers. Here, we explore whether help recipients consider moral evaluations in their appraisals of gratitude, a possibility that has been neglected by existing accounts of gratitude. Participants felt less grateful and more uneasy when offered immoral help (Study 1, N = 150), and when offered morally neutral help by an immoral helper (Study 2, N = 172). In response to immoral help or helpers, participants were less likely to accept the help and less willing to strengthen their relationship with the helper even when they accepted it. Study 3 ( N = 276) showed that recipients who felt grateful when offered immoral help were perceived as less likable, less moral, and less suitable as close relationship partners than those who felt uneasy by observers. Our results demonstrate that gratitude is morally sensitive and suggest this might be socially adaptive.
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The current study presented the first meta-analytic review on the associations between the Big Five personality traits and stress measured under different conceptualizations (stressor exposure, psychological and physiological stress responses) using a total of 1,575 effect sizes drawn from 298 samples. Overall, neuroticism was found to be positively related to stress, whereas extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness were negatively linked to stress. When stress assessed under different conceptualizations was tested, only neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were related to stressor exposure. All of the Big Five personality traits were significantly associated with psychological stress perception, whereas the five personality traits showed weak to null associations with physiological stress response. Further moderation analyses suggested that the associations between personality traits and stress under different conceptualizations were also contingent upon different characteristics of stress, sample, study design, and measures. The results supported the important role of personality traits in individual differences in stress.
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Gratitude or the appreciation of being given something of value, is an important element in positive emotions within positive psychology. Gratitude has been linked to wellbeing and gratitude in the workplace is positively associated with constructs such as performance and organizational citizenship behavior. The pandemic brought on many negative experiences but employees could still find things to be grateful for during this time. The purpose of the study was to understand what aspects of work and the organization employees were grateful for during the pandemic. A generic qualitative approach was used. Participants were sourced from various industries in South Africa using purposive sampling. Data were gathered through 21 semi-structured interviews of working people in South Africa. Braun and Clarke’s thematic analysis revealed five themes, namely, (1) gratitude for no negative work-life changes; (2) gratitude for a caring workplace; (3) gratitude for a new way of working; (4) gratitude for the ability to put oneself first; and (5) gratitude for having resilience, optimism and spirituality as a psychological buffer. Managers should deliberately engage in behaviors that will bring about gratitude from their employees. Employees should reflect on the positive things at work that they are thankful for as a way of enhancing gratitude and thereby, wellness, performance, and commitment. The study combines existing knowledge on gratitude during the pandemic with gratitude in the workplace.
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Previous research has described a lot about how to manage the mental health of employees in the workplace. However, there is no comprehensive understanding the impact of the role of employee mental health on work learning systems, participatory practices, gratitude and employee emotions. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of employee mental health. The research method is by reviewing 50 articles selected and screened based on key findings. This research reveals that mental health and gratitude are understood in a variety of ways. Mental health is primarily defined as mental health experiences and responses, and workplace learning primarily refers to learning through participatory practices. In addition, this study describes the relationship between mental health and learning in the workplace. Most studies focus on the active role of mental health in supporting and/or hindering learning in the workplace. Some research shows mental health in the workplace is negatively affected by gratitude. This research also reveals that mental health affects employees' emotions at work. This study suggests that companies can maintain their employees’ mental health through various human resource management strategies, and for further research, it is recommended to describe trends and gaps in this field.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We proposed and tested an integration of Coyne's (1976b) interpersonal theory of depression with work on the interplay between self-enhancement and self-consistency theory (e.g., Swann, Griffin, Predmore, & Gaines, 1987). Students' levels of depressive symptoms, reassurance-seeking, and negative feedback-seeking were assessed at Time 1 and their same-gender roommates' appraisals of them were assessed five weeks later. In line with our conceptualization, we found that depressed students reported engaging in more self-enhancing reassurance-seeking and more self-consistent negative feedback-seeking than nondepressed students at Time 1
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We examined whether gratitude was correlated with distinct coping styles, and whether coping styles mediated the relationship between gratitude and well-be- ing. Participants (n = 236) completed measures of coping styles, dispositional grati- tude, and measures of well-being. Gratitude correlated positively with seeking both emotional and instrumental social support, positive reinterpretation and growth, active coping, and planning. Gratitude correlated negatively with behav- ioural disengagement, self-blame, substance use, and denial. Coping styles medi- ated up to 51% of the relationship between gratitude and stress, but did not substantially mediate the relationship between gratitude and either happiness, de- pression, or satisfaction with life. We suggest that different mechanisms relate grati- tude to separate aspects of well-being. Further research is indicated into the role of gratitude in social support processes, and in growth following adversity.
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What is positive psychology? Where has it come from? Where is it going? These are the questions we address in this article. In defining positive psychology, we distinguish between the meta-psychological level, where the aim of positive psychology is to redress the imbalance in psychology research and practice, and the pragmatic level, which is concerned with what positive psychologists do, in terms of their research, practice, and areas of interest. These distinctions in how we understand positive psychology are then used to shape conceptions of possible futures for positive psychology. In conclusion, we identify several pertinent issues for the consideration of positive psychology as it moves forward. These include the need to synthesize the positive and negative, build on its historical antecedents, integrate across levels of analysis, build constituency with powerful stakeholders, and be aware of the implications of description versus prescription.
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Structural equation modeling (multivariate analysis with latent variables, also called causal modeling or covariance structure analysis) is a valuable methodological tool for use in counseling psychology research. Essentially the broad framework that subsumes many well-known procedures (e.g., multiple linear regression, factor analysis, path analysis), structural equation modeling allows for analysis of causal patterns among unobserved variables represented by multiple measures. It permits testing of causal hypotheses and theory, examination of psychometric adequacy, and enhancement of the explanatory power of correlational data that characterize counseling psychology research. I present and illustrate structural equation modeling, followed by a discussion of (a) issues and problems related to the use of this methodology, (b) possible applications of structural equation modeling to counseling psychology research, and (c) resources for those wanting further study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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the increasing complexity of decision making about structural equation models and comprehensiveness of computer software for estimating them has created a significant burden for researchers in the social and behavioral sciences / researchers who choose to address substantive research questions using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach are faced with the task of sifting through the large amount of output routinely generated by SEM software and deciding how to present information in a way that permits a reasoned evaluation and understanding of their analysis / provide a set of general recommendations that promote effective and complete communication of results from SEM analyses (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Gratitude is conceptualized as a moral affect that is analogous to other moral emotions such as empathy and guilt. Gratitude has 3 functions that can be conceptualized as morally relevant: (a) a moral barometer function (i.e., it is a response to the perception that one has been the beneficiary of another person's moral actions); (b) a moral motive function (i.e., it motivates the grateful person to behave prosocially toward the benefactor and other people); and (c) a moral reinforcer function (i.e., when expressed, it encourages benefactors to behave morally in the future). The personality and social factors that are associated with gratitude are also consistent with a conceptualization of gratitude as an affect that is relevant to people's cognitions and behaviors in the moral domain.
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Positive psychology is the study of the conditions and processes that contribute to the flourishing or optimal functioning of people, groups, and institutions. In this brief introduction, the authors give examples of current work in positive psychology and try to explain why the positive psychology movement has grown so quickly in just 5 years. They suggest that it filled a need: It guided researchers to understudied phenomena. The authors close by addressing some criticisms and shortcomings of positive psychology, such as the relative lack of progress in studying positive institutions.
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Extrapolating from B. L. Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the authors hypothesized that positive emotions are active ingredients within trait resilience. U.S. college students (18 men and 28 women) were tested in early 2001 and again in the weeks following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Mediational analyses showed that positive emotions experienced in the wake of the attacks - gratitude, interest, love, and so forth - fully accounted for the relations between (a) precrisis resilience and later development of depressive symptoms and (b) precrisis resilience and postcrisis growth in psychological resources. Findings suggest that positive emotions in the aftermath of crises buffer resilient people against depression and fuel thriving, consistent with the broaden-and-build theory. Discussion touches on implications for coping.
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
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Two studies used the self-concordance model of healthy goal striving (K. M. Sheldon & A. J. Elliot, 1999) to examine the motivational processes by which people can increase their level of well-being during a period of time and then maintain the gain or perhaps increase it even further during the next period of time. In Study I, entering freshmen with self-concordant motivation better attained their 1st-semester goals, which in turn predicted increased adjustment and greater self-concordance for the next semester's goals. Increased self-concordance in turn predicted even better goal attainment during the 2nd semester, which led to further increases in adjustment and to higher levels of ego development by the end of the year. Study 2 replicated the basic model in a 2-week study of short-term goals set in the laboratory. Limits of the model and implications for the question of how (and whether) happiness may be increased are discussed.
Chapter
This review by Sarason vividly describes how certain personal and social factors can influence vulnerability to stress. The focus is upon life events and social support, and how these and other factors may interact to effect health, illness, and happiness. He points out how the original thinking that all life events (positive and negative) contribute to increased vulnerability has been supplanted by recent data indicating serious repercussions for health and adjustment for negative life events, but neutral or positive consequences for positive life events. There follows a review of the issues in the personality and life events-illness relationship that focuses on both individual differences in personality characteristics such as locus of control and sensation seeking, and on the nature of appraisal of life events. Both factors contribute to the determination of the amount of stress that will be experienced by the individual. The majority of the chapter, however, is devoted to the author’s research on social support. He sets the background by emphasizing the environmental and individual difference perspectives, both essential to an understanding of the influence of social support upon health. His review of the literature provides both answers and questions, as he probes data related to such diverse things as aging, reproduction and birth complications, immune function, job disruptions, chest pain, and asthma. His own research on the topic is rich and thorough.
Chapter
Depression is a potentially debilitating disorder that affects a large segment of the population. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, affecting up to 2–3% of men and 5–9% of women each year (Kessler et al., 1994b). Over the course of a lifetime as many as 7–12% of men and 20–25% of women in the general population suffer from at least one clinically significant episode of depression (Kessler et al., 1994b). Furthermore, depression is frequently a recurrent disorder that troubles people intermittently throughout their lives. More specifically, it has been estimated that approximately 50% of those who recover from their first episode of depression will suffer from future episodes (Belsher & Costello, 1988), and that depression takes on a chronic course in 25% or more of persons who reach case level (Depue & Monroe, 1986). Beyond the emotional pain and troubling symptomatology that accompanies depression, this disorder is associated with a number of additional negative consequences, including cognitive impairments and biases (Gotlib, Roberts, & Gilboa, 1996), marital distress (Gotlib & Beach, 1995), social rejection (Joiner, Alfano, & Metalsky, 1993), and negative changes in personality functioning (Hirschfield et al., 1983b). Each of these effects can take a significant toll on individuals suffering from depression, as well as on those who have close relationships with them. Furthermore it is possible that these factors also play roles in the etiology and maintenance of depression. Although there is reason to believe that similar psychosocial processes are important in bipolar disorder, they may operate in a substantially different manner in this disorder (Johnson & Roberts, 1995). Consequently, in the current chapter, we focus on unipolar depression.
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This personal historical article traces the development of the Big-Five factor structure, whose growing acceptance by personality researchers has profoundly influenced the scientific study of individual differences. The roots of this taxonomy lie in the lexical hypothesis and the insights of Sir Francis Galton, the prescience of L. L. Thurstone, the legacy of Raymond B. Cattell, and the seminal analyses of Tupes and Christal. Paradoxically, the present popularity of this model owes much to its many critics, each of whom tried to replace it, but failed. In reaction, there have been a number of attempts to assimilate other models into the five-factor structure. Lately, some practical implications of the emerging consensus can be seen in such contexts as personnel selection and classification.
Chapter
This chapter examines the feeling of being grateful. It suggests feeling grateful is similar to other positive emotions that help build a person's enduring personal resources and broaden an individual's thinking. It describes various ways by which gratitude can transform individuals, organizations, and communities in positive and sustaining ways. It discusses the specific benefits of gratitude including personal and social development, community strength and individual health and well-being.
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Gratitude is an emotional state and an attitude toward life that is a source of human strength in enhancing one's personal and relational well-being. In this article, we first explore the theological origins of gratitude as a virtue to be cultivated in the major monotheistic traditions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Each tradition emphasizes the development of gratitude as a path to a good life, and prescribes approaches for practicing. Gratitude is explored further in the context of psychological theory and research. Empirical research linking gratitude with well-being and goal attainment is presented and discussed. Finally, future research questions and a tentative research agenda are presented.
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In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Article
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Article
Positive reinforcement of customers, through a simple, but sincere, expression of thanks for their business, did increase sales for a small retail store, and also payment of delinquent accounts. Carey et al include suggestions for effective use of this technique.
Book
Positive psychology emphasises the need to understand the positive side of human experience, as well as understanding and ameliorating psychopathology and distress. Positive Therapy explores the relevance of positive psychology to therapy. Stephen Joseph and P. Alex Linley argue that therapy is not so much about what you do as how you do it, emphasising the influence of the views we hold about human nature on our approach to therapy, and the importance of the relationship between therapist and client over the technique of the therapist. They consider the full range of positive therapies and illustrate the application of the approach in relation to their own work in the field of posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth. Finally, they discuss how positive therapy focuses our attention on the social and political context of our work as therapists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
This chapter explores the philosophical and theological foundations of gratitude. It examines the place of gratitude in the history of ideas, focusing primarily on the influential writings of philosopher and economist Adam Smith. It provides a scholarly overview of several other philosophers for whom gratitude was central in their thinking, including Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel Pufendorf and evaluates the importance of gratitude in civic society.
Article
The present article provides an alternative framework for evaluating mediated relationships. From this perspective. a mediated process is a chain reaction, beginning with an independent variable that affects a mediator that in turn affects an outcome. The definition of mediation offered here, presented for stage sequences, states three conditions for establishing mediation: (a) the independent variable affects the probability of the sequence no mediator to mediator to outcome; (b) the independent variable affects the probability of a transition into the mediator stage; (c) the mediator affects the probability of a transition into the outcome stage at every level of the independent variable. This definition of mediation is compared and contrasted with the well-known definition of mediation for continuous variables discussed in Baron and Kenny (1986), Judd and Kenny (1981), and Kenny, Kashy, and Bolger (1997). The definition presented in this article emphasizes the intraindividual, time-ordered nature of mediation.
Article
Recent work on the social environment and psychological disorder has emphasized the multiple, bidirectional interactions between stressors, symptoms, and social support. However, even the few existing studies using prospective methods often have not adequately addressed important issues involving methodological and conceptual overlap of the parameters in the model. The current article presents one approach for isolating associations between life events, social support, and depressive symptoms. For a sample of married women who initially were relatively asymptomatic and reported nonconflicted marital relationships (n = 473), life events and social support were significant prospective predictors of depressive symptomatology (assessed 1 year later). In contrast, identical analyses performed on the full, unselected sample (N = 709) yielded discrepant, likely misleading, results. The theoretical relevance of these findings is discussed, along with the implications for the longitudinal study of dynamically interactive processes.
Article
In the last several years, we have been interested in the role social supports play in protecting people from the pathogenic effects of stress. By social supports, we scan the resources that are provided by other persons (cf. Cohen & Syme, 1985). Although others have investigated and in some cases found evidence for a “buffering” hypothesis—that social support protects persons from the pathogenic effects of stress but is relatively unimportant for unexposed individuals, there are difficulties in interpreting this literature. First, there are almost as many measures of social suppport as there are studies. Hence it is difficult to compare studies and to determine why support operates as a stress buffer in some cases, but not in others. Second, in the vast majority of work, support measures are used without regard to their psychometric properties or their appropriateness for the question under study. For example, studies using measures assessing the structure of social networks (e.g, how many friends do you have?) are seldom distinguished from those addressing the functions that networks might serve (e.g., do you have someone you can talk to about personal problems?). In fact, in many cases, structural and functional items are thrown together into single support indices resulting in scores that have little conceptual meaning.
Article
The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.
Article
This study introduces the replacing rule as a simplification of Stelzl's (1986) four rules for the generation of recursive equivalent models. The replacing rule is applicable to nonrecursive as well as recursive models, and generates equivalent models through the replacement of direct paths with residual correlations, through the replacement of residual correlations with direct paths, or through the inversion of path directions. Examples of the use of the replacing rule are provided, and its advantages over Stelzl's four rules are discussed.
Article
Traces the development of the cognitive approach to psychopathology and psy hotherapy from common-sense observations and folk wisdom, to a more sophisticated understanding of the emotional disorders, and finally to the application of rational techniques to correct the misconceptions and conceptual distortions that form the matrix of the neuroses. The importance of engaging the patient in exploration of his inner world and of obtaining a sharp delineation of specific thoughts and underlying assumptions is emphasized. (91/4 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
physicians and researchers have, for a long time, noticed an association between very severe stressors . . . and illness / following upon indications of a relationship between stress and illness a number of personality and social variables have been identified that seem to moderate or render less stressful some major life changes / growing evidence that personality characteristics, lifestyle, and social and environmental conditions all contribute to health, sense of physical wellbeing, and longevity perspectives on social support / assessing social support / the social support questionnaire / experimental research on social support / basic constituents of social support / definitional implications for health-status prediction (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
To satisfy the need in personality research for factorially univocal measures of each of the 5 domains that subsume most English-language terms for personality traits, new sets of Big-Five factor markers were investigated. In studies of adjective-anchored bipolar rating scales, a transparent format was found to produce factor markers that were more univocal than the same scales administered in the traditional format. Nonetheless, even the transparent bipolar scales proved less robust as factor markers than did parallel sets of adjectives administered in unipolar format. A set of 100 unipolar terms proved to be highly robust across quite diverse samples of self and peer descriptions. These new markers were compared with previously developed ones based on far larger sets of trait adjectives, as well as with the scales from the NEO and Hogan personality inventories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The pursuit of happiness is an important goal for many people. However, surprisingly little scientific research has focused on the question of how happiness can be increased and then sustained, probably because of pessimism engendered by the concepts of genetic determinism and hedonic adaptation. Nevertheless, emerging sources of optimism exist regarding the possibility of permanent increases in happiness. Drawing on the past well-being literature, the authors propose that a person's chronic happiness level is governed by 3 major factors: a genetically determined set point for happiness, happiness-relevant circumstantial factors, and happiness-relevant activities and practices. The authors then consider adaptation and dynamic processes to show why the activity category offers the best opportunities for sustainably increasing happiness. Finally, existing research is discussed in support of the model, including 2 preliminary happiness-increasing interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This book has been compiled for therapists who already have some experience in the clinical management of patients with psychiatric disorders, and its aim is to help them to start using cognitive-behavioural treatments in their clinical work. The first chapter describes the basic principles of psychology which are relevant to cognitive-behavioural treatments and outlines the development and principles of this type of therapy. The second chapter provides a detailed description of how to carry out a cognitive-behavioural assessment. . . . Within each of the succeeding chapters the authors have adopted a standard format, outlining the nature of each disorder and the development of current treatment approaches, and then providing a detailed practical account of how to carry out treatment. Particular attention is paid to dealing with difficulties encountered during treatment and reasons for treatment failure. The basic principle in all the chapters is that a treatment plan follows from a thorough cognitive-behavioural assessment and a formulation based on a psychological model of the specific disorder. It is not intended that the treatments described in this book should be viewed as standardized packages for particular conditions. Instead, the aim of each chapter is to provide the reader with sufficient information to carry out an assessment and plan individualized treatment for patients presenting with the wide range of problems seen in clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses the use of causal-correlational analyses in applied psychology (with reference to recent literature) in terms of weaknesses in the causal interpretation of such designs and the inappropriate use of raw difference scores in "dynamic correlations." Examples of alternative interpretations of published data are presented to illustrate the ambiguities inherent in the strategy of "discovering" causal relationships in correlational data. Guidelines for the interpretation of causal-correlational analyses are discussed. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Life stress has been found to be associated with onset of depression and with greater severity of depressive symptoms. It is unclear, though, if life stress is related to particular classes or specific symptoms in depression. The association between severe life events and depressive symptoms was tested in 59 individuals diagnosed by Research Diagnostic Criteria with endogenous primary nonpsychotic major depression. As predicted, life stress was associated principally with cognitive-affective symptoms, not somatic symptoms. There also was a consistent association across different assessment methods between severe events and suicidal ideation. Finally, associations held specifically for severe events occurring before onset, not for severe events occurring after onset. Symptom variation in major depression is related specifically to severe stressors before onset and includes primarily cognitive-affective types of symptoms. There is an especially pronounced association of prior severe stress with suicidal ideation. The implications of stress-symptom associations are addressed for enlarging understanding of symptom heterogeneity and subtype distinctions in major depression.
Article
This 2-wave panel study sought to test a social skills deficit vulnerability model of psychosocial problems. According to this model, poor social skills are thought to make people vulnerable to psychosocial problems pursuant to the experience of stressful life events. This model was tested in a sample of 118 students who were moving at least 200 miles away from their home town and making the transition to their first semester of college. At the end of their high school career, participants completed measures of social skills and the following psychosocial problems: depression, loneliness, and social anxiety. Toward the end of their first semester of college, they again completed measures of the psychosocial problems and a measure of stressful life events. Results indicated that lower social skills scores at T1 were predictive of a worsening of psychosocial problems over the course of the study. Furthermore, social skills interacted with stressful life events to predict changes in depression and loneliness. In each case, those with lower social skills at T1 appeared more vulnerable to the development of psychosocial problems by T2 than those with better social skills at T1.