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From the concept of system to the paradigm of complexity

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Abstract

This paper is an overview of the author's ongoing reflections on the need for a new paradigm of complexity capable of informing all theories, whatever their field of application or the phenomena in question. Beginning with a critique of General System Theory and the principle of holism with which it is associated, the author suggests that contemporary advances in our knowledge of organization call for a radical reformation in our organization of knowledge. This reformation involves the mobilization of recursive thinking, which is to say a manner of thinking capable of establishing a dynamic and generative feedback loop between terms or concepts (such as whole and part, order and disorder, observer and observed, system and ecosystem, etc.) that remain both complementary and antagonistic. The paradigm of complexity thus stands as a bold challenge to the fragmentary and reductionistic spirit that continues to dominate the scientific enterprise.

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... and complexity science (e.g., Weaver, 1948;Simon, 1962Simon, , 1969Holland, 1975Holland, , 1995Morin, 1977Morin, , 1992Prigogine, 1987;Gell-Mann, 1994a, 1994bLe Moigne, 2000). These three scientific movements are seen as significant intellectual sources inspiring contemporary efforts to unify or integrate the specialized sciences and scientific knowledge. ...
... Initially, some of these authors did not even reference early theorists of GST and cybernetics, let alone Bogdanov's Tektology. However, the writings of Simon (1962Simon ( , 1969, Morin (1977Morin ( , 1992Morin ( , 2008 and Gell-Mann (1994a, 1994b, 1994c clearly demonstrate the 4 The writing and publication of Tektology was spread over two decades, although Bogdanov's core ideas and concepts can be found in his earlier (even his very first) publications. See Rowley's (2020) translator's note to Empiriomonism (Bogdanov, 1904(Bogdanov, -1906 for details. ...
... Confirming Bogdanov's idea, Morin dedicated the first volume of Method, his magnum opus, to the concept of "organization", and he argued for its central importance (Morin, 1977, p. 77). However, rather confusingly, Morin accepted "complexity" as the label for the emerging new scientific paradigm (Morin, 1992(Morin, , 2008. Yet it appears that, just as systems scientists struggled to produce a clear and consistent definition of a "system" in their early work (Pouvreau & Drack, 2007;Pouvreau, 2014;Drack & Pouvreau, 2015;Rousseau et al., 2016Rousseau et al., , 2018, complexity scientists have been wrestling with the task of defining "complexity" in a manner that can generate a consensus in their research community (Ladyman & Wiesner, 2020). ...
Article
In this paper, we propose a research agenda to support the recovery of Alexander Bogdanov's philosophical and systemic thinking that culminated in his magnum opus, Tektology. Our main reason for doing so is to re-address enduring questions about the unity of science and the unity of the systems paradigm. Since the turn of the new millennium, there has been renewed interest in the ideal of the unity of science. General system theory (GST), cybernetics and complexity science are three significant intellectual sources inspiring this renewal. It is not unusual for these ideas to be grouped under the umbrella terms systems science or systems thinking, which are two ways to present a single systems paradigm, and we will explain why its “unity” is both necessary and problematic. Bringing Bogdanov's work back to address the unity question can help us to progress toward unity in diversity.
... Las redes sociales son sistemas complejos y su análisis dificulta la generalización de resultados, ya que un sólo elemento del sistema podría modificar la estructura de toda la red en cualquier momento (Mason, 2008;Morin, 1992). En la DAL un sólo post controvertido podría aumentar la frecuencia con la que se publican comentarios a lo largo del debate. ...
... Otras investigaciones han valorado la participación sencillamente como la interacción entre estudiantes (Fehrman & Watson, 2020). En este estudio la entendimos desde el paradigma de la complejidad y el ARS (Jacobson et al., 2019;Morin, 1992). Consideramos que la participación era un factor estructural en una red de estudiantes que debatían de manera asíncrona, estableciendo conexiones unos con otros y organizándose de manera autónoma para hacerlo (Holland, 2006). ...
... Social networks are complex systems, and their analysis makes it difficult to generalize results since a single element of the system could modify the pattern of the entire structure at any time (Mason, 2008;Morin, 1992). In AODs a single controversial post could increase the frequency with which comments are posted throughout the discussion. ...
Article
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Las discusiones asíncronas en línea (DAL) sirven para aprender en la universidad, pero pierden eficacia conforme disminuye la participación de los estudiantes. Este estudio aporta un método basado en el Análisis de Redes Sociales (ARS) que aborda este problema, identificando estudiantes con un alto potencial de inclusión entre iguales durante los debates asíncronos. Para probar el método, configuramos foros de discusión en Moodle y examinamos las interacciones de 93 estudiantes de grado en el área de Ciencias de la Educación. Analizamos las redes sociales que surgieron de los debates, incluyendo 1818 conexiones. Los resultados mostraron que algunos estudiantes tenían más centralidad de cercanía y eran más accesibles que el resto. Una vez identificados, el profesorado pudo animar a estos estudiantes a incluir a quienes participaban menos en los debates. La inclusión de los compañeros tenía sentido cuando participaban en el debate sin obtener una respuesta de sus comentarios fácilmente. Este estudio abre la puerta a más investigación sobre la eficacia de las estrategias docentes basadas en el ARS, concretamente sobre la eliminación de las barreras al aprendizaje y la participación en una DAL con estudiantes universitarios
... Between these, hands-on and hands-off kind of knowledge, is identified the band structured spectrum, as hands-in type of knowledge [2], [79], a between state of topdown and bottom-up levels of what does mean the transdisciplinary knowledge search window working as included middle way to approach the reality [38], [66], [80], [81], represented through a band structured spectrum, as hands-in kind of knowledge, specific to the analogic-digital way to detect the reality [2], [79]. While explicit elements are objective, rational and created "then and there" (top-down level), the tacit elements are subjective, experiential and created "here and now" (bottom-up level) [47], [66], [67], [82][83][84][85]. The organizational (communion-like) knowledge constitutes core competency being more than "know-what", and "know-why", requiring the more elusive "know-how", as particular ability to put know-what into practice as know-how (Fig. 3) [2], [9], [67], [78], [79], [83], [86], [87], [88]. ...
... An alternative would be to look beyond sustainability and create sustainable wealth, based on the modification of the conventional growth paradigm, that can be used to regenerate regional natural resources and simultaneously be economically competitive and capable to offer important social benefits to the community, as SWIT (Sustainable Wealth creation based on Innovation and Technology) [98], and working on three levels: multiple businesses of zero-value residue industrial ecology processes (ZRIES), the circular value ecosystems (CVES), and sustainable sharing value system (SVS). All these levels must be managed and governed for the benefit of the entire human community [85], [89], [99]. In the process of the sustainable development dynamics there are detected transitions from a production inefficiency state to the state's policies that must be oriented in optimizing and improving the production process, contributing significantly to the solution of the food problem in the future, socio-economic protection, considered to be the main global problems [20], [95]. ...
... As was presented before, sustainable development is generally thought to work through three components: environment, society, and economy, the well-being of these three areas being intertwined in a transdisciplinary way, as ENSEC paradigm [12], [94], [214] (Fig. 4). We consider sustainability to be a paradigm for thinking about a future in which environmental, sociopolitical, and economic considerations are balanced in the pursuit of development and improved quality of life [44], [62], [71], [85], [110], [197]. The bearable state is specific for social-environmental interactions, the equitability determines the social-economic interactions, while between environment and economy are present the viable specific interactions. ...
... In Costa Rica, there is extensive legislation related to waste management [4,5]; however, some gaps still become more evident in special situations and climate emergencies.Currently, accordingto Peña Bonilla [2], cited by Carolina Rojas Brenes [3],70%of urban floods originate from waste in sewers, causing millionaire losses in infrastructure and resources, as well as evacuations, the establishment of shelters, and mobilization of emergency teams such as police, firefighters, among others. This waste, when dragged by bodies of water affects the turbines of hydroelectric power generating plants, so a considerable amount of moneyis spent annually cleaning the different water reservoirs.This reviewpresents note isa reflection on Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) from the point of view ofcomplex systems [6,7,8]. ...
... Morin's theory of complexity and complex systems applies it to a wide-ranging number of issues. This approach stimulates critical debate and is also essential for anybody interested in understandingour complex world [6,7,8]. ...
Article
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Integral Waste Management is a shared responsibility among many stakeholders, it requires the joint, coordinated, and differentiated participation of all producers, importers, distributors, consumers, and waste managers, both public and private, as well as local and State governments. Proper waste management minimizes future negative consequences for the environment and the health of the population in general.
... Mezirow's ten phases of learning may initially appear as a linear succession of steps but there is a 'complex causality' involved in each step that impacts a range of outcomes such as emotions and relationships that in turn impact the other phases in transformative learning (Morin 1992;Taylor and Cranton 2012). This is what Morin (1992) refers to as a 'recursive loop' whereby 'products and effects are themselves producers of what produces them' (Taylor and Cranton 2012, p. 183). ...
... Mezirow's ten phases of learning may initially appear as a linear succession of steps but there is a 'complex causality' involved in each step that impacts a range of outcomes such as emotions and relationships that in turn impact the other phases in transformative learning (Morin 1992;Taylor and Cranton 2012). This is what Morin (1992) refers to as a 'recursive loop' whereby 'products and effects are themselves producers of what produces them' (Taylor and Cranton 2012, p. 183). ...
Thesis
This thesis considers the transformative learning of Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD) tutors when they engage collaboratively with theories of social justice and critical pedagogy. SpLD tutors in UK universities work with students with dyslexia, Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD)/dyspraxia, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Tourette’s Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Their training typically does not include theories of social justice and inclusion. Instead, the focus is usually on psychological impacts on learners such as working memory impairment and phonological difficulties. This privileges a deficit-led psychological model and, problematically, it ignores a multitude of issues that intersect and impact upon learners and on tutors’ ability to work with them. Moreover, SpLD tutors are often overlooked in research literature and discussions on inclusive practice in universities. There is a specific gap in the research literature in that the training, development and practice of SpLD tutors is not addressed in relation to social and inclusion issues. The aim of this research was to consider the transformative learning of tutors when they engaged collaboratively with theories of social justice and critical pedagogy. Working within a broadly constructivist ontological and epistemological framework, the study applied qualitative bricolage methodology incorporating elements of inclusive, creative and social justice research methods. The SpLD tutors acted as co-inquirers and engaged in Collaborative Inquiry Circles (CICs) to explore through dialogue the theories of Giroux, Freire, Bourdieu, Sen, hooks and Ahmed. As issues of inclusive practice were considered paramount, these theories were presented in a variety of accessible formats such as blogs and videos. In keeping with the aims of inclusive research, willing co-inquirers as well as the researcher thematically analysed the findings. Findings indicate that engaging with theories of social justice and critical pedagogy was transformative for the co-inquirers both personally and professionally. The co-inquirers recounted how issues of justice within the theories were particularly resonant to their own work in terms of recognition of their professional practice and the issues facing students. This was particularly evident for co-inquirers with SpLDs who did not consider themselves ‘academic’ enough. The theories of Freire, Bourdieu and Ahmed were considered by the co-inquirers to be more applicable to their contexts than others. CICs were considered highly accessible by the co-inquirers who identified as neurodivergent. It is concluded that SpLD tutors should be afforded the opportunity to learn about theories of social justice and critical pedagogy. Such theories support SpLD tutors to develop awareness of their practice and their place in the university and to consider the interplay between social justice and inclusion in their work. As universities work towards becoming more inclusive institutions, the views and needs of SpLD tutors in relation to supporting students with learning differences should be taken into account.
... In a continuously changing and challenging world, complexity predominates in the new perspectives that are demanded. The complexity paradigm is discussed by Morin [1], who proposes that complex thinking that addresses the "interwoven" from a dialogical point of view, which implies considering the separate and sometimes contradictory interacting parts that compose the phenomenon in a specific context. In addition, the author mentions that recursive thinking must be mobilized, i.e., a way of thinking to establish a dynamic and generative feedback loop between terms or concepts (for example, whole and part, order and disorder, observer and observed, system and ecosystem) that are both complementary and antagonistic [2]. ...
... They pay little attention to including creative, innovative, and systemic types of thinking combined with critical thinking ( Figure 5). However, to decode complexity, it is necessary to build systemic frameworks that promote multi-disciplinary research on both topics and researcher profiles [1,3]. The starting point to verify the foundation for the study of reasoning for complexity is to document the relationships among the critical focus terms in the research. ...
Article
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Today’s complex, dynamic, interconnected world presents the field of education (“Education 4.0”) with significant challenges in developing competencies for reasoning for complexity. This article analyzes complex thinking as a macro-competency with sub-competencies of critical, systemic, scientific, and innovative thinking in educational environments. We worked with the systematic literature review method, extracting 39 articles in the Scopus and Web of Science databases using keywords words of interest and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seven research questions guided the data analysis. The results highlighted that: (a) there are common characteristics of studies linking complex thinking, critical thinking, and creative thinking; (b) there is predominance of the qualitative method in the studies; (c) the critical thinking competency has been the most addressed in the research; (d) the predominant components of Education 4.0 are teaching methods and techniques; and (e) the three challenges that stand out for educational research are project feasibility, research opportunities, and required skills. This article is intended to be of value to academic and social communities and decision-makers interested in developing reasoning for complexity within the framework of Education 4.0.
... Es importante plantear, que la construcción social del CC debe ser releída, discutida y conversada en los grupos de aprendizaje en la actividad docente nos toque participar. Afortunadamente, las teorías del Caos y de la Complejidad (Morin, 1977(Morin, , 1999Najmanovich, 2008) serán herramientas de valor interpretativo que permitirán cumplir en gran parte nuestras esperanzas. ...
... Poner en práctica acciones inadecuadas puede ser, incluso, más arriesgado que no hacer nada. A diferencia del paradigma cartesiano, la cosmovisión integral de pensadores como Edgar Morin (1977Morin ( , 1999 y Ervin Laszlo (2007Laszlo ( , 2009) postula una visión holística integrada del mundo en lugar de considerarlo como una discontinua colección de partes, siendo también una visión ecológica porque reconoce la interdependencia fundamental, de todos los fenómenos y el hecho que como individuos y sociedades estamos inmersos y dependemos de los procesos cíclicos de la naturaleza, Pero la idea es no hacer un planteamiento dicotómico, sino avanzar en la propuesta de construir un abordaje que sea capaz de contener la dinámica de la vida y que permita entramar (Capra, 1998) todo aquello que la simplicidad escindió (Najmanovich, 2008). ...
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Revista Difusiones, ISSN 2314-1662, Num. 20, 2(1) enero-julio 2021, pp.215-227. Resumen: Esta reflexión se ubica en el marco de la construcción social del cambio climático desde una perspectiva de opinión basada en la exploración de fuentes de información de los organismos de cooperación del sistema de Naciones Unidas (CMNUCC, IPCC, PNUD, FAO), publicaciones de investigaciones científicas del mundo académico, los medios de comunicación y búsquedas de Internet. Se pretende abordar el tema con la lógica del ambientalismo y plantear si fuera necesario deconstruir la construcción social del cambio climático para incidir en la sensibilización mediante la educación ambiental y la ecoalfabetización. Palabras clave: cambio climático, construcción social, ambientalismo, educación ambiental, ecoalfabetización.
... En este sentido, Edgar Morin (1992Morin ( , 1999aMorin ( , 1999b) acuña la noción de pensamiento complejo, que consiste en la capacidad de reflexionar teniendo en cuenta las diferentes dimensiones de la realidad para tener una opinión bien fundamentada y no decantarse por una postura en función de unos pocos hechos o del "ahora y aquí". La realidad, además, es cambiante y, a medida que la humanidad evoluciona y progresa, va adquiriendo más componentes, volviéndose cada vez más compleja. ...
Thesis
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The thesis deals with the impact of personalized tutoring in the Pedagogical System of Alternation. It analyzes the modalities, definitions and effects of this educational element. It has been carried out in four countries, with different contexts. The practice of personalized tutoring is scientifically based. The qualitative and quantitative methodology: interviews with five experts and a hundred surveys of former students, with an own questionnaire. The importance of personal tutoring in the academic, human and professional fields is confirmed. Difficulties for its proper application by teachers or educational institutions and systems are shown. There is a lack of flexibility in educational actors that hinders innovation. Mentoring is relationship and dialogue, and the attitude of teachers is key to its development and impact. Importance of the training of trainers so that the impact of tutoring is holistic and not only promotes the academic success of students.
... La estabilidad y el mantenimiento de las funciones e infraestructuras de los sistemas sociales dependen de su metabolismo, es decir, de la entrada y el procesamiento de flujos de materia, de energía y de información, que se caracterizan por tener baja entropía, y al mismo tiempo, por la salida, materia y energía de alta entropía, y también de información (Georgescu-Roegen, 1999;Giampietro et al., 2000;Scheidel, 2013). De esta manera, el sistema ecológico determina la forma en la que se configuran las sociedades, y la organización de las sociedades determina la forma en la que éstas transforman al sistema ecológico (Toledo, 2008), por lo que el metabolismo social es fundamental para entender el proceso socio-ecológico de coevolución, o lo que es lo mismo, la adaptación de los seres humanos a su entorno, mientras lo transforman activamente y se re-adaptan a él (Morin, 1992;Giampietro, 1994;Munné, 1994;Norgaard, 1994). ...
Chapter
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El metabolismo social es una ampliación del concepto del metabolismo de los organismos, surgido en el siglo XIX. Esta idea permite reconstituir y revincular a nivel simbólico al sistema ecológico y al sistema social. Sistemas que, por otro lado, nunca estuvieron separados orgánicamente. El metabolismo social, sin embargo, es mucho más que un grupo de procesos orgánicos, es un proceso dialéctico, ecológico-histórico, donde radica el fundamento de lo social, su existencia y su posibilidad de perdurar.
... Therefore, the ecological system regulates how societies are determined, and the organization of these societies determines the transformations of the ecological system [5]. Social metabolism is crucial in order to understand the socio-ecological process of coevolution, mirroring the adaptation of human beings to an environment while readapting to it and actively transforming this environment [11][12][13]. Social metabolism is considered an ecological-historical process, on the basis of what is social itself, through which societies' endurance is rooted [14]. Nonetheless, the organic point of view of social metabolism by itself does not explain the historically produced space, does not include dynamic processes of social and political struggle, and does not state the dialectics of relations between culture and nature that mutually constitute the human space [6]. ...
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The socio-ecological metabolism of the water connects concepts that emerge out of the complexity of ecosystems, linking endosomatic processes that are indispensable for society while forming different hierarchic levels and relations among as well as aligning to their par-ticularities. The consumptive uses of Cuenca city in their different categories and social metabolism both at rural and urban levels were assessed, inquiring about diverse typologies of the city's water. Water Metabolic Rates (WMR) were calculated for each one of the con-sumptives' uses gauged in liters per hour of human activity. Our results indicate that farming and industrial uses of water were highly inefficient. Linked to farms, both consumption of water and metabolic rates were higher in the rural areas. While paid work showed higher metabolic rates than households. Rural households evidenced a greater use of water and higher metabolic rates than urban households as water use combines human consumption and family farming. This research determined the water metabolism of the socio-ecological system in the canton of Cuenca, Ecuador through different dimensions of water metabolism. Formulating a system of flows and uses of water that were metabolized by different hierarchy levels of diverse consumptive uses within the aforementioned canton, as a tool to implement policies that guarantee water access and ecological metabolism, linking social dynamics within ecosystems.
... Therefore, the ecological system regulates how societies are determined, and the organization of these societies determines the transformations of the ecological system [5]. Social metabolism is crucial in order to understand the socio-ecological process of coevolution, mirroring the adaptation of human beings to an environment while readapting to it and actively transforming this environment [11][12][13]. Social metabolism is considered an ecological-historical process, on the basis of what is social itself, through which societies' endurance is rooted [14]. Nonetheless, the organic point of view of social metabolism by itself does not explain the historically produced space, does not include dynamic processes of social and political struggle, and does not state the dialectics of relations between culture and nature that mutually constitute the human space [6]. ...
Article
The socio-ecological metabolism of the water connects concepts that emerge out of the complexity of ecosystems, linking endosomatic processes that are indispensable for society while forming different hierarchic levels and relations among as well as aligning to their par-ticularities. The consumptive uses of Cuenca city in their different categories and social metabolism both at rural and urban levels were assessed, inquiring about diverse typologies of the city's water. Water Metabolic Rates (WMR) were calculated for each one of the con-sumptives' uses gauged in liters per hour of human activity. Our results indicate that farming and industrial uses of water were highly inefficient. Linked to farms, both consumption of water and metabolic rates were higher in the rural areas. While paid work showed higher metabolic rates than households. Rural households evidenced a greater use of water and higher metabolic rates than urban households as water use combines human consumption and family farming. This research determined the water metabolism of the socio-ecological system in the canton of Cuenca, Ecuador through different dimensions of water metabolism. Formulating a system of flows and uses of water that were metabolized by different hierarchy levels of diverse consumptive uses within the aforementioned canton, as a tool to implement policies that guarantee water access and ecological metabolism, linking social dynamics within ecosystems.
... is a theoretical-methodological approach which has shown promising heuristic and applicative potentialities, both in clinical and educational settings(Dicé et al., 2017;Menna, 2015;Scandurra et al., 2021b). Based on the theory of complexity(Morin, 1992), FMHZ assumes a holistic and systemic perspective, conceptualizing the AAI setting as a dynamic, evolving, complex system which encompasses many interdependent variables whose relationships might be non-linear. The change processes which take place within the AAI intervention are considered as emergent and spontaneous properties which, being functions of the system as a whole, cannot be explained only on the basis of its specific constituent parts. ...
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Objective: The current study examined the change processes in three Animal Assisted Therapies (AATs) by assessing the relationship between the human-animal bond and the therapeutic alliance, depth of elaboration, and smoothness of treatment sessions. Methods: This was a retrospective study assessing videotaped AATs conducted with three children aged from 7 to 9 years old from the observer perspective. The AATs were based on the Federico II Model of Healthcare Zooanthropology, and each consisted in 8 sessions. A one-way analysis of variance and linear regression models was performed. Results: The human-animal bond, therapeutic alliance, depth of elaboration, and smoothness significantly improved during the sessions. Furthermore, the improvement in therapeutic dimensions proved to be a function of the increase in the human-animal bond. Conclusions: The findings have provided empirical evidence of the change processes occurring during AATs with children, offering some limited but specific insights into the interspecific relationship as a central axis of such treatments.
... This case shows the limitations of the concept of sportswashing and the need to understand the dynamics of the diplomatic use of sports in a complex and recursive way (Morin 1992), that is, as a process that demands both internal and external legitimation. The effectiveness of Qatar's sports strategy depends on the positive reception of foreign actors. ...
Article
Drawing on official documents and empirical examples, this article analyses Qatar's sports strategy to gain attraction and generate soft power globally. The paper shows how the country based has efficiently used sport as a mean for modernisation, diplomacy and soft power, through a strategy based in the participation of national and foreign actors and institutions. While Qatar's sports diplomacy has been very ambitious, the newfound global attention has led to an increased scrutiny regarding national internal policies. This has resulted in massive criticism regarding corruption allegations and several reports of labour abuses towards the migrant workers in the country. In consequence, critics consider Qatar as an example of sportswashing, which is understood as a deliberate use of sports soft power in seeking to alter a tarnished global reputation. We claim that the Qatari strategy, even having a bit of both, can be used to generate a positive context for social development and we describe how the county has managed to engage foreign actors and institutions to counter external denounces. The context created by successful sports diplomacy strategies and evidence-based external critics might generate an adequate ecosystem to promote substantial cultural and political changes, respect for human rights and individual freedom. In this context, western countries, sport institutions and external actors play (or not) a crucial legitimator role, and so does money.
... El paradigma de la complejidad se ha perfilado como una de las propuestas analíticas actuales para repensar el pensamiento occidental fundamentado en dos principios diversos y contrarios que se encuentran diferenciados jerárquicamente en un eterno conflicto; mente-cuerpo, racionalidad-pensamiento, bien-mal, sano-enfermo, aceptado-rechazado, hombre-mujer. Morín (1992) introduce la teoría de la complejidad para definir de una manera simple los acontecimientos, elaborados principalmente por occidente. Resultado de ello son los discursos androcéntricos que se asientan en estructuras sociales que mantienen a las personas en una jerarquía. ...
Article
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El presente artículo tiene como objetivo destacar las aportaciones matemáticas de Sofía Kovalevskaia en un contexto histórico-científico, en donde la vida intelectual y dialógica trascendieron notablemente. Se analiza la relación entre el género y las Matemáticas en función de un siglo caracterizado por cambios sociales y culturales, a los cuales respondió un gremio de profesionales y académicos de la Ciencia, dentro del cual tuvo una significativa participación la mujer en la toma de decisiones metodológicas, técnicas y experimentales. El trabajo se presenta en tres secciones; se contextualiza la teoría de la complejidad, después se explica la importancia del nihilismo, y finalmente todo nos lleva a visibilizar los logros y aportaciones de Sofía en las Matemáticas.
... Por esta razão, tentei articular neste estudo algumas abordagens e conceitos chave que, cada um à sua maneira, contribuem com elementos cruciais -da ontologia à axiologia e epistemologia -para compreender e explicar a realidade agrícola: complexidade e sistemas sócio-ecológicos (MORIN, 1992; SCHOON; VAN DER LEEUW, 2015;WITTMAN et al., 2017), agroecologia (FRANCIS et al., 2003;KHATOUNIAN, 2001), ciência social interpretativa ou hermenêutica (BEVIR; BLAKELY, 2018a;TAYLOR, 1971), realismo crítico (MAXWELL, 2012;SAYER, 2000), ética da virtude e filosofia moral e política (ARISTÓTELES, 1991;KORSGAARD, 2008;MACINTYRE, 2007;STRAUSS, 1957). A partir deles, tentei desenvolver uma abordagem integrativa capaz de analisar agroecossistemas familiares considerando: 1) os principais processos históricos e forças/fatores estruturais que contribuem para o estado atual dos agroecossistemas e das condições de vida dos pequenos agricultores, em particular (MAZOYER; ROUDART, 2010;POLANYI, 2001), e 2) a capacidade de agência e transformação -inerente ao ser humano -e exercida pelos agricultores e outros atores nas relações e práticas cotidianas (LONG; PLOEG, 2011;TAYLOR, 1985, p. 15). ...
Thesis
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The issue of the transition of agricultural systems to states of strong multifunctionality has been addressed. The concept of multifunctionality has been used to situate and analyze agriculture in the context of broader social changes towards sustainability, highlighting and valuing functions of agriculture beyond primary production (and the productivist logic), and recognizing it as an activity promoting sustainable development. According to the normative view of multifunctionality (MF), the transition trajectories of rural establishments can be conceptualized as multifunctional trajectories within a spectrum bounded by productivist and non-productivist action and thinking, ranging between weak, moderate, and strong MF. Strong MF is characterized by well-developed social, economic, cultural, moral, and environmental capitals, and can be realized through diversified, agroecological, and localized systems. Given this, the main question of the project is: how can rural establishments transition to states of strong multifunctionality that simultaneously promote adequate livelihoods, food sovereignty, and natural resource conservation? Objective: To explore the inter-relationships between human, socio-economic and agro-environmental factors and the quality of multifunctionality of agroecosystems. Methodology: This work is a mixed-methods research in the form of a case study. An a priori conceptual model was developed based on the following concepts: multifunctionality of agriculture; livelihoods approach; agroecology. Based on this model, the phenomenon of multifunctionality of agriculture, and its expression in the context of the municipality of Iperó/SP will be investigated. From a socio-ecological perspective, socio-economic, human and agro-environmental factors of the landscape/territory will be analyzed, to infer about their inter-relationships and their influences on the level of landscape multifunctionality. Data collection will be through participant observation and interviews with farming families, heads of non-family establishments and other local actors relevant to the study (rural extension technicians, representatives of institutions that support agriculture and rural development, managers and public agency officials). Conclusion: this study contributed to the development of an integrative conceptual model that highlighted the factors that influence the performance of multifunctionality. The expression of multifunctionality in a family agroecosystem is a complex process, influenced by several internal and contextual factors and mechanisms.
... The science of complexity (Capra, Luisi, 2014;Duboz et al., 2018) recognizes reality as having irreducible complexity and, through systems ontologies, offers the possibility of representing a multifaceted and interdependent reality (Apgar et al., 2009;Duboz et al., 2018;Spash, 2012). An epistemology of complexity uses systemic approaches to construct knowledge, first conceptually and then operationally (Morin, 1992). Basically, a system is defined by its elements (i.e. a set of objects and concepts with their properties and attributes) and its relations between its elements and the environment, represented by other systems to which it is more or less open (Arnold, Wade, 2015). ...
... A complex system takes other systems, that are often complex in their own right, as their environment (Walby, 2007). However, complexity theory can be considered as more than these abstractions, for it somewhat resists reductionist definitions (Morin, 1992). Turner and Baker (2019) provide an extensive overview of the current definition variation within complexity theory. ...
Thesis
Personally identifying information (PII) are complex resources. Each item of PII, e.g., a fingerprint, holds a confidence-based utility that fuels identity assurance, i.e., processing fingerprints towards a desired confidence that a person is whom they claim. Each time we use an item of PII however, for identity assurance or otherwise, we inadvertently expose it to misuse. Exposure thus accumulates to deplete the confidence that may be extracted for subsequent identity assurance uses. Therefore, in terms of identity assurance, PII exhibit some of the properties of a commons, wherein resources are accessible to all, and whereby individual actions can affect the group. In this depiction of identity assurance, there is an underlying usage dilemma surrounding PII. This dilemma arises because coaxed by the affordance of the modern Web, PII of increasing veracity is being digitally exchanged, processed, and stored in ever-increasing volumes and varieties. Towards a novel sense of identity assurance as a commons-esque system, this work combines empirical and agent-based simulation methods to investigate PII exchange between individuals and organisations. First, by repurposing Elo’s (1979) ranking algorithm, I produce a unique user-centric measure of PII’s personal utility by ranking identifiers based on the quantification of (N =125) users’ willingness to disclose. These results also incorporate inter-contextual differences with a design spanning social, commercial and state-based contexts. Second, I qualitatively analyse 23 one-to-one semi-structured interviews regarding disclosure decisions. From this, I identify six super-ordinate classes of heuristics that users rely upon during disclosures: prominence, network, reliability, accordance, narrative, and modality, along with a seventh non-heuristics class; trade. Third, I combine my empirical results with theory to produce a dual-system decision model of users exchanging PII with organisations. Finally, I explore the dynamics of PII exchange via an agent-based simulation of my model that serves to illustrate the potential effect of interventions such as educating users or increasing competition. I show that our onus on disclosure self-management threatens the future efficacy of identity assurance methods.
... Instead, we embrace a paradigm of complexity in its potentially simplest form. 132 The overarching theme of promoting exploration as a principal component for any intervention, as has been described both metaphorically and with direct applications to all aspects of child development, provides a unifying phenomenological approach that bridges underlying foundations of current theoretical approaches in multiple domains to positively impact holistic development for all children. As the necessity to alleviate and potentially reverse continued negative trajectories of health and well-being that many children currently face, we hope we have effectively articulated a vision that provides the needed stimulus to re-think our approach to intervention by re-emphasizing a focus on holistic development. ...
... Values must apply to the ethics of science (e.g., methodology, scientificness, and accountability) to improve evaluation practices throughout deliberation and reflexivity in program implementation. This helps to justify advanced surveillance goals and processes based on a broad vision that is anchored in the paradigm of complexity (15,109), using the precautionary principle to justify action before a causal mechanism is fully understood, such as in the case of climate change, biodiversity loss, and antimicrobial resistance. ...
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Surveillance programs supporting the management of One Health issues such as antibiotic resistance are complex systems in themselves. Designing ethical surveillance systems is thus a complex task (retroactive and iterative), yet one that is also complicated to implement and evaluate (e.g., sharing, collaboration, and governance). The governance of health surveillance requires attention to ethical concerns about data and knowledge (e.g., performance, trust, accountability, and transparency) and empowerment ethics, also referred to as a form of responsible self-governance. Ethics in reflexive governance operates as a systematic critical-thinking procedure that aims to define its value: What are the “right” criteria to justify how to govern “good” actions for a “better” future? The objective is to lay the foundations for a methodological framework in empirical bioethics, the rudiments of which have been applied to a case study to building reflexive governance in One Health. This ongoing critical thinking process involves “mapping, framing, and shaping” the dynamics of interests and perspectives that could jeopardize a “better” future. This paper proposes to hybridize methods to combine insights from collective deliberation and expert evaluation through a reflexive governance functioning as a community-based action-ethics methodology. The intention is to empower individuals and associations in a dialogue with society, which operation is carried out using a case study approach on data sharing systems. We based our reasoning on a feasibility study conducted in Québec, Canada (2018–2021), envisioning an antibiotic use surveillance program in animal health for 2023. Using the adaptive cycle and governance techniques and perspectives, we synthesize an alternative governance model rooted in the value of empowerment. The framework, depicted as a new “research and design (R&D)” practice, is linking operation and innovation by bridging the gap between Reflexive, Evaluative, and Deliberative reasonings and by intellectualizing the management of democratizing critical thinking locally (collective ethics) by recognizing its context (social ethics). Drawing on the literature in One Health and sustainable development studies, this article describes how a communitarian and pragmatic approach can broaden the vision of feasibility studies to ease collaboration through public-private-academic partnerships. The result is a process that “reassembles” the One Health paradigm under the perspective of global bioethics to create bridges between the person and the ecosystem through pragmatic ethics.
... I) Theoretical and methodological framework : content analysis of debates in arenas with a constructivist approach Why develop an interest in debates on such a controversial (and quite concrete) subject ? When a more classical approach of general sociology (such as Morin, 1992) often focuses on rather theoretical issues (such as Which method to explore complexity ?, op. cit.) being sometimes quite close to philosophical questioning, the pragmatic sociology tradition (as in (Boltanski et al., 2006) offers to focus on more concrete, situated problems with attention to the context of its occurrence (the arena) and to the critical capacities ordinary actors use in disputes and controversies. 1) A focus on arenas where actual problems are debated (including conflicts) : a pragmatic sociology approach (with a Science-Society questioning) ...
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How debates from the academic and from the "civil society" arenas differ on the issue "biodiversity & renewable energy in conflict" ?
... Introducing space and time represents a relevant way of studying complexity in natural systems (Morin 1992). We have recently proposed a tool, i.e. the monitoring breakdown structure (MBS) (Conti et al. 2019a), to effectively manage information related to biomonitoring studies. ...
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In this study, we determined the levels of elements (i.e. As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, U, and Zn) in bees and edible beehive products (honey, wax, pollen, and propolis) sampled from five selected sites in the Rome province (Italy). Rationale: to increase the information variety endowment, the monitoring breakdown structure (MBS) conceptual model was used (nine elements, 429 samples, and approximately thirteen thousand determinations over a 1-year survey). Thus, we employed Johnson's probabilistic method to build the control charts. Then, we measured the element concentration overlap ranges and the overlap bioaccumulation index (OBI). Subsequently, we evaluated the estimated daily intake (EDI) of the analysed elements and matched them with acceptable reference doses. The human health risk caused by the intake of individual elements found in edible beehive products and their risk summation were evaluated through the target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) methods. Findings: excluding honey, this study confirms the capacity of wax, pollen, propolis, and bees to accumulate high levels of toxic and potentially toxic elements from the surrounding environment (with high OBI-U, i.e. OBI-Upper values, i.e. the common upper concentration limit of the overlap concentration range). Bees and pollen showed a high bioaccumulation Cd surplus (OBI-U = 44.0 and 22.3, respectively). On the contrary, honey had high OBI-L values (i.e. honey concentrates metals several times less than the common lower concentration limit of the overlap concentration range). This finding implies that honey is useless as an environmental indicator compared with the other biomonitor/indicators. The EDI values for the edible beehive products were lower than the health and safety reference doses for all the considered elements. Our data show that honey, wax, propolis, and pollen are safe for consumption by both adults and children (THQ < 1; HI < 1), even considering the sporadic possibility of consuming them simultaneously. Originality: This study has been conducted for the first time in the Rome province and demonstrates that edible indicators are safe for consumption for the considered elements in bees and edible beehive products. Depending on the ecosystem/pollutants studied, the OBI consents to make a correct choice for environmental biomonitoring studies and to focus the attention on the most sensitive biomonitors/indicators when required at the project level.
... La Filosofía para Niños sienta sus pilares en la idea del pensamiento complejo, concepto acuñado por Morin (1992) para referirse a la capacidad del pensamiento de conectar distintas dimensiones de la realidad y perfilar un conocimiento más completo de esta. Se trata, por tanto, de una concepción que no se reduce al conocimiento de la realidad tal y como ha sido concebido desde la epistemología clásica. ...
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The curriculum of the subjects that make up the area of Philosophy allows a sensitive treatment to the consideration of creativity as a pillar of resilience and as an asset of positive development in adolescence. In this way, the academic teaching of Philosophy supposes an appropriate environment to face the increase in the rate of anxiety and depression disorders among the youth. To this end, the research invites the question of the root causes of this malaise and possible solutions to the problem from the educational field. With this starting point, the improvement of youth well-being is proposed as a working hypothesis through the analysis of the creative possibilities of Philosophy sessions as a teaching and learning environment.
... Instead, we embrace a paradigm of complexity in its potentially simplest form. 132 The overarching theme of promoting exploration as a principal component for any intervention, as has been described both metaphorically and with direct applications to all aspects of child development, provides a unifying phenomenological approach that bridges underlying foundations of current theoretical approaches in multiple domains to positively impact holistic development for all children. As the necessity to alleviate and potentially reverse continued negative trajectories of health and well-being that many children currently face, we hope we have effectively articulated a vision that provides the needed stimulus to re-think our approach to intervention by re-emphasizing a focus on holistic development. ...
... The science of complexity (Capra, Luisi, 2014;Duboz et al., 2018) recognizes reality as having irreducible complexity and, through systems ontologies, offers the possibility of representing a multifaceted and interdependent reality (Apgar et al., 2009;Duboz et al., 2018;Spash, 2012). An epistemology of complexity uses systemic approaches to construct knowledge, first conceptually and then operationally (Morin, 1992). Basically, a system is defined by its elements (i.e. a set of objects and concepts with their properties and attributes) and its relations between its elements and the environment, represented by other systems to which it is more or less open (Arnold, Wade, 2015). ...
... Accordingly, some leading design education scholars have argued for the sacrifice of intellectual rigour in order to achieve social relevance (Armstrong, 1999;Kristianova and Joklova, 2017); a trade-off that has arguably caused the marginalisation of design education in relation to most university models of education. More recent attempts to position studio projects, not as sources of problems for rational solutions, but as systems that need to be explored in order to discover their relational meanings and values (Cambel, 1993;Chua, 1998;Morin, 1992;Wang, 2010). Wang (2010) has defined design within the emerging paradigm of complexity, wherein "complexity provides alternative habits of explanation to those deriving from linear, objective, positivist accounts of the natural and social world" (p.175). ...
... Overall, the ethical considerations made in this manuscript, should be considered a valuable lesson for the future of crisis management. If and only if ethics and bioethics will be considered as effective support for science and scientists (doctors, biomedical engineers, etc.), the Cartesian separation of knowledge [2] could be overcome, establishing an interdisciplinary dialogue that involves peoples and emphasizes the public relevance of such issues. ...
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In March 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that humanity was entering a global pandemic phase. This unforeseen situation caught everyone unprepared and had a major impact on several professional categories that found themselves facing important ethical dilemmas. The article revolves around the category of biomedical and clinical engineers, which were among those most involved in dealing with and finding solutions to the pandemic. In hindsight, the major issues brought to the attention of biomedical engineers have raised important ethical implications, such as the allocation of resources, the responsibilities of science and the inadequacy and non-universality of the norms and regulations on biomedical devices and personal protective equipment. These issues, analyzed one year after the first wave of the pandemic, come together in the appeal for responsibility for thought, action and, sometimes, even silence. This highlights the importance of interdisciplinarity and the definitive collapse of the Cartesian fragmentation of knowledge, calling for the creation of more fora, where this kind of discussions can be promoted.
... A pesquisa dos SSE, também considerada como um Sistema Adaptativo Complexo (SAC), baseia-se numa ampla gama de disciplinas que formam uma abordagem integrada e multidisciplinar para pesquisar a natureza entrelaçada das interações socioecológicas (Berkes e Folke 1998). Morin (1992) aponta que as ciências da complexidade dissolvem a distinção entre as ciências naturais e as sociais, e esta oportunidade de união das ciências nos fornece o entendimento de padrões interligados e emergentes, e o novo é criado como resultado . ...
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The present work explores the complex adaptive systems, approach through an abductive research method, that sought to integrate the economic valuation of ecosystem services (ES) and the social license to operate in the socio-ecological context of Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo (REBIO) in south brazilian coast. Initially, a stakeholder analysis was carried out, with an impact identification and assessment on the ecosystem services. The interdependence of social implications through understanding the impacts on ecosystem services was highlighted, showing key points to be worked in the relationship with the surrounding area. Subsequently, a study of contingent valuation associated with REBIO's social license was carried out and logistic regression and multivariate analyzes showed that the positive social license itself, low trust in government, greater distance from REBIO and indirect effects on income are the main factors that positively influence the Willingness to Pay (DAP). An average amount of a monthly R$ 8.43 contribution per family, among the 523 interviewees, was obtained, demonstrating a high socio-environmental return on this public instrument. Finally, the Cynefin framework was applied to REBIO's management context, which allowed a deeper understanding of the decision-making domains, its limits and the uncertainties faced by the managers and board, in addition it was possible to observe the external influence of local social-environment panorama and the actual federal government policy in the decision-making. The thesis offers an emerging perspective for the strategic management of REBIO and the adoption of the theoretical prism of complex adaptive systems, and its inherent methodological pluralism, reduces the weakening of environmental policies, if an active, responsive and direct interaction with the beneficiaries is adopted, considering the scales and the return to society in the Anthropocene era.
... The validity of a horizontal, fraternal legality is consonant with the ideas of a number of philosophers: the complex thought of Edgar Morin (1992), the concept of transverse power as described by Michel Foucault (1977), and the concept of multiplicity described by Gilles Deleuze (2006) Horizontal links can pave the way to new experiences and new territories in so far as they maintain the condition of an open, mutating process. This is not possible if they become a new "colonizing" hegemonic centre that assumes the power of totalitarian organization. ...
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Siblinghood is the paradigm of horizontal links. When we talk about siblinghood we are not only referring to blood ties in families, but also to social ties in different stages of life. Siblinghood can include any relationships between peers which are participative and which involve horizontal rather than hierarchical links. To develop the concept of siblinghood we have drawn on the work of several authors regarding the fraternal complex. This article will also focus on the relevance of the fraternal complex in the context of institutional life and training. A short clinical vignette will be presented to show the effect of the fraternal complex on the relationship between a father and his young son.
... However, an implicit dominating idea with the work of both Morin and Cilliers is that complexity is a reality. This is indicated by their concern that, firstly there should be an acknowledgment of complexity, and their respective efforts (Cilliers 1998(Cilliers , 2005(Cilliers , 2007Morin 1992aMorin , 1992bMorin , 2002Morin , 2007Morin , 2008 to develop a new post-Newtonian/Cartesian approach, to deal with the complexity that is being acknowledged as a reality, as exemplified by Heylighnen, Cilliers, and Gershenson (2006, 7) when they state "the building blocks of reality are not material particles but abstract relations and the complex organisations that form them". ...
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Edward de Bono’s thinking tools have been utilised world-wide by work teams for at least three decades. Over this period there has also been extensive research focusing on work team effectiveness, because work teams are intrinsic to the operation of 21st century business organisations. Despite widespread use of de Bono’s tools however, there is a paucity of quality research focusing on the correct use of these tools by work teams. The purpose of the study presented in this Thesis was to explore the correct utilisation of de Bono’s thinking tools by work teams within business organisations. The problem investigated was the main concern of people who correctly use de Bono’s tools during work team occasions. Their main concern being, the emotional stress they feel each time they perceive particular types of cognitive interplay, that indicate to them a work team is not-on-the same-page, because no one is utilising de Bono’s tools. The Getting On-The-Same-Page Theory is presented in this Thesis as a classic grounded theory explaining how this concern is resolved. The core variable of the theory is the cognitive capability process of getting-on-the-same-page. This process has three stages, Tooling-Up, Tensing and Enabling. Tooling-Up starts when bettering is activated at the time someone is introduced to the tools and changes in their cognitive capability commence with structuring, which occurs each time they utilise the tools. Tensing commences with distinguishing and a user perceiving polarising, powering, holding-back and/or bouncing around in contrast to collective purposing, collective aligning and collective equalising. The former being types of cognitive interplay that indicate to a user a work team is not-on-the-same-page because de Bono’s tools are not being utilised, the latter being types of cognitive interplay that indicate a work team is on-the-same-page because the tools are being utilised. Enabling occurs when taking-it-on emerges and a user commits to helping people in business organisations to get-on-the-same-page, by helping them utilise de Bono’s tools during work team occasions. Empirical data for the study was collected through interviews and observation of nine work teams, in six business organisations, utilising de Bono’s tools for periods ranging between six weeks to at least four months. Data was analysed and collected while adhering to the tenets of classic grounded theory methodology. The Getting On-The-Same Page Theory contributes to both theory and praxis, including theory focusing on work team cognition, conflict and cohesion.
... Enfin, l'une des limites posées à la démarche mise en oeuvre est certes relative à l'expérimentation de la participation mais également au doctorat et à la recherche de manière globale : celle de l'incertitude permanente dans laquelle le doctorant doit évoluer. Dans cette configuration, l'ajustement et la progression de la démarche est fonction des événements qui surviennent au fur et à mesure du projet (Morin, 1992). Dans notre cas, il s'agit de gérer cette incertitude dans les deux dimensions interdépendantes du projet et de la recherche. ...
... Instead of trying to conceptualise a general theory of CAS, the notions of 'approach', 'attitude' and 'paradigm' turn the focus of inquiry around in a radical way. These concepts allow one to expand the idea(l) of complexity to the extent that it becomes 'capable of informing all theories, whatever their field of application or the phenomenon in question' (Morin 1992) might be. Formulating a complexity approach, attitude or paradigm thus allows one to look outwards and alongside other discourses. ...
... Enquanto um sistema físico-natural, responde às trocas internas e externas de energia e matéria, comportando e processando inputs e outputs que modificam sua estrutura e a organização (CHRISTOFOLETTI, 1999). Entende-se que, a partir da existência da concepção de sistemas abertos, caóticos e não-lineares (RICHARDS, 2002), as AUs estão em constante processo de troca material e de energia com a paisagem em que se encontram (RODRIGUEZ; SILVA; CAVALCANTI, 2004) e em uma dialógica constante de organização e desorganização (MORIN, 1992). Transformações no uso e cobertura da terra e alterações nas formas de relevo circundantes, por exemplo, podem afetar os principais meios de alimentação hídrica das AUs. ...
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As áreas úmidas (AUs) ou wetlands são sistemas hidrogeomorfológicos saturados de água (permanentemente ou temporariamente) durante um período de tempo suficiente para o desenvolvimento de ecossistemas ímpares, em contextos geomorfológicos e pedológicos específicos. Devido à grande relevância ambiental que possuem, são objetos de diversas pesquisas, as quais normalmente preconizam áreas úmidas de grande porte. Diante da necessidade de conhecimento sobre as pequenas áreas úmidas que ocorrem no domínio dos Mares de Morro, o presente trabalho visa compreender a distribuição espacial e classificar tais sistemas no contexto da bacia hidrográfica de contribuição da Represa de São Pedro, em Juiz de Fora-MG. O recorte estudado apresenta nove áreas úmidas (0,7 por km²), classificadas como 'fluviais" e "de depressão", com ocorrência frequente em cabeceiras de drenagem com controle estrutural associado a falhamentos em rochas pré-cambrianas. A dinâmica híbrida de alimentação entre águas pluviais, fluviais e subsuperficiais foi notória, estando atualmente em processo de alteração por pressões humanas, o que levanta questionamentos acerca da integridade desses sistemas na manutenção de suas funções ecológicas. Palavras-chave: Hidrossistemas; hidromorfismo; brejo. Abstract Wetlands are hydrogeomorphological systems saturated by water long enough (permanent or temporary) to develop particular ecosystems into specific geomorphological and pedological contexts. Due to their vast environmental relevance, they are subject of several research that usually emphasize large wetlands. Facing the lack of knowledge about small wetlands that are common in the Mares de Morro domain, this work aims to comprehend the spatial distribution and to classify the wetlands from São Pedro Dam watershed, in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. We notice nine wetlands (0,7 per km²), classified as "fluvial" and "depressional". They are frequent on headwaters with structural control from faults associated with Precambrian rocks. They have hybrid hydrodynamics with influence of pluvial, fluvial, and underground waters, but we can see an increasing human pressure over the studied wetlands, which raises doubts about their systems integrity and ecological functions.
... Consequently, a systematic literature review was opted for. Such review was conducted by an interdisciplinary working group, comprising biomedical engineers and bioethicists, following a multidisciplinary approach, which overcomes the outdated Cartesian model of the separation of knowledge into "silos" of disciplines [8,9]. To facilitate the screening process, the papers were grouped by macro areas that were pinpointed through a thematic analysis [10], as explained in the methods. ...
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This paper proposes a systematic literature review on ethics and CoviD-19, aiming to understand the impact and the perception of the pandemic during the first wave (January-June 2020) and the consequences one year later. PubMed was systematically searched up May 2020 to identify studies that took into consideration various ethical issues that have been arising from the Covid-19 outbreak. The eligibility of the papers was determined by two authors, who screened the results mediated by a third author. In order to facilitate the screening, the titles were divided into five sub-thematic macro-areas, namely allocation, policy, specialist, clinical trials, and technology and, when possible, per geographical area. Specifically, a posteriori, we decided to focus on the papers referring to policies and technology, as they highlighted ethical issues that are not overused and worthy of particular attention. Thus, 38 studies out of 233 met our inclusion criteria and were fully analysed. Accordingly, this review touches on themes such as fairness, equity, transparency of information, the duty of care, racial disparities, the marginalisation of the poor, and privacy and ethical concerns. Overall, it was found that despite the increased awareness of interdisciplinarity and the essential reference to ethics, many scientific articles use it with little competence, considering it only a "humanitarian" enrichment. In fact, as we understand, reflecting a year after the outbreak of the pandemic, although Covid-19 is leading scientists to increasingly recognise the importance of ethical issues, there is still a lot of confusion that could be helped by establishing international guidelines to act as a moral compass in times of crisis.
... The FMHZ [20] is rooted in complexity theory [22], identifying the animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) setting as a dynamic and complex system encompassing many interdependent variables, the relationships among which might be nonlinear [21]. By assuming a holistic and systemic perspective, the FMHZ emphasizes the relational nature of the dynamics taking place within the AAI setting. ...
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Emotion comprehension (EC) is a crucial competence for children, as it determines the quality of peer interactions. This study assessed the efficacy of an animal-assisted education (AAE) intervention with dogs based on the Federico II Model of Healthcare Zooanthropology (FMHZ) to promote EC in a group of primary school children. One hundred and four children (48 females) aged 6–7 years took part in the study, of whom 63 participated in the AAE intervention (i.e., experimental group) and 41 did not (i.e., control group). The intervention was deployed in a school setting through a group format and consisted of five bimonthly sessions. EC was assessed pre- and post-intervention, and at a 3-month follow-up. Student’s t-test and mixed-model ANOVA were performed to analyze the effect of the intervention on EC. EC significantly improved in children of the experimental group compared to the control group. Significant time effects from pre- to post-intervention, post-intervention to follow-up, and pre-intervention to follow-up assessment were found in the experimental group only. AAE based on FMHZ was effective in improving EC in children.
Article
A comunidade acadêmica tem mostrado uma crescente preocupação com o desaparecimento e descaracterização de nascentes em todo o planeta, apesar da preconizada importância desses hidrossistemas. Uma lacuna tácita refere-se à falta de consenso em relação às técnicas de avaliação ambiental de nascentes, que muitas vezes não compreendem toda a complexidade inerente a elas. Esse trabalho reporta os resultados de um Painel de Especialistas (técnica Delphi) para a definição dos parâmetros mais relevantes para avaliação de nascentes no Brasil. Os indicadores elegidos foram classificados no modelo Estado-Pressão-Resposta e qualificados de acordo com sua aceitação na comunidade científica. Por fim, o rol de parâmetros que emerge dessa proposta compila indicadores interdisciplinares, interescalares e de natureza diversa, que poderão colaborar para a governança das nascentes brasileiras. Palavras-chave: Nascente. Governança. Painel Delphi. Indicadores Ambientais
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A new transdisciplinary perspective on the integration of knowledge is introduced in the context of the informergic society/economy (KBS/E) to achieve, share and implement the knowledge giving the openness to a better understanding of the world, using sustainable, integrative all-life learning. A new more complete perspective on the well-known system of knowledge integration, based on a five steps scale in a synergistic-generative transdisciplinary process to achieve, transfer and implement knowledge in the knowledge-based society/economy (KBS/E) context is configured, connecting DIMLAK knowledge paradigm to Knowledge Integration Management (KIM). It presents a possible connection between the all¬life, sustainable, integrative learning and the DIMLAK hetero-hierarchic paradigm of knowledge in the biblical context, the heaven ladder from Sychar.
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La ganadería desempeña un papel clave en los sistemas alimentarios mundiales como la principal fuente de proteína animal (leche, carne y huevos), contribuye a la productividad de los cultivos mediante el suministro de energía de tiro y estiércol, y a los medios de vida y la nutrición de muchas poblaciones. La producción pecuaria es un conjunto de procesos complejos en el que interviene el productor humano, animales individuales (ganado vacuno, ovino, caprino, etc.), empresas de apoyo (veterinarios, proveedores de forraje, transportistas de animales, comercializadores de animales, etc.) y procesadores (plantas de sacrificio); las pasturas y alimentos del ganado, incluidos los sistemas agroalimentarios, las cadenas de valor de los alimentos para animales, las cadenas de suministro de alimentos, los sistemas de producción ganadera y otros. Para simplificar, los llamaremos sistemas pecuarios (SP). En este marco conceptual se pretende visualizar la sostenibilidad de los mismos desde su complejidad y estudiarlos a través de sistemas complejos, que permiten, involucrar otros aspectos no considerados en abordajes convencionales. Introducción El Paradigma de la Complejidad o Pensamiento Complejo se puede caracterizar como un enfoque teórico-filosófico-epistemológico comprometido con una visión del mundo apoyada en principios que trata de superar la fragmentación entre disciplinas. La expresión pensamiento complejo, se concibe como el pensamiento que trata con la incertidumbre y es capaz de generar organización (von Bertalanffy, 1987;
Purpose Junior enterprises have been gaining increasing attention in the Brazilian Higher Education Institutions. In addition, these companies are contributing to enhance the training of future professionals. Improvements in future professionals’ training must consider education for sustainability. In this context, this paper aims to critically analyze the role of junior enterprises in the training of undergraduate students in line with the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Design/methodology/approach To discuss the ways for junior enterprises to contribute to students’ training with a higher alignment with sustainable development, it is necessary to know the routine of their activities well. Therefore, the strategy used in this research was to use the Delphi process with students who participated/participate in this kind of extracurricular activity in their institutions and are familiar with the SDGs disseminated by the United Nations. Findings From the rounds of Delphi method debates, eight items were listed and presented an agreement greater than 50% of the participants. Illustratively, three of them are cited here: most participants understand that some current metrics used by junior enterprises require greater alignment with the SDGs; most participants agree that junior enterprises need to better monitor the results of their postexecution projects because in general beneficial impacts on sustainability are observed in the long term; and most of the participants understand that the actions developed by junior enterprises are aligned with corporate sustainability and conscious capitalism. Originality/value The contribution of junior enterprises to the promotion of sustainability education is practically not addressed in the literature. The findings presented here, resulting from the Delphi process, can greatly contribute for junior enterprises to rethink their actions to better prepare future professionals to act toward sustainable development.
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Below the Twilight Arch: A Mythology of Systems
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Beer, S. (1960) " Below the Twilight Arch: A Mythology of Systems. " General Systems: Yearbook of the Society for General @stems Research, 5, 9-20.
La A&Mode. 1. La Nature de la nature
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Morin, E. (1977) La A&Mode. 1. La Nature de la nature. Paris: Seuil.
London: Penguin Books. (Pascal worked on the Pen&es until his death in 1662; they were first published in 1670. The arrangement of the Pens&es by Lkon Brunschvicg
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Pascal, B. (1966 [ 16621) Pens&s. Krailsheimer, A. J., trans. London: Penguin Books. (Pascal worked on the Pen&es until his death in 1662; they were first published in 1670. The arrangement of the Pens&es by Lkon Brunschvicg, available in Le Livre de Poche and numerous other editions, is standard.) Serres, M. (1982) Hermes: Literattue, Science, Philosophy. Harari, J. V. L Bell, D. F., eds. Bal-timore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (Translations of texts drawn from Hermds. Vols. I-V.
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La Connaissance de la connaissance, 1986; Vol. 4. Les Id&es: Leur habitat, leur vie, leurs moeurs, leur organisation, 1991.) (Morin's magnum opus) Morin, E. (1990) Science avec conscience. New ed. Paris: Points/Seuil. (Originally published: Paris:
Collected essays) Man, E. (1990) introduction d b pens@e comp~exe. Paris: ESF. (accessible s~rn~ statement of Morin's philosophy of complexity)
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Fayard, 1982.) (Collected essays) Man, E. (1990) introduction d b pens@e comp~exe. Paris: ESF. (accessible s~rn~ statement of Morin's philosophy of complexity)
Below the twilight arch
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Hegel and Morin: The Science of Wisdom and the Wisdom of the New Science
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