The loss of autonomy over smoking in relation to lifetime cigarette consumption

ArticleinAddictive behaviors 35(1):14-18 · January 2010with17 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.08.001
New Zealand youth who had smoked only one cigarette had diminished autonomy over smoking. We sought to examine this issue in a US sample and examine the early onset of DSM-IV nicotine dependence. A self-administered survey was completed by 367 adolescent smokers in Massachusetts. Diminished autonomy was measured with the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist. Diminished autonomy was present in 5.7% of youth after one cigarette, in 9% after 2, in 26% after 3–4, in 44% after 5–9, in 43% after 10–19, in 67% after 20–99, and in 96% after 100 or more. DSM-IV nicotine dependence was absent in youth who had not smoked 10 cigarettes but was present in 9% after 10–19 cigarettes, in 17% after 20–99, and in 58% after 100 or more. Our data confirm the New Zealand study by showing diminished autonomy among subjects who had smoked only 1 or 2 cigarettes. Diminished autonomy after one or two cigarettes, and DSM-IV nicotine dependence after 10–19, support the sensitization-homeostasis theory of nicotine addiction that the addiction process is initiated by the first few cigarettes.
    • "Age increased the risk of WP dependence; this may be explained by the establishment of this habit with time during life in university and more frequent exposure, or due to its possible insidious nature of dependence that may only appear after repeated exposures. The nature of WP dependence installation may differ from cigarette dependence that seems to install in young people after only a few cigarettes262728. Indeed, Asfar et al have shown the existence of beginners and established WP smokers, the latter being less willing to quit WP smoking and more hooked on the habit [29]. "
    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2014 · Nicotine & Tobacco Research
    • "However, non-daily smokers have difficulty quitting smoking [2]. Research suggests that even low-level smokers experience loss of autonomy over smoking and addiction121314. Others contend that difficulty quitting among non-daily smokers may be due to the importance of external stimuli in maintaining smok- ing [2] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking category as it relates to readiness to quit among current smokers. Of the 4438 students at six Southeast colleges who completed an online survey, 69.7% (n = 3094) were non-smokers, 6.6% (n = 293) were quitters, 7.1% (n = 317) were native non-daily smokers, 6.4% (n = 283) were converted non-daily smokers and 10.2% (n = 451) were daily smokers. There were differences in sociodemographics, substance use (alcohol, marijuana, other tobacco products) in the past 30 days and psychosocial factors among these subgroups of students (P < 0.001). Among current smokers, there were differences in cigarettes smoked per day, recent quit attempts, self-identification as a smoker, self-efficacy and motivation to quit (P < 0.001). After controlling for important factors, converted non-daily smokers were more likely to be ready to quit in the next month versus native non-daily smokers (OR = 2.15, CI 1.32–3.49, P = 0.002). Understanding differences among young adults with different smoking patterns and histories is critical in developing interventions targeting psychosocial factors impacting cessation among this population.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012
    • "Light smokers may also be understudied because of the belief that they have an easier time quitting smoking and have low levels of nicotine dependence ( Zhu, Sun, Hawkins, Pierce, & Cummins, 2003 ). Light and heavier smokers, however, have similar numbers of quit attempts and smoking cessation rates ( Businelle et al., 2009 ; Okuyemi et al., 2004 ; Reitzel et al., 2009 ) and some research shows that light smokers experience withdrawal symptoms ( DiFranza et al., 2007 ; Reitzel et al., 2009 ; Ursprung & DiFranza, 2009 ; Wellman, DiFranza, & Wood, 2006 ). Furthermore, data from large population studies show that both male and female light smokers are between nearly 2 and 5 times more likely to experience myocardial infarction, c hronic o bstructive pulmonary disease , respiratory symptoms, lung cancer, or allcause mortality compared with nonsmokers ( Bjartveit & Tverdal, 2005 ; Fletcher, 1976 ; Garfi nkel & Stellman, 1988 ; Lebowitz & Burrows, 1977 ; Luoto, Uutela, & Puska, 2000 ; Prescott, Scharling, Osler, & Schnohr, 2002 ; Rosengren, Wilhelmsen, & Wedel, 1992 ). Light smokers, however, differ from heavier smokers in several important ways and treatment approaches may need to consider these factors in order to be most effective. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Daily light smoking is increasing and disproportionately represented among Latinos. The current study examines differences in smoking attitudes, psychosocial characteristics, risk perceptions, and cessation rates between Latino daily light (3-9 cigarettes/day) and heavier smokers (>/= 10 cigarettes/day). METHODS: Participants (N = 131; M(age) = 36.8, 73.3% female, 53.1% light smokers) were enrolled in a study focused on motivating smokers to quit. Cessation was biochemically verified at 2 and 3 months after end of treatment. RESULTS: Heavier smoking was more prevalent among males (65.7%) and those from Puerto Rico (69.0%). Compared with heavier smokers, light smokers were less nicotine dependent (p < .001), reported fewer pros of smoking (p ≤ .001), less perceived stress (p ≤ .001), had fewer friends who smoked (p ≤ .005), were more likely to live in a household with an indoor smoking ban (p ≤ .001), and self-reported better health (p < .05). Regarding risk perceptions, Latino light smokers reported less perceived vulnerability for the health effects from smoking on their child's health (p < .05). There were no significant differences in smoking cessation rates between daily light and heavier smokers at either 2- or 3-month follow-up. Belief that quitting would improve "their own health," however, significantly predicted smoking cessation at both 2- and 3-month follow-up, but only among heavier smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Latino light smokers do not seem to be more likely to quit smoking than Latinos who smoke at heavier rates. Differences between Latino light and heavier smokers in demographics, smoking attitudes, and psychosocial factors may need to be considered when developing cessation programs and mass media campaigns. Future research should continue to explore whether Latino light smokers need different or more targeted treatments.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012
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