Content uploaded by Nidal A. Hadadin
All content in this area was uploaded by Nidal A. Hadadin on Nov 25, 2017
Content may be subject to copyright.
Water shortage in Jordan —Sustainable solutions
⁎, Maher Qaqish
, Emad Akawwi
, Ahmed Bdour
Department of Civil Engineering, the Hashemite University, P.O. Box: 150459, Zarqa 13115, Jordan
College of Engineering, Balqa Applied University, Salt, Jordan
Department of Surveying and Geomatics Engineering, Balqa Applied University, Salt, Jordan
Accepted 17 January 2009
The large environmental challenge that Jordan faces today is the scarcity of water. Deﬁnitely, water is the
signiﬁcant feature in the population/resource equation where water resources in Jordan are limited and the
country's population has continued to rise. A high rate of natural population growth, combined with massive
inﬂuxes of refugees, has transformed into an imbalance condition between population and water. Jordan's
water resources are limited to support population in a sustainable manner. The situation has been intensiﬁed
by the fact that Jordan shares most of its surface water resources with neighboring countries; their control on
water has partially disallowed Jordan of its fair share of water. Current use of water already exceeds its
renewable supply. The deﬁcit is covered by the unsustainable practice of overdrawing highland aquifers,
resulting in lowered water tables and declining water quality.
This paper focuses on the water shortage in Jordan, the primarily evaluation of this problem and the solution
is contemplate. A true foundation of sustainable water solution requires awareness upon the part of the
population, and a number of governmental and non-governmental organizations are actively involved in
educating the populace about water shortage. The more essential and “doable”elements of a sustainable
water solutions were discussed in this research, these elements are standing under, the development of new
supplies of water, water harvesting, desalination, reuse of wastewater in the agricultural sector and
reduction of water demands.
Moreover, this article presents speciﬁc recommendations addressing water resource shortage in the
kingdom and highlighting the importance of conservation of water and discussing the basics of sustainable
© 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.
In the arid Middle East, there is always talking of a future water
shortage. In Jordan, it's already happening. Streams are drying up, and
water levels across the desert Arab kingdom are falling. A rationing
system has been implemented such that citizens get water from
public supplies just one to two days a week.
With Jordan's population expected to continue to rise, the gap
between water supply and demand threatens to widen signiﬁcantly.
By the year 2025, if current trends continue, per capita water supply
will fall from the current 145 m
/yr to only 91 m
/yr, putting Jordan in
the category of having an absolute water shortage. On a per capita
basis, Jordan has one of the lowest levels of water resources in the
world. Most experts consider countries with a per capita water
production below 1000 m
/yr to be water-poor countries .
Jordan has endured deﬁcits in water resources since the early
1960s. The country is classiﬁed as water scarce. Its rank is number ten
in the world concerning the insufﬁciency in water .
Jordan might face a serious long-term water crisis caused by a
number of natural and human factors. Due to the arid and semi-arid
climate, available water resources are limited. In addition, population
growth and economic development are increasing demand on the
available water resources, which affect not only the quantity, but also
the quality of water resources.
This paper identiﬁes some of the principal causes of the water
shortage in Jordan, discusses the current situation of water supply and
demand, and presents some essential elements of reasonable, co-
operative, and sustainable water solutions.
2. Water shortage
The Jordanian Government claims that in comparison to some of
Jordan's neighbors, while a Jordanian in 1993 had an annual water
share of 200 m
, an Egyptian averaged 1200 m
, a Syrian 1800 m
Desalination 250 (2010) 197–202
Abbreviations: JICA, Japan International Cooperation Agency; JVA, Jordan Valley
Authority; PRB, Population Reference Bureau; UNIDO, United Nations Development
Organization; WAJ, Water Authority of Jordan.
E-mail addresses: email@example.com (N. Hadadin), firstname.lastname@example.org
(M. Qaqish), email@example.com (E. Akawwi), firstname.lastname@example.org (A. Bdour).
Fax: +962 5382 6348.
0011-9164/$ –see front matter © 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/desal
an Israeli 480 m
as shown in Fig. 1 . In the capital Amman, water
needs have risen to 300,000 m
/day. This is 90,000 m
more than the
maximum available daily water levels, which equivalents to a deﬁcit
of 35 million cubic meters (Mm
) a year. Irrigation water forms 61% of
the total water demands whereas municipal and industrial demands
form 31% and 6%, respectively as shown in Fig. 2.
Jordan is located in an arid–semi-arid climatic region where about
80% of the country receives average precipitation of less than
100 mm/yr and is generally classiﬁed as arid. 12.5% between 100
and 200 mm/yr, 3.8% between 200 and 300 mm/yr, 1.8% between 300
and 500 mm/yr, and only 1.3% receives more than 500 mm/yr. The
eastern desert areas receive as little as 50 mm/yr. The precipitation
amounts all over Jordan are shown in Fig. 3.
Jordan's total rainfall volume in 2004/2005 was about 9304 Mm
which about 93.9% evaporates. Only about 3.9% of precipitation inﬁltrates
to recharge the groundwater. Jordan, which carries the same name as
River Jordan, has very little water from river resources because rivers and
streams are drying out. Therefore, Jordan mainly depends on rainfall.
Jordan is known to have a large area of desert land on its eastern and
southern eastern borders with Iraq and Saudi Arabia respectively.
The future prospects for water availability are not good. Jordan's
population is expected to rise to 7.3million by the year 2010, and the
resulting gap between water supply and demand is expected to widen
Jordan currently consumes about 941 million cubic meters (Mm
of water annually (2005), distributed as 603.5 Mm
for industry, 291.3 for household, and 7.8 Mm
livestock. This amount is expected to rise in demand in the near
future due to population increasing and economic growth.
A critical review of the existing water resources situation in the
country reveals that present water problems are attributed to the
1. The lack of precipitation has had adverse effects upon the country's
amount ofsurface water, climactic changeshave lessened therainfall.
2. Rapid population growth coupled with increased urbanization and
industrialization are leading to the over-exploitation of aquifers
and the contamination of water supplies.
3. Inadequate industrial and municipal wastewater treatment capac-
ities; sitting of industrial plants near or immediately upstream
from potable supplies; and, overuse and misuse of pesticides, and
fertilizers leading to pollution of ground and surface water
resources by irrigation drainage.
4. The high water consumption level of the Jordanian people particu-
larly in agriculture has endangered the country's water supply and
caused so many shortages. Because of this excess, Jordan's water
sources have been drained and dried, as well as polluted.
3. Surface water
Jordan has three major rivers, the Jordan, the Zarqa and the
Yarmouk. The Jordan River is saline and thus not directly suitable for
drinking or irrigation. The River Zarqa receives substantial municipal,
industrial and agricultural efﬂuent rendering it unsuitable for
domestic or irrigation uses in the dry season. Only during ﬂood
periods does the water quality improve. Though the River Yarmouk is
reportedly less stressed, it is also a sink for municipal wastewater .
The river Jordan in both parts (Southern and Northern Jordan
River), so famous in history and religion, is now nothing more than a
creek. By the time that long-suffering stream reaches its end, most of
the water has disappeared into a wide variety of pipes, pumps, and
ﬁelds to sustain the ever-growing demands of the human population
in its vicinity. The reasons for the shrinking of the Jordan river reﬂect
the overwhelming problem of the whole region in obtaining sufﬁcient
water. As well, the salinization of the groundwater is one of the
problems in Jordan . The increasing of the content of dissolved salt
minerals in the groundwater that ﬂow towards the Jordan Valley is
the most problem on the Jordan Valley . One of the main causes of
salinization in the Jordan Valley is due to the buried salt bodies .
Other surface waters affected by pollution are wadis, creeks, rivers
and dams lying downstream from wastewater treatment plants and
solid waste disposal sites. The King Talal Dam reservoir, Jordan's
largest surface reservoir, is threatened by factories, which dispose
untreated waste into the reservoir's tributaries, raising salinity and
levels of chemicals and metals . In addition, the trans-boundary
movement of pollutants from one entity to another increases the
problems in the water resources and the drinking water quality in the
Another issue of growing importance is the regional conﬂict over
water resources, approximately one third of the trans-boundary
basins in the Kingdom is shared by more than two countries. It is
hardly surprising that the situation is widely perceived as being
fodder for hostility between neighbors. Two of the major sources of
Jordan's surface water are the Jordan River and the Yarmouk River,
both of which have been depleted by upstream diversion and over-
pumping in Syria and Israel. Other sources of water for Jordan include
aquifers of limited potential, such as the now nearly depleted Azraq
Oasis that supplies Amman .
The mobilization and judicious use of water resources requires
integrated management policies to ensure sustainability of water and
the environment, such approach must be adopted at the regional level
to achieve sustainable solution and transform a situation fraught with
conﬂict into an opening for mutually advantageous solutions.
4. Water supply and demand
The current situation of water supply and demand in Jordan raises
serious concerns about the country's water balance, as well as about
the qualitative deterioration of water. Water balance for Jordan
Fig. 1. Comparison of annual water share between Jordan and some of Jordan's
Fig. 2. Comparison between industrial use, domestic consumption, and agricultural
198 N. Hadadin et al. / Desalination 250 (2010) 197–202
(demands and supplies) is shown in Tables 1 and 2. The picture is so
gloomy that any water researcher would observe that it is all too easy
for the country to “cross the red line”when faced with annual water
deﬁcits, overuse, resource depletion or contamination. Projections of
water resources based on average water year demonstrate that there
will be water deﬁcits as shown in Table 3.
The available water supply in Jordan for the year 2000 was
attributed to two major resources : surface water resources basins
with capacity of about 373 Mm
/yr and groundwater resources basins
with a capacity of about 414 Mm
/yr. Both resources provided the
total potential supply of about 787 Mm
/yr, however, the water
demand was about 1077 Mm
, and is expected to grow to 1383 Mm
The scarcity of water in Jordan makes the management of this vital
resource very complex from a political, technical, socio-economic and
environmental perspective. The water budget of Jordan is around
1billion cubic meters per annum, which is considered relatively low
when, compared to the social, economic, and environmental needs of
the country. In any water strategy the following stakeholders: domestic,
industrial, tourist, and agricultural sectors should beconsidered. Table 3
summarizes the future water supply amounts, the demand and
resulting deﬁcit until 2040 in Mm
Jordan's primary sources of water are aquifers and basins (Table 4)
that are fed and recharged through annual rainfall. The Yarmouk Basin
is the largest in the country. Jordan's water supply suffers because
about 93.9% of the total amount of water is lost to evapotranspiration
annually, which leaves only a small amount of surface and
groundwater to enter the water supply. Fig. 4 shows the various
Fig. 3. Average distribution of long-term (1938–2005) rainfall in Jordan (After WAJ and Meteorological Department).
Jordan water demands per annum (Mm
1990 2000 2010 2020 2040 Data source
Municipal 240 340 477 670 1263 WAJ
Industrial 43 78 110 130 170 WAJ
Jordan Valley 300 350 443 443 443 WAJ
Southern Ghors 40 40 75 75 75 WAJ
Wadi Araba 4 4 13 19 19 WAJ
Highlands 289 255 255 255 255 WAJ
Disi 59 10 10 10 10 WAJ
Total demand (including losses) 975 1077 1383 1602 2236
199N. Hadadin et al. / Desalination 250 (2010) 197–202
quantities of the available water resources in Jordan: ground, surface,
and nontraditional sources (Mm
Water in Jordan is used primarily for agriculture (Fig. 5) that
accounts for 77.5% of all water consumed while the rest being for
domestic and industrial use. Annual growth in demand for water in
Jordan is estimated at 25 Mm
/yr. This growth is related to
urbanization and industrial expansion, as well as to increased
domestic use, mainly as a result of population growth (Table 5).
5. Water harvesting
Water in the desert represents a signiﬁcant part of the water
budget in Jordan. This water is dispersed over a wide area and, if
properly collected, could provide a signiﬁcant addition to the water
reserves of the country .
Many researches and studies related to the water harvesting have
been conducted and the results of some studies indicated the
possibility of increasing the water budget directly. For example the
analysis of the geo-hydrology of the upper Wadi Madoneh area, that is
about 9 km south of Zarqa city and 15 km east of Amman, determined
the inﬁltration capacities, Dams locations, amount of water added,
and the inﬂuence of the recharged water on the aquifer in terms of
forecasting the effects on groundwater levels, as well as on water
quality . On the other hand, other studies focused on water
harvesting as indirect measure to improve the water supply by
reducing the demand, for example, the analysis of rainfall harvesting
in rain-fed agricultural areas, where rainfall can be stored directly in
the soil for crop production using terraces, rippers, contour ridges, and
other types of water collection methods. However, the efﬁciency of
these methods is limited by the inﬁltration characteristics of soil and
climatic conditions .
6. Water available for desalination
Water desalination for domestic use in Jordan is practically non-
existent except for some small household units or factories for
bottling water for drinking purposes. Several factories use plants for
their own industrial needs with a total capacity of nearly 9000 m
day. These plants are located at Hussein Thermal Power Station, Oil
Reﬁnery, Pepsi Cola Co., Potash Co. and other small factories, all
established since 1980.
There are two major sources for desalination: The ﬁrst being the
brackish water available throughout the country and the second is
seawater at the Gulf of Aqaba. Brackish water in the South of Ghore
between Dier Alla town and the Dead Sea with salinity of about 5000–
7500 ppm and a yield of about 60 Mm
/yr is one source in Jordan.
Other sources are the saline springs east and west of the Jordan Valley
with a capacity of about 10 Mm
/yr and the brackish water that is
distributed all over the country estimated at hundreds of millions of
cubic meters. However, it is very difﬁcult to exploit these resources
due to the topography of the country, the distance between these
scattered resources, the need for special treatment to remove some
sorts of chemicals such as manganese, sulfates and iron, as well as
gases such as hydrogen sulﬁde. Finally, the main problem is the
disposal of the brine, which can cause environmental problems. These
scattered resources, however, can supply desalted water for small
communities by using solar energy or/and wind power.
The saline water from the Gulf of Aqaba represents an unlimited
resource of water. It can be developed to cover the needs in Aqaba
district for tourism and industry, and to supply desalted water for
Jordan water resources per annum (Mm
1990 2000 2010 2020 2040 Data
Adasiya 110 140 195 195 195 JVA
Diversion 20 20 20 20 Treaty
10 10 10 10 Treaty
Additional water 50 50 50 50 Treaty
Jordan dam (min.
20 20 20 Treaty
Subtotal 110 220 295 295 295
JRV wadis Jordan side wadis 120 120 120 120 120 JVA
Wadi Al Hasa 8 8 8 8 JVA
Wadi Wala 5 5 5 JVA
Wadi Mujib 25 42 42 42 JVA
Subtotal 120 153 175 175 175
Groundwater Northern Aquifers 460 410 258 258 258 WAJ
Wadi Araba 4 4 13 19 19 WAJ
Subtotal 464 414 271 277 277
Safe yield 277 277 277 277 277 WAJ
Over-abstraction 187 137 0 0 0
Brackish desalination 0 5 40 40 40 JICA
Disi Aquifer 12 15 130 130 130 WAJ
% Municipal demand 20% 25% 30% 35% 50%
Total reuse 48 85 143 235 632
Total resources 754 892 1054 1152 1549
Jordan water deﬁcit 221 185 329 451 687
Future water demand, supply and deﬁcit in Jordan (Mm
2010 2020 2040
Total water demand 1383 1602 2236
Domestic 477 670 1263
Industrial 110 130 170
Irrigation 796 802 803
Total water supply 1054 1152 1549
Surface water 470 470 470
Ground water 271 277 277
Water deﬁcit total −329 −451 −687
Aquifer and basin water status in Jordan (Mm
Basin Used Available
Yarmouk 59 40
Jordan River tributaries 6.3 15
Jordan River plains 21.7 21
Amman and Zarqa 153.8 57
Dead Sea 68.6 57
Disi 56 100
North Wadi Araba 1.75 3.5
South Wadi Araba 4 5.5
Jaffar 23 27
Azraq 32 28
Sarhan 0.8 5
Hamad 1.8 8
Fig. 4. Water resources: ground, surface, and nontraditional 1985–2005 (Mm
200 N. Hadadin et al. / Desalination 250 (2010) 197–202
other areas in Jordan. In addition to the desalting process for this
source of water, it has to be transported 350km to Amman and even
further to other areas. It will also have to be pumped from zero to
about 1000m of static head. The brackish water in Ghore is less costly
than that from Aqaba, but it needs to be transported 45km and
pumped from −400 to 1000 (1400) m of static head .
7. Basics of a sustainable solution
1. Development of new supplies of water Governments and civil
engineers have historically been successful at tapping new
sources of water, but nearly all the low cost options for doing
this have been exhausted in Jordan. Since all the rivers and
aquifers are fully exploited, few options are left for developing
new sources of drinking water.
2. Fortunately desalination –the energy intensive process of
converting brackish water or seawater to fresh water –has
been proven and continues to be made more cost effective. Many
plants exist in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and
the USA. The cost of producing drinking water from seawater has
decreased from $1.50 to possibly $0.63 per m
(at the plant gate,
under ideal conditions) . As Amman is above sea level and
distant from the seacoast, the cost to its residents would (in the
absence of a co-operative water exchange program with its
neighbors) have to include additional pumping and transport
costs of roughly $0.25 to $0.35 per m
3. Several mega-projects  have been proposed over the years.
One option is to produce fresh water by transporting and
processing, seawater from the Mediterranean or Red sea. The
Red–Dead sea mega project is currently under the environmental
impact assessment phase. Another option is to import fresh water
from Turkey into the region either overland by pipeline or by sea
in ships or even in large plastic bags. However, the mega-projects
do not offer a viable short term option, as the capital investment
(several billions of dollars), execution time, political complexity,
and full cost per cubic meter appear to exceed that of modular
4. The processing of wastewater for reuse in the agricultural sector is
a viable option and already in use (and being further developed) in
the Jordan Valley. In addition to reducing the demand on
freshwater. The cost to treat and deliver water for agricultural
needs depends on the crop and quality required, and on the
proximity of the farm to the city.
5. Reduction of demand on water.
a) Since agriculture is the largest water-using sector in Jordan
then implementing proper irrigation technologies like sprin-
kler systems, drip irrigation, subsurface irrigation systems and
plastic green houses improve water savings during hot seasons
b) Domestic applications represent 30% of total demand. Grey-
water can be reused to replace partially fresh water used in
ﬂush toilets, while using proper showerheads will reduce
demand on fresh water. Moreover capturing and storing
rainwater from roofs can reduce the demand on fresh water
for other domestic purposes for example gardening purposes.
c) A comprehensive program of educating the public in Jordan on
the water issue could gain their support for fair terms for the
ﬁnal status talks, as well as their assistance in maintaining the
quality of shared waters. If the growing water crisis is to be
mitigated, the public will have to be part of the solution .
The main reason for the severe water shortage in Jordan is simply
the lack of natural surface water resources: rivers and lakes. More-
over, recent severe drought periods have further complicated the
water shortage problem. Currently, the economy of Jordan as
developing country cannot support the full implementation of sea
water desalination as fresh water source.
Two large water projects should be implemented to provide
Jordan with an abundance of water for domestic and agricultural use
•The ﬁrst project is a multi-billion-dollar undertaking to link the
Dead Sea and the Red Sea with a 325 km canal. By implementing this
project hydropower energy would be generated, this power could
be utilized to desalinate sea water to amend it as drinkable water.
•The second project is the DISI Water Conveyance Project The main
objective is to convey additional water to the Greater Amman Area
from the Disi Aquifer. The Disi-Mudawarra to Amman Water
Conveyance System will result in a reliable water supply to
Amman especially during the summer. This project has been on
the shelf for many years, postponed due to a lack of funding.
However, due to pressing water needs, serious efforts have been
made successfully to implement the proposal. Disi is a fossil water
aquifer extending from the southern edge of the Dead Sea in Jordan
to Tabuk in northwest Saudi Arabia. The Disi project will have an
indirect effect on the quality of wastewater, which in turn will lead
to better quality water to be used for irrigation as a replacement for
This study presents some strategic initiative for facilitating and
institutionalizing long-term progress in the environmental sphere:
promotion of public awareness of and participation in water
protection programs, construction of a comprehensive legal frame-
work for water management, giving sectoral priority to water
conservation and slowing Jordan's rapid population growth.
Methodology for follow up to contract the planned schemes for
sustainable water solutions are:
1. Collect data creating data bank.
2. Conducting researches and studies.
3. Funding support, training program, technique assistance.
4. Public awareness through education, publicity (press, seminars,
5. Organized land use planning.
Fig. 5. Water usage in Jordan, 1985–2005 (Mm
Population versus per capita water availability.
Year Total annual renewable fresh
water available (Mm
Per capita water
1955 1331 1.447 920
1990 906 4.009 226
2020 1236 10.229 120
201N. Hadadin et al. / Desalination 250 (2010) 197–202
6. Executing a long-term responsibility to promote conﬁdence for
7. Encourage active and future oriented research and development
Many methods have been suggested to increase the water supply,
1. Intensive capturing of rainwater through harvesting, the use of
micro- and macro-dams, assessing the existing water harvesting
structures by hydrological studies, analytical tests and determining
the sediments amount in these structures. This research shows that
the harvest of surface runoff for groundwater recharge is a viable
approach to partially resolve the water shortage problem in Jordan
and rehabilitating the ecosystems damaged by groundwater
mining. It is suggested to construct micro-dams along the major
waterways, in order to store ﬂoodwater during winter seasons, to
use it again in the summer farming seasons, as complementary
irrigation water, instead of the ﬂowing aimlessly through aban-
doned, uncultivated areas. This way is considered efﬁcient water
harvesting of rainwater; this action will beneﬁt the farmers, and
raise the national food sufﬁciency.
2. Desalination of seawater and wastewater.
3. Employing proper treatment technologies to treat industrial
wastewater containing heavy metals. The country should also
upgrade the existing wastewater treatment plants for better and
efﬁcient utilization of the reclaimed water.
4. Treated wastewater should be the main source for irrigating the
plants. If no measures are taken a severe water shortage will occur
within few years, this will mean need to reduce the agriculture
5. Implementing proper maintenance to water distribution network
to reduce the losses of drinkable water through leakage.
6. Importation of water from neighboring countries.
7. Severe water shortages required to impose a rationing program in
distributing water to endusers.
8. Jordan also needs to increase its water supply to meet its growing
needs by decreasing the consumption. Naturally, developing new
water sources offer fewer and more costly options than conserva-
tion. For example, desalination could raise the cost of fresh water
production. The involvement of the private sector in running water
resources is one option to assist in developing Jordan's water
infrastructure and hence reducing water losses. Improvements
should be carried out for schemes of water and wastewater
projects, water meters, domestic appliances, leak detection
equipment, pipes, pumps and wastewater treatment plants.
9. Jordan should maximize the full potential of surface water and
ground water based on economic feasibility, while taking into
consideration the relevant social and environmental impacts.
Investigative works into deep aquifers have been and are being
conducted to support development planning and the interactive
use of ground and surface water with different qualities. In
addition, Jordan should conduct periodic assessments for its
available and future water resources.
However, all these are subject to cost-beneﬁt analyses and
geopolitical constraints. Water conﬂicts in Jordan may not remain
open much longer. Responsible individuals, organizations, and nations
should act now.
 O.R. Al-Jayyousi, M.R. Shatanawi, An analysis of future water policies in Jordan
using decision support, Systems Water Resources Development 11 (1995) 315.
 PRB, World Population Data Sheet. Demographic Data and Estimates for the
Countries and Regions of the World, PRB, Washington, DC, USA, 1998.
 WAJ and Meteorological Department, Open File, 2005.
 Abu-Taleb, F. Maher, Environmental management in Jordan: problems and
recommendations, Environmental Conservation 21 (1994) 35–40.
 S. Reguer, Controversial waters: exploitation of the Jordan River, 1950–80, Middle
Eastern Studies 29 (1993) 53–90.
 Glaser, J., 2002. Hydrochemical investigations in the North-Eastern Dead Sea Area,
Jordan. Master thesis, Karlsruhe, Germany.
 A. Flexer, J. Guttman, H. Shulman, Y. Anker, A. Yellen-Dror, L. Davidson, The
potential use of new Geological ﬁndings for water exploration in lower Jordan
Valley, Water for Life in the Middle East, Second Israeli–Palestinian–International
Conference, Turkey, 2004.
 R. Gideon, The potential impact of industrial wastes on water resources in
Amman-Zarqa basin, Proc. Sec. Environ. Poll. Symp, 1990.
 Tal Alon, "International Water Law and Implications for Cooperative Israeli–
Palestinian Transboundary Water Management", Security and Transboundary
Water Management, Springer, 2007.
 F.F. Hof, The Yarmouk and Jordan rivers in the Israel–Jordan peace treaty, Middle
East Policy 3 (1995) 47–56.
 National Water Demand Forecast, Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Amman,
 Japan International Cooperation Agency JICA, Final Report on Brackish Ground-
water Desalination in Jordan, Amman, Jordan, 1995.
 Mike Hiniker, Sustainable Solutions to Water Conﬂicts in the Jordan Valley Green
Cross International Switzerland, 1999, p. 21.
 B.M. Al-Qaisi, Geo-hydrological Study of Groundwater Artiﬁcial recharge in
Madoneh Area, M.Sc thesis not published, Mu'tah University, Jordan, 2008.
 Abu-Zreig, et al., Rainfall harvesting using sand ditches in Jordan, Agricultural
Water Management 46 (2) (2000) 183–192.
 UNIDO, Guidelines for I nfrastructu re Develo pment through Build-Operate-
Transfer (BOT) Projects, UNIDO, Vienna, 1996.
 Masahiro Murakami, Alternative strategies in the inter-state regional develop-
ment of the Jordan Rift Valley, in: Glantz, Kobori (Eds.), Central Eurasian Water
Crisis, United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan, 1998.
 Lester Brown, Tough Choices: Facing the Challenge of Food Scarcity, W. W. Norton
& Company, NYC and London, 1996.
 Gill Ringland, Scenario Planning: Managing for the Future, John Wiley & Sons Ltd,
Chichester, West Sussex, England, 1998, p. 131.
202 N. Hadadin et al. / Desalination 250 (2010) 197–202