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Water shortage in Jordan — Sustainable solutions

  • Al-Balqa Applied University

Abstract and Figures

The large environmental challenge that Jordan faces today is the scarcity of water. Definitely, water is the significant feature in the population/resource equation where water resources in Jordan are limited and the country's population has continued to rise. A high rate of natural population growth, combined with massive influxes of refugees, has transformed into an imbalance condition between population and water. Jordan's water resources are limited to support population in a sustainable manner. The situation has been intensified by the fact that Jordan shares most of its surface water resources with neighboring countries; their control on water has partially disallowed Jordan of its fair share of water. Current use of water already exceeds its renewable supply. The deficit is covered by the unsustainable practice of overdrawing highland aquifers, resulting in lowered water tables and declining water quality.This paper focuses on the water shortage in Jordan, the primarily evaluation of this problem and the solution is contemplate. A true foundation of sustainable water solution requires awareness upon the part of the population, and a number of governmental and non-governmental organizations are actively involved in educating the populace about water shortage. The more essential and “doable” elements of a sustainable water solutions were discussed in this research, these elements are standing under, the development of new supplies of water, water harvesting, desalination, reuse of wastewater in the agricultural sector and reduction of water demands.Moreover, this article presents specific recommendations addressing water resource shortage in the kingdom and highlighting the importance of conservation of water and discussing the basics of sustainable solution.
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Water shortage in Jordan Sustainable solutions
Nidal Hadadin
, Maher Qaqish
, Emad Akawwi
, Ahmed Bdour
Department of Civil Engineering, the Hashemite University, P.O. Box: 150459, Zarqa 13115, Jordan
College of Engineering, Balqa Applied University, Salt, Jordan
Department of Surveying and Geomatics Engineering, Balqa Applied University, Salt, Jordan
abstractarticle info
Article history:
Accepted 17 January 2009
Water shortages
Water harvesting
Water balance
The large environmental challenge that Jordan faces today is the scarcity of water. Denitely, water is the
signicant feature in the population/resource equation where water resources in Jordan are limited and the
country's population has continued to rise. A high rate of natural population growth, combined with massive
inuxes of refugees, has transformed into an imbalance condition between population and water. Jordan's
water resources are limited to support population in a sustainable manner. The situation has been intensied
by the fact that Jordan shares most of its surface water resources with neighboring countries; their control on
water has partially disallowed Jordan of its fair share of water. Current use of water already exceeds its
renewable supply. The decit is covered by the unsustainable practice of overdrawing highland aquifers,
resulting in lowered water tables and declining water quality.
This paper focuses on the water shortage in Jordan, the primarily evaluation of this problem and the solution
is contemplate. A true foundation of sustainable water solution requires awareness upon the part of the
population, and a number of governmental and non-governmental organizations are actively involved in
educating the populace about water shortage. The more essential and doableelements of a sustainable
water solutions were discussed in this research, these elements are standing under, the development of new
supplies of water, water harvesting, desalination, reuse of wastewater in the agricultural sector and
reduction of water demands.
Moreover, this article presents specic recommendations addressing water resource shortage in the
kingdom and highlighting the importance of conservation of water and discussing the basics of sustainable
© 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.
1. Introduction
In the arid Middle East, there is always talking of a future water
shortage. In Jordan, it's already happening. Streams are drying up, and
water levels across the desert Arab kingdom are falling. A rationing
system has been implemented such that citizens get water from
public supplies just one to two days a week.
With Jordan's population expected to continue to rise, the gap
between water supply and demand threatens to widen signicantly.
By the year 2025, if current trends continue, per capita water supply
will fall from the current 145 m
/yr to only 91 m
/yr, putting Jordan in
the category of having an absolute water shortage. On a per capita
basis, Jordan has one of the lowest levels of water resources in the
world. Most experts consider countries with a per capita water
production below 1000 m
/yr to be water-poor countries [1].
Jordan has endured decits in water resources since the early
1960s. The country is classied as water scarce. Its rank is number ten
in the world concerning the insufciency in water [2].
Jordan might face a serious long-term water crisis caused by a
number of natural and human factors. Due to the arid and semi-arid
climate, available water resources are limited. In addition, population
growth and economic development are increasing demand on the
available water resources, which affect not only the quantity, but also
the quality of water resources.
This paper identies some of the principal causes of the water
shortage in Jordan, discusses the current situation of water supply and
demand, and presents some essential elements of reasonable, co-
operative, and sustainable water solutions.
2. Water shortage
The Jordanian Government claims that in comparison to some of
Jordan's neighbors, while a Jordanian in 1993 had an annual water
share of 200 m
, an Egyptian averaged 1200 m
, a Syrian 1800 m
, and
Desalination 250 (2010) 197202
Abbreviations: JICA, Japan International Cooperation Agency; JVA, Jordan Valley
Authority; PRB, Population Reference Bureau; UNIDO, United Nations Development
Organization; WAJ, Water Authority of Jordan.
Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: (N. Hadadin),
(M. Qaqish), (E. Akawwi), (A. Bdour).
Fax: +962 5382 6348.
0011-9164/$ see front matter © 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
journal homepage:
an Israeli 480 m
as shown in Fig. 1 [3]. In the capital Amman, water
needs have risen to 300,000 m
/day. This is 90,000 m
more than the
maximum available daily water levels, which equivalents to a decit
of 35 million cubic meters (Mm
) a year. Irrigation water forms 61% of
the total water demands whereas municipal and industrial demands
form 31% and 6%, respectively as shown in Fig. 2.
Jordan is located in an aridsemi-arid climatic region where about
80% of the country receives average precipitation of less than
100 mm/yr and is generally classied as arid. 12.5% between 100
and 200 mm/yr, 3.8% between 200 and 300 mm/yr, 1.8% between 300
and 500 mm/yr, and only 1.3% receives more than 500 mm/yr. The
eastern desert areas receive as little as 50 mm/yr. The precipitation
amounts all over Jordan are shown in Fig. 3.
Jordan's total rainfall volume in 2004/2005 was about 9304 Mm
which about 93.9% evaporates. Only about 3.9% of precipitation inltrates
to recharge the groundwater. Jordan, which carries the same name as
River Jordan, has very little water from river resources because rivers and
streams are drying out. Therefore, Jordan mainly depends on rainfall.
Jordan is known to have a large area of desert land on its eastern and
southern eastern borders with Iraq and Saudi Arabia respectively.
The future prospects for water availability are not good. Jordan's
population is expected to rise to 7.3million by the year 2010, and the
resulting gap between water supply and demand is expected to widen
Jordan currently consumes about 941 million cubic meters (Mm
of water annually (2005), distributed as 603.5 Mm
for irrigation,
38.4 Mm
for industry, 291.3 for household, and 7.8 Mm
livestock. This amount is expected to rise in demand in the near
future due to population increasing and economic growth.
A critical review of the existing water resources situation in the
country reveals that present water problems are attributed to the
following reasons:
1. The lack of precipitation has had adverse effects upon the country's
amount ofsurface water, climactic changeshave lessened therainfall.
2. Rapid population growth coupled with increased urbanization and
industrialization are leading to the over-exploitation of aquifers
and the contamination of water supplies.
3. Inadequate industrial and municipal wastewater treatment capac-
ities; sitting of industrial plants near or immediately upstream
from potable supplies; and, overuse and misuse of pesticides, and
fertilizers leading to pollution of ground and surface water
resources by irrigation drainage.
4. The high water consumption level of the Jordanian people particu-
larly in agriculture has endangered the country's water supply and
caused so many shortages. Because of this excess, Jordan's water
sources have been drained and dried, as well as polluted.
3. Surface water
Jordan has three major rivers, the Jordan, the Zarqa and the
Yarmouk. The Jordan River is saline and thus not directly suitable for
drinking or irrigation. The River Zarqa receives substantial municipal,
industrial and agricultural efuent rendering it unsuitable for
domestic or irrigation uses in the dry season. Only during ood
periods does the water quality improve. Though the River Yarmouk is
reportedly less stressed, it is also a sink for municipal wastewater [4].
The river Jordan in both parts (Southern and Northern Jordan
River), so famous in history and religion, is now nothing more than a
creek. By the time that long-suffering stream reaches its end, most of
the water has disappeared into a wide variety of pipes, pumps, and
elds to sustain the ever-growing demands of the human population
in its vicinity. The reasons for the shrinking of the Jordan river reect
the overwhelming problem of the whole region in obtaining sufcient
water. As well, the salinization of the groundwater is one of the
problems in Jordan [5]. The increasing of the content of dissolved salt
minerals in the groundwater that ow towards the Jordan Valley is
the most problem on the Jordan Valley [6]. One of the main causes of
salinization in the Jordan Valley is due to the buried salt bodies [7].
Other surface waters affected by pollution are wadis, creeks, rivers
and dams lying downstream from wastewater treatment plants and
solid waste disposal sites. The King Talal Dam reservoir, Jordan's
largest surface reservoir, is threatened by factories, which dispose
untreated waste into the reservoir's tributaries, raising salinity and
levels of chemicals and metals [8]. In addition, the trans-boundary
movement of pollutants from one entity to another increases the
problems in the water resources and the drinking water quality in the
area [9].
Another issue of growing importance is the regional conict over
water resources, approximately one third of the trans-boundary
basins in the Kingdom is shared by more than two countries. It is
hardly surprising that the situation is widely perceived as being
fodder for hostility between neighbors. Two of the major sources of
Jordan's surface water are the Jordan River and the Yarmouk River,
both of which have been depleted by upstream diversion and over-
pumping in Syria and Israel. Other sources of water for Jordan include
aquifers of limited potential, such as the now nearly depleted Azraq
Oasis that supplies Amman [10].
The mobilization and judicious use of water resources requires
integrated management policies to ensure sustainability of water and
the environment, such approach must be adopted at the regional level
to achieve sustainable solution and transform a situation fraught with
conict into an opening for mutually advantageous solutions.
4. Water supply and demand
The current situation of water supply and demand in Jordan raises
serious concerns about the country's water balance, as well as about
the qualitative deterioration of water. Water balance for Jordan
Fig. 1. Comparison of annual water share between Jordan and some of Jordan's
Fig. 2. Comparison between industrial use, domestic consumption, and agricultural
198 N. Hadadin et al. / Desalination 250 (2010) 197202
(demands and supplies) is shown in Tables 1 and 2. The picture is so
gloomy that any water researcher would observe that it is all too easy
for the country to cross the red linewhen faced with annual water
decits, overuse, resource depletion or contamination. Projections of
water resources based on average water year demonstrate that there
will be water decits as shown in Table 3.
The available water supply in Jordan for the year 2000 was
attributed to two major resources [13]: surface water resources basins
with capacity of about 373 Mm
/yr and groundwater resources basins
with a capacity of about 414 Mm
/yr. Both resources provided the
total potential supply of about 787 Mm
/yr, however, the water
demand was about 1077 Mm
, and is expected to grow to 1383 Mm
by 2010.
The scarcity of water in Jordan makes the management of this vital
resource very complex from a political, technical, socio-economic and
environmental perspective. The water budget of Jordan is around
1billion cubic meters per annum, which is considered relatively low
when, compared to the social, economic, and environmental needs of
the country. In any water strategy the following stakeholders: domestic,
industrial, tourist, and agricultural sectors should beconsidered. Table 3
summarizes the future water supply amounts, the demand and
resulting decit until 2040 in Mm
Jordan's primary sources of water are aquifers and basins (Table 4)
that are fed and recharged through annual rainfall. The Yarmouk Basin
is the largest in the country. Jordan's water supply suffers because
about 93.9% of the total amount of water is lost to evapotranspiration
annually, which leaves only a small amount of surface and
groundwater to enter the water supply. Fig. 4 shows the various
Fig. 3. Average distribution of long-term (19382005) rainfall in Jordan (After WAJ and Meteorological Department).
Table 1
Jordan water demands per annum (Mm
1990 2000 2010 2020 2040 Data source
Municipal 240 340 477 670 1263 WAJ
Industrial 43 78 110 130 170 WAJ
Jordan Valley 300 350 443 443 443 WAJ
Southern Ghors 40 40 75 75 75 WAJ
Wadi Araba 4 4 13 19 19 WAJ
Highlands 289 255 255 255 255 WAJ
Disi 59 10 10 10 10 WAJ
Total demand (including losses) 975 1077 1383 1602 2236
199N. Hadadin et al. / Desalination 250 (2010) 197202
quantities of the available water resources in Jordan: ground, surface,
and nontraditional sources (Mm
Water in Jordan is used primarily for agriculture (Fig. 5) that
accounts for 77.5% of all water consumed while the rest being for
domestic and industrial use. Annual growth in demand for water in
Jordan is estimated at 25 Mm
/yr. This growth is related to
urbanization and industrial expansion, as well as to increased
domestic use, mainly as a result of population growth (Table 5).
5. Water harvesting
Water in the desert represents a signicant part of the water
budget in Jordan. This water is dispersed over a wide area and, if
properly collected, could provide a signicant addition to the water
reserves of the country [13].
Many researches and studies related to the water harvesting have
been conducted and the results of some studies indicated the
possibility of increasing the water budget directly. For example the
analysis of the geo-hydrology of the upper Wadi Madoneh area, that is
about 9 km south of Zarqa city and 15 km east of Amman, determined
the inltration capacities, Dams locations, amount of water added,
and the inuence of the recharged water on the aquifer in terms of
forecasting the effects on groundwater levels, as well as on water
quality [14]. On the other hand, other studies focused on water
harvesting as indirect measure to improve the water supply by
reducing the demand, for example, the analysis of rainfall harvesting
in rain-fed agricultural areas, where rainfall can be stored directly in
the soil for crop production using terraces, rippers, contour ridges, and
other types of water collection methods. However, the efciency of
these methods is limited by the inltration characteristics of soil and
climatic conditions [15].
6. Water available for desalination
Water desalination for domestic use in Jordan is practically non-
existent except for some small household units or factories for
bottling water for drinking purposes. Several factories use plants for
their own industrial needs with a total capacity of nearly 9000 m
day. These plants are located at Hussein Thermal Power Station, Oil
Renery, Pepsi Cola Co., Potash Co. and other small factories, all
established since 1980.
There are two major sources for desalination: The rst being the
brackish water available throughout the country and the second is
seawater at the Gulf of Aqaba. Brackish water in the South of Ghore
between Dier Alla town and the Dead Sea with salinity of about 5000
7500 ppm and a yield of about 60 Mm
/yr is one source in Jordan.
Other sources are the saline springs east and west of the Jordan Valley
with a capacity of about 10 Mm
/yr and the brackish water that is
distributed all over the country estimated at hundreds of millions of
cubic meters. However, it is very difcult to exploit these resources
due to the topography of the country, the distance between these
scattered resources, the need for special treatment to remove some
sorts of chemicals such as manganese, sulfates and iron, as well as
gases such as hydrogen sulde. Finally, the main problem is the
disposal of the brine, which can cause environmental problems. These
scattered resources, however, can supply desalted water for small
communities by using solar energy or/and wind power.
The saline water from the Gulf of Aqaba represents an unlimited
resource of water. It can be developed to cover the needs in Aqaba
district for tourism and industry, and to supply desalted water for
Table 2
Jordan water resources per annum (Mm
1990 2000 2010 2020 2040 Data
Adasiya 110 140 195 195 195 JVA
Diversion 20 20 20 20 Treaty
Above Deganya
Tiberias Springs
10 10 10 10 Treaty
Additional water 50 50 50 50 Treaty
Jordan dam (min.
20 20 20 Treaty
Subtotal 110 220 295 295 295
JRV wadis Jordan side wadis 120 120 120 120 120 JVA
Wadi Al Hasa 8 8 8 8 JVA
Wadi Wala 5 5 5 JVA
Wadi Mujib 25 42 42 42 JVA
Subtotal 120 153 175 175 175
Groundwater Northern Aquifers 460 410 258 258 258 WAJ
Wadi Araba 4 4 13 19 19 WAJ
Subtotal 464 414 271 277 277
Safe yield 277 277 277 277 277 WAJ
Over-abstraction 187 137 0 0 0
Brackish desalination 0 5 40 40 40 JICA
Disi Aquifer 12 15 130 130 130 WAJ
% Municipal demand 20% 25% 30% 35% 50%
Total reuse 48 85 143 235 632
Total resources 754 892 1054 1152 1549
Jordan water decit 221 185 329 451 687
Table 3
Future water demand, supply and decit in Jordan (Mm
2010 2020 2040
Total water demand 1383 1602 2236
Domestic 477 670 1263
Industrial 110 130 170
Irrigation 796 802 803
Total water supply 1054 1152 1549
Surface water 470 470 470
Ground water 271 277 277
Water decit total 329 451 687
Table 4
Aquifer and basin water status in Jordan (Mm
Basin Used Available
Yarmouk 59 40
Jordan River tributaries 6.3 15
Jordan River plains 21.7 21
Amman and Zarqa 153.8 57
Dead Sea 68.6 57
Disi 56 100
North Wadi Araba 1.75 3.5
South Wadi Araba 4 5.5
Jaffar 23 27
Azraq 32 28
Sarhan 0.8 5
Hamad 1.8 8
Fig. 4. Water resources: ground, surface, and nontraditional 19852005 (Mm
200 N. Hadadin et al. / Desalination 250 (2010) 197202
other areas in Jordan. In addition to the desalting process for this
source of water, it has to be transported 350km to Amman and even
further to other areas. It will also have to be pumped from zero to
about 1000m of static head. The brackish water in Ghore is less costly
than that from Aqaba, but it needs to be transported 45km and
pumped from 400 to 1000 (1400) m of static head [13].
7. Basics of a sustainable solution
1. Development of new supplies of water Governments and civil
engineers have historically been successful at tapping new
sources of water, but nearly all the low cost options for doing
this have been exhausted in Jordan. Since all the rivers and
aquifers are fully exploited, few options are left for developing
new sources of drinking water.
2. Fortunately desalination the energy intensive process of
converting brackish water or seawater to fresh water has
been proven and continues to be made more cost effective. Many
plants exist in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and
the USA. The cost of producing drinking water from seawater has
decreased from $1.50 to possibly $0.63 per m
(at the plant gate,
under ideal conditions) [16]. As Amman is above sea level and
distant from the seacoast, the cost to its residents would (in the
absence of a co-operative water exchange program with its
neighbors) have to include additional pumping and transport
costs of roughly $0.25 to $0.35 per m
3. Several mega-projects [17] have been proposed over the years.
One option is to produce fresh water by transporting and
processing, seawater from the Mediterranean or Red sea. The
RedDead sea mega project is currently under the environmental
impact assessment phase. Another option is to import fresh water
from Turkey into the region either overland by pipeline or by sea
in ships or even in large plastic bags. However, the mega-projects
do not offer a viable short term option, as the capital investment
(several billions of dollars), execution time, political complexity,
and full cost per cubic meter appear to exceed that of modular
desalination plants.
4. The processing of wastewater for reuse in the agricultural sector is
a viable option and already in use (and being further developed) in
the Jordan Valley. In addition to reducing the demand on
freshwater. The cost to treat and deliver water for agricultural
needs depends on the crop and quality required, and on the
proximity of the farm to the city.
5. Reduction of demand on water.
a) Since agriculture is the largest water-using sector in Jordan
then implementing proper irrigation technologies like sprin-
kler systems, drip irrigation, subsurface irrigation systems and
plastic green houses improve water savings during hot seasons
b) Domestic applications represent 30% of total demand. Grey-
water can be reused to replace partially fresh water used in
ush toilets, while using proper showerheads will reduce
demand on fresh water. Moreover capturing and storing
rainwater from roofs can reduce the demand on fresh water
for other domestic purposes for example gardening purposes.
c) A comprehensive program of educating the public in Jordan on
the water issue could gain their support for fair terms for the
nal status talks, as well as their assistance in maintaining the
quality of shared waters. If the growing water crisis is to be
mitigated, the public will have to be part of the solution [19].
8. Conclusions
The main reason for the severe water shortage in Jordan is simply
the lack of natural surface water resources: rivers and lakes. More-
over, recent severe drought periods have further complicated the
water shortage problem. Currently, the economy of Jordan as
developing country cannot support the full implementation of sea
water desalination as fresh water source.
Two large water projects should be implemented to provide
Jordan with an abundance of water for domestic and agricultural use
by 2020.
The rst project is a multi-billion-dollar undertaking to link the
Dead Sea and the Red Sea with a 325 km canal. By implementing this
project hydropower energy would be generated, this power could
be utilized to desalinate sea water to amend it as drinkable water.
The second project is the DISI Water Conveyance Project The main
objective is to convey additional water to the Greater Amman Area
from the Disi Aquifer. The Disi-Mudawarra to Amman Water
Conveyance System will result in a reliable water supply to
Amman especially during the summer. This project has been on
the shelf for many years, postponed due to a lack of funding.
However, due to pressing water needs, serious efforts have been
made successfully to implement the proposal. Disi is a fossil water
aquifer extending from the southern edge of the Dead Sea in Jordan
to Tabuk in northwest Saudi Arabia. The Disi project will have an
indirect effect on the quality of wastewater, which in turn will lead
to better quality water to be used for irrigation as a replacement for
valuable freshwater.
This study presents some strategic initiative for facilitating and
institutionalizing long-term progress in the environmental sphere:
promotion of public awareness of and participation in water
protection programs, construction of a comprehensive legal frame-
work for water management, giving sectoral priority to water
conservation and slowing Jordan's rapid population growth.
Methodology for follow up to contract the planned schemes for
sustainable water solutions are:
1. Collect data creating data bank.
2. Conducting researches and studies.
3. Funding support, training program, technique assistance.
4. Public awareness through education, publicity (press, seminars,
leaets etc.).
5. Organized land use planning.
Fig. 5. Water usage in Jordan, 19852005 (Mm
Table 5
Population versus per capita water availability.
Year Total annual renewable fresh
water available (Mm
Per capita water
availability (m
1955 1331 1.447 920
1990 906 4.009 226
2020 1236 10.229 120
201N. Hadadin et al. / Desalination 250 (2010) 197202
6. Executing a long-term responsibility to promote condence for
water policy.
7. Encourage active and future oriented research and development
9. Recommendations
Many methods have been suggested to increase the water supply,
1. Intensive capturing of rainwater through harvesting, the use of
micro- and macro-dams, assessing the existing water harvesting
structures by hydrological studies, analytical tests and determining
the sediments amount in these structures. This research shows that
the harvest of surface runoff for groundwater recharge is a viable
approach to partially resolve the water shortage problem in Jordan
and rehabilitating the ecosystems damaged by groundwater
mining. It is suggested to construct micro-dams along the major
waterways, in order to store oodwater during winter seasons, to
use it again in the summer farming seasons, as complementary
irrigation water, instead of the owing aimlessly through aban-
doned, uncultivated areas. This way is considered efcient water
harvesting of rainwater; this action will benet the farmers, and
raise the national food sufciency.
2. Desalination of seawater and wastewater.
3. Employing proper treatment technologies to treat industrial
wastewater containing heavy metals. The country should also
upgrade the existing wastewater treatment plants for better and
efcient utilization of the reclaimed water.
4. Treated wastewater should be the main source for irrigating the
plants. If no measures are taken a severe water shortage will occur
within few years, this will mean need to reduce the agriculture
activity plans.
5. Implementing proper maintenance to water distribution network
to reduce the losses of drinkable water through leakage.
6. Importation of water from neighboring countries.
7. Severe water shortages required to impose a rationing program in
distributing water to endusers.
8. Jordan also needs to increase its water supply to meet its growing
needs by decreasing the consumption. Naturally, developing new
water sources offer fewer and more costly options than conserva-
tion. For example, desalination could raise the cost of fresh water
production. The involvement of the private sector in running water
resources is one option to assist in developing Jordan's water
infrastructure and hence reducing water losses. Improvements
should be carried out for schemes of water and wastewater
projects, water meters, domestic appliances, leak detection
equipment, pipes, pumps and wastewater treatment plants.
9. Jordan should maximize the full potential of surface water and
ground water based on economic feasibility, while taking into
consideration the relevant social and environmental impacts.
Investigative works into deep aquifers have been and are being
conducted to support development planning and the interactive
use of ground and surface water with different qualities. In
addition, Jordan should conduct periodic assessments for its
available and future water resources.
However, all these are subject to cost-benet analyses and
geopolitical constraints. Water conicts in Jordan may not remain
open much longer. Responsible individuals, organizations, and nations
should act now.
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202 N. Hadadin et al. / Desalination 250 (2010) 197202
... The policy should also be carried out to enhance water supply management, which will improve water demand response, water transfer allocations, and the water deficit. In addition, methods are required to optimize water consumption, availability, suitability, sustainability, and uses of available renewable freshwater resources (Hadadin 2010;MPIC 2017;MWI 2011). ...
... Total yearly and annual mean of monthly water use * Yearly Reports ofMWI for 1990-2010 (MWI 2011 ...
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This study aims to develop a model for forecasting water demand for 2021–2030 to examine water availability for municipality uses in the Al-Balqa governorate of Jordan. The method was developed using a time series analysis of historical data from 1990–2010, which comprised yearly and monthly water consumption and socioeconomic factors, including population, income, and climate factors, such as average precipitation and temperatures. The analysis of historical data was conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. The study found that the increase in population, reaching 740,790 inhabitants in 2030, the high level of social life, and the fluctuation of temperature and precipitation exceed the significant water demand, increasing to 69.88 million cubic meters in 2030 from 52.95 in 2020. The time series analysis employed historical data for 2011–2020 indicating monthly municipal water use to measure the model’s validity. The results confirm the model’s ability to forecast water demand. The study recommends intensifying managerial practices to avoid such difficulties that face the water sector to achieve water security at the country’s level.
... This shows that they are not often more a -part of their environment‖. These native areas are maybe more seldom visited than cultural landscapes Due to the high population growth and the number of refugees in the surrounding countries; Jordan is ranked number ten among countries in water scarcity countries in the world (Hadadin et al, 2010). Despite these challenges, the results in (Table 6) on the number of times the participants irrigate their plants showed that Only (7.8%) of the participants have plants that are suitable for arid/semi regions, which rely on the rainy season; and 9.6% of participants stated that they rarely irrigate their plants in their house, garden, or the street; whereas the highest responses with less than one third (29.1%) of the participants irrigate their plants twice a week, The result yields conclusion on the participants desired plants in their surrounding environment and the fact that these plants are non-native and don't suit arid regions as it consumes a lot of water. ...
... Water resources in Jordan depend mainly on rainfall precipitating during the winter season. More than 90% of the territory rainfall is flashy irregular and is below 200 mm per year [3]. Jordan depends on conventional (surface water, ground water) and non-conventional water resources (wastewater treatment, water harvesting and desalinated water) in an attempt to meet the increasing demands [4]. ...
... In 2000, the total water supply in Jordan was estimated at about 787 Mm 3 /year attributed to the surface water basins with a capacity of 373 Mm 3 /year and groundwater resources, which have a capacity of 414 Mm 3 /year. The water demand was 1077 Mm 3 /year, and the water demand in Jordan is expected to increase to about 2236 Mm 3 /year in 2040 with a total water deficit of negative 687 Mm 3 /year (Hadadin et al. 2010). ...
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This study examines climate change impacts on surface water resources in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment area in Jordan. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to apply calibrated and adjusted hydrological reference models for historical data to obtain a reliable representation of the catchment area. Future rainfall and temperature data were developed based on three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP), RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenario outputs from the Norwegian Earth System Model. Both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenario simulations show a reduction in precipitation by 20-29% and an increase in average temperature by 12.7-14.6%. Surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and water yield were all reduced by 38.4-61%, 23.1-28.5%, and 26.2-46.5%, respectively, while RCP2.6 did not reveal any differences with the existing hydrological analysis. Overall, trend analysis testing indicated significant risks that may occur to water resources through RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Based on the study's findings, the increase in temperature due to climate change has a significant impact on the amount and intensity of runoffs. Thus, policymakers should enhance infrastructure to make it more sustainable and efficient in the face of future climate change.
... The reference list of identified studies was also explored by means of snowballing, which is an alternative way of discovering more studies in the literature (Choong, Galgani, Dunn & Tsafnat, 2014), so as not to ignore any of the studies that are in the subject matter. As a result of this step containing the diligent investigation of many studies (Choi et al., 2012;Domènech & Saurí, 2011;Ganter, 2022;Gomes et al., 2017;Hadadin, Qaqish, Akawwi & Bdour, 2010;Kahil et al., 2019;Pereira et al., 2002;Shandas, Lehman, Larson, Bunn & Chang, 2015;Teklu et al., 2019;The Nature Conservancy, 2022;Tsakiris et al., 2015;Wada, Gleeson & Esnault, 2014;Zyoud et al., 2016), the raw lists of the decision criteria and the strategies to be discussed in the FGD session were obtained. ...
This study was undertaken to be a remedy to urban water scarcity phenomena having escalated consequences with the contemporaneous effects of climate change and over-urbanization. Hence, a broad list of mitigation strategies comprising 44 action plans under seven dimensions was assessed depending upon five constraints (i.e., cost-effectiveness, time/effort required, feasibility, primary benefit, and secondary benefits). To realize the overarching aim of this research, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) each subjected to the fuzzy set theory were employed. In this regard, the fuzzy AHP was utilized for determining the weights of constraining criteria, while the prioritization of the strategies was performed via the fuzzy TOPSIS. The results revealed that the primary benefit is the most prevailing criterion compared to its counterparts. In addition, procuring organized land use planning and limiting new growth in urban areas was found as the most promising strategy to combat urban water scarcity phenomena. The findings further highlighted the effectiveness of conducting integrated water resource planning against climate change and fostering the use of sustainable materials domestically in not only mitigating urban water scarcity but also increasing the resiliency and sustainability of the urbanized cities.
... Water scarcity motivates not only local studies [4][5][6] but also global research [7][8][9][10]. According to Kummu et al. [10], while water consumption quadrupled in the 20th century, the population suffering from water shortages increased from 14 to 58% of the world's population between 1900 and 2000. ...
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The feasibility of installing rainwater harvesting systems in buildings is usually defined based primarily on economic analysis. In this perspective, we reviewed the literature related to water consumption in buildings, rainwater use, and environmental assessment tools to evaluate the impact of rainwater harvesting on the environment. Identifying water end uses in buildings showed a high potential for potable water savings through alternative sources (e.g., rainwater use for non-potable purposes). Most studies reviewed found potential for potable water savings from 20 to 65%. Moreover, the literature reported that rainwater harvesting systems might reduce the runoff volume from 13 to 91%. However, other possible benefits and impacts of the systems on water flow and the environment must be assessed in addition to the potential for rainwater harvesting. Life cycle assessment, life cycle cost assessment, and water balance modelling have been used in urban water management. Most life cycle studies reported that rainwater harvesting systems have better environmental performance than centralised systems. The water balance method may effectively determine the impacts these systems cause on the water cycle. Using life cycle assessment and the water balance method together is essential to evaluating rainwater harvesting systems integrated into the urban environment.
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In the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan water conservation has become a top priority of the national water strategy, attempting to reduce the demand for this scarce and increasingly expensive resource. This thesis aims to investigate options and opportunities for water conservation at household level in Amman. In fact, the suitability, affordability and acceptability of the different water conservation techniques varies with the socio-economic circumstances of their implementation. The low, middle and high income group of the society have been identified as rather homogenous subgroups in respect to their water consumption patterns, lifestyles and attitudes. The subgroups vary significantly in their perception and burden of the socio-economic cost associated to the distinct conservation techniques, resulting in large differences of their current and potential degree of adaptation. Household surveys and informal interviews were conducted to complement and update existing research on this topic and to draw an inclusive picture of the context for water conservation in Amman. The potential savings of the single techniques at household level, per income group and on city scale were assessed in order to provide suggestions for targeted demand management actions, tailored to the opportunities and constraints within the three subgroups. If the potential coverage of the suggested water conservation techniques was achieved, the domestic water consumption by the city of Amman could be reduced by 29% according to the results of this research.
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Water resource management and planning is challenging in the last decade. However, reform in water management can make important contributions to minimize and reduce water scarcity. The agricultural sector uses a major share of the available water resources globally. Irrigation water management is an important mean for food security in semi-arid-arid region. This paper review the research work done concerning irrigation water management in Semi-arid region-Jordan. There is yet study to critically review the irrigation water management, in semi-arid-arid region. A wide range of the reviewed research works did not considered the geopolitical condition of Jordan as one of the main cause of water shortage problem. The current review study could pave the road for researchers to cover all the weakness point illustrated in this study. While more effort should be done to investigate and address the irrigation water management in Jordan.
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This study analyzes how a number of Arab newspapers approach water issues and the different perspectives they present about the water crises and water insecurity in the region. The paper examines the extent to which the framing of the topic tends to escalate the issue using conflict theory, or de-escalate it using what the author calls ‘adaptive-compatibility’ frames. Adaptive-compatibility methods are defined in this article as the ways in which the news attempts to portray the issue in a conciliatory manner, where they offer solutions and endeavor to de-escalate the crisis. Applying quantitative methods, the research analyzes 183 articles on the issue of water. The sample was drawn from articles published from January 2019 to April 2021, in six Arab newspapers: Al-Ahram, Asharq Al-Awsat, Al-Riyadh, Al-Zaman, An-Nahar, and Al-Ghad. The analysis demonstrated that the most prominent frame in the sample is one based on conflict. It was found that nearly 60% of the sample included the introduction of some kind of conflict over water resources, whether by referring to conflict mechanisms only or referring to the conflict and adaptive-compatibility mechanisms combined. The results also indicated that there is evident effort being exerted by the authors to communicate their concerns about water issues to the public and to decision-makers. Accordingly, the predominant approach to water issues by journalists in Arab countries is alarmist, focused on crises, and warning of impending conflicts over water. The research proposed a conceptual model of interpretation to help in understanding and predicting how conflicts over water resources are represented or going to be framed in newspaper articles.
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The efficiency of subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands was evaluated on the treatment of secondary treated wastewater to improve the quality of the effluent for reuse purposes. A horizontal SSF system was constructed to evaluate the efficiency to enhance the quality of secondary treated wastewater effluent from Ramtha wastewater treatment plant WWTP and its potential uses for crop production at Hydrulic retention time HRT of 1 day. The SSF was planted with barley crop (Hordium vulgare), retrieved from the Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry-land (ACSAD) variety followed by corn crop (Zea mays L.), using BONANZA, F1 variety in the other season. Weekly physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on the outlet from the wetlands in addition to the TWW treated wastewater effluent (inlet) in order to assess the removal efficiency of each stage of the treatment process and the total treatment system and it was used for irrigation of a fodder crop field. The SSF wetland subsequently influenced the physicochemical parameters. The SSF reduced the concentration of COD, NO-3, and TKN by 48%, 18%, and 20% respectively. Water use efficiency (WUE) for corn and barley were improved tremendously compared to the traditional irrigation techniques used in the field. The results showed a great possibility of using the SSF wetlands for the growth and production of fodder crops.
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The Lower Jordan River Valley is part of the Dead Sea Transform. From a geological point of view it comprises a plate boundary between the western African Plate and the southern Arabian Plate. From a political point of view the area acts as a ‘triple junction’ of three nations: Jordanian, Israeli and Palestinian. Along the mountainous belts the average precipitation is 500–600 mm/y, where 30–50 per cent of the water penetrates the subsurface to the local aquifers. At the Jordan Valley it drops down to less then 100 mm/y. The subsurface groundwater flow regime direction is from the mountainous belts calcareous karstic aquifer layers (The Judea Group) towards the Valley. The Judea Group aquifer at the Valley itself was considered deeply-seated and covered by a thick basin fill young formations and therefore unsuitable for groundwater exploitation. Newly seismic interpretation reveals several conspicuous structural features, which are of considerable hydrological importance for this arid zone: The Judea Group water bearing aquifer layers within the Valley is probably encountered at relatively shallow depth. This structure could encourage new ideas for water exploitation. Furthermore, the results of the integrated study suggest that several salt bodies are buried within the basin and are probably the source of local salination of fresh water.
The thesis of this book is that food scarcity will be the defining issue of the new era now unfolding. The author argues that rising food prices will be the first major economic indicator to show that the world economy is on an environmentally unsustainable path. Early in 1996 the prices of wheat, corn and rice began to rise because world carryover stocks of grain had fallen to the lowest on record. Production was falling behind demand. The continually expanding demand for food pressurises the sustainable yield of oceanic fisheries, aquifers that supply irrigation water, and the physiological limits of crop varieties to use fertiliser. Some developing countries that have waited too long to stabilise their populations may have to choose between quickly reducing population growth or sacrificing any hope of dietary improvements. Choices will have to be made regarding water and land use options.
Despite looming water shortages in Jordan, the country lacks a coherent water policy and has no recognized institutional mechanism to create one. This paper analyses possible future water policies in Jordan using decision support systems. An analytical hierarchy process is used to break policies into component parts, then synthesize and analyse them in the context of constraints and scenarios in Jordan for the year 2010. The paper argues that Jordan must give priority to the efficient management of water resources at the regional level. This includes institutional restructuring, new water pricing strategies, importation of water, and water desalination. -from Authors
Conference Paper
The Sweimeh Area at the north-eastern shoreline of the Dead Sea represents the margin between the Jordan Valley to the west and the escarpment of the Jordan mountains to the east. This study is a part of the activity of the Karlsruhe team within the course of the Multinational BMBF Joint Research Project Water Resources Evaluation for a Sustainable Development in the Jordan Rift Basin as part of the German — Israeli — Jordanian — Palestinian Joint Research Program, 2nd Phase The objective of this study is the detailed knowledge and the understanding of the hydrogeological conditions along the cross section from Jerusalem to Amman via Jericho. The outcropping formations in the study area range from the Triassic Zerqa Ma’in Group to the Quaternary Lisan Marl Formation and young basaltic flows. The study area is structurally intensively affected by the development of the Jordan Rift Graben System. Hydrogeologically, the area comprises the three regional important aquifer complexes of Jordan. The Zerqa Ma’in and the Kurnub Sandstone Group are summarised within the Deep Sandstone Aquifer Complex, the Ajlun Group belongs to the Upper Cretaceous Aquifer Complex and the alluvial deposits together with the basalts build the Shallow Aquifer Complex. 15 springs are hydrochemically investigated in the Sweimeh area. The results show a dramatical increase of salinization from the east towards the Dead Sea in the West of the study area. Additionally, the results show very different chemical compositions. Therefore, two main groups of springs can be distinguished. All spring waters have a high content of TDS which are classified as medium saline to brine. In all springs a fluctuation of cation distribution is observed between two work sample cycles within a time of two weeks. Ionic ratios show different origins and influences of the spring waters. The investigation of stable isotopes confirm the differences in the spring water composition. The execution of pumping tests close to the study area in Wadi Kafrien permitted the determination of the hydraulic parameters of the Kurnub Sandstone Formation. The evaluation resulted transmissivities in a range from 1,34*10−3 m2/s to 7,97*10−3 m2/s.
The population of the Jordan Valley exceeds the carrying capacity of the hydrological system, which is integrated throughout the ecological region. Growing demand, largely driven by agriculture and unequal distribution of the shared water across political and religious boundaries, results in increased stress and conflict. The crisis can be mitigated in the short‐term by technology and a structural economic shift away from over‐reliance on agriculture. However, neither the public nor governmental leaders are prepared to make the essential domestic and regional changes. This article highlights how nongovernmental organisations such as Green Cross can act as catalysts to create an understanding of the sustainable options available for the resolution of this problem, by involving all societal actors in the process of evaluating the root causes of the water crisis and contributing to its solution, in strategic scenarios research adopted from the corporate world.
Despite looming water shortages in Jordan, the country lacks a coherent water policy and has no recognized institutional mechan ism to create one. D urin g the last 30 years, this critical problem has largely been addressed by physical infrastructu re developm ent in the public sector and grou ndwater exploitation in the private. These efforts are not meeting the increasing dem ands of all competing sectors. This paper analyses possible future water policies in Jordan using decision support system s. An analytical hierarchy process is used to break policies in to compon ent parts, then synthesize and an alyse them in the context of constraints and scenarios in Jordan for the year 2010. The paper argues that Jordan mu st give priority to the efficient m anagement of water resources at the regional level. This includes institutional restructuring, new water pricing strategies, importation of water, and water desalination.
This article examines the growing importance of Jordan water to both Israel and Jordan as the two countries planned for expanding agriculture, industry and population in the three decades following the end of the British mandate over Palestine. It will describe what happened when politics infringed on the realization of the development plans and how these two countries had to contend with political barriers in order to exploit the Jordan River. The primary sources for this study were provided mainly by the Jordan Valley Authority in Amman and Tahal in Tel Aviv. This study points out the great strides that can be made without international cooperation; however, there are limits to national river development. These limits have been reached in the Jordan-Yarmuk system. Competition for water usage has resumed, and if no solution is found, water scarcity is likely to be one of the reasons for sparking the next regional conflict. Water scarcity should now become an imperative for political cooperation. -from Author
The Jordan Valley, including the two interstate regions of the Dead Sea and Aqaba, is the focus of international cooperation and economic development for peace and confidence building in the aftermath of the ‘Declaration of Principles” between. Israel and the PLO on September 13, 1993, and the “Treaty of Peace” between Jordan and Israel on October 26, 1994. Technopolitical strategic alternatives with application of membrane separation technology such as RO desalination are proposed. These alternatives include two schemes: (i) the lower Jordan Peace Drainage Canal, and (ii) Aqaba hybrid seawater pumped-storage for cogeneration. Assessment of the technopolitical alternatives aims at sharing the resources and benefits among the riparian states, taking into account incentives for ecopolitical decision making, interstate regional economic development, and the will to cooperate for peace.