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Antibacterial activity and chemical constitutions of Ziziphora Clinopodioides

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The essential oil and methanol extract obtained from aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. harvested in the Eastern part of Turkey were evaluated for their chemical composition and antibacterial activity against 52 Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The GC–MS analyses allowed 18 compounds to be determined; the main constituents of the essential oils were (+)-pulegone (31.86%), 1,8-cineole (12.21%), limonene (10.48%), menthol (9.13%), β–pinene (6.88%), menthone (6.73%), piperitenone (5.30%) and piperitone (4.18%) The essential oil and methanol extract had a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against pathogens in broth microdilution bioassays. Maximum activity of essential oil (>22 mm) and methanol extract (>11 mm) was observed against Acidovorax facilis, Bacillus flexus, Bacillus spp, Bacillus sphaericus, Brevibacillus brevis, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Enterobacter sakazakii, Erwinia carotovora carotovora, Moraxella catarrhalis and Xanthomonas arboricola.

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... clinopodioides, Z. tenuir, Z. persica and Z. capitata) [7]. In Iran, Ziziphora sp. were used traditionally for treatment of some ailments such as common cold, heart ailments, gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, depression, diarrhea and wound injuries [8,9]. Generally, Ziziphora sp. ...
... [6,7]. Difference in the essential oils compositions might be arisen from several factors such as collection time, environmental and climatic conditions, and geographical region or plant materials [6,8]. ...
... Generally, obtained data showed that essential oils exhibited discrepancy levels of anti-dermatophyte activities. The principles of these differences in sensitivity may be related to difference in chemical composition of essential oils, intrinsic tolerance of microorganisms or measurement methods [8,10]. Therefore, it is important to perform future studies on the impact of each of these factors alone or in combination. ...
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Introduction:Ziziphora species are traditionally used for treatment of different infectious and non-infectious diseases as antiseptic agents. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of Ziziphora clinopodioides and Z. tenuir essential oils and their antifungal effects againt five strains of dermatophytes. Methods: GC and GC-MS methods were used for essentional oils analize. The anti-elastase activities were determined by porcine pancreatic elastase assays. Results: 48 different compounds were identified in these two essential oils, which thymol, p -cymene, 1,8-cineole and γ -terpinene were their major components. The anti-dermatophyte activities of essential oils against dermatophytes showed that the essential oils (150 ppm) inhibited the mycelium growth, about 5–100%, which Z. clinopodioides essential oil had higher mycelium growth inhibition (28–100%) than that of Z. tenuir oil. The MIC and MFC values of essential oils were 0.01–1 µ l/ml. 0.5 µ l/ml essential oils inhibited porcine pancreatic elastase, dose-dependently. Conclusions: Due to the anti-dermatophyte and anti-elastase effects of Ziziphora sp., it can be considered as natural antifungal agent for more clinical and pre-clinical trials.
... Accordingly, the addition of Z. clinopodioides (ZEO) can successfully increase the safety and shelf life of raw foods during storage at refrigerated condition without any unfavorable organoleptic properties Kakaei and Shahbazi 2016). The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and many other benefits of this plant is probably due to thymol, c-terpinene, carvacrol, linalool, boerneol, camphor, terpinen-4-ol and 1, 8-cineole (Ozturk and Ercisli 2007;Kakaei and Shahbazi 2016). ...
... The biological effects of the EOs can vary greatly depending upon its chemical compositions which depends on the geographical and climate conditions, variety of species and genotypes of the plant . Some studies evaluated chemical compositions and antibacterial activity of ZEO collected from different parts of Iran and other countries (Behravan et al. 2007;Morteza-Semnani et al. 2005;Ozturk and Ercisli 2007). To our knowledge, there is no comprehensive study on the chemical compositions, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of ZEOs based on its geographical locations in Iran. ...
... Identification of the each ZEO components were accompanied with available authentic samples in our laboratory. Further identification was based mainly on the comparison of retention indices (RIs) and mass spectral fragmentation patterns with published data (Sonboli et al. 2010;Morteza-Semnani et al. 2005;Ozturk and Ercisli 2007;Amiri 2009) and the Wiley/NBS mass spectral library of the GC-MS data system (Wiley/NBS Pak v.7, 2003). ...
Article
The aims of the present study were to investigate chemical compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oils (ZEOs) collected from four provinces in western Iran (Ilam, Lorestan, Kermanshah and Kurdestan). Carvacrol was the most abundant constituent in the flower, stem and leaf oil samples of Ilam, Lorestan and Kermanshah regions by 73.12–74.29%, 66.47–66.89% and 65.11–65.32%, respectively. The most abundant components in Kurdestan sample were thymol (55.32–55.60%), followed by γ-terpinene (24.45–24.56%), p-cymene (10.21–10.25%) and α-terpinene (2.75–2.77%). The ZEO inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus at MIC values between 0.03 and 0.04%. Kermanshah oil sample had a higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (0.30–0.31 mg/ml), ability to prevent the bleaching of β-carotene (0.09–0.1 mg/ml), ferric reducing power (0.40–0.42 mg/ml) and thiobarbituric acid (0.004–0.006 Meq of malondialdehyde/g) values than that of ZEOs from Ilam, Kurdestan and Lorestan. The strong in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities supports the traditional use of ZEO in the treatments of gastrointestinal diseases.
... There are also some studies showing the effect of pomegranate peel extract (Turgut, Soyer, & Işıkçı, 2016), oregano EO (Pesavento et al., 2015), rosemary and lemon extracts (Fern andez-L opez, Zhi, Aleson-Carbonell, P erez- Alvarez, & Kuri, 2005), and olive leaf extract (G€ ok & Bor, 2012) to extend the shelf life of refrigerated raw meatballs. Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZEO) has been reported to be an effective antibacterial (Aghajani et al., 2008;Bekhechi et al., 2007;Ozturk & Ercisli, 2007;Salehi, Sonboli, Eftekhar, Nejad-Ebrahimi, & Yousefzadi, 2005), antifungal (Behravan et al., 2007), and antioxidant agent (Tian, Shi, Zhou, Ge, & Upur, 2011). Phytochemical studies have revealed that this aromatic plant is a source of flavonoids (caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid) and polyphenols (luteolin, linarin, diosmin, and thymonin) (Tian et al., 2011;Zhang et al., 2015). ...
... These authors reported that carvacrol (41-87%) and thymol (9-53%) were the major constituents of ZEO. Whereas several studies found that the major compounds of ZEO obtained from Iran and Turkey were pulegone, 1,8-cineole, and limonene (Behravan et al., 2007;Ozturk & Ercisli, 2007;Sonboli, Atri, & Shafiei, 2010 (Skandamis & Nychas, 2001). In the present study, the initial value of Pseudomonas spp. ...
... Moreover, Kakaei and Shahbazi (2016) investigated the effect of chitosan-gelatin film incorporated with ZEO on survival of L. monocytogenes in minced trout fillet and reported samples treated with ZEO reduced the growth of L. monocytogenes up to 3-3.5 log CFU/g compared to untreated sample. In vitro studies reported that ZEO had excellent antibacterial activity against some foodborne pathogens including S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, S. enteritidis, B. cereus, B. subtilis, and E. coli O157:H7 (Aghajani et al., 2008;Behravan et al., 2007;Bekhechi et al., 2007;Ozturk & Ercisli, 2007;Shahbazi, 2015). Shahbazi (2015) reported that the growth of microorganisms were inhibited likely due to -OH groups of carvacrol and thymol, as the most chemical compounds of ZEO, located at the ortho and meta positions of the phenolic ring, which act as proton exchangers, cause membrane permeability and K 1 leakage and finally lead to the bacterial cell death. ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to evaluate application of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZEO) to extend shelf life and control Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in chicken meatballs. The control and treated samples with different concentrations of ZEO (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% vol/wt) were preserved at refrigerated temperature for 12 days and analyzed for microbial (total viable count, psychrotrophic bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus), chemical (total volatile base nitrogen, peroxide value, protein carbonyl contents, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), and sensory (odor and off odor) properties at 2‐day intervals. According to our findings, treated samples with different concentrations of ZEO showed better microbiological, chemical, and organoleptic properties compared to control sample until the end of the study period. Our results showed that 0.3% ZEO could be used for chicken meatball preservation without any unfavorable sensory properties. Practical applications Nowadays, increasing research has been focused on the application of different essential oils to extend shelf life and also control food‐related pathogens in different food model systems due to concern regarding the use of synthetic additives and also increasing consumer interest for improvement of quality and organoleptic properties of food products. In the present study, Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil as a natural substance could successfully extend the shelf life and control Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in raw chicken meatball preserved at 4 °C until home cooking. Based on our findings, this essential oil can be used as a natural antimicrobial alternative to the synthetic chemical preservatives in food such as chicken meatball.
... The components of essential oils exhibit antimicrobial and antioxi- other studies, which was in accordance with the current study (Baser et al., 1991;Behravan et al., 2007;Ozturk & Ercisli, 2007). However, some other main components reported were different; for example, in the study of Behravan et al. (2007), other main constituents of ZEO were terpineol (14.5%) and methyl acetate (10.9%). ...
... It should be mentioned that ZEO showed higher antibacterial activities than ampicillin, implying the effectiveness of ZEO as an antimicrobial agent.S. epidermis, L. monocytogenes, and B. subtilis were the most sensitive bacteria to Z. clinopodioides EO. The antimicrobial activities of Z. clinopodioides EO against some types of bacteria have also been reported in other studies(Behravan et al., 2007;Ozturk & Ercisli, 2007). Comparable results reported by these studies may be due to similar constituents of Z. clinopodioides. ...
... The components of essential oils exhibit antimicrobial and antioxi- other studies, which was in accordance with the current study (Baser et al., 1991;Behravan et al., 2007;Ozturk & Ercisli, 2007). However, some other main components reported were different; for example, in the study of Behravan et al. (2007), other main constituents of ZEO were terpineol (14.5%) and methyl acetate (10.9%). ...
... It should be mentioned that ZEO showed higher antibacterial activities than ampicillin, implying the effectiveness of ZEO as an antimicrobial agent.S. epidermis, L. monocytogenes, and B. subtilis were the most sensitive bacteria to Z. clinopodioides EO. The antimicrobial activities of Z. clinopodioides EO against some types of bacteria have also been reported in other studies(Behravan et al., 2007;Ozturk & Ercisli, 2007). Comparable results reported by these studies may be due to similar constituents of Z. clinopodioides. ...
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The aim of the current study was to investigate the suitability of Ziziphora tenuior essential oil (ZEO) as a preservative. For this purpose, the effect of free and microencapsulated ZEO, combined with orange fiber, was determined on the chemical and microbial qualities of cooked beef sausage. In this study, modified starch was used for encapsulation of essential oil, and subsequently, 0.5% ZEO and 1% orange fiber were used for preparing cooked beef sausages during 60 days of storage at 4°C. To assess the microbial quality of samples, total viable count (TVC), psychrophilic count (PSY), and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were analyzed. Furthermore, peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were tested to examine lipid oxidation. The most components of ZEO were pulegone (47.12%), isomenthone (14.57%), and 1,8‐cineole (12.84%) according to GC–MS analysis. The reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging activity, MIC, and MBC of ZEO were 16.44 (EC50), 8.36 (IC50), 0.625–2.5, and 1.25–5 mg/ml, respectively. Moreover, sausage containing 0.5% microencapsulated ZEO in combination with 1% orange fiber showed the best results with the following values (p ≤ .05): TVC (3.69 log CFU/g), PSY (3.51 log CFU/g), LAB (3.1 log CFU/g), PV (10.41 meq/kg lipid), and TBARS (3.1 mg MDA/kg). This is due to the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of microencapsulated essential oil. Therefore, the results of the present study can be applied in the meat industries as a new natural preservation method. The current paper concerned with the simultaneous use of microencapsulated essential oils and fiber in meat sausage samples. combination of essential oil and fiber significantly increased the shelf life and quality indices of sausages.
... ZCEO has been used as a common dietary supplement in traditional meat and fermentative dairy products in different regions of Iran. ZCEO has been reported to possess antifungal, antibacterial, and antioxidant effects [15,16]. Several studies demonstrated that ZCEO had an impressive antimicrobial impact on several important food borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157: H7, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus in food-related experiments [15,17,18]. ...
... ZCEO has been reported to possess antifungal, antibacterial, and antioxidant effects [15,16]. Several studies demonstrated that ZCEO had an impressive antimicrobial impact on several important food borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157: H7, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus in food-related experiments [15,17,18]. ...
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This research aimed to assess the microbial and organoleptic features of Oncorhynchus mykiss (O. mykiss) fillets enwrapped with polylactic acid (PLA) films using nanochitosan (NC) and Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZCEO) in separate and combined modes at the refrigerated temperature for 9 days. The GC/MS findings revealed that major constituents of ZCEO were thymol (42.52%), acetate (11.61%), and benzene (5.19%). Our findings showed that the PLA films containing ZCEO represented good antibacterial actions against tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, the present observations revealed that the integration of (1.5%) ZCEO and (1%) NC into PLA films led to a significant (P < 0.05) impact on the expansion of the shelf life of O. mykiss fillets in comparison with the other treatments and control during 9 days in refrigerated conditions without undesirable sensory properties. Therefore, PLA films containing ZCEO can be introduced as a suitable antimicrobial film for preserving seafood products.
... Ziziphora clinopodioides is a species from the Lamiaceae family which is used traditionally as a flavoring agent in meat products in western regions of Iran (Shavisi et al., 2017). Many researchers have reported that extracted essential oil of this plant owns considerable antioxidant and antimicrobial activities (Gursoy et al., 2009;Ozturk & Ercisli, 2007;Shavisi et al., 2017). ...
... The amount of carvacrol and thymol in used essential oil is in accordance with previous studies which showed that carvacrol and thymol are the major components of ZCEO (Aghajani et al., 2008;Karpiński, 2020;Shavisi et al., 2017). Nevertheless, pulegone was the major compound of ZCEO which was extracted in some studies (Amiri, 2009;HAYTA & BAGCI, 2016;Ozturk & Ercisli, 2007). The differences in the chemical composition of the ZCEO in various studies could be related to variation in age and growth phase of the plant, tilt the ground, altitude level, and geographical and climate conditions. ...
Article
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This study was done to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZCEO) (0, 0.1, and 0.3%) and lysozyme (0 and 400 µg/g) on control of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes and also microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties of Balkan type fresh sausage under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) during 13‐day storage at refrigerated condition. Results revealed that treated sausages had a slower rate of increase in microbial count than control and sausages containing ZCEO (0.3%) and lysozyme (400 µg/g) possess the lowest microbial count at the end of the storage period. A reduction between 0.90 and 2.05 log CFU/g in L. monocytogenes was recorded for the treated sausage samples in comparison with control samples after 13 days of storage. Based on chemical findings, at the end of the storage, TVB‐N value in the control sample gradually increased to 34.30 mg/100 g, whereas TVB‐N values of the treated samples with each of the lysozyme and ZCEO alone or in combination were below 25 mg/100 g during the entire storage period. The final TBARS value for the control sample was 0.58 mg malondialdehyde/kg, while the TBARS values for the treated samples remained lower as 0.46 mg malondialdehyde/kg. Regarding sensory attributes, adding ZCEO results in insignificant lower scores in odor and taste than control in the early days of the study (p > .05). It can be argued that ZCEO alone or in combination with lysozyme showed good antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and may have this potential to be used as a preservative in fresh sausage without any significant adverse sensory effects (p > .05).
... Ziziphora clinopodioides is one of the most common used spice in dairy and meat products in western provinces of Iran. Several studies have reported the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant effects of Z. clinopodioides essential oil (ZEO) in vitro and food models (minced beef meat, peeled shrimp, minced trout fillets and silver carp fillets) (1,(11)(12)(13)(14). Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is a nutritive edible oil crop for humans and has a long history of cultivation throughout the world. ...
... Ma et al., (17) reported that ZEO comprised pulegone (53.5%), isomenthone (10.4%) and carvone (5.7%). Moreover, the previous studies on ZEO growing in Turkey and Iran were shown to contain pulegone as the main constituent of the oils (12,(22)(23)(24). Our findings indicated that the straight CH-FM film had inhibitory activity. ...
Article
Various natural oils/extracts and their constituents incorporated into biopolymer-based edible films as a promising technology with the knowledge that these compounds have been able to reduce microbial growth and chemical changes of packed foodstuffs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZEO; 0, 0.25 and 0.5%) and sesame oil (SO; 0, 0.5 and 0.75%) into chitosan-flaxseed mucilage (CH-FM) film against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vitro condition and raw minced trout fillets during refrigerated condition. The in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant properties of CH-FM films were evaluated using agar disk diffusion method and free radical scavenging activity assay, respectively. The most important constituents of ZEO were found to be carvacrol (65.22%), thymol (19.51%), ɣ-terpinene (4.63%) and p-cymene (4.86%). The lowest and highest antimicrobial effect against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium were found for CH-FM films enriched with SO 0.5% (0.98-1.24 mm) and ZEO 0.5% + SO 0.75% (5.01-6.25 mm), respectively. The antioxidant property of CH-FM based films were found to be ranged 5.45% ± 0.04-37% ± 0.45. In treated trout fillets, the counts of L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, E. coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium were 1.54-4.18, 0.34-3.35, 0.29-1.45 and 0.19-1.27 log CFU/g significantly lower than control groups after two weeks of refrigerated storage, respectively. The designated films had good antibacterial effect against some food borne pathogenic bacteria including L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, S. typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 in raw rainbow trout fillets.
... [10] The extract of some species of this plant such as Ziziphora clinopodioides and Ziziphora persica is capable of preventing the growth of a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic microorganisms. [11][12][13] Ferula gummosa (FG) has extensive antibacterial properties as well. [14] Essential oil of the seeds of this plant has strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. ...
... Similarly, Ozturk and Ercisli indicated that Z clinopodioides and Z. persica extracts inhibited the growth of a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic microorganisms. [11,12] Since all these species belong to the same family of plants, their findings were in agreement with ours. ...
Article
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Background: Different irrigating solutions with high antimicrobial activity have been introduced for cleaning of the root canal system. However, effects of Prangos ferulacea (PF), Ziziphora tenuior (ZT), Dracocephalum moldavica (DM), and Ferula gummosa (FG) on oral and dental pathogens have not been extensively evaluated due to their optimal biocompatibility and insignificant side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of essential oils of mentioned plants on Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study the plants were collected from Zanjan Province, Iran. Analysis of the essential oil was carried out by gas chromatography/mass chromatography. Micro-broth dilution and disc diffusion methods were used for assessment of the antimicrobial activity, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated. Results: All the four essential oils had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, and ZT had the greatest antibacterial activity. Assessment of the mean diameter of the growth inhibition zone showed higher antibacterial activity of PF and ZT than that of chlorhexidine. The MIC and MBC of ZT showed that the antimicrobial activity of ZT against E. faecalis was greater than that of other plants evaluated in this study. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated significant antibacterial effects of the mentioned plants on E. faecalis. The greatest antimicrobial activity belonged to ZT. The current study suggests extraction of effective compounds in these medicinal plants to use them in the clinical setting.
... Different parts of Z. clinopodioides are mainly used as a wild vegetable or added to foods with the aim of aroma and flavor (Ma et al. 2016). The valuable medicinal properties of the species are antibacterial (Ozturk and Ercisli 2007), antioxidant (Tian et al. 2011), antihypertensive (Guo et al. 2014), and antiseptic (Naghibi et al. 2010) properties. Moreover, it is commonly used for the treatment of fever and cough, nausea and vomiting, stomach upsets, edema, neurasthenic, insomnia, lung abscess, hemorrhoids, diarrhea, intestinal gas, coronary artery disease, and other cardiovascular diseases (Zou et al. 2015;Shahbazi 2015). ...
Article
In this study, phenolic derivatives and antioxidant activities of fourteen Ziziphora clinopodioides populations, as well as LC-MS/MS analysis of three specific flavonoids were evaluated. Generally, high contents of phenolic derivatives were found in shoot extracts compared to roots. LC-MS/MS, a powerful analytical technique, was employed for the identification and quantify the individual flavonoids in Z. clinopodioides populations’ extracts, in a quantity order of quercetin > rutin > apigenin. Scavenging activity by DPPH and FRAP was performed, and accordingly, in the shoot, the highest values for the DDPH were 4.61 ± 0.4 and 7.59 ± 0.26 µg ml− 1 in populations 1 and 13, respectively, and for the FRAP were 328.61 ± 5.54 and 292.84 ± 2.85 mg g DW− 1, in populations 6 and 1 respectively. Multivariate analysis results of the principal component analysis indicated the amount of polyphenols to be useful indicators in differentiating the geographical localities which explain 92.7% of the total variance. According to the results of hierarchical cluster analysis, the studied populations could be separated into two groups in that the contents of phenolic derivatives and antioxidant activities of different plant parts. Both shoot and root samples were well discriminated with the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (R2X: 0.861; Q2: 0.47) model. The validity of the model was confirmed by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and permutation tests. Such data make an important addition to our current knowledge of Ziziphora chemistry and are decisive in the identification of germplasms with a homogeneous phytochemical profile, high chemical content and bioactivity. The present results could also be helpful for the potential application of Z. clinopodioides in different kinds of industries as natural antioxidants.
... Our results are linear with works reported in the literature, according to which the major compounds of the EO resulted to be pulegone, iso-menthone, menthone, and 1,8-cineole (Baser et al., 1991;Goryaev et al., 1964). Also, Ozturk and Ercisli (2007) reported that the chemical composition of Z. clinopodioides EO from Turkey was mainly characterized by pulegone, 1,8-cineole, menthol, menthone, piperitenone, and piperitone. Conversely, our results resulted in contrast with that of Shahbazi (2015), reporting carvacrol and thymol as the most abundant compounds in the EO. ...
Article
Essential oils (EOs) represent innovative and safe botanical pesticides to be exploited in different fields, including agriculture, being often obtained by cheap and easily available plant crops. However, their use is threatened by some limits, which are mainly linked to their physico-chemical properties. In this regard, the use of nanoemulsions (NEs) usually enables to overcome these limits but often also to improve the biological activities of these products. Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B Fedtsch. and Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. are two aromatic plants of economic interest well known for their traditional food and medical uses. Their EOs exhibited several biological properties, including a remarkable insecticidal activity against different targets. Here, the chemical analysis of the two EOs revealed the predominance of γ-terpinene (35.8%), cumin aldehyde (16.6%), γ-terpinen-7-al (14.0%), and α-terpinen-7-al (11.7%) for B. persicum, and pulegone (55.6%), piperitenone (12.8%), and iso-menthone (8.0%) for Z. clinopodioides. NEs were successfully obtained by high-pressure homogenization or ultrasonication method, using polysorbate 80 as emulsifier. The EOs and their 10% NEs were evaluated against larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquitoes. In detail, both EOs exhibited a good larvicidal efficacy (LC50 of 35.8 and 68.9 µL L−1 for B. persicum and Z. clinopodioides, respectively). Bunium persicum EO NE showed higher efficacy than the EO alone (LC50 = 290.4 µL L−1), considering that only the 10% of the EO was encapsulated. Conversely, Z. clinopodioides NE showed the same efficacy than the EO alone (LC50 of 759.8 µL L−1). In addition, both NEs displayed significantly better sublethal toxicity compared with the EOs. Moreover, even if no significant mortality was detected in the pupal stage, only 12% of the larvae pupated and emerged as adults in the case of the NE from B. persicum. In conclusion, both EOs and their NEs could be promising candidates for the development of botanical pesticides, also considering the commercial availability and affordability of these EOs.
... Also, they have traditionally been used as a muscle pain reliever, tonic, and carminative agents to treat stomach and intestinal disorders such as cramps, nausea, indigestion, and diarrhea (Tepe and Cilkiz, 2016). In addition, Hyssopus officinalis is used for the treatment of cough, cold, loss of appetite, fungal infection, and spasmodic conditions (Sharifi-Rad et al., 2022), while Ziziphora clinopodioides is known as stomachic, carminative, and wound healing herb (Ozturk and Ercisli, 2007). ...
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This study presents the very first report on the in vitro antiviral activity of selected essential oils of Lamiaceae plant species and their monoterpenes against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Nineteen essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of dried plant material, and their monoterpene profiles were determined. In addition, the exact concentrations of each monoterpene that were found at a significant level were defined. Both essential oils and their monoterpene components were tested for cytotoxic and antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in infected Vero 76 cells. The results showed that the essential oils of four Mentha species, i.e., M. aquatica L. cv. Veronica, M. pulegium L., M. microphylla K.Koch, and M. x villosa Huds., but also Micromeria thymifolia (Scop.) Fritsch and Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam., and five different monoterpenes, i.e., carvacrol, carvone, 1,8-cineol, menthofuran, and pulegone, inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 replication in the infected cells. However, the antiviral activity varied both among essential oils and monoterpenes. Carvone and carvacrol exhibited moderate antiviral activity with IC50 concentrations of 80.23 ± 6.07 μM and 86.55 ± 12.73 μM, respectively, while the other monoterpenes were less active (IC50 > 100.00 μM). Structure-activity relations of related monoterpenes showed that the presence of keto and hydroxyl groups is associated with the activity of carvone and carvacrol, respectively. Furthermore, the carvone-rich essential oil of M. x villosa had the greatest activity among all active essential oils (IC50 127.00 ± 4.63 ppm) while the other active oils exhibited mild (140 ppm < IC50 < 200 ppm) to weak antiviral activity (IC50 > 200 ppm). Both essential oils and monoterpenes showed limited or no cytotoxicity against Vero 76 cells. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the differences in the antiviral activity of essential oils were directly attributed to the antiviral efficacies of their particular single monoterpenes. The findings presented here on the novel antiviral property of plant essential oils and monoterpenes might be used in the development of different measures against SARS-CoV-2.
... However, traditionally, the leaf of this plant were used for the treatment of diarrhoea, fungal diseases and stomachache (Tadeg et al., 2005;Shemsu et al., 2013 has also been documented to be the effective against Candida albicans (Kambizi et al., 2008). It has also been stated that organic extracts and essential oil of have been found to Ziziphora clinopodioides show antibacterial property against a large class of bacteria including Acidovorax facilis, Bacillus flexus, Bacillus sphaericus, Brevibacillus brevis, Corynebacterium, ammonia genes, Enterobacter sakazakii, Moraxella catarrhalis and Xanthomonas (Ozturk et al., 2007). The leaves extracts of Mikania glomerata Baccharis trimera Mentha piperita , , (peppermint) and (lemongrass), and Cymbopogon citratus Allium sativum Syzygium aromaticum Zingiber , (clove) and officinale, obtained with methanol as solvent were also reported to work as an antimicrobial agents to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus Rubia cordifolia (Oliveira et al., 2007). ...
... They also indicated that genetic background also effect composition of different ecotypes within species. Previously a number of studies showed the oil of some Ziziphora species are rich in pulegone (SALEHI et al., 2005;OZTURK and ERCISLI, 2006;OZTURK and ERCISLI, 2007). The major constituent of Z. tenuior L. oil has been reported to be pulegone (87.1%) (SEZIK et al., 1991). ...
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Present study reports a comparative screening of three ecotypes of Ziziphora tenuior L., sampled from three region with different elevation in middle and northeastern Turkey, based on their essential oil composition, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacities. Z. tenuior ecotypes showed twenty compounds, representing 89.18-91.44% of the essential oil (EOs) identified by GC-MS. The major components of EOs in ecotypes were pulegone (37.23-49.12%), and followed by 1,8-Cineole (2.26-7.78%), limonene (4.20-5.44%), β-Caryophyllene (3.88-5.11%) and thymol (2.68-4.11%), respectively. Ecotypes showed variable pulegone content and it was increased with elevation increase. The total phenolic contents varied among ecotypes ranged from 21.13 to 27.50 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g EOs. Antioxidant capacity was determined in vitro using DPPH radical-scavenging and FRAP (Ferric reducing power) assays and expressed as concentration of each extract required to inhibit radical by 50% (IC50 and EC50) values that ranged from 0.80 to 0.97 mg/ml in DPPH and 0.42 to 0.55 mg/ml in FRAP assays, respectively. Our results indicated that antioxidant capacity changed among ecotypes. Taking into account the essential oil content, it seems that to select ecotype was the most appropriate to obtain more pulegone for this plant from its wild habitat.
... Carvacrol, Thymol, p-Cymen, ɣ-Terpinene, E-Caryophyllene, α-Terpinene, Myrcene, α-Pinene, and α-Thujene are the main components of Z. clinopodioides (Kakaei and Shahbazi, 2016;Shahbazi, 2017). Several studies have revealed the diverse biological activities of the plant, such as anti-inflammatory properties (Aghajani et al., 2008), antimicrobial activity (Gursoy et al., 2009), appetite stimulant (Zhang et al., 2019), and sedative/anti-stress effects (Ozturk and Ercisli, 2007). Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease, is one of the most common pathogenic bacteria in rainbow trout farming, which annually leads to widespread mortality and economic losses in trout farms around the world. ...
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An eight-week feeding experiment was performed to determine the potential effects of Blue Mint Bush, Ziziphora clinopodioides, extract (ZE) on growth, digestive enzymes activity, immune response (serum and mucus), and disease resistance in rainbow trout. Accordingly, 450 fish (21.19 ± 1.09 g) were divided into five groups and fed with the experimental diets including: ZE 0% (control diet), ZE 0.5 %, ZE 1.5 %, ZE 3% and ZE 4.5 %. The administration of ZE, except ZE 0.5 %, significantly increased weight gain and specific growth rate compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The highest and lowest digestive enzymes activity (lipase, protease, and amylase) were observed in ZE 3% and the control group, respectively. The results indicated a significant improvement in the number of leucocytes as well as neutrophils and lymphocytes in fish fed with ZE 3 % diet (p < 0.05). The highest serum lysozyme, ACH50, Ig, levels were recorded in ZE 3 %, while the lowest values were obtained in the control group (p < 0.05). Also, serum bactericidal activity in fish receiving ZE 1.5, 3, and 4.5 % showed a significant difference with the control group (p < 0.05). Mucus lysozyme, bactericidal activity, and Ig values in ZE 3 % were higher than the control group (p < 0.05); while there was no significant difference in alkaline phosphatase level (p> 0.05). The highest survival rate (56 %) was recorded in the fish fed with ZE 3 % when the fish were exposed to Yersinia ruckeri on 15 days. Collectively, our results demonstrated that ZE-enriched diets, especially at the level of 3 %, supported growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, non-specific immune system, and resistance to Y. ruckeri infection in fry rainbow trout.
... Mahmood, et al. review the combinations tetra hydroxy There has been much interest in recent years on compounds derived from plants and herbs for their medicinal properties or biological activities (19). Throughout human history, infectious diseases are known to have been treated with herbal remedies (20). In a study, it has been reported that the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of extracts of Rosa. ...
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Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism commonly isolated from bulk raw milk suffering from mastitis that resulted as a major concern for the safety of traditionally produced cheeses. Preservative materials usage can prevent the growth of S. aureus during cheese making. Rosa damascena petals extract have antibacterial and antioxidant properties activities against. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of bacteriostatic extract of R. damascena petals on growth of S. aureus isolated from Iranian traditional cheese. In this investigation, the extraction of R. damascena petals was produced after soaking in ethanol and distillation under vacuum evaporator rotary. The concentrations of extraction were prepared in 4000, 2000, 1000, and 500 ppm and the bacteriostatic effects of extract were measured with calculating the diameter of inhibition zone in microbial culture medium. Results showed that the maximum inhibition affect was the concentration 4000 ppm. It was concluded that the extraction of R. damascena petals can be useful as a natural bacteriostatic additive for the control of S. aureus in traditional cheese.
... The selection of Z. tenuior L. (Persian name: Kakuti) is due to extensively distributed from South-West Asia to Eastern Europe in worldwide (Abu-Darwish et al., 2016;Mehmood et al., 2010) with containing of variety of phenolic, polyphenolic and flavonoid compounds (Sonboli et al., 2006). This unique characterization of Z. tenuior, have been stated as a treatment for a wide range of therapeutic effects including anti-bacterial (Sonboli et al., 2006;Sosa et al., 2002), antioxidant (Konyalιoglu et al., 2006;Salehi et al., 2005), anti-inflammatory (Ghorbani Ranjbary et al., 2016), analgesia (Parsaei et al., 2016), hypo lipidemic (Karimi et al., 2013) and sterilizing effects for the intestine (Naghibi et al., 2005;Ozturk and Ercisli, 2007;Sonboli et al., 2006). Flavored leaves, flowers and stems of Ztenuior L. is used as carminative and flavoring agent in foods (Ghahreman, 1995). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Ziziphora tenuior L. is used as a medicinal plant in treatment of various diseases such as gastric disorders, stomach ache, dysentery, uterus infection, gut inflammation and menstruation. Aim of the study: In the present study, the protective effects of Ziziphora tenuior extract against chlorpyrifos (CPF), the most commonly or popularly used insecticide in Asia and Africa were investigated in in liver and lung tissues with emphasis in apoptotic and inflammatory pathways in rat model. Materials and methods: The experiments were performed by gavage of male rats for 8 weeks. The extract of Z. tenuior was administrated at three different doses (40, 80, 160 mg/kg). 6.75 mg/kg CPF was administrated as the maximum tolerable dose based on our previous study. Results: Our data indicated that CPF can increase the expression of some inflammatory genes (IL-6, TLR-2, IL-1β, TNF-α, and NLPR3) and apoptosis genes (Caspase 3, Caspase 9, Caspase 8 and Bax). On the other hand, it can down regulate Bcl-2 gene expression. Post-treatment of Z. tenuior extract in CPF- treated rats showed significant decrease in apoptotic and inflammatory gene expression in the liver and lung due to its anti-apoptotic effects which confirmed by Bcl-2 gene overexpression. Conclusion: The present study suggested that Z. tenuior extract, as a traditional treatment can be able to moderate CPF toxicity via significant effect on inflammatory and apoptotic cell death signaling pathway. Also, based on our preliminary data, it is suggested that Z. tenuior extract can prevent the adverse effects of CPF in liver and lung tissues.
... There are various reports about antimicrobial (Ji et al., 2012), antifungal (Behravan et al., 2007 and antioxidative (Tian et al., 2011) properties of Z. clinopodioides. Previous investigations revealed presence of pulegone and isomenthone compounds, piperitenone, menthone, phenolic constituents, flavonoids, polysaccharides, fatty acids and sterols in this plant (Ozturk and Ercisli 2007;Yu et al., 2012;Tian et al., 2012). Amiri (2009) showed that pulegone and thymol are the main components in Z. clinopodioides of Razan region of Iran. ...
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Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici is an important disease agent of tomato which causes wilt and seedling. The present study was performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of Achillea millefolium, Salvia verticillata and Ziziphora clinopodioides extracts and their abilities to inhibit the fungus. For this, methanol extracts of reference plants was extracted and tested in concentrations ranging from 1 , 1.5 and 2 mg/ml on mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum. The same extracts were then tested for antifungal activity in vivo in the greenhouse on inoculated tomato plants. Z. clinopodioides demonstrated highest antifungal activity against mycelial growth of F. oxysporum strain that recorded 77.1%, 62.03% and 61.99% at 2, 1.5 and 1 (mg/ml), respectively. the MIC value for of Z. clinopodioides against F. oxysporum was 3.125 mg/ml followed A. millefolium and S. verticillata extract having 6.25 mg/ml. The MFC of extracts was found to be 6.25 mg/ml in Z. clinopodioides and 12.5 mg/ml for A. millefolium and S. verticillate. In greenhouse experiment employing methanol extracts of three plant species showed an increase in the mean plant height and also fresh and dry weight of root and shoot with the consequent reduction in the disease symptoms of the tomato seedlings. Overall, the results showed significant growth inhibition activity of Z. clinopodioides methanol extract against F. oxysporum in both in vitro and greenhouse condition. Although the extracts of A. millefolium and S. verticillata which had no effect in vitro assays, in greenhouse conditions, these plants showed considerable antifungal activity.
... The active ingredients of these plants were usually administered as infusions against infections, hemorrhoids, hypertension, and gastrointestinal problems [5]. The first ethnopharmacological reports relate to the use of Ziziphora extracts as a potential medicine for wound healing and edema treatment, and as a potential antipyretic drug [6]. Many of the described species of the genus Ziziphora, in particular Z. clinopodioides L. and Z. tenuior L., were repeatedly prescribed in folk medicine in many countries for the treatment of colds, bronchitis, coughs, headache, diarrhea, nausea, typhus, and even cardiovascular disorders. ...
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The Lamiaceae family comprises many flowering plants classified into about 236 genera. The genus Ziziphora is one of the well-known genera of this family and its species are important in different fields of pharmaceutical, chemical, traditional, and folk medicines. The phytochemicals present in Ziziphora include monoterpenic essential oils, triterpenes, and phenolic substances. The aim of this paper was to study the phytochemical profile of Ziziphora taurica subsp. taurica and compare and evaluate the biological activities of its ethyl acetate (ZTT-EtOAc), methanolic (ZTT-MeOH), and aqueous (ZTT-W) extracts based on their enzyme inhibition and antioxidant capacities. Determination of total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid (TFC) contents as well as biological activities were determined using spectrophotometric procedures. Subsequently, the individual phenolic compounds were detected by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS/MS). In total, twenty-two different phenolic compounds were identified, including apigenin, ferulic acid, and luteolin which were the most common. ZTT-MeOH extract showed the best antioxidant activity, whereas ZTT-EtOAc extract was the most effective against tyrosinase and α-amylase. Ziziphora taurica subsp. taurica represents a potential source of natural compounds with positive effects on human health.
... Mahdavi, worked on the form of antimicrobial effects of Ziziphora clinopodioides extracts on Salmonella [31]. Ozturk et al. worked on the Antibacterial activity and chemical constitutions of Ziziphora clinopodioides [32]. In another study, Mirhosseini et al. reported the antibacterial activity of ZnO against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus in apple juice during storage at 25 and 4°C. ...
Conference Paper
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This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities and synergy properties of nanofluid based on Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles containing mixture of Thymus daenensis and Ziziphora tenuior essential oils against foodborne pathogenic bacteria including two gram-negative and two gram-positive. The agar disk diffusion and micro-dilution methods were used to study the antibacterial activity. Results revealed that the zone of inhibition (20-27 mm) for the mentioned fluid compared with the controls (each of the nanofluids alone) increased. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella entrica and Escherchia coli was determined respectively 0.0004 %v/v-0.1 ppm NP, 0.0006 %v/v-0.16 ppm NP, 0.0013 %v/v-0.33 ppm NP, 0.002 %v/v-0.5 ppm NP. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against the mentioned bacteria was respectively 0.0008 %v/v-0.2 ppm NP, 0.0013 %v/v-0.33 ppm NP, 0.007 %v/v-1.3 ppm NP, 0.011 %v/v-2 ppm NP. Bacillus cereus was respectively the most sensitivite specie while Escherchia coli was the least sensitivite specie. This mixture improved the antibacterial activity of Z. tenuior nanofluid in comparison with each of the nanofluids alone, which shows the potent application of the particles based on the essential oils in different systems like food packaging, food systems and pharmaceutical.
... Based on the GC-MS results, EOZC contained high concentrations of phenolic compounds including carvacrol (65.22%), thymol (19.51%), pcymene (4.86%) and γ-terpinene (4.63%). Several studies have reported the chemical composition of EOZC (Aghajani et al., 2008;Behravan et al., 2007;Ozturk & Ercisli, 2007). ...
Article
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Introduction: Ziziphora Clinopodioides has been used widely for various therapeutic purposes in Iranian folk medicine. The current study aimed to determine interaction of antinociceptive effect of the Essential Oil of Ziziphora Clinopodioides (EOZC) and opioidergic system in male rats using formalin test. Methods: Sixty-four male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups. The groups 1 to 7 were injected with normal saline, vehicle (Tween-80, 0.5%), 10, 20, 40 mg/kg of the EOZC, morphine (5 mg/kg) and naloxone (2 mg/kg), respectively. Thirty minutes later, the formalin test was performed by intraplantar injection of formalin (50 μL, 2%). In group 8, naloxone (2 mg/kg) was injected 15 min before injection of EOZC (20 mg/kg), followed by formalin at 15 min later. The formalin test was done as time spent for licking and biting of the injected paw. Formalin induced a biphasic pain reaction. The chemical composition of EOZC was identified using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: EOZC (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) dose dependently and morphine (5 mg/kg) reduced pain responses in the both phases of pain (P<0.05). Naloxone (2 mg/kg) alone had no effect on the severity of pain (P>0.05) but pretreatment with naloxone inhibited EOZC induced antinociception activity (P<0.05). Based on the GC-MS results, EOZC comprised 65.22% carvacrol, 19.51% thymol, 4.86% p-cymene and 4.63% γ-terpinene. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that EOZC has antinociceptive effect and this effect might mediate via opioidergic pathways.
... ). Several workers like Sengül et al.(2005) andOzturk and Ercisli (2007) reported that methanol was a better solvent for Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY consistent extraction of antimicrobial substances from medicinal plants whereas,Masoko and Eloff (2006) found that acetone and methanol extracted more chemical compounds of antimicrobial potency from the leaves than other organic solvents. These observations can be rationalized by the fact that phytochemical compound dissolve in different solvents based on their polarity. ...
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In the present investigation fungi-toxic properties of leaf extracts of five herbaceous wild plant species namely, Ageratum conozoides, Blumea erianth, Chrozophora rottleri, Galingsoga parviflora and Phyllanthus niruri were evaluated in vitro against two phyto-pathogens viz. Alternaria solani and Rhizoctonia solani. Leaf extracts were prepared in three solvents i.e. Ethenol, Methanol and Hot water. Extracts of Ageratum conozoides and Chrozophora rottleri, showed complete (100%) mycellial inhibition of A. solani as well as R. solani at 10 % concentration which was comparable with respective fungicide at 100 ppm. Irrespective of plant species, extracts prepared in ethanol was most effective in arresting the mycelial growth of the pathogens whereas, superior phytotoxic activity was observed in Ageratum conozoides extracts and other four plants' toxicity was found in corresponding manner-Chrozophora rottleri > Galingsoga parviflora > Blumea eriantha > Phyllanthus niruri.
... After incubation, the diameter of the inhibition zone around each disk was measured and the result expressed in %inhibition against the test organism. The values were averaged over five measurements per disk, taking three directions to minimize error [20], and the rate of inhibition was assessed from the following relationship: ...
Article
The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of some increasing polarity soluble fractions of hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Algerian Lamiaceae Calamintha baborensis Batt., including hexanoic (Hex), chloroformic (Chlor), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanolic (n-BuOH) and four subfractions (A, B, C, D) resulting from fractionation on a polyamide column. The EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts of the plant gave the highest values of antioxidant power by different methods: ABTS, percentage inhibition of 68.9/81.7%; DPPH, 27.6/80.99%; ORAC/FRAP, 37.28/28.47 and 21.73/19.52 μM/mL, respectively; IC50 values, 23 and 53.5 ppm. In addition, they were evaluated for their total phenolic content. The antibacterial activity of extracts showed good results with hexanoic and chloroformic fractions against E. coli (19 mm and 19.2 mm diameter of inhibition zone and MIC values about 43 and 43.4 μg/mL, respectively.) Apolar fractions from the leaves of C. Baborensis Batt. were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The main components of the essential oil of C baborensis Batt. are eugenol (27.04%) and 3-methoxy acetophenone (26.4%).
... Several studies have reported that the essential oils present in Z. clinopodioides Lam. have antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, and sedative properties. [5,6,[10][11][12] In a study by Girard-Thernier et al., seven compounds were isolated from Z. clinopodioides Lam. including flavonoids such as apigenin, chrysin, acacetin, and thymonin and phenolic compounds such as acetovanillone, 4-HAP, and ethyl 4-coumarate, a cinnamic acid derivative. ...
Article
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Z. clinopodioides Lam. is also known as a ‘‘Field Mint’’ Seven compounds which have vasodilator activity have been isolated from Z. clinopodioides Lam. and two of them are phenolics compounds and these are acetovanillone, 4-HAP, four of them are flavonoids and these are acacetin, apigenin, chrysin, thymonin, one derivat of cinnamic acid and ethyl 4-coumarate. In this study, it was aimed that was defined vasodilator activiy mechanisms of fenolic compound 4-HAP on isolated rat thorasic aorta. In this study 40 male adult Sprague Dawley rats were used. Prepared rings were laid out into the 20 ml organ bath with Krebs solution. Rings were stretched by 1g and they were subjected to 1 hour incubation period. In the end of the incubation period, PE, KCI, nifedipine, L-NAME, 4-HAP, SQ22.536, ODQ, ACh, SKF96365, Propranolol, Atropin, TEA, Gibenclamide, 4-aminopyridine and U73122 were implemented to bath with a protocol. Mechanisms of relaxed effect the of 4-HAP were assigned by using antagonists. It was observed that vasorelaksan effect of 4-HAP on endothelilal aorta smooth muscle contractions which had been inductioned by PE under the existance of L-NAME was considerably inhibited. It was stated that 4-HAP relaxed PE and KCI contractions and owing to this activity endothel intact tissues on L-NAME existance notably decreased because of NO pathyway. It is firmly believed that as relaxed effect of 4-HAP declines remarkably under the existance of 4-aminopyridine and nifedipine on endothel denuded aorta rings, activity could be on K+ channel and L-type Ca+2 channel.
... Ziziphora clinopodioides belongs to the mint family (Labiatae), grows wild in mountainous regions of central Iran (1), and is a native plant of western and northwestern Iran (2). Based on previous researches, it has various therapeutic effects including antioxidant (3,4), antibacterial (5), antifungal (6), larvicidal properties (7,8). It is also a protector of the digestive system (9), and lowers blood pressure (10). ...
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Introduction: The main purpose of this research was to evaluate larvicidal effects of two native medicinal plants in Iran including seeds of Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) and leaves and shoots of Blue Mint Bush (Ziziphora clinopodioides) against larvae of Anopheles stephensi. Their phytochemical compounds of essential oils were also determined using GC-MS method. Methods: The plants were collected from various regions of the country in the spring of 2013, and the aqueous essential oils were prepared using a Clevenger apparatus. The standard WHO method for anti-larval experiments against third and fourth instar larvae of A. stephensi was employed at the Biometric Laboratory next to the Culicidae Insectarium at the School of Public Health of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Results: The LC50s (lethal concentrations to kill 50%) and LC90s of the essential oils were 14.26 and 39.54 ppm T. ammi and 18.61 and 48.51 ppm for Z. clinopodioides. Phytochemical analysis of the essential oils of the tested plants revealed that thymol for T. ammi and pulegone for Z. clinopodioides had the highest percentage which were 71.989 and 48.609, respectively. Conclusion: Considering the results of this research, the effective compounds in these essential oils that had larvicidal properties might be used against malaria vectors.
... These authors reported that carvacrol (41e87%) and thymol (9e53%) were the major constituents of ZEO. Some studies found that the major constituents of ZEO obtained from Iran and Turkey were pulegone, 1,8-cineole and limonene (Ozturk & Ercisli, 2007;Sonboli, Atri, & Shafiei, 2010). The chemical compositions of the EOs from plants and spices may differ depending on geographical and climate conditions, the method used for drying and isolation of the EO and also the plant growth phase (Shahbazi, Shavisi, & Mohebi, 2016). ...
... Identification of individual compounds was made by comparison of their mass spectra with those of the internal reference mass spectra library or with authentic compounds and confirmed by comparison of their retention indices with authentic compounds or with those of reported in the literature. For quantification purpose, relative area percentages obtained by FID were used without the use of correction factors 13 . ...
Article
Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. is medicinal and aromatic plant, belonging to the Lamiaceae family. The chemical composition of the essential oils from aerial parts of Z. clinopodioides were extracted using hydrodistillation method and analysed using GC and GC-MS. Forty nine compounds were identified in the essential oils (EOs) of aerial parts of Z. clinopodioides. The main chemical compositions were pulegone (27.38%), iso-menthone (10.12%), iso-menthol (9.92%), menthyl acetate (9.61%), p-menth-3-en-8-ol (7.60%), neo iso- menthol (5.51%), limonene (4.45%), piperitenone (4.17%), 1,8-cineole (3.50%), piperitone (2.43%), spathulenol (1.60%), β-pinene (1.33%), borneol (1.15%), germacrene D (1.13%) and β-bourbonene (1.06%). This medicine plant has high potential for use in medicine, food and perfumery industries with high contents of pulegone, iso- menthone, neo iso-menthol, and p-menth-3-en-8-ol and menthyl acetate.
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The samples of Spirulina platensis were collected from Lake Foum Elouad, Laayoune (South of Morocco) and cultivated using Zarrouk’s synthetic medium in the laboratory. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC/FID and GC/MS. The average yield oil obtained was 0.9%. A total of 66 compounds, amounting 96.7 % of the essential oils, were identified. The major components of S. platensis essential oils were heptadecane (41.7 %), tetradecane (25.3 %), ethyl benzene (5.5 %) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (3.7 %). Interestingly, it has been reported for the first time in the Moroccan Spirulina, the presence of geosmin, which is a very important component of odour in cyanobacteria. To our knowledge, the geosmin was not found in any S. platensis essential oils before. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated against six strains. The most potent effect of the essential oil was obtained against two Gram (+) bacteria: B. antharcis, S. epidermidis and the Gram (-) bacteria E. coli (with the higher inhibition zone as 28 mm). The MICs were respectively 16.37, 19.13 and 17.81 μL/mL. A total inhibition was shown for S. aureus. Thus the essential oil of S. platensis possess effective antimicrobial properties.
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The present study aimed to characterize the chemical composition and evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities along with the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity (ADMET) study of the essential oil of Ziziphora hispanica (ZH-EO), collected from the Middle Atlas of Morocco (Boulmane). Results showed that a total of 119 volatile components, characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS analysis, which represents the 88.7% of the total of ZH-EO. ZH-EO displayed a bactericidal effect against Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis, and a bacteriostatic effect against Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, ZH-EO exhibited strong antioxidant activity against DPPH radical (IC50 = 1.3 mg/mL). The ADMET prediction showed good pharmacokinetic properties of the tested components. The findings obtained from this study suggest that Ziziphora hispanica essential oil could represent a source of bioactive molecules with antioxidant and antibacterial potential in the prevention against diseases related to oxidative stress and pathogenic bacteria.
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This paper is typically intended to carefully collect and properly review the antinociceptive activities of medicinal plants. In this review article, by searching keywords of medicinal plants, pain, herbal medicine, antinociceptive, phytotherapy in databases of Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, Springer, Wiley, Proquest, PubMed, Nature, Magiran, Emerald, SID, ISI, and some other indexing cites, or traditional books, desired articles were obtained until 2021. The title of medicinal plants was searched diligently in Persian and English. Ultimately, 270 articles were studied. The findings possibly indicated that several medicinal plants are among the most valuable plants that have antinociceptive activities. There efficiently are various antinociceptive compounds in medicinal plants. The antinociceptive activity of these specific compounds may be through their peculiar effects on the opioid system, cholinergic pathways, and stimulation of GABA receptors, with the peripheral and central antinociceptive mechanism. Antiinflammatory processes, inhibition of the synthesis, and the release of arachidonic acid, prostaglandins, phospholipase, nitric oxide, and cyclooxygenase‐2 have been reported as analgesic mechanisms of some herbs. In a reasonable conclusion, our review thoughtfully provides a comprehensive summary of present data from some scientific studies on the common herbs with antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities.
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The genus Ziziphora of the family Lamiaceae is well known for the medicinal properties of its species. Ziziphora persica is an edible medicinal plant, which is widely distributed in countries of Iran, Turkey, Kazakhstan and Azaerbaidzhan and is famed as a wild vegetable with notable aroma and flavor. In Iranian folk medicine, Ziziphora species has been also used as infusions for various purposes such as sedative, stomachic and carminative among others. The genus Ziziphora belongs to the Lamiaceae family consists of four species (Z. clinopodioides, Z. capitata, Z. persica and Z. tenuior) that widespread all over Iran. Ziziphora with common Persian name ‘kakuti-e kuhi’ comprised nine subspecies native to Iran. The composition and antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the essential oil and various extracts of Ziziphora persica were reported. This review presents and overview on the Eco-phytochemistry and Ethnobotany knowledge of Ziziphora persica and provides a deeper insight into phytochemistry of this specie. Relevant data were obtained through systematic electronic searches from various scientific databases including the institute of scientific information (ISI)-web of science, mendely desktop, google scholar, scopus, ISC, Pubmed, other relevant texts and local books. This review is concerned with characterization of chemical profiles of essential oils, extracts and volatiles, along with relevant biological and phytochemical properties of Ziziphora persica over the 32-year period, 1988–2020. A variety of Eco-phytochemistry and Ethnobotany properties of the Ziziphora persica has been documented, and phytochemicals of the essential oils of this specie has been identified.
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Ziziphora species (Lamiaceae) have been used in traditional medicine as sedatives, antiseptics, carminatives, or expectorants. Despite their common applications in phytotherapy, there is still lack of evidence about the composition of their extracts and its impact on biological properties of the plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Ziziphora bungeana, a less studied species growing in Kazakhstan, using HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS instrumentation and to determine its antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activity together with inhibitory properties against tyrosinase and toxicity in erythrocyte lysis assay. Extracts from Z. bungeana were found to be sources of flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, and terpenes that determined their antiradical activity. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of extracts were lower for Gram-positive bacteria (1.25–10 mg/mL) than for Gram-negative bacteria and fungi (5–20 mg/mL). The EC50 value calculated for antiradical activity ranged between 15.00 ± 1.06 µg/mL and 13.21 ± 3.24 µg/mL for ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively. Z. bungeana extracts were found to decrease the activity of tyrosinase by 50% (at 200 µg/mL) similarly to kojic acid and were slightly cytotoxic for human melanoma A375 cell line (at 200 µg/mL) with no effect on HaCaT keratinocytes. In the end, Z. bungeana did not reveal toxic effects in hemolytic assay as compared to the positive control Triton X-100. The performed tests show potential application of the plant in the treatment of infectious diseases, disorders caused by free radicals, and skin problems.
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This study was aimed to encapsulate Ziziphora clinopodioides–Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil (Z-REO) using sodium alginate (NaAlg) and to evaluate its performance on antimicrobial and antioxidative activities and sensory attributes in lamb burger patties during cold storage for 12 days. GC-MS analysis of Z-REO indicated carvacrol (21.5%) and thymol (16.9%) were the major components. SEM images showed the formation of encapsulated particles. The presence of encapsulated Z-REO in NaAlg was proved based on the increase in band intensity of FTIR spectra. By increasing mass ratios of NaAlg:Z-REO from 1:1 to 2:1, and 4:1, encapsulation efficiency was increased. Average zeta-potential values (mV) of the mass ratios 4:1 and 2:1 were −48.67 and −44.83, indicating the stability of encapsulated particles. The average size of particles ranged from 159.14 nm to 256.14 nm. The results showed that the encapsulated nanoparticles could markedly decrease the growth of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus and delay the lipid oxidation of lamb patties compared to the control samples and in samples with free Z-REO. Furthermore, nanoparticles efficiently decreased discoloration and off-odor development in the patties. Therefore, NaAlg-Z-REO nanoparticles could efficiently reduce bacterial growth and oxidative or sensory deterioration of lamb patties during storage.
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           
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Fifty medicinal plants belonging to 26 families were studied for their antimicrobial activity. Among 50 plants tested, 72% showed antimicrobial activity. About 22 plant extracts from 15 families exhibited activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Fourteen plants belonging to 11 families did not show activity against any of the bacteria tested. Only nine plant extracts showed antifungal activity. The bulb extracts of A. cepa and A. sativum exhibited activity against both filamentous and non-filamentous fungus. Eight plant extracts belonging to seven families exhibited both antibacterial and antifungal activity.
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Based on ethnopharmacological and taxonomic information, seeds of 21 Scottish plant species from 14 different families were obtained from authentic seed suppliers. Their n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts were assessed for antibacterial activity against 11 pathogenic bacterial species. Methanol extracts of 11 plant species showed significant antibacterial activity. Malva moschata and Prunus padus were active against five bacterial species, Reseda lutea against four, Centaurium erythraea and Crithmum maritimum against three, Calluna vulgaris against two, and Armeria maritima, Centaurea scabiosa, Daucus carota, Rosa canina and Stellaria holostea against one bacterial species. C. erythraea and P. padus were also active against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Article
The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists, and natural-products chemists are combing the Earth for phytochemicals and "leads" which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. While 25 to 50% of current pharmaceuticals are derived from plants, none are used as antimicrobials. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infectious conditions; Western medicine is trying to duplicate their successes. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, which have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial properties. This review attempts to summarize the current status of botanical screening efforts, as well as in vivo studies of their effectiveness and toxicity. The structure and antimicrobial properties of phytochemicals are also addressed. Since many of these compounds are currently available as unregulated botanical preparations and their use by the public is increasing rapidly, clinicians need to consider the consequences of patients self-medicating with these preparations.
Essen-tial oil components. XVII Investigation of Ziziphora clinopodioides
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Colony count methods Compendium of methods for microbiological examina-tion of food
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Essential oil components. XVII Investigation of Ziziphora clinopodioides
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Colony count methods
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